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DC5 Chopper I DC6 Chopper I-II DC7 Chopper I-II-III-IV Table 1: SimPowerSystem DC Motor Models Power Source The

mean output voltage of a three-phase thyristor rectifier bridge is given by = (3 2. ,/ ) . cos (1) where, Vl,rms is the phase-to-phase rms voltage value of the three-phase voltage source

Where,

m is the speed in rad/s


N is the speed in rpm According to the documentation of DC3 motor (right click to the block>help), the nominal speed Nm,n is 1750 rpm and the nominal mechanical output power Pm,n is 200hp. Thus, referring to equation (6),the value K can be calculated using equation (7). , = , , = ( ,30) (7) Where, m,n is the nominal speed in rad/s Simulating in Average-Value Mode In average-value mode simulation, the Universal Bridge blocks used to simulate the power converters to drive the motors are replaced by average-value converter. By this mode, simulation time step can be increased and increase the simulation speed. Details regarding this mode are described in the reference pages of each drive model.

is the firing angle value of the thyristors


In DC3 motor model, 20 lower firing angle limit is used. , =( 3 2. ,/ ) . cos (2) From equation (3), thus the phase-to-phase rms voltage value needed for motoring 200hp at its nominal speed with 500V maximum mean output voltage value is 370 V. For that reason, 460 V 60Hz is used by assuming the drive is connected to an American standard network. (Note: 240V 50Hz for domestic and 41V 50Hz for industrial usage are the standard applied in Malaysia) Specifying correct source of resistance R and inductance L values are important to represent a real-life three-phase source. For that reason, Psc and X/R ratio (r) is used. The short-circuit power absorbed by the source impedance is supposed to be at least 20 times bigger that the nominal power of drive, and the X/R ratio is usually close to 10 for industrial plants. Suppose that the Psc is 25 times the nominal drive power and r is 10. Thus, from equation = 2/ = / = / (3) (4) (5)

Introduction
DC Motor Drives The DC drive is relatively simple and cheap (compared to induction motor drives). But DC motor itself is more expensive. Due to the numerous disadvantages of DC motor(esp. maintenance), it is getting less popular, particularly in high power applications. For low power applications the cost of DC motor plus drives is still economical. For servo application, DC drives is still popular because of good dynamic response and ease of control. Future Trend? Not so bright prospect for DC, esp. In high power drives. Advantages of DC motor: Ease of control Deliver high starting torque Near-linear performance Disadvantages: High maintenance Large and expensive (compared to induction motor) Not suitable for high-speed operation due to commutator and brushes Not suitable in explosive or very clean environment

Considering Quadrant IIs operationthat is the value so of the load torque and the speed has opposite signs (braking), the acceleration torque should be the sum of the electromagnetic and load torque.

Typically, = . = . (6)

3. Add DC3 model (Two-Quadrant


Field and armature equations Instantaneous field current : Vf= Rf if + Lf (dif/ dt) Where Rf and Lf are the field resistor and inductor, respectively Instantaneous armature current : Va= Ra ia+ La (dia / dt) + eg Where Rf and Lf are the armature resistor and inductor, respectively. The motor back emf, which is also known as speed voltage, is expressed as : eg = kv if kv is the motor voltage constant (in V/A - rad/s) and is the motor speed (in rad/sec) Basic torque equation The torque develped by the motor is : Td= Kt if ia Where (kt= kv) is the torque constant (in V/A rad/s). Sometimes it is written as :

4. 5. 6.

7.

8.

Three-Phase Rectifier DC Drive) block inlab1_dc_motor Openthe Electrical Sources libraryand add 3-Phase Source block Connect voltage source output A, B, and C to the DC3 A, B, and C inputs, respectively. Double click the added Three-Phase Sourceblockset and set the Phase-tophase rms voltage (V) to 460Vand the Frequency to 60Hz Clear the Specify impedance using short-circuit level check box and set the AC source resistance value to inductance to 0.15mH Click Apply and OK to close the GUI

Part B: Connecting DC3 motor to mechanical load

1. Build the subsystem in Figure 2[Tips:


How to creating and masking subsystem?]

Figure 2: Linear load torque

2. Set the constant value of thegain block


Td=Kt ia For normal operation, the developed torque must be equal to the load torque plus the friction and inertia, i.e.: Td=J (d/ dt) + B TL Where B: viscous friction constant, (N.m/rad/s) TL: load torque (N.m) J: inertia of the motor (kg.m ) to 4.44create the subsystem and name it Linear load torque

3. Connect the input and output of the


Linear load torque block to Wm and Tm input of the DC3 block,respectively such illustrated in Figure 3

Methodology
Part A: Connecting DC3 motor to power source 1. Open a new window and save it as
lab1_dc_motor

2. Open the Simscape>


SimPowerSystems>Application Libraries>Electric Drives library>DC Drives Figure 3: Connecting with Mechanical Load

4. Open the Simulink Sources library and


copy a Constant block into lab1_dc_motor 5. Connect the Constant block to the set point input of the DC3 model and name it Speed reference 6. Set the set point to 1750 rpm.[The design should now look like Figure 3] Part C: Visualizing Output Signal 1. Since the DC3 output Motorcontains five (5) elements (such as shown in Figure 4), build the subsystem in Figure 5 and name it Signal Selector.[To view the content of the motor block, you can go to menu Edit>Look under mask]

Figure 7: Visualising the output signal Part D: Simulation Setting 1. Open the copy a Powergui block (from SimPowerSystems library) and intolab1_dc_motor. 2. Open the Powergui, click Configure Parameters 3. Set Simulation type to Discrete in thePowergui block parameters dialog box and the sample time to 5 s (the recommended value of 5 s are as stated in Remark of DC3 reference pages) 4. From the menu bar go to Simulation>Configuration Parametersdialog box. 5. For the solver option, select the fixedstep for the Type, Discrete (no continuous states)for the solver and setthe stop time to 12 seconds 6. Set DC3 parameters for high-power drive those of a 200hp drive by double click DC3 motor to open its GUI. 7. Click Load button and select the dc3_200hp_params.mat file in the parameter selection window and click Load 8. Since the drive is directly coupled to a load, the inertia value should be increase. Thus, in the DC Machinesection of the dialog box, change the inertia value to 15 kg*m^2 9. Change the speed ramp parameter of the speed controller tab to 200 rpm/s in the Controller tab [due to the change of inertia value according to equation (8)] = + + = + + (8) Where, term represents the viscous friction in the drive where B is the viscous friction coefficient.

Figure 4: Look under mask of DC3 output Motor 2. Copy two (2) scopes (Simulink> Sink) and a Multimeter block (SimPowerSystem>Measurement) and make connection 3. Open the Scope Parameters dialog box. On General tab, set the number of axes to 4, the simulation time range to auto and use a decimation of 20. On Data history tab, Clear the Limit Data Points to last check box. 4. Connect the four (4) outputs of the Signal Selector block to the inputs of the scope1 5. Connect the output of the Multimeter block to the input of the scope2. [The design should now look like Figure 7]

Part E: Start the Simulation

1. From the menu bar, go to


Simulation>Start

2. Now, the system parameter such as


proportional gain and integral gain can be manipulated to observe the response. However, the proportional gain of 80 and integral gain of 200 is the best 3. To run in Average-Value Mode, open the Powergui block. 4. Go to Configure Parameters, and set Simulation type to Discrete 5. Set the sample time to 100s and run the simulation

Result and Discussion

Conclusion
From this experiment we know what is DC motor, their application, advantage and disadvantage. We also know how to create DC motor driver modelling using simulink. At the end of the experiment we have successfully Simulate brushes DC motor speed control using simulink

Reference
1. http://encon.fke.utm.my/courses/see_5 433/dc_m.pdf 2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DC_motor