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Department of Applied Physics, Electronics & Communication Engineering Syllabus for Four Year B. Engg.
Session: 2010-2011 & 2011-2012
Syllabus for First Year
MAJOR COURSE: Course Code APECE-101 APECE-102 APECE-103 APECE-104 APECE-105 APECE-106 APECE-107 APECE-108 APECE-109 MINOR COURSE: MTM-104 MTM-105 STAT-M01 Course Title Electricity and Magnetism Applied Heat and Thermodynamics Applied Mechanics and Vector Analysis Computer Fundamentals and Programming in C Applied Optics Modern Physics Chemistry Laboratory Work Viva Voce Credits 03 02 02 03 02 03 02 06 01 Total 24 02 04 02 Total 08 Total Credits in 1st Year = 32 Credits
Linear Algebra Calculus Basic Statistics
Syllabus for Second Year
MAJOR COURSE: Course Code APECE-201 APECE-202 APECE-203 APECE-204 APECE- 205 APECE-206 APECE-207 APECE-208 APECE-209 MINOR COURSE: MTM-203 MTM-204 MTM-205 STAT-M02 GED-1 Course Title Analog Electronics Nuclear Physics Electrical Machines and Measurements Digital Electronics Quantum Mechanics and Physical Electronics Electrical Circuit Analysis Applied Acoustics Laboratory Work Viva Voce Credits 04 02 03 03 04 02 02 06 01 Total 27 02 02 02 02 02 10
Ordinary Differential Equations Numerical Analysis-I Mathematical Methods Test of Hypothesis and Variance of Significance Studies on Energy Economics: Bangladesh Perspective Total
Total Credits in 2nd Year=37 Credit
Syllabus for Third Year
Course Code APECE-301 APECE-302 APECE-303 APECE-304 APECE-305 APECE-306 APECE-307 APECE-308 APECE-309 APECE-310 APECE-311 APECE-312 Course Title Electromagnetic Theory and Antenna Radio and Television Engineering Telecommunication Networks Material Science Electronic Circuits Electronic Devices Industrial and Power Electronics Microprocessor and Assembly Language Computer Organization and Architecture Renewable Energy Technology Laboratory Work Viva Voce Credits 03 03 03 03 04 03 03 03 03 03 08 01 Total 40
Total Credits in 3rd Year =40 Credits
Syllabus for Fourth Year
Course Code APECE-401 APECE-402 APECE-403 APECE-404 APECE-405 APECE-406 APECE-407 APECE-408 APECE-409 APECE-410 APECE-411 APECE-412 APECE-413 Course Title Optical Fibre Communication Microwave and Satellite Communication Data Communication and Computer Network Digital Signal Processing Scientific, Industrial and Biomedical Instrumentation Semiconductor and VLSI Technology Control Engineering Communication Theory Computer Peripherals and Interfacing Mobile Cellular Communication Laboratory Work Project Work Viva Voce Total Credits 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 06 04 01 41
Total Credits in 4th year =41 Credits
Grand Total = 150 Credit
Electricity and Magnetism
3 Credits (45 Lectures)
Electric Current and Ohm’s Law: Modern Electron Theory of Electricity, Idea of Electric Potential, Resistance, Laws of Resistances, Effect of Temperature on Resistance, Ohm’s Law, electric Power and Energy, heating effect of Electric Current. Electrostatics: Electromagnetism – a preview, Electric Charge, Conductors and Insulators, Permittivity of a medium, Coulomb’s Law, The Electric Field, Lines of Forces, A dipole in an Electric Field, Flux of the Electric Field, Gauss’s Law, Potential and Field Strength, The equation of Poisson and Laplace. Capacitors and Dielectrics: Capacitance, Calculation of Capacitance, Parallel Plate Capacitance with Dielectric, Dielectric – an atomic View, Dielectric and Gauss’s Law, Three Electric Vectors, Energy Storage in an Electric Field, Charging and Discharging of a Capacitor, Time Constant. Electromotive Force and DC circuits: EMF, Calculating the currents, Difference between EMF and Potential Difference, Electric Circuits and Network theorems, Multiloop Circuits, Kirchhoff’s Laws, Maxwell’s Loop Current Method and Nodal Analysis, Superposition Theorem, Thevenin’s Theorem and Norton’s Theorem, Maximum Power Transfer Theorem, Delta-Star Transformation. Magnetism and Electromagnetism: Permeability of a medium, The Magnetic Field, Definition of Magnetic induction, Magnetic Force on a Current, Ampere’s Law, Magnetic Lines of Induction, Force between two parallel current carrying conductors, Definition of Ampere, The Biot-Savart Law, Intensity of Magnetization, Susceptibility, Relation between Field Strength, Intensity of Magnetization, Magnetic Induction and Susceptibility, Magnetic Circuit, Ampere Turns, Comparison between Magnetic and Electric Circuits, Leakage Flux, Magnetization Curve, the Three Magnetic Vectors, Magnetic Properties of Matter, Gauss’s Law for Magnetism, Para magnetism, Diamagnetism, Ferromagnetism. Electromagnetic Induction: Faraday’s Law, Lenz’s Law, Self and Mutual Inductance, Transient response in LR circuit. AC Fundamentals and Circuit Theory: Basic Principles of AC Generators, Equations of Alternating Voltages and Currents, Definition of Frequency, Time period, Amplitude, Phase and Phase Difference, RMS Value, Average Value and Form Factor, Addition of two AC quantities, AC through resistance, Inductance, Capacitance, RLS Series Connection and Resonance, Parallel Resonance Reference Books: 1. Physics, Vol-II, David Resnick and Robert Halliday. 2. Introductory Circuit Analysis, Robert Boylestad. 3. A Textbook of Electrical Technology, BL Theraja and AK Theraja. 4. Electricity, Electrical Circuits and Magnetism, Dr. Md. Sekul Islam.
Applied Heat and Thermodynamics
3 Credits (45 Lectures)
Applied Heat: Production of low Temperature and Liquefaction of Gases, Superconductivity concept, Production of High Temperature, Temperature Measurement Techniques, Heat Transfer processes, Derivation of Conduction equation, EM wave Spectrum and Thermal Radiations, Emissive Power, Radiation Loss, Radiation intensity, Net Heat Transfer Between Two radiation Surfaces. Thermodynamics: Thermal Equilibrium and Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics, First and Second Law of Thermodynamics and Their Applications in the Analysis of Basic Heat Engines, Entropy. Refrigerator and Air-Condition: Units of Refrigeration Capacity, Vapor Compression Refrigeration System, Vapor Absorption Refrigeration System, Properties of Refrigerants, Atmosphere and Human Comfort, Measurement of Relative humidity, Summer Air-Conditioning System. Reference Books:
1. Heat and Thermodynamics, Brij Lal and Subrahmonyam. 2. Vacuum Technique, J Yarwood. 3. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, T. Hossain. 4. Heat and Thermodynamics, T. Hossain. 5. A Treatise on Heat, Saha and Srivastava. 6. Thermodynamics, Zemansky.
Applied Mechanics and Vector Analysis
2 Credits (30 Lectures)
Introduction to Vector Analysis: Vector in two and three dimensions, Different co-ordinate systems and curvilinear co-ordinate, Vector addition and multiplications, Vector differentiation and integration, line, surface and volume integral, gradient, curl and divergence, stokes’s and divergence theorem, Solution of Applied Mechanical problems with the help of vector analysis, introduction to tensor analysis. Mechanics of Particles and Rigid bodies: Rectilinear motion, Curvilinear motion, Rotational motion. Moment of inertia: Introduction, Moment of Inertia of Plane Area, Methods of finding of moment of Inertia, Theorem of Parallel and perpendicular axis. Basic Machines and Mechanical Advantage: Basic idea about friction, screw, wedge, lever, mechanical advantage. Work, Energy and Stability: Principle of virtual work, stability, energy concept. Transfer of Mechanical Power: Chain and Pulley Drive, Transmission of Power by Belt and Ropes, Gear Trains, Can and Can Follower. Forces in framed structures Strength mechanics of materials Variational methods in Mechanics Lagrange and Hamiltonian formulation of mechanics Fluid Mechanics: Integral and differential approach in fluid mechanics, Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, Venturimeter, Orificemeter, Pilot Tubes, Principles of Hydraulic Pumps and Turbines. Reference Books: 1. Properties of Matter, D S Mathur. 2. Applied Mechanics, R S Khurmi. 3. Fluid Mechanics, R S Khurmi. 4. Foundations of Robotics – Analysis and Control, Tsuneo Yoshika.
APECE-104 Computer Fundamentals and Programming in C
3 Credits (45 Lectures)
Data and Information: Background of Data Processing, Brief History and Types of Computers, Application Areas, Microcomputer System, Working Principle of Small Computer, Hardware Components, I/O Techniques and Memory unit, Secondary Storage Devices, CPU, Peripheral Devices. Data Coding System, Types of Number and Character Codes, Conversion of Binary, Octal, Hexadecimal, BCD Codes, Arithmetic Operations on Number Systems, Bit, Byte, Word, ASCII and EBCDIC codes, Logic Gates, Boolean Algebra and Combination of Logic Gates.
Classification of Software, Operating Systems, MS-DOS and Windows operating systems, Secondary Operating Systems, Basic Commands of Operating Systems, Translators, Problem Solving Techniques, Algorithm Design, Specifications and Requirements, Program Style and Program Design Techniques. Data Structure & Algorithm: Data representations; data types and data structures; ways to support data structures (hardware versus software); Abstract Data Types; arrays, stacks, queues, priority queues, lists, trees, graphs and tables; Search algorithms and structures, Sorting Techniques, Algorithm design techniques. Programming in C: Overview of C, Constants, Variable and Data Types, Operators and Expressions, Managing input and Output Operators, The Design Control an Case Control Structure, The Loop Control Structure, Recursion and Iterations Arrays, 2D Array, User Defined Functions, Structures and Unions, Pointers, Searching and Sorting Techniques, Linked List in C, Playing with Bits and Bytes, File Management. Reference Books: 1. Computer Science, Ray Bradley 2. Computer Science, CS French 3. Computer and Information System, Hutchison, Sawyer 4. C Programming Language, Kerhighan, Ritchie 5. The C Answer Book, Tondo, Gimpel 6. Teach Yourself C, Herbert Schildt 7. Data Structures and Algorithm Analysis in C, M.A. Weiss, Benjamin/Cummings.
2 Credits (30 Lectures)
Interference: Wave Motion, Light as Electromagnetic Wave, Irradiance, Superposition of Waves, Two beam and Multiple Beam Interference, Interferometers: Wavefront-splitting, Amplitude-splitting, Fabry-Perot, Mach-Zender Interferometer, Multilayer Antireflection Coating. Diffraction: Fresnel Diffraction: For a Semi-Infinite Screen, Rectangular and circular aperture, Laser Beam Divergence, Fresnel to Fraunhofer Diffraction Limit, Fraunhofer Diffraction: Single Slit, Double Slit and Many Slits, Diffraction Grating and Grating Spectroscopy, Resolution of Imaging System. Polarization: Different Types of Polarization, Polaroid, Birefringent Polarizer, Wave Plates, Optical Activity, Induced Optical Effects, Optical Modulators Optical Instruments: Review of Geometrical Optics (matrix Form) Human Eye, Microscope, Telescope, Aberrations, Color Filters, Optical Disc recording Techniques. Fiber Optics: Glass and Plastic fibers, Their Characteristics, Basic Structure and Classification of Fibers, Index Profile. Reference Books: 1. Optics, Eugene Hecht. 2. Optics, Ajoy Ghatak. 3. Fundamentals of Optics, Jenkins and White. 4. Fiber Optic Communication, DC Agarwal. 5. Alok Biggan, Prof. Shamsul Huq and Prof. Ali Zafar. 6. Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, Vol I, R Kingslake. 7. Insight into Optics, Heavens and Ditchburn.
3 Credits (45 Lectures)
Special Relativity: Galilean Transformation, Lorentz Transformation, Postulates of special relativity, time dilation, length contraction, mass energy equivalence. Particle Properties of Wave: Electromagnetic Waves, Photoelectric Effect, Quantum Theory of Light, X-ray and X-ray Diffraction, Compton Effect. Wave Properties of Particles: De Broglie Waves, Phase and Group velocity Particle Diffraction, Particle in a Box, Uncertainty Principle. Atomic Structure: Rutherford Model of the Atom, Electron, Orbits, Atomic Spectra, the Bohr Atom, Energy Levels and Spectra, Atomic Excitation Quantum Mechanics: Introduction, Wave Function and Wave Equation, Time Dependent Schrodinger’s Equation, Expectation Values, Steady state Schrodinger’s Equation, Linearity and Superposition, Operators, Particle in a box, Reflection and Transmission by a barrier, Tunnel Effect, Harmonic Oscillator. Reference Book: 1. Concepts of Modern Physics, Author Beiser. 2. Perspective to Modern Physics, Author Beiser. 3. Modern Physics, Raymond A. Serway, Clement J. Moses and Curt A. Moyer, Thomson Brooks/Cole. 4. Modern Physics, Keneth Krane, John Wiley. 5. Modern Physics: An Introductory Text, Jeremy I. Pfeffer and Sholomo Nir, Imperial College Press, London. 6. Concepts of Modern Physics, the Haifa Lectures, Imperial College Press, London. 7. Feynmann Lectures on Physics-III, R P Feynmann, R B Leighton, S Sands, CalTech, 2008
8. Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, Bernard Diu, and Frank Laböe, Quantum Mechanics, Vol. I & II, Wiley-VCH: Singapore (2005).
9. Modern Physics, Taylor, Dubson, Zafiratus, Prentice-Hall of India, 2004
10. D A B Miller, Quantum Mechanics for Scientists and Engineers, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK (2007). 11. A F J Levi, Applied Quantum Mechanics, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK (2003) 12. C L Tang, Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics for Solid State Electronics and Optics, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK (2005). APECE-107 1. Chemistry 2 Credits (30 Lectures)
Atomic Structure and Periodic Classification: Atom, atomic masses, atomic nucleus, nuclear binding energy, nuclear stability, de Broglie’s theory of matter, standing waves and quantization, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, Schrödinger’s wave equation and its application to hydrogen atom, wave function and its significance, quantum numbers, atomic orbitals and their energies, shapes and orientation, Pauli exclusion principle, Aufbau principle, Hund's rule, electronic configurations, classification of elements, periodic properties - ionization energy, electron affinity and electronegativity, shielding effect and effective nuclear charge, Slater’s rule for calculating shielding effect and effective nuclear charge, size of atoms or ions. Chemical Bonds: Chemical bond, types of chemical bonds, ionic bond, properties of ionic compounds, factors influencing the formation of ionic bond, radius ratio rule, sodium chloride structure, experimental determination of lattice energy, covalent bond, sigma and pi bond, properties associated with covalent compounds, polar covalent bond, valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory and molecular geometry, valence bond theory, hybridization of bond 6
orbitals, molecular orbital theory, the LCAO method, molecular orbital diagram, HOMO and LUMO, MO descriptions of homonuclear diatoms of He2 to F2, Mixing of MOs and the correlation diagrams, metallic bond, properties of metals, the band structure of metals. 3. Solids: Types of solids, crystal lattice, unit cell, seven crystal systems, Bravais lattices, Miller indices, defects solids, point defects, colour centers, electrical conductivity of defect solids, X-rays, generation of X-rays, X-ray filters, diffraction of X-rays by crystals, Bragg’s equation. Redox Reactions: Charge and electronic concept, oxidizing and reducing agents, redox half reactions, rules for balancing redox reactions. Electrochemistry: Conductance, specific conductance and molar conductance, transport number, Hittorf’s law, Kohlrausch’s law, standard reduction potential, the electrochemical series, electrolytic and galvanic cells, cell reaction, cell notation, emf of a cell, Nernst equation, concentration cell. Acids and Bases: Brønsted-Lowry concept, Lewis concept, acid - base strength, pH, acid-base titration, indicators, buffers, Henderson-Hasselbach equation, hard and soft acids and bases. Thermochemistry: Conservation of energy, heats of reaction, enthalpy, enthalpies of formation, enthalpies of combustion, Hess’s law, heat capacity and specific heat. Material Balances: Process, process classification, balances, differential balances and integral balances, flowchart, problem booking, material balance calculations.
Reference Books: 1. General Chemistry, D. D. Ebbing, Houghton Mifflin Co. 2. Chemistry – The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, M. Silberberg, WCB/McGrawHill. 3. Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes, R. M. Felder and R. W. Rousseau, John Wiley & Sons. 4. First Year Chemistry, J. M. Coxon, J. E. Fergusson and L. F. Phillips, Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd.
6 Credits (45 Lectures)
Electricity; Magnetism and Electrical Circuits, Applied Optics: 1. To draw the curve of µ -λ/1, by a spectrometer and determine the Cauchy’s constant. 2. To determine the radius of curvature of a lens by Newotn’s ring method. 3. To determine the angle of prism, minimum deviation and refractive index of the material of a prism. 4. To determine the wavelength of various spectral line by a spectrometer using a plane diffraction grating. 5. To determine the specific heat of a liquid by the cooling method. 6. Conversion of galvanometer into a voltmeter. 7. Conversion of galvanometer into an ohmmeter. 8. Conversion of a galvanometer into an ammeter. 9. To determine the surface tension of mercury by Qunickis method. 10. Verification of Ohm’s law, Kirchoffs, law and super-position theorem.
11. Draw the characteristics of B-H curve. Programming in C: • • • • Write a program to demonstrate input, data manipulation and output. Write programs to demonstrate sequence, loops, condition and branching. Write programs to solve the problems of factorial, prime number, permutation & combination, Fibonacci number & quadratic equation, etc. Write programs to demonstrate arrays, function, sorting & searching data string manipulation, playing with bits and bytes, recursion (Factorial, Fibonacci, Binary Search, Euclid’s Algorithm) and iteration, structure, Single likned-list, 2D arrays, arrays of pointers, arrays of pointer to function, program, data & record storage and retrieval system using file and pointer manipulation, etc.
Reference: 1. Practical Applied Physics of Electronics, Prof. Md. Sekul Islam, Pub: Dhaka University, 1989. 2. Practical Physics, Worsnop and Flint.
4 Credits (60 Lectures)
Diode Circuit: P-N Junction Diode characteristics, The ideal Diode and Real Diode, P-N Junction Diode as a circuit Element, load Line Analysis of a diode Circuit, Special Diodes – Zener Diodes, LED and Tunnel Diode. Half-wave and Full wave Rectifier, Voltage Regulation, Voltage Doublers, Clippers and Clamper. Bipolar Junction Transistors: Bipolar junction transistor Construction and Operation, Amplifying action, Common Base, Common Collector, Common Emitter Configuration, Relations Between α and β, Leakage Current in a Transistor, Thermal Runaway in a Transistor, DC Load Line – Q Point. Transistor Biasing Factor, Effects on Bias Variations, Stability factor for CB and CE Configurations, Different Methods for Transistor Biasing, Load Line and output Characteristics, AC load Line. Field Effect Transistor (FET): JFET Configuration, Operation and Characteristics, MOSFET Construction, Operation and Characteristics, Small Signal JFET parameters, DC Biasing of JFET, DC Load Line, Common Source JFET Amplifier, Modeling and Equivalent Circuit of BJTs and FETs, Conversion of an amplifier circuit to a standard form, General Black box theory, Impedance Parameters and Hybrid parameter, Parameters models of transistor, BJT Hybrid – II parameter Model for high Frequency, FETs Small Signal Model, Voltage- controlled and Current-Controlled models. BJT Small Signal (Single Stage) Amplifier Circuit Analysis: Classification of Amplifiers, CE Fixed Bias Configuration, CB Configuration, Collector Feedback Configuration, loading Effect of R2 and R1, Complete Hybrid Equivalent Circuit, Design of CE Amplifier, Application in Class A Amplifier, Transformer coupled classes, Class B push-pull Amplifiers, Class C Amplifiers, Tuned Amplifier, Distortion in Amplifiers Variation in Amplifier Gain with Frequency, Cut-off Frequencies. FET Small Signal Analysis: JFET/Depletion, MOSFET Amplifier with Source Resistance, Small Signal Model, AC Small Signal Operation, Loading Effects, Source Follower (Common Drain) circuit, Common Gate Circuit, Design of FET Amplifier Circuit (CS, CD or CG). Multistage Amplifiers: Amplifier coupling, RC Coupled two Stage Amplifier, Advantages of RC Coupling, Impedance coupled two stage amplifier and its Advantages and Disadvantages and Applications, DC Twostage amplifier and its advantages, disadvantages and applications, Darlington Pair, Comparison between Darlington Pair and emitter Follower, Multistage frequency effects, Differential Amplifiers. Feedback Amplifiers: Principle of Feedback Amplifier positive and Negative feedback, Advantages of negative feedback, gain Stability, Decreased Distortion, Increased Bandwidth, Forms of Negative Feedback, Practical feedback Circuits. Reference Books: 1. Electronic Devices and Circuits, Robert Boylestad 2. Eelctrical Technology, BL Theraja 3. Elements of Electronics, MK Bagde, SP Singh
4. Microelectronics, Millman 5. Pulse and Digital Electronics, GK Mithal 6. Principles of electronic Circuits, Dr. Rezaul Karim Mazumder.
2 Credits (30 Lectures)
The Atomic Nucleus: Atomic Mass Unit, Stable Nucleus, Binding Energy, Nuclear Radius, The interaction between two nucleons, Nuclear models : - the shell or independent particle model, Liquid Drop model, the collective nuclear model, optical model for nuclear reactions, The Nuclear Atom: Rutherford’s theory of scattering of alpha-particles. Experimental tests of Rutherford scattering theory. Isotopes: Natural radioactivity and isotopes, isotopic masses and abundances: the mass spectrograph and mass spectrometer, the stable isotopes of the elements and their percentage abundances. Radioactivity: alpha-, beta- and gamma- rays, Radioactive Decay, Units of radioactivity, The detection and measurement of radiation, The basis of the theory of radioactive disintegration, the disintegration constant, Half-life and Mean Life, successive radioactive transformations, Radiometric Dating, Radioactive Equilibrium, Radioactive Series, Radiation Hazards. Artificial Nuclear Disintegration: Transmutation by alpha-particles, alpha-proton reactions, The neutron : alpha-neutron reactions, the acceleration of charged particles, Transmutation by protons, deuterons, neutrons, photons, Nuclear chemistry : nuclear masses. Nuclear Reaction: Nuclear Reactions and excited states of nuclei, cross section of nuclear reactions, Neutron-induced reactions, proton-induced reactions, limitation of compound nucleus theory. Nuclear Fission: Fission cross sections and threshold, the fission products, the mass and energy distribution of the fission products, neutron emission in fission, the theory of fission process, the energy distribution of the neutron emitted by fission. Fission in Stars Nuclear Reactor: The nuclear energy sources, The chain-reacting systems, Thermal nuclear reactor, The calculation of the multiplication factor for a homogenous thermal reactor, heterogeneous thermal reactor, the critical size of a thermal reactor, power and breeding Nuclear Instrumentation: GM counter, Proportional counter, Bubble chamber, Single channel and Multi channel analyzer, Gamma camera, machines of radio therapy, particle accelerators, principles of radiation protection. Fusion Reaction Reference Books; 1. Nuclear Physics, Irving Kaplan, second edition.
Electrical Machines and Measurements
3 Credits (45 Lectures)
AC/DC Generators: Constructions, Principles of Operation, Equivalent Circuit DC Motors: Construction, Principle of Operation, equivalent Circuit, Commutation of DC motors, Types, Back EMF in DC Motors, Motor Characteristics, Speed-Torque Characteristics, Speed control. Transformers: Construction, Principle of Operation, Phasor Diagram and Equivalent Circuit, Performance and Testing, Voltage regulation, Ratings, Special Transformers Introduction to 3-phase Transformers, Issues and Harmonics. Induction Motors (IM): Construction, Principle of Operation, Rotating Magnetic Fields, Synchronous Speed, Slip Rings and Squirrel Cage induction motors, Equivalent Circuit, Speed-Torque Characteristics, Losses, efficiency, Linear IM (LIM) Synchronous Machines (SMS): General Outline of SMS, Motors and Generators, Salient Pole and Nonsalient Pole, Armature and Field Cores of Synchronous Generators, Theory of Operation, Motor Terminal Characteristics, Power Factor Control, Power and Torque Characteristics, Capability Curves, Speed Control of SMS, Application of SMS.
Special Modern Machines: Electrostatic Motors, Repulsion Motors, Hysteresis Motors, AC/DC Servomotor, Stepper Motor, Brush-less DC motor. Electrical Measurements: Measurement of Inductance and Capacitance, Electrical Measuring Instruments (Ammeter, Voltmeter, Ohmmeter, Wattmeter, Energy meter, Gauss meter and Frequency Meter). Extension of Instrument Ranges, Introduction to electronics measuring instrument and Oscilloscope Reference Books: 1. A Text Book of Electrical Technology, BL Theraja and AK Theraja. 2. Electrical Machinery and Transformers, IL Kosow.
3 Credits (45 Lectures)
Combinational Logic Circuits: Sum of products form (SOP), Product of Sums Form (POS), Max Term, Min Term, Algebraic Simplification, Designing Combinational Logic Only, Simplification Using K-Map, K-Map and Don’t Care term. Flip-flops and related Devices: Sequential Circuit, NAND gate Latch, Nor Gate Latch, Clock Signal and Clocked Flip-flops, S-C, S-R, J-K, D, T Flip-Flops, Asynchronous inputs of Flip-Flops, Flip-Flop Timing consideration, Race-Around Condition, Master-Slave Flip-flop, Flip-flop Applications, Design of Synchronous and Asynchronous counters, Modulo-N Counters, Johnson Counter, Different Types of Register, Applications of Counters. Arithmetic Circuits: Half Adder, Parallel Binary Adder, Parallel Binary Adder with register, Parallel adder ICs, 2’s Complement system and circuit, BCD Adder, Subtract Circuit, Multiplier Circuit. Integrated Circuit Logic families: TTL logic Family, Standard TTL and other TTL Series Characteristics, TTL series Characteristics, TTL open Collector Output, Tristate TTL, ECL Family and its Characteristics, MOS, PMOS, NMOS and CMOS Families. Decoding and Encoding: Decoders, BCD to 7-segment Decoder, BCD to decimal decoder, Encoders, Switch Encoder. Multiplexing and Demultiplexing: Multiplexer, Demultiplexer, Multiplexer and Demultiplexer Applications, Comparator, Parity Checker and Generator. Converters: Digital to analog converter (DAC),Weighted Resistor DAC, R-2R Ladder, DAC Specifications, Analog to Digital Converter (ADC), Digital ramp ADC, Successive Approximation ADC, Flash ADC, Continuous Conversion Type ADC, Example of ADC and DAC ICs, Principle of Digital Instruments, Digital Multimeter, Phasemeter, Frequency Meter. Semiconductor Memories: Memory organization and Operation, Expansion of Word Size and Word Capacity, Classification and Characteristics of Memory, Organization of RAM and ROM, Advancement of Semiconductor Memories, PLA, PAL, PLD. Reference Books: 1. Principle of Digital Electronics, RJ Tocci. 2. Modern Digital Electronics, RP Jain.
Quantum Mechanics and Physical 4 Credits (60 Lectures) Electronics
Quantum Mechanics: Operators in quantum mechanics, operator algebra, Eigenvalues, Schrödinger’s Equation in potential well and periodic potential, Quantum Theory of Hydrogen Atom, Separation of Variables, variational Methods, WKB approximation, Perturbation theory, Angular Momentum, Statistical Mechanics: Different ensambles, Bose Einstein Statistics, Maxwell-Boltzman Distribution, Fermi Dirac Distribution. Crystallography and Crystal Structure: Lattice parameters, Electronic motion in periodic lattice, Brillouin zones, and reciprocal lattice, Lattice Matching and Mismatch, Crystalline Materials, Crystal Orientation, Single Crystal, Polycrystalline and Amorphous Structure, Crystal defects.
Free Electron Theory: Drude-Lorentz Theory, Application of Classical Free Electron Theory, Fermi-Dirac Distribution Function, Position of Fermi Level, Electrical Conductivity and Thermal Conductivity, Electronic Specific Heat. Zone Theory: Kronig-Penney Model, Allowed Energy Zones, Brillouin Zones, K-Space, Fermi Surface, Density of States, Application of Zone Theory, Conductors and Semiconductors, Superconductivity. Electron Emission: Work Function, Surface Potential Barrier and Contact Potential Thermal Emission, Schottky effect, Field Emission and Fowler Nordheim Equation, Secondary Emission, Secondary Multipliers, Photoelectric Effect and Emission, Thermo-electricity for metals and Semiconductors, Electron Ballistics, Lorentz Equation and its application, Child-Langmuir three-halves power law, Electron Optics, Electron Microscope. Electronic Theory of Semiconductor: Elementary Band theory, Metals, Semiconductors, Insulators, Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductors, Position of Fermi Level, Concept of Holes, Hall Effect and Galvanomagnetic effects, Equilibrium of Carrier Densities, Generation and Recombination of Excess Carriers, Carrier Life-time, Carrier Movement of Diffusion and Drift, Einstein relation, Derivation of Conductive Equations, Ohmic and Rectifying Contacts, rectifier Equation. Electrostatics of P-N junctions: Direct & Indirect semiconductor The P-N junction, Diffusion potential, Depletion layer, Current flow under forward and reversed biases, Calculation of barrier width, Junction capacitance and varactor diode, Minority carrier storage and high frequency effects in diode, Avalanche and zener breakdown, Fabrication Zener diode, Tunnel, solar photo diode. Reference Books: 1. Solid State Physics, Ashcroft and Mermin, Saunders College Philadelphia, USA 2. Electronic Processes in Materials, Azaroff and Brophy. 3. Physical Electronics, Hemenway, Henry and Coulton. 4. Introduction to Semiconductor Devices, MJ Morant. 5. Solid State Device, B J Streetman. 6. Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, Donald Neamen, Tata McGraw Hill. 7. Meyers 8. Theory of Modern Electronic Devices, Kevin Brennan and April Brown, John Wiley and Sons, 2002
9. Semiconductor Device Fundamentals, Pierret, Robert F, Reading, M A, Addison-Wesley. 10. Atomic and Electronic Structure of Solids, Efthimios Kaxiras, Cambridge University Press. 11. Fundamental of Solid State Electronics, Chih Tang Sah, World Scientific. 12. Semiconductor Physics and Device, S S Islam, Oxford Univ Press, 2006. 13. Physics of Semiconductor Devices, Jean-Pierre Colinge and Cynthia Colinge, Kluwer Academic Publishers. 14. Semiconductor Heterojunctions and Nanostructures, Omar Manashreh, McGraw Hill. 15. Semiconductor Physics and Applications, M Balkanski and R F Wallis, Oxford University Press. 16. Solid-State Physics: Introduction to Theory, James D Patterson and Bernard C Bailey, Springer, 2007. 17. Introduction to Solid State Physics, C Kittel, JWS, 2005 18. S M Sze, Introduction to Semiconductor Physics 19. Fundamentals of Semiconductors, Yu and Cardona, Springer, 2010 20. Electronic and Optoelectronic Properties of Semiconductors, J Singh, CUP. 21. Physics of Semiconductors, Kevin F Brennan, CUP, 1999 22. Smart electronic Materials, Jasprit Singh, CUP, 2005 APECE-206 Electrical Circuit Analysis 2 Credits (30 Lectures)
RLC Transients: RLC circuit response to DC input: Underdamped, Overdamped, Critically Damped Case, Charging and Discharging Phase. Series and Parallel AC Circuits: Impedance and Phasor diagram, Series Configuration, Voltage divider rule, Admittance and Susceptance, Parallel ac Networks, Current Divider rule. Methods of Analysis – AC networks: Independent versus Dependent sources, Mesh and Nodal Analysis, Wye-Delta and Delta-Wye Conversions. Network Theorems – AC networks: Superposition Theorem, Thevenin’s Theorem, Norton’s Theorem, Maximum Power Transfer Theorem, Substitution, Reciprocity and Millman’s Theorems. Power – AC networks: Average, Apparent and Reactive Power, The Power Triangle, The Total P, Q and S, Power Factor Correction. Polyphase Systems: The Three phase generator, The Y-connected generator, The Y-connected generator with a Y-connected Load, the Wye-Delta system, the Delta connected generator, the delta-delta, delta-Wye three phase systems, the three wattmeter method, the two wattmeter method, unbalanced three-phase, four wire, Yconnected load, Unbalanced three-phase, three wire Y-connected load. Decibels, filters and Bode plots: R-C Low-pass filters, R-C high pass filters, Pass-band filters, Stop-Band filters, Bode Plots. Fourier Method of Waveform Analysis: Trigonometric Fourier Series, Exponential Fourier Series, Waveform Symmetry, Line Spectrum, Waveform Synthesis, Application in Circuit Analysis. Complex Frequency: Introduction, Network analysis in the s-domain, network response in the s-domain. The Laplace Transform method: Introduction, the Laplace Transform, Selected Laplace Transforms, Initial Value and Final Value Theorem. Reference Books: 1. Alternating Current Circuits, Corcoran and Kerchner. 2. Introductory Circuit Theory, R.L.Boylestad, Prentice-Hall India Pvt. Ltd. 3. Schaum’s Outline Series on Electrical Circuits, J.A.Edminister, Tata McGraw-Hill. 4. Networks Lines and Fields, J.D.Ryder, Prentice-Hall India Pvt. Ltd.
2 Credits (30 Lectures)
Introduction: Fundamental Equations and Definitions, Wave Motion, Plane Wave, Spherical Wave, Stationary Wave, Wave Equation and Solutions, Sound Energy, Density, Intensity, Velocity of Sound Waves in Various Materials, Measurement of Intensity - Phon and Decibel, Mechanical and Acoustical Elements and Systems of Elements Architectural Acoustics: Reverberation and reverberation Time, Optimum Reverberation in Auditorium studio and Lecture Room, Measurement of Reverberation Time and its Correction, Absorption of Sound and Absorption Coefficient, Acoustical treatment of Auditorium, Studio and Lecture Room. Electro-Acoustics: Principle of Microphone, Condenser Microphone, Pressure Microphones, Pressure Gradient Microphone, Carbon Granule Microphone, Loudspeakers and Horn Loudspeakers, Testing of Loud Speakers, Ultrasonic and their Applications, magnetic Recording and Optical Recording, reproduction of Sound, Opto-acoustics and Relevant Devices for Optical Communication, Stereophonic. Reference Books: 1. Applied Acoustics, HF Olson and F Messa. 2. Magnetic Recording Technique, W Eacir Stewart. 3. Fundamentals of Acoustics, LE Kinsler and AR Frey. 4. Waves and Oscillations, Brij Lal and Subrahmonyam.
6 Credits (45 Lectures)
1. To verify Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems. 2. To study the transient responses of (a) RC and (b) LR circuits and hence to measure the time constants of the circuits. 3. To study the ransient response, damping effevt and the resonance of a series R-L-C circuit. 4. To study the frequency response of passive low pass and high pass RC filter. 5. Measurement of the characteristics impedance of a 4-terminal network. 6. To study the I-V characteristics of the general purpose rectifier diode and construction of Full Wave and Half Wave rectification circuits. 7. To study the I-V characteristics of Zener diode and light emitting diode (LED) and construction of a DC voltage stabilizer using Zener diode. 8. To study the Transistor characteristics in Common-Emitter configuration. 9. To study the Transistor characteristics in Common Base configuration. DIGITAL 10. To study the Clipping and Clamping circuits. 11. Construction of basic gates (AND, OR and NOT) using discrete components Resistor, Diode Transistor etc. & the verification of the truth table of the constructed gates; & their simulation with C. 12. Circuit realization of logic expression using logic expression using logic gates. 13. Design (a) Half adder, Full adder and (b) Half subtract or, Full subtract or circuits using logic gates (AND, OR, XOR, etc.) and testing the circuits; and their simulation with C. 14. Truth table verification of different FFs [S-C, J-K, D, T] and converting J-K FFs into T and D FFs, Modern Physics 15. Plank’s constant 16. Energy gap measurement Marks Distribution In-course FINAL Analog part Digital part … … 60 60 20 15 … 30
Breakup of each part Experiment Viva Theory Data collection, Calculation, Result analysisDiscussionReference: 1. Practical Applied Physics & Electronics, Dr. Md. Sekul Islam, Pub: Dhaka University, 1989. 20 05 …
Studies on Energy Economics: Bangladesh Perspective
Credits: 03 (45 Lectures)
I. Overview of the Economy of Bangladesh Composition and structure of the economy, GDP, sectoral contribution, overall growth trend of infrastructure development. II. Overview of Energy resources for Development. Demand, Supply, Policies, constraints. III. Poverty in Bangladesh : Nature, dimension, poverty alleviation interventions, role of GOB and NGOs. IV. Women and Development Gender issue, women’s participation in productive activities, share of energy resources- different policies and constraints. V. ‘Aid’, FDI and Reforms Role of foreign aid, Structural Adjustment policies and Reform Programmes. State of Enery sector. FDI in enrgy sector, issues of concern. VI. Industrialization : Industrial Policies, Public and Private Sector Development. Rural industries, Small and Medium industries. How to solve gas and power crisis. VII. Globalization and Bangladesh Economy. VIII. Theory of Resource Curse: Why countries with huge natural resources remain poor? References 1. Reports of the Task Forces on Bangladesh Development Strategies for the 1990s. 2. UNCTAD report on FDI 2006 3. Statistical Yearbooks and bulletins published by Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. 4. Five-Year Plan Documents, Government of Bangladesh. 5. Annual Economic Reviews, Government of Bangladesh. 6. Akhlaqur Rahman: Self Reliance and Foreign Aid. 7. A.R.Khan and Mahabub Hossain: Development Strategies of Bangladesh. 8. A. Rahman and Others: Environment and Development in Bangladesh, Vol. I and II, University Press Limited, 1994 9. Selim Rashid (ed.): Bangladesh Economy. 10. Sirajul Islam (ed.): History of Bangladesh, Vol. II 11. Kamal Siddiqui: Political Economy of Land Reform. 12. Rehman Sobhan: Structural Adjustment Policies for the Third World. 13. S.S. White: Arguing with Crocodiles. UPL, 1992. 14. Nurul Islam: Making of a Nation-Bangladesh-An Economist’s Tale. UPL, 2003. 15. Abdul Bayes and Anu Muhammad (ed.): Bangladesh at 25. 16. Anu Muhammad: Bangladesher Arthanitir Gotimukh. 17. Anu Muhammad: Bangladesher tel gas: Kar sompod kar bipod. 18. Anu Muhammad: Development or Destruction?
Electromagnetic Theory and Antenna
Credits: 03 (45 Lectures)
Electromagnetic Theory: Scalar and vector fields, Different coordinate systems, Time varying field and phasor representation, Maxwell’s equations: (differential and integral form), Boundary conditions, Potential functions, Time harmonic fields and Poynting theorem. Plane Wave Propagation and reflection of electromagnetic waves in unbounded media, Plane waves in loss-less media – Doppler effect, Wave impedance, Polarization of EM waves, Plane waves in lossy media, Loss-less dielectrics, Good conductors, Group velocity, Instantaneous and average power densities.
Antenna: Radiation mechanism of antenna; Types of antennas (wire antennas, aperture antennas, array
antennas, reflector antennas, lens antennas & their radiation patterns), Isotropic, Directional and omnidirectional pattern, Principle pattern, Radiation pattern lobes, Field regions, Radian and tertian. Parameters: Fundamental parameters of antenna, Radiation power density, Radiation intensity, Gain, Directive gain, Power gain, Directivity, Antenna efficiency, Effective aperture, Physical aperture, Radiation resistance, Transmission between two antenna, Radar equation, Front to back ration, Antenna band width, Antenna beam width. Antenna arrays – design and synthesis. Reflector type antennas. Babiner’s principles and complementary antennas. Application of reaction concept and variational principles in antennas and propagation. Frequency independent antennas, Scattering and diffraction. Selected topics in microwave antennas. Printed antenna. Antenna measurements. Applications in broadcasting, telecommunication, microwave links, satellite communications, etc. Transmission Line: Line Parameters, Characteristic Impedance of Symmetrical Network, Properties of Symmetrical Networks, Inductance of a line of two parallel conductors and co-axial line, skin effect, capacitance of two parallel and coaxial lines, Transmission line Theory, A line of cascaded T section, The transmission line: general solution, the infinite line, wavelength Velocity of propagation, waveform distortion, distortion-less line, reflection on a line not terminated in Zo, Reflection coefficient, Line Calculation, Input and transfer impedance, Open and short circuited lines, Reflection and Insertion loss, T and π section equivalent to lines
Recommended Books: 1. Electromagnetic Waves and Radiation System by Zedan and Balmani. 2. Radio Frequency and Microwave Electronics by Mathew M. Radmanesh. 3. Antenna and Propagation for Wireless Communication Systems by Saunders, Simon R. Aleja.
4. Radio Antennas and Propagation: Radio Engineering Fundamentals by William Gosling. 5. Fundamentals of Electromagnetics with Engineering Applications by S Wentworth.
Radio and Television Engineering
Credits: 03 (45 Lectures)
Introduction: The communication process, Sources of information, Communication networks, Communication channels, Analog and digital type of communication; Radio frequency spectrum, Propagation of radio signals; Noise in communication channel: Shot noise, Thermal noise, White noise, Gain in decibel, Signal to noise ratio. Analog Communication System: Amplitude modulation (AM), AM broadcast technical standards, Double sideband suppressed carrier (DSBSC), Single sideband suppressed carrier (SSB), Vestigial sideband (VSB), Phase modulation (PM) and frequency modulation (FM), Envelop detector, Product modulator, AM transmitter (AM modulator), AM demodulator, Superheterodyne receiver, FM transmitters and recivers. Comparison of AM and FM receivers, Noise in receiver, Noise limiting circuits. AGC circuits, Receiver sensitivity, Cross modulation, spurious response converters, Detector and modulation circuits.
Digital Modulation Techniques: Digital passband transmission, Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK), Phase Shift Keying (PSK), Differential PSK (DPSK), Frequency Shift Keying (FSK), Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM), MSK, GMSK, M-Ary modulation techniques, Spread spectrum modulation techniques, DSSS, FHSS. Fundamentals of TV: Analysis and synthesis of TV picture, Scanning, Standard scanning pattern, Synchronization, Blanking pulses, Composite video signal, Color video signals, Matrix circuits, Colourplexed composite video signal, Signal transmission, TV channels, Channel bandwidth. TV Camera: Storage type camera tubes: Non-storage type camera tubes; Iconoscope; Image orthicon, Vidicon, Plumbicon, Colour TV camera and other types of camera tubes. TV Receiver & Transmitter: Fundamentals of TV receiver, Picture tubes, Deflection circuit, High voltage power supply, Colour picture tube, Folded dipole with directors and reflectors for TV receiver, TV Transmitter and TV studio design. Digital Television and Video: Video Digitization formats – the 4:2:2 formats, 4:2:0 format, Source
Intermediate Format (SIF), Common Intermediate Format (CIF), General compression principles – Run Length Coding, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) compression technique, MPEG-1, MPEG-2. Recommended Books: 1. Radio & TV Engineering, A.G. Mithal 2. Monochrome & Color Television, Gulati 3. Principles of communication systems, Taub Schiling 4. Communication Systems, Simon Haykin.
Credits: 03 (45 Lectures)
Introduction: Basic concept of electricity for communication, Electrical Signals, Transmission of electrical signals – wire pair, co-axial cable, optical fiber cable, radio transmission; Voice and data transmission, Impairments to voice transmission – amplitude distortion, phase distortion, noise; Simple telephone communication, Subscriber’s line circuit, two-wire and four-wire transmission, Basic switching system, Conventional analog switching, Types of electromechanical switches – Strowger and Crossbar switch. Pulse and digital signals: Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM), Pulse code modulation (PCM), Delta modulation (DM), Adaptive delta modulation (ADM), Delta-Sigma Modulation, Differential PCM (DPCM), Adaptive DPCM (ADPCM). Digitization of Voice; Multiplexing techniques- TDM and FDM; Digital signal hierarchies in telephone systems – DS0, DS1, DS3, E1, E2, E3, etc. Signal Switching: Stored program control, Centralized SPC, Distributed SPC, Software architecture, Application software, Enhanced services, Two-stage network, Three-stage network, n-stage network. Concepts of TDM, Basic time division space switching, Basic time division time switching, Time multiplexed space switching, Time-multiplexed time switching, Combination switching, Three-stage combination switching, n-stage combination switching. Switching Systems: Principles of common control, touch tone dial telephone, Crosspoint technology, No. 1 ESS, Japanese D-10, Metaconta. Telephone Networks: Subscriber loop systems, Switching hierarchy and routing, Transmission plan, Transmission systems, Numbering plan, Charging plan, Signaling techniques, Inchannel signaling, Common channel signaling, Digital loop carrier – versions of DSL. Integrated Services Digital Network: Motivation for ISDN, New services, Network and protocol architecture, Transmission channels, User-network interfaces, Signaling, Numbering and addressing, Service characterization, Inter working, ISDN standards, Expert Systems in ISDN, Broadband ISDN, Voice data integration. CCITT Signaling System No. 7 (SS7): Overview of SS 7 architecture, Relationship to OSI, Layer 1, 2 and 3; Signaling network structure, Signaling performance, Numbering plan, Signaling connection control part (SCCP), User part. Recommended Books: 1. Advanced Electronics communication systems – Wayne Tomasi 2. Telecommunication Switching Principles, M.T. Hills 3. Telecommunication Switching Systems and Networks, T. Viswanathan 4. Fundamentals of Telecommunications, Roger L Freeman.
3 Credits (45 Lectures)
Structural Properties: Crystalline, amorphous, composite, fibrous, polymers, mastics, binding forces, Elastic properties, dislocations, defects. Thermal and Electrical Properties: Specific heat, Thermal expansion, Thermal conductivity Electrical conductivity of metals. Dielectric properties of solids: Basic relationship and parameters, Modes of dielectric polarization, Experimental methods and results, Ferro electricity, Piezo Electricity. Optical properties of solids: Classical theory, Semi-classical theory, Free carrier effects, Lattice absorption, Electronic absorption. Magnetic properties of solid: Atomic magnetic moments, Dia- and Para magnetism, Ferromagnetism, Antiferromagnetism and Ferri-magnetism, Magnetic resonance. Superconductivity: Superconductivity of material, type-1, type-2 superconductors and some applications. Nonlinear Optics: Laser Characteristics, second harmonic generation and optical mixing, parametric amplification. Reference Books: 1. Electronic Properties in Materials, Rolf E. Hummel. 2. Electronic Process in Materials, Azarof, Brophy. 3. Fundamentals of Superconductivity. 4. Solid State Physics, Myers. 5. Solid State Physics, N D Ashcroft and N W Mermin (1976). 6. Solid State Physics, C Kittle (2005). 7. Solid State Physics, J D Patterson and B C Bailey (2007) 8. Condensed matter Physics, R M Marder, JWS, 2000.
Advance Electronic Circuits
Credits: 04 (60 Lectures)
Operational Amplifiers: Differential amplifier circuits, Constant current source, Current mirror, Active load, Common mode rejection, the ideal op-amp, the practical op-amp, Frequency response of an op-amp, Linear application of op-amp, Inverting amplifier, non-inverting amplifier, Differentiator, Integrator, Precision rectifier, Sample and hold circuit, Capacitance multiplier, Active filter, Log and anti-log amplifier, Comparator, Window Detector, Schmidt trigger. Multivibrators with Op-Amp: Astable Multivibrator, Monostable Multivibrator, Bistable Multivibrator, Sine wave oscillators, Triangular wave generators, Voltage controlled oscillator, Voltage regulation. Oscillators: Negative feedback in amplifiers, Bark-Hausen criterion for oscillation, Phase shift oscillators, Wein Bridge oscillator, Bridge-Tuned twin T oscillator, LC oscillators – Hartley and Colpitts, Negative resistance oscillator, Crystal oscillator – frequency stability. Power and Tuned Amplifiers: Class A power amplifier, Class-B power amplifier, Push-pull amplifier, Complementary symmetry, Quasi-complementary, Class-D amplifier, Tuned amplifier, Single tuned amplifier, Double tuned amplifier, Stagger tuned amplifier. Wideband Amplifier: Broadbanding techniques, Base compensation, IC wideband amplifiers, Shunt compensation and series compensation. Pulse and Switching Circuits: Astable with BJT, JFET and timer IC; Monostable with BJT and timer IC; Bistable triggering problem; Schmidt trigger with BJT; Blocking oscillators; Voltage and time base generators; Exponential sweep circuits; Constant current charging circuit; the Miller circuit and Bootstrap circuit; Current time-base generation; Trapezoidal waveform; Sweep circuit for TV receivers; Pulse transformer.
Analog Multipliers: Multiplication techniques, Power quadrant multiplier, Logarithmic exponential multiplier, Application of multiplier; Division, Squaring and square root circuits; RMS and phase detector circuits; Modulation and demodulation with multiplier. Voltage Regulators: Series and shunt regulations, IC voltage regulators, Switching regulators. Phase Locked Loops: Basic PLL, Major building blocks; Lock and Capture range; Applications of PLL, FM demodulation, FSK demodulation, AM demodulation, Frequency synthesizer. Switching Capacitor Circuits: Theory of operation, Switched capacitor, Capacitor integrator, Switched capacitor filter. Recommended Books: 1. Principles of Electronic Circuits by Dr. Rezaul Karim Mazumder 2. Microelectronics by Millman. 3. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory by R. Boylstad and L. Nashelsky. 4. Electronics Devices and Circuits by David A Bell. 5. Electronic Fundamentals and Applications by John D Ryder. 6. Op-Amps and Linear Integrated Circuits by R.L. Gayakwad. 7. Operational Amplifiers by G.B. Clayton. 8. Op-Amps and Linear Integrated Circuits by R.F. Coughlin. 9. Pulse, Digital and Switching waveforms by Millman and Taub. 10. Pulse and Digital Electronics by G.K. Mithal.
Advance Electronic Devices
Credits: 03 (45 Lectures)
Semiconductor Devices: Physics of BJT, Metal-semiconductor junction, MOS structure, Heterojunction, High-field effects in semiconductors; UJT; Frequency limitations of BJT, Drift transistor, Heterojunction transistor, MESFET, HEMT, MOSFET. Optoelectronic Devices: Solar cell, LED, Photodiodes – Avalanche photodiode, PIN diode, Laser: Basic Requirements for Laser Light, Ruby and He-Ne Laser, Laser diodes (homojunction, heterojunction, quantum well, quantum dot), DFB Laser, DBL Laser, Tunable Laser, Statis and Dynamic charecteristics of Laser., Phototransistor; Optical isolator, Optical interconnection, LCD, TFT, Various types of Charge Coupled Devices (CCD), Microwave Devices: Varactor Diode, Tunnel diode (negative resistance device); IMPATT, QWITT, TRAPATT, Gunn diode. Recommended books: 1. Solid State electronics Devices by B.G. Streetman. 2. Semiconductor and Electronic Devices by A. Barlev. 3. Physics of semiconductor Devices by S.M. Sze. 4. Solid State Electronics by S. Wang. 5. Fiber Optic Communication Technology by by Djafar and Scheiner. 6. Optical Fiber Communication, Principles and Practice by M. Senior. 7. Semiconductor Devices by Jasprit Singh. 8. Semiconductor Device Physics and Design by Umesh K Mishra and Jasprit Singh, Springer, 2008 9. Semiconductor Physics and Device by S S Islam, OUP, 2006. 10. Theory of Modern Electronic Semiconductor Devices by Kevin F Brennan and April S Brown, JWS, 2002.
11. Introduction to Semiconductor Devices by Kevin F Brennan, CUP, 2005.
Industrial and Power Electronics
Credits: 03 (45 Lectures)
Power Electronics Systems: Power electronics system, Power electronics versus linear electronics, Power semiconductor devices (application perspective): Power diode, Power Transistor, Thyristor, SCR, DIAC, TRIAC, GTO, MOSFET, IGBT, SIT. Power Electronic Converters: Fixed output voltage and phase controlled AC/DC converters, single phase, three phase, semi/full, Analysis and performance with passive load, Dual converters, Power factor movement and forced commutation angle, PWM control. DC/DC Converters: Chopper regulators, Step-up, Step-down, Chopper classification, Switch mode regulators, Thyristor chopper circuits. Cyclo-Converters (Frequency Converters): Single phase, Three phase and AC voltage converters with PWM. DC/AC Inverters: PWM, Resonant pulse inverters, Push-pull inverters, Transformer-less inverters, MPPT, Grid-interactive inverters, Switch utilization in inverters, PV inverters. Industrial Electronics: Magnetic amplifier and its applications, Control of temperature and other non-electric quantities, Elements of microprocessor based control system for industries. Motor Devices: DC and AC motor devices, Speed and position control of DC motors, Microprocessor based motor drive. Industrial Heating: Resistive heating, High frequency heating, Induction heating, Dielectric heating and its use and applications, Servo mechanism, Closed loop control system, Polyphase rectifier. PLC: Controllers, Hardware, Internal architecture, Programming, Testing and debugging, Commercial PLC. Robots & Other Motion Control Systems: Types of robots, Types of robot control, Types of robot programs, CNC machines, Basic parts of a robot system, I/O circuits for robot system, I/O requests for robot system, Case studies in industrial electronics and industrial data communication. Recommended books: 1. Power Electronics, Converters, Application and Design, N Mohan, TM Undeland and WR Robbins. 2. Principles of Power Electronics, JG Kassakian, MF Schlecht and JC Verghese. 3. Power Electronics, Circuits, Devices and Applications, MH Rashid. 4. Electronics in Industry, Chute and Chute. 5. Theory and Application of Industrial Electronics, JA Cage. 6. Programmable Logic Controllers, W Bolton, Elsevier Publications. 7. Industrial Electronics, Thomas E. Kissel, Prentice Hall India.
Microprocessor and Assembly Language
Credits: 03 (45 Lectures)
Microprocessors: Evaluation of Microprocessors, register and accumulator based microprocessor, Microprocessor as the CPU of microcomputers, Introduction to the Intel family of microprocessors, General Purpose and single chip microprocessors, Bit slice microprocessor. 8086 Microprocessor: Internal organization of 8086 microprocessor, Machine cycle, Instruction execution and user accessible registers of 8086, 8086 stack, Subroutine, Interrupts and interrupt service routines, 8086 addressing modes, Memory management techniques. Advanced Microprocessors: Overview, internal architecture and memory management of 80186, 80286, 80386, and 80486. Overview of Pentium processor, co-processor, Alpha processor, and pipeline processor. Assembly Language: Introduction to IBM PC assembly language, the Processor status and the FLAGS registers, Instruction formats; Assembly instruction types: Data transfer instruction, Arithmetic and Logic
instruction, shift and rotate instruction, Transfer control and conditional processing, String processing, Input/Output, Interrupts, Procedures and macro; Stack, Virtual memory management, Cache memory management, Exception handler. Microcontrollers: What is microcontroller, Comparison between microcontroller and microprocessor, Microcontroller of different manufacturers, Classification of microcontrollers according to their capacity; PIC16F84, Block diagram, Architecture, Memory organization, Special purpose registers, I/O ports, Instruction set of PIC16F84, Programming, Simulation using MPLAB, Microcontrollers with internal ADC and DAC, Some practical examples.
1. Microprocessor and microprocessor based system design by M. Rafiquzzaman. 2. The 8088 and 8086 microprocessors by W. A. Triebel. 3. Introduction to Microprocessors by John Crisp. 4. INTEL Microprocessors 8086/8088, 80186/80188, 80286, 80386, 80486, Pentium, Prentium ProProcessor, Pentium II, III, 4 by Barry B. Brey 5. The Art of Assembly Language by Randall Hyde. 6. Microprocessor and Interfacing by DV Hall. 7. Assembly Language for Intel Based Computers by Kip Irvine. 8. IBM PC assembly Language Programming by P Abel.
9. Assembly Language Step By Step by J Duntemann. APECE-309 Computer Organization and Architecture Credits: 03 (45 Lectures)
The Computer System: Organization, structure, and functions, System buses, interconnection structures (Bus structure and bus types). The Memory System: Memory system overview, Internal and external memory, Memory chip organization and error correction, Cache memory and its mapping functions, Virtual memory management, Memory storage devices Input/Output: I/O devices, I/O modules, programmed and interrupt-driven I/O, direct memory access (DMA). CPU/ALU: Integer and floating point arithmetic, Signed operand multiplication, Fast multipliers, Instruction sets, Types of operands, Addressing modes, CPU structure and functions, Process organization, Register organization, Instruction cycle, Instruction pipelining; Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU), Bit Sliced ALU. Control Unit: Micro-operations, Hardwired control unit, Control unit operation, Micro-instruction sequencing and execution, Grouping of signals, Micro-programmed control unit, Microprogram sequencing. High Performance Computer Systems: Techniques to achieve high performance, RISC, CISC, introduction to superscalar processor, parallel processor, array processor, multi-programming, Vector processing, Fault tolerant computing, High performance scientific computing. Recommended books: 1. Computer Organization and Architecture, 6th edition, by William Stallings. 2. Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach by John Hennessey. 3. Computer Organization and Architecture: Designing for Performance (7th Edition) by William Stallings 4. The Essentials of Computer Organization And Architecture by Linda Null and Julia Lobur 5. Computer Organization by Carl Hamacher, Zvonko Vranesic, and Safwat Zaky 6. Schaum's Outline of Computer Architecture by Nick Carter.
Renewable Energy Technology
3 Credits (45 Lectures)
Instruments: Radiation characteristics of materials: Absorptance, Emittance, Reflectance and Selective Surfaces, Modes of heat transfer. Solar Collectors: Flat plate collectors, Concentrating collectors, Solar distillation, Solar energy systems for process heating, Solar Thermal Power generation and Solar refrigeration, Solar thermal system optimization and performance study, Solar thermal modeling. Solar Photovoltaic Energy Conversion: Solar cell fundamental, Basic principle, Types of solar cells, P-N junction as photovoltaic cell, Heterojunction, Schottky barrier junction, Fabrication of solar cell, Effect of environment on solar cells, (effect of irradiance once, and effect of temperature), Effect of shading, Thin film solar cell, Multiple sun solar cells, Fabrication of photovoltaic modules and panels, Dimension of cells, Packing efficiency of cells in modules, Characterization of cells and modules, Organic and polymer matrix for the fabrication of solar cell, Nanostructure Solar cell Power Conditioning of Photovoltaic System: Batteries, Battery charge controllers. Inverters, Maximum power point trackers (MPPT). Different types of PV system: Stand-alone PV system. Grid-interconnection PV system and Hybrid system, Design of PV system, Stand alone PV system sizing. Other Non-conventional Energy Options: Wind, Geothermal, OTEC, Wave energy, Biomass, MHD, Chemical energy, Fuel cell, Nuclear fusion. Reference Books : 1. Solar Engineering of Thermal Processor, Duffie. 2. Applied solar energy an Introduction, A.B. Bienet. 3. Review of Renewable Energy Resources, M.S. Soda, S.S. Mather, M.A.S. Malik 4. Physics of Solar cells: From Principles to New Concepts, Peter Wurfel, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. Germany. 5. Martin Green..
8 Credits (
1. To find the characteristics of JFET and hence design a single state amplifier (Vm curves, fvs Ax curve,
2. To find the characteristics of UJT and hence design a waveform generation circuit using UJT (VEB vs IE curves. Trace waveforms at Emitter and Base-1 (or Base-2). 3. Design, Construction and testing of a regulated power supply (Vm-Vo and Vo-Lo Curves, Find voltage regulation). 4. To study the characteristics and performance of a solar cell (I-V curve and Pmax) 5. Design, construction and testing of power control circuit using Triac and Diac (Trace Vi waveform by oscilloscope, and hence compare theoretical and experimental Pout). 6. Determination of minority carrier lifetime of semiconductor using a LED and a LDR. 7. Design, construction and testing of Colpitt’s and also a crystal oscillator using BJT (Find Av of CE amp, select fr, calculate L, C2, etc. for tank circuit. Then use this tank circuit, for colpitt’s oscillator. Replace tank circuit. With a crystal for crystal oscillator, trace oscillation waveform). 8. Design, construction and testing of a complementary symmetry power amplifier (First design a driver CE amp, with 2 resistors at collector. Find Av of this driver stage and then add power stage). 9. Design, construction and testing of a pulse width modulator for efficient inverter.
10. Design construction and testing of an amplitude modulator and demodulator circuit (Design a tuned CE amp. And find resonant fr- use this as carrier signal modulating signal will be about fr/10 trace AM waveform. Find mod index). Phase – 2 11. To study the following characteristics of an op-amp – (a) Offset voltage, (b) Slew rate, (c) CMRR (Common mode rejection ratio, (d) gain-band width product of an inverting (non-inverting) amplifier. 12. Design, construction and testing of the following circuits using op-amp. 13. Design, construction and testing of a low pass, high pass and bond elimination active filter using op-amp (Plot f vs Av. Find f and f cutoff ). 14. Design, construction and testing of an astable, monostable and bistable multivibrations using BJT. 15. Design, construction and testing of an astable, monostable and bistable multivibrations using op-amp and also design a voltage control oscillator (VCO) using 555 TC. 16. Design, construction and testing of a (a) code converter (Decimal to BCD), and (b) BCD to Decimal. 17. Design, construction and testing of a ring, ripple and a decade counter using JK, FFs. Also design a module N counter using 7493 Binary counter. 18. To study the characteristics of an IC MUX realization of combinational circuits (Adder, Subtracter) using IC MUX and reneration of complex waveform. 19. Use of 24138 decoder as a demultiplexer. Realization of 1-16 line demultiplexer and combinational circuits using 74138. 20. Data communication using 8255 PPI. 21 Write a program in C to demonstrate inserting & delection of substring from string text. 22. Write a program to insert and delete data elements from an array of N elements using Queue & stack. 23. Write a program to insert and delete nodes from a linear array using Linked list. 24. Write a program to insert and delete elements from B tree. 25. There will be various other programming in C in order to implement some data structures. Reference: 1. Practical Applied Physics and Electronics, Dr. Md. Sekul Islam, Pub: Dhaka University, 1989. 2. Algorithms in C, Robert Sedgewick. Addison-Wesley, 2000.
Optical Fiber Communication
3 Credits (45 Lectures)
Introduction: Optical fibers; Structure, Step-index and graded-index fibers, Modes of propagation, modal theory for circular waveguide, Modal equations, Waveguide equations, Power flow in optical fibers, Signal degradation in optical fibers, Fiber attenuation, Distortion in optical guides, Dispersions, Mode coupling. Optical Sources and Detectors: Light emitting diode (LED) and semiconductor laser diode (SLD), Structures, Modulation capability, Transient response, Power bandwidth product, Modal noise, Temperature Effects and reliability; p-i-n and avalanche photodetectors, Structures, Principles of operations. Optical modulation and detection schemes, Direct and coherent detection receivers: configuration, operation, noise sources, sensitivity calculation, performance curves, Optical Amplifiers, Design of analog and digital receivers. Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM), Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) and Optical frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission schemes. Optical data coding, links, power budget. Optical data buses, optical networks, Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) and Synchronous Optical Network (SONET)/SDH. Reference Books:
1. Optical Fiber Communications, Principles and Practice (2nd edition), John M. Senior. 2. Fiber-Optic Communications Technology, Djafar K Maenbaev.
Microwave and Satellite Communication
3 Credits (45 Lectures)
Microwave generation: Klystrons, Reflex Klystrons, Magnetrons and other devices, Microwave tubes, Microwave components, Microwave measurements, power, frequency, wavelength, microwave transmission media, Anisotropy media, impedance, Hollow, surface wave, dielectric waveguide, waves on a transmission line, standing wave ration, quarter wave transformers. Micro-strip lines: wave propagation and micro-strip lines, dielectric constants, characteristic impedance, attenuation factors. Microwave Circuit Design: Low frequency parameters, s-, y-, z-, h-parameter, ABCD parameters, transmission matrix, passive circuit design, the Smith Chart, mixer design, microwave control circuit design, wireless microwave systems, noise in microwave circuits, Microwave IC, HMICs, MMICs. Microwave Engineering for wireless system: Microwave networks, Active networks, Design of matching networks, Noise, Microwave link, Rectifier and Detector Design, Frequency and Modulation Techniques, Transmitting and Receiving Equipment. Satellite Communication: Introduction, Orbits, station keeping, satellite altitude, transmission path, path loss, noise consideration, satellite system, saturation flux density, effective isotropic radiated power, multiple access methods, earth station antenna, satellite link design, frequency plan, satellite communication for Internet, VSAT network, One-way, two-way and open-sky satellite communication, GNSS-GPS and Galioleo systems and GIS, Satellite Navigation, DBS-TV. Radar: Basic principles, Radar equation, factors influencing maximum range, effect of noise, power and frequencies used in Radar, types of Radar, Basic pulsed Radar system, Modulators, receivers, Bandwidth requirements, factors governing pulse characteristics, Duplexer, moving target indicator (MTI), tracking Radar systems and search systems. Reference Books: 1. Radio Frequency and Microwave Electronics, Mathew M. Radmanesh, Pearson Education. 2. Electromagnetic waves and radiating systems, Zedan and Balmani. 3. Foundations for Microwave Engineering, R. E. Collin, McGraw Hill. 4. Microwave devices and Circuits, S. Y. Lao. 5. Satellite Communication, Robert M Gagliardi 6. Satellite Communications, Timothy Pratt, Charles W. Bostian 7. Principle of Radar communication, Grolsky.
Data Communication and Computer Network
3 Credits (45 Lectures)
Data Communication Networking: Data communication model, Network topologies, Protocol layer architecture, OSI reference architecture, TCP/IP reference architecture, Local area network (LAN), metropolitan area network (MAN) and wide area network (WAN), Circuit switching versus packet switching, Datagram and virtual circuits, LAN, MAN and WAN standards, Network Interconnections – bridges, hubs, switches, routers and gateways.
Physical Layer and Media: Analog and digital data transmission, Spectrum and bandwidth, Data rate and channel capacity, Transmission impairments; Twisted-pair, Co-axial and Fiber-optic cable, Wireless media; Multiplexing – Frequency division multiplexing, International FDR carrier standards, Synchronous time division multiplexing (TDM) and international TDR carrier standards, Statistical TDM and wavelength division multiplexing; Digital data, digital signals: Signal encoding schemes – NRZ, NRZ-L, NRZI, BipolarAMI and pseudoternary, Manchester and differential Manchester, B8ZS, HDB3, etc. Data Link Layer: Asynchronous and synchronous transmission, Flow control and error control, Data link layer protocols – Stop-and-wait flow control, Sliding window flow control, Stop-and-wait ARQ, Go back N ARQ, selective repeat ARQ; Error detection and error correction, HDLC, PPP; Medium Access Control (MAC) Sublayer: Multiple access protocols – ALOHA, CSMA, CSMA/CD, Binary exponential backoff algorithm, MACA; IEEE802.2 LLC. Network standards: IEEE 802.3 (Ethernet) specifications, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, 10 Gigabit Ethernet; IEEE802.11 (WiFi) protocol architecture, Physical layer, MAC sublayer; IEEE 802.16 (WiMAX) Standard; Frame relay, ATM. Network Layer: Network layer design issues – Store and forward packet switching, Implementation of connectionless service, Implementation of connection-oriented service; Routing algorithms – The optimality principle, Shortest path routing, Flooding, Distance vector routing, Link state routing, Broadcast and multicast routing, Routing in ad-hoc networks; Congestion control, QoS; Network layer in the Internet – the Internet Protocol (IP), IP address, IPv4, IPv6, Mobile IP, Internet control protocols – ICMP, ARP, RARP, DHCP; OSPF, BGP. Transport Layer: The transport service, UDP, TCP, TCP congestion control. Network Security: Introduction to network security, Encryption – DES, AES, Public key encryption and digital signatures, IP security, Authentication protocols. Recommended Books: 1. Data and Computer Communications by W. Stalling, Macmillan, 1997 2. Computer Networks by A.S. Tanenbaum, Prentice Hall 3. Data Communications and Networking by Behrouz A. Forouzan.
Digital Signal Processing
3 Credits (45 Lectures)
Introduction: Signals, Systems and Signal Processing, Classification of Signals, Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog Conversion. Discrete Time Signals and Systems: Discrete Time Signals, Discrete Time Systems, Analysis of Discrete Time Linear Time-Invariant Systems, Discrete Time Systems Described by Difference Equations, Correlation of Discrete-Time Signals The Z-Transform: The z-transform, properties of z-Transform, Rational z-Transform, Inversion of ztransform, One-sided z-transform, Analysis of Linear Time-Invariant Systems in the z-Domain. Frequency Analysis of Signals and Systems: Frequency Analysis of Discrete-Time Signals, Properties of the Fourier Transform for Discrete Time Signals, Frequency Domain Characteristics of Linear Time Invariant Systems. Discrete Fourier Transform: Frequency Domain Sampling: The Discrete Fourier Transform, Properties of the DFT, Frequency Analysis of Signals Using DFT Fast Fourier Transform: FFT Algorithms, Application of FFT Algorithms, Quantization Effects in the Computation of the DFT Digital Filter Design: Structures of FIR and IIR Filters, Design of FIR filters using: windows method, Frequency Sampling Method, Chebyshev Approximation Method, Design of IIR Filters: Impulse Variance, Bilinear Transform, Approximation of Derivatives. Reference Books:
1. Digital Signal Processing – Principles, Algorithms and Applications, JG Proakis and DG Manolakis. 2. Digital Signal Processing, Ifeachor and Jervis. 3. Digital Signal Processing, Thomas J Cavicchi. 4. Adaptive Filters, Simon Haykin.
Scientific, Industrial and Biomedical Instrumentation
3 Credits (45 Lectures)
Instrument Classification & Characteristics: Instrument classification, Standards, Static Characteristics of Instruments, Dynamic Characteristics of Instruments, Calibration, Choice of Instruments. Measurement system errors: Introduction, Systemic errors, Random errors, Total measurement of system errors. Instrument Calibration: Introduction, Process instrument calibration, Standards laboratories, Validation of standards laboratories, primary reference standards, trace ability, Documentation un the work place. Instrumentation and measurements: Significance and methods of measurements, direct and indirect method, and standard Types of Instruments. Transducers : Active and passive type, application realms of transducer Analog Voltmeters: RMS and quasi-responding voltmeters. Average responding voltmeters, Amplifier driven type, D'Arsonvel types, Direct compile type, chopper type, Potentiometric type, Accuracy and error of analog Voltmeters. Analog Ammeters: Different types of ammeters, Accuracy and error of analog ammeters. Digital voltmeters: Stair-case ramp type, Successive approximation type, Integrating type, Dual slope integrating type, Delta pulse modulation type. Oscilloscopes: Single beam, Dual beam, Sampling, and storage types, Conversion of single beam to multi beam oscilloscope. Oscilloscope measurements – Digital signal measurement, FFT measurement, Basic time domain reflectometry. Signal generators: Sine wave sources , Imperfection in sine wave sources – Frequency accuracy, frequency stability, Amplitude accuracy, Distortion, Spurious responses, Close-in sidebands Sweep frequency generators, Function generators, Pulse generators, RF Signal generators, Frequency synthesizer. Analyzers: Wave analyzer, Spectrum analyzer: Bank of filters spectrum Analyzers, FFT spectrum Analyzers, Swept spectrum Analyzers, Network analyzers, Distortion Analyzers, RF power measurement, RF power meter. Analytical instruments: pH meter, Thermal conductivity meters, Gas chromatography, Spectrophotometers and Mass Spectrophotometers. Medical instruments: ECG, EEG, EMG, Blood-dialysis machine, Endoscopy, Blood sugar meter, Blood pressure meter, Analog and digital Pace makers. Imaging system: X-ray, CT scan, Ultrasonic imaging system, Magnetic imaging system. Industrial Instruments: Measurement and control of temperature, pressure, flow, strain, acceleration, Vibration, Liquid level and humidity. Data Acquisition: Data loggers, Data acquisition and control, PC-based instrumentation, Grounding of instrumentation. Geographical Prospecting and Remote Sensing: Seismic reflection & refraction method, Electrical, Magnetic, & Gravity methods, Instrumentation for remote sensing & SAR. Reference Books: 1. Instrumentation Measurements ajut Feedbu, ti. B.E. Jones. 2. Electronic Instrumentation and Heasttrem.'n; Techniques, W.D. Copper, 3. Instrumentation Technology, B.B. Jones, Butterworths. 4. Elements of Electronic Instrumentation & Measurements, Joseph J. Carr.
Semiconductor and VLSI Technology
3 Credits (45 Lectures)
Physics of Semiconductor: Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductor, Compound Hetrosturcture Semiconductors, Group III-V, III-nitride and II-V semiconductors, Band gap Engineering. Vacuum Science and Plasma: Production of Vacuum, Pressure ranges and Vacuum Pumps: Ion Pump, Oil Free Pump, Turbo Molecular Pump, Vacuum Seals and Pressure Measurements, The DC Glow Discharge and RF Discharge, High-Density Plasma, Crystal Growth Technology: Phase Diagram and Solid Solubility, Metallurgical Grade and Electronic Grade of Growth, Purification of Grown Crystals, Czhorkralski method, Wafer Preparation and Specifications, Shaping of Wafers, Solution growth, sol gel method, traveling heater method, zone processes: Zone refining and zone leveling, polysilicon and amorphous silicon deposition. Epitaxial growth: Epitaxy, Gas Kinetics, Vapor Phase Epitaxy, Molecular Beam Epitaxy, Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition, Organo Metallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy, HVPE, Gas Source MBE and Chemical Beam Epitaxy, Atomic Layer Deposition. Clean Room: Clean room technology and contamination control, impurities control, Classification of Clean Room, Design Strategy and construction of Clean Room. Wafer Fabrication Technology: Preparation of Wafers: Scribing, Chemical Mechanical Polishing, Cleaning and Inspection of Wafers. Hot Processing and Ion Implantation: Diffusion: Interstitial and substitutional diffusion, Diffusion in a concentration gradient, Fick’s 1 Dimensional Diffusion Equation, Diffusion Coefficients and Dopant Materials, Control of Impurities, Formation of p-n junction in transistors by diffusion process for Impurities, Solid-source and liquidsource diffusion system. Passivation for Dielectrics: Thermal Oxidation and Nitridation, Polysilicon Rapid Thermal Processing: Rapid thermal Activation of Impurities, Rapid Thermal Processing of Dielectrics, Rapid Thermal Annealing Process, Silicidation and Formation of Contacts. Ion Implantation: Idealized Ion Implantation System, Formation of Shallow Junction Buried Dielectrics, Pattern Transfer: Basic Patterning, Fabrication of Optical Masks, Concepts on Mask, Optical Lithography, Photolithography, Types of Photoresists, Photoresist Materials, Non-optical Lithography: Direct Write Electron Beam Lithography, Projection X-ray Lithography, Projection Electron Beam Lithography, E-beam and X-ray resists, Membrane Masks, Radiation Damage in MOS Devices. Etching: Wet Etching, Dry etching: Plasma Etching, Reactive Ion Etching, High-density Plasma Etching, Lift-off techniques, Stripping of Resist Materials, Control and Measurement of Etch Profiles: Profilometers and Scanning Electron Microscopic Measurements for Etched profiles. Thin Films: Physical Deposition: Evaporation and Sputtering: Physics of Sputtering, High-Density Plasma Sputtering, Sputtering Methods, Stress in Deposited layers, Thermal Vacuum Deposition, Electron Beam Deposition, and Deposition for Metallization. Chemical Vapor Deposition: Simple CVD System and Deposition of Silicon and Oxide layers, Chemical Equilibrium and the Law of mass Action, Low Pressure CVD, Plasma Assisted- and Plasma Enhanced-CVD and Metal CVD. Process Integration: Device isolation, Contacts and Metallization: Junction and Oxide Isolation, LOCOS methods, Trench isolation, Silicon on Insulator Isolation Techniques, SOS, SIMOX, Schottky Contacts, Ohmic Contacts, Alloyed Contacts, Metallization, Formation of Contact Layers, Multilevel Metallization, Planarization and Advanced Interconnects. Assembly and Encapsulation:
Bonding and Packaging: Die Bonding, Wire Bonding, Wedge Bonding, Packaging Processes: Package/Bare Die Strategy, Package Design, and Encapsulation. Process and Device Evaluation: Wafer Electrical measurement, Physical measurement methods, Layer thickness measurement, General Surface Characterization, Device Electrical Measurement. Organic Semiconductors: Introduction to Organic Semiconductor, Application of Organic Semiconductor in the Fabrication of Devices, Room Temperature Solution Growth and Synthesis for Organic Semiconductor, Nanofabrication Technology: Introduction to nanofabrication VLSI Technology: Introduction to CMOS Logic, The Complementary CMOS Inverter – DC Characteristics, Basic CMOS Technology : Basic Long-channel device Behaviors, The Basic 3-micron technology, Device Scaling, Latchup, A basic n-well CMOS Process, The p-well Process, Twin Tub Process, Silicon on Insulator, Layout Design Rules, CMOS n-well Rules, Layer Assignments, SOI Rules, CMOS Logic Gate Design, Typical CMOS NAND and NOR Delays, Transistor Sizing, CMOS testing, Manufacturing test Principles, Design Strategy for Test, Chip-level test techniques, System-Level Test techniques, Fabrication of IC, PIC and OEIC, Process Integration : Bipolar IC, MOS, NMOS and CMOS Technology. Manufacturing of Integrated Circuits: Management of IC Fabrication House, Economic aspects of fabrication industry, Yield Prediction and Yield Tracking, Yield Measurement Points, Accumulative WaferFabrication yield, Mechanism of Yield Loss in VLSI, Assembly, Modeling of Yield Loss, Reliability Requirement of for VLSI, Failure Distribution and rates, Final Test yield, Scaling and limits to miniaturization, speed-power product, Wafer Fabrication Costs, Factory-level Automation, Statistical Process Control, Inventory and Quality Control, ISO 9000 Certification, Line Organization. Reference Books: 1. The Science and Engineering of Microelectronic Fabrication, Stephen A. Campbell, Oxford University Press, 2001. 2. Fabrication Engineering at Micro and nano Scale, Stephen A. Campbell, Oxford University Press, 2007. 3. Quirk and Serda, 4. Microchip Fabrication: A Practical Guide to Semiconductor Processing, Peter Van Zant, McGraw Hill, 5. VLSI Technology, SM Sze, McGraw Hill. 6. VLSI fabrication Principles: Silicon and Gallium Arsenide, Sorab K Gandhi, A Wiley Interscience Publication John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 7. Integrated Circuit Fabrication Technology, David J Elliott. 8. Gallium Arsenide Processing Technique, R.E. Williams. 9. Metal Semiconductor Contacts, E.H. Rhoderick and R.H. Williams. 10. VLSI Handbook, Einspruch, N.J., McGraw Hill. 11. Silicon Processing. for VLSI era, Wolf & Touber. 12. Principles of CMOS Technology: A Systems Perspective, Neil H E Weste and Kamran Eshraghian, Pearson Education (Singapore) Pte Limited. 13. The Growth of Crystal for the Melt, I C Brice. 14. Stringfellow, OMVPE Growth.
3 Credits (45 Lectures)
Introduction: Introduction to control systems, Definitions and Mathematical background. Writing System Equations: State concepts, Transfer function and block diagram, Mechanical translation systems, Mechanical rotational systems.
Solution of Differential Equations: Standard inputs to Control systems, Steady-state response and transient response. Laplace Transform: Definition, Laplace transform theorems, Application of the Laplace transforms to differential equations, Inverse transformation, Heaviside partial-fraction expansion theorems. System Representation: Block diagrams, Determination of the over I transfer junction, Standard block diagram I A terminology, Simulation digamms, Signal flow graphs. Control System Characteristics: Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion, Feedback system types, Analysis of system. types, Steady-Mate error coefficients, Non unity-feedback system. Root Locus: Plotting roots of a characteristics equation, Qualitative analysis of the root locus, Op-M-loop transfer function, Poles of the control ratio, Applications Of the magnitude and angle condition. Frequency Response: Correlation of the sinusoidal. and time responses, Frequency response curves, Bude plots (Logarithmic plots), Geiser ;1frequency transfer function relationship, Nyquist’s criterion, definitions of phase margin and their relation to stability. Root Locus compensation Design: Introduction to design, transient response dominant complex poles, additional significant poles, ideal integral cascade compensation (PI controller), Ideal derivative cascade compensation (FD controller), FID controller, Introduction to feedback compensation. Introduction Digital Control systems: Introduction, sampling, ideal sampling z-transform theorems, synthesis in the z-domain (direct method), the inverse z-transform, zero-order hold, analog controller design, basics of digital control, representation of digital control systems in s-plane and z-plane, interpretation of polezero maps in z-plane, frequency-folding effects, digital design by emulation Reference Books: 1. Linear Control System and Design, John J D Azzo and Constantine, 4th Edition. 2. Control Engineering. C.C. Bissel, 2nd Tuition, 1904, Publisher ; Chapman & Hall. 3. Modern Control Systems, R.C. Dorf, 9th Edition, Publisher ; Addition Wesley. 4. Automatic Control systems, Kuo, EEE. 5. Control System, Kevin Warwick.
3 Credits (45 Lectures)
Spectral Analysis: Fourier Series, The Sampling Function, Response of a Linear System, Normalized Power, Normalized Power in a Fourier Expansion, Power Spectral Density, The Fourier Transform, Convolution, Parseval’s Theorem, Correlation between Waveforms, Autocorrelation. Random Variables and Processes: Probability, Cumulative distribution function, Probability Density Function, Tchebycheff’s Inequality, The Gaussian Probability Density, The Error Function, The Rayleigh Probability Density, Correlation between random variables, the central-limitTheorem, Random Processes, Autocorrelation, Power Spectral Density of a Sequence of Random Pulses, Power Spectral Density of Digital Data, Effect of rudimentary filters of digital data, the complimentary error function. Mathematical Representation of Noise: Some sources of noise, a frequency-domain representation of noise, spectral components of noise, response of a narrowband filter to noise, effect of a filter on the power spectral density of noise, superposition of noises, mixing involving noise, linear filtering, noise bandwidth, quadrate components of noise, power spectral density of nc(t) and ns(t), Probability density of nc(t) ,ns(t) and their time derivatives. Information theory: Discrete message, the concept of amount of information, average information, Entropy, Information rate, coding to increase average information per bit, shannon’s theorem, channel capacity, capacity of a Gaussian channel, bandwidth-S/N tradeoff, use of orthogonal signals to attain Shannon’s limit, efficiency of orthogonal signal transmission Communication System and Noise Calculations: Resistor noise, multiple resistor noise sources, networks with reactive elements, an example, available power, noise temperature, two ports, noise bandwidth, effective
input-noise temperature, noise figure, noise figure and equivalent noise temperature of a cascade, an example of a receiving system, antennas, system calculation. Reference Books: 1. Principles of Communication Systems Author: Herbert Taub & Donald L. Schilling Publisher: McGraw-Hill Book Company
Computer Peripherals and Interfacing 3 Credits (45 Lectures)
Peripherals: Keyboard: Keyboard function, & Keyboard display controller. Printer: Types of Printer-, (.dot matrix, Laser inkjet,. etc.), Censorings interface, programming sequence, Hardware overview, I/O configurations, and subsystem, Printer mechanism, new generation printer controller. Hard Disk Drive (HDD): Overview of HDD organization, Disk drive types & interfacing, HDD commands & Command block-, Controller design, Types of HDD. Universal Disk controller. 9224, HDD board layout. FDD: Overview of FDD organization, FDD system interface, Disk drive types & interfacing, FDD commands, Types of FDD, FDD interfacing Circuit, FDD 9216B. CD ROM/CD Writer: Types of CD, Photo CD players, CD, DVD, Recording process of CD, Physical Characteristics of CD. Display Adapter: Color Monitors, CRT Interfacing, Video process Logic, Motorola 6845 CRT controller. MDA Design organization, CGA, HGA, EGA, VGA, AGF, Display adapter device interfacing. Others: Sensors, transducers and signal conditioning-circuits, interfacing memory and I/O devices, Some special purpose interface cards, stepper motor.-, and peripheral devices. Special Peripherals : Plotter, Light Pen, Joystick-. Digitizer T or Graphic Tablet, Mouse, Scanner, Sound System. Interfacing : Modern Serial & Parallel interfacing, RS232, IEEE-488. TSA & PCI buses, 8255 UART. Peripheral worlds, sensor, transducers and signal conditioning circuit, Interfacing memory and I/O, optical interfacing, study and applications of peripheral chips including 8212, 8155, 8251, 8279, 8237. Reference Books: 1. IBM PC & Clones : Hardware, Troubleshooting & mainance, G. Govindarajahre. 2. Microcomputer Systems : Architecture, programming & Design, Yu Chong LILT,Glenn A Gilson 3. Interfacing to the IBM Personal Computer, Lewis C. Eggebrech, 2nd Edition, SAMS. 4. Microprocessor: Applications & softivare, Gaoakar. 5. Computer Peripherals, Barry Wilk-:nson,
Mobile Cellular Communication
Credits: 03 (45 Lectures)
Evolution and concept of Mobile Radio Communication, Concept of Cellular Mobile System, Generations of Cellular Mobile Systems, Specifications of Analog Cellular systems. Cellular Mobile System Fundamentals: Frequency reuse and frequency planning, Co-channel interference, Hand off, Traffic intensity, Grade of Service (GOS), Capacity calculation, Trunking efficiency, Cell splitting. Mobile radio propagation: Propagation characteristics, Multipath propagation, Multipath fading, Delay spread, Doppler shift, Models for radio propagation. Frequency Management and Channel Assignment: Fundamentals, spectrum utilization, fundamentals of channel assignment, fixed channel assignment, non-fixed channel assignment, traffic and channel assignment, Sectorization.
Handoffs and Dropped Calls: Reasons and types, forced handoffs, mobile assisted handoffs and dropped call rate. Diversity Techniques: Concept of diversity branch and signal paths, carrier to noise and carrier to interference ratio performance. Digital Cellular Systems: Concept of TDMA and CDMA; IS-54/136 (NA-TDMA); GSM – GSM system architecture, Protocol layers, GSM air interface specification, IS-95; Mobile Cellular Data Networks: GPRS/EDGE, IMT-2000, UMTS, HSDPA/HSUPA. Recommended Books: 1. Mobile Cellular Telecommunications – Analog and Digital Systems by William C.Y. Lee. 2. Cellular Mobile System Engineering by Saleh Faruque. 3. Wireless Digital Communication by Kamilo Feher. 4. Telecommunications Engineering by J. Dunlop and D.G. Smith.
6 Credits (
1. Application of MUX and DEMUX. a) Design a multiplexed 7-segment display unit b) Complex waveform generation c) Serial to parallel data transfer. 2. Determination of voltage standing wave ratio for microwave. 3. Design, implementation and study of a flash type A/D converter. 4. Design, implementation and study of a ladder type D/A converter. 5. Study of PLL IC: Modulation and Demodulation, Frequency synthesis, Lock range, λ aperture range & FSK. 6. Study of characteristics of different transducers: thermocouple, thermistor LM35D2. 7. Design and implementation of CPU using ALUIC,. 8. Design and implementation of an ALU system using Arithmetic and logic Modules. 9. Design and implementation of different interfacing circuits using 8088-based trainer. a) Data transmission and reception, b) LED matrix and character generation. 10. Design and implementation of different interfacing circuits using 8088-based trainer: a) Pulse detecting and display. b) D/A converter. 11. Design, construction and analysis of a stepper motor driving system. 12. Design and implementation of systems using programmable microcontroller. 13. Design and implementation of Local area network (LAN). SOFTWARE (C/C++ PROGRAMMING) 1. Write a program to design and astable multibrator using 555/IC) discrete components (2-transistor circuit). 2. Write a program to design a single stage common emitter amplifier using discrete components. Numerical Analysis: 1. Interpolation, extrapolation.
2. Numerical solution of algebraic equation (Newton-Graphs on method Secant method, etc.) 3. Numerical solution of differential equation (various methods). 4. Numerical solution of partial differential equation. 5. Numerical intergration and differentiation. 6. Monte Carlo Calculation. 7. Prime number detection. 8. Random number generation. Basic Data Structure & Algorithm: 1. Implementation of stack using linked list. 2. Implementation of queue using linked list. 3. Merge sort technique & Quick sort technique. 4. Traversing a graph. 5. Dynamic Programming : Implementation of Optimal Binary search tree. 6. Huffman’s algorithm implementation. 7. PCB – Minimum cost spanning trees. 8. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) etc. Assembly Language Programming 1. Write a program to read a character, and if it’s an uppercase letter, display it/to convert lowercase letter to uppercase. 2. Write a program to read a character, if it’s `y’ or `A’ display it, otherwise terminate the program. 3. Write a program to display a message by using MACRO/to display any ten decimal numbers. 4. Write a program to sum of 4 different numbers/to search add or even number. 5. Write a program to display any string in reverse order/to determine the length of any string. 6. Write a program to calculate largest number from N numbers/to sort 10 numbers in ascending order. 7. Write a program to display any 10 decimal numbers and its corresponding ASCII character etc.
1. This four credits course consist of two parts, first one is a close work (i.e., complete simulation and/or experimental work) (2 credits) supervised by a teacher of the department and second one is viva-voce (2 credits). 2. A project report to be evaluated has to be submitted to examination committee. Submitted project report will be evaluated based on two-examiners (from the same department) system. ---0---