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The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi
B. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Kashmere Gate, New Delhi
Image Source: Author (2010), Chirag Delhi
B. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013
UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE AND PLANNING Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University
Kashmere Gate, Delhi
RESEARCH PAPER, 2012-13
THE HETEROTOPIC SPACE OF CHIRAG DELHI
A Study of an Urban Village
Fourth Year, 2012-2013
GUIDE Rekha Bhaskaran
The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi
B. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013
UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE AND PLANNING Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University
Kashmere Gate, Delhi
Research Paper title:
The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi: A Study of an Urban Village
The following study is held by approved as a creditable work on the approved subject, carried out and presented in a manner sufficiently satisfactory to warrant its acceptance as a pre-requisite to the degree for which it has been submitted. It is to be understood that by this approval, the undersigned does not necessarily endorse or approve any statement made, opinion expressed or conclusion drawn therein, but approves the study for the purpose of which it is submitted and which satisfies the requirements laid down by the Research Paper Committee. Date: January 2nd, 2013
Submitted by: Selina Abraham 00890701609 2012-2013
Guide: Rekha Bhaskaran
Research Paper Co-ordinators
The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi
B. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013
A lot of thought and work has gone into this dissertation and would have not been possible without the input of many persons and the availability of certain resources. The following have been instrumental in this dissertation: I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my guide Prof. Rekha Bhaskaran for her inputs and the discussions that we had have been quintessential for the development process. I would like also to thank Prof. Archana Gupta for many reasons, firstly for introducing the urban village of Chirag Delhi into my coursework and for introducing me to the works of Michel Foucault and Henri Lefebvre. Also for her constant encouragement and support without whom this dissertation would not have been possible. I would also like to thank Prof. Rajiv Bhakat for the wealth of information that he had to offer, his insight has been of great help. Discussions with him have been highly thought provoking and enlightening. In addition I would also like to thank my college USAP and the Prof-in-charge Rajat Ray for giving me the opportunity to undertake this research project. I would also like to thank Dr. Suptendu P. Biswas for his initial encouragement to continue the topic. I would also like to thank the residents of Chirag Delhi for their enthusiasm and their willingness to help my dissertation with their cooperation, this paper would not have been possible without them. Also, I would like to thank former Architecture students of TVB School of Habitat Studies, School of Planning and Architecture (New Delhi) and the London Metropolitan University whose work on Chirag Delhi and Urban Villages provided as a base for my study. The work done by the INTACH in this field has also been crucial as the base for this dissertation. I would also like to mention the coordinator Prof. Taniya Sanyal for her role in this studio. And most importantly I would like to thank my family and friends for their support and guidance.
The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi
B. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013
TABLE OF CONTENTS
APPROVAL ACKNOWLEGEMENT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES 1 ABSTRACT 2 INTRODUCTION 2.1 Overview 2.2 Research Questions 2.3 Background and Significance 2.4 Site Justification 2.5 Methodology 2.6 Limitations of Study 2.7 Preliminary Findings 3 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 3.1 Heterotopias – ‘Other’ Spaces 3.1.1 The Origins of Heterotopias 3.1.2 Heterotopias in Social Space 3.2 Third Wave 3.2.1 The Three Waves 3.2.2 Chirag Delhi: A Clash of Waves 4 Chirag Delhi: The Lal Dora Effect 4.1 ‘Urban Village’ 4.2Inverted Character 5 Physical Morphology 5.1 The Settlement 5.2 The Street and the Chowk 5.3 The Dargah 6 Social Morphology 7 Conclusion
References and Bibliography
The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi
Fig 15. Plan. Section Chirag Delhi Dargah The Streets of Chirag Delhi Unemployment: Playing Cards Chirag Delhi: Land Use Distribution main axes The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi vi . Fig 16. Fig 17. Fig 3. Fig 8. Fig 11. Relationship between Chirag Delhi and the city of New Delhi Chirag Delhi and its Surroundings Representation Diagram of the Expansion of Urban Limits Chirag Delhi: Urban Morphology Saomi Nagar: Neighbourhood Study Chirag Delhi: Street Morphology Saomi Nagar: Street Morphology Chirag Delhi: Past Introverted Character Chirag Delhi: Present Extroverted Character Transformation of Landuse and Physical Morphology Section through Main Village Chowk Section through Main Bazaar. Fig 6. Fig 12. Fig 9. Fig 5. Fig 7. Fig 10. Fig 4. Fig 13. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 LIST OF FIGURES Fig 1. Fig 2. Fig 14. Chirag Delhi The Dargah of Sheikh Naseeruddin Chirag-i-Dilli.B.
. In order to study this heterotopic phenomenon. it will address role of the Dargah as a Heterotopic space in Chirag Delhi. Chirag Delhi is an urban village in Delhi’s South District. The dissertation will primarily use the framework of Michel Foucault’s Other Places to understand the concept of Heterotopias. the cityscape has been transformed by modern urban needs drastically changing city’s urban form. The dissertation will also study impact of Chirag Delhi’s Heterotopic character on its social structure and how it differs from the mainstream city. Like most urban villages it is seemingly chaotic and vaguely organic but at the same time intricately structured in its own right.The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi ABSTRACT In the last few decades. the urban village of Chirag Delhi has been chosen as the object of this case study. Further. This dissertation proposes to study the urban morphology of an urban village – with reference to its heterotopic character with respect to the rest of the city. Delhi has witnessed rapid urbanisation that has resulted in an urban sprawl. It also aims to study the relation between the physical structure and the social structure of Chirag Delhi.
born in Britain under the late Urban Villages group. urban villages are a phenomenon. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 OVERVIEW “Space is a social morphology: it is to lived experience what form itself is to the living organism. a product of rapid urbanisation marked by a large increase in population. thereby transforming rural areas into urban areas. Heterotopias on the other hand are spaces of alternate ordering. (Lefebvre. with typical features like mixed use zoning and good public transit and promote pedestrianization.1 In Delhi however. This has resulted in an uncontrolled invasion of non-compatible landuses and elimination of traditional interrelationships by external superfluous forces leading to the disintegration of the community. Blogspot.com/2009/11/05/delhi-urban-village-reality-or-gem-of-a-sham/ [Accessed 18 December 2012] The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 1 . an urban village is an urban planning and design concept at work within the urban limits. Without proper development controls.A) Since India’s Independence in 1947. According to this. housing experiments and urban renewal projects all over the world. (Refer Appendix . 1991:94) Chirag Delhi is an Urban Village. New Delhi Available From: http://fotonix. Source: Gangmei G (2009) “Delhi Urban Villages: Reality or Gem of a Sham”. work and recreate in the same area. Students of Journalism. (Agarwal 2003) Modern city planning may be seen as an attempt at 'expressing a series of utopias' which aims at providing order to society through ambiguous spatial arrangements. one of 135 such settlements in Delhi.wordpress. transit use and provide spaces for people to live. As a result these villages are forced to adapt to urban needs and have undergone rapid transformation. Delhi has been expanding its boundaries and has engulfed smaller adjoining villages into its territories. cycling. It seeks to reduce to car reliance and promotes walking.B. and just as intimately bound up with function and structure”.A. (Hetherington 1997) 1 It was in the late 1980s that the Urban Village Concept was born in Britain with the establishment of the Urban Villages Group. Some may understand ‘Urban Villages’ as an urban design concept in the late 1980s. the village is subjected to speculative development. Fotonix. Jamia Milia Islamia. Ever since the ideals of urban villages have been applied to new fields of green developments. Heterotopias organize their social world in a different way as compared to what surrounds them. M. It refers to a planned space in an urban area which has certain characteristics of a village.
This spatial difference is marked by the physical morphology of the city and the social structure. (Refer Appendix B) As with all of the city’s urban villages. The unique character of Chirag Delhi's social spaces stems from this heterotopic difference.B. It also aims to understand the impact of this heterotopic space on the social morphology of the settlement. This property allows it to stand out against the less affordable communities of Panchscheel Enclave. Chirag Delhi is the other space characterized by difference. rent is cheap in Chirag Delhi. As an urban village. Amongst a series of modern spatial arrangements. A Representative Diagram of the Relationship between Chirag Delhi and the city of New Delhi Image Source: Author (2012). ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 As Delhi grew in importance. Despite this difference it maintains a symbiotic relationship with the rest of the city. Chirag Delhi remains physically isolated from the rest of the city (by a buffer area called the phirni) but integrated to the city’s functions. Malviya Nagar and Saomi Nagar. This dissertation will further explore Foucault’s framework by the study of this phenomenon. its boundaries expanded and new residential areas sprung up. simultaneously leaving behind pockets of difference in the form of ‘urban villages’ and ‘abadi’ areas. New Delhi Fig. making it favourable for new immigrants. This dissertation aims to understand the difference of Chirag Delhi and establish its heterotopic character.as in it shares relationships with the rest of the city but remains in isolation. 1 The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 2 . This character is comparable to what Foucault calls heterotopic spaces .
B. function.What are Heterotopic Spaces and what makes Chirag Delhi a heterotopic space? . Open spaces are statistically determined according to master plans as green spaces." (Buchanen 2011) Similarly Modern-day cities have similar characteristics where roads are about transportation and not about street life.What role does the Dargah play in this heterotopic character? BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANCE Topic Significance Most of Modernist architecture has been criticized for being independent of its context. function and so on − all of them important. The last few decades have seen a series of buildings that stand alone. They belong to a different era.What is the spatial relationship between Chirag Delhi and the city of Delhi? How is space socially produced in the Chirag Delhi? What are the signifying elements that constitute a socially active space? . built according to different needs and requirements. "The fundamental purposes of modern architecture are thus limited to such right quadrant concerns as shelter. security etc. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 RESEARCH QUESTIONS . Development of cities is determined by statistical requirements for shelter. Modernist cities have reduced the concept of typology to repetition. Settlements like Chirag Delhi create more organic space and respond primarily to a social need as opposed to a functional need. security. each choosing out of convenience to disassociate itself from the urban context. Delhi has The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 3 . Delhi is one such city that has forgotten about our old cities leaving them as heterotopias – pockets of history and culture in its rapid growth.How does this heterotopic character affect the social space of Chirag Delhi and the rest of the city? . but not enough for a truly sustainable architecture because they ignore what sustains us psychologically and culturally.
earning the title ‘Chirag-I-Dilli’. On plan.The metropolitan town of Delhi has grown on agricultural lands acquired from the villagers. the villages were relocated. later only their agricultural lands were acquired and the residential areas were circumscribed by a red line and that is how the term Lal Dora came into use. the Heterotopic character of these urban villages has left them in a grey area. The wall was built under the rule of the Mughal Emperor Mohammad Shah ‘Rangeela’ (r. AD 1719 . It retains its shape from an ancient fort. (Refer Appendix B) As a result. (World Monuments Fund. For more details refer Annexure-I 3 Roshan Chirag-I-Dilli roughly translates to ‘The Illuminated light of Delhi’. The process of urbanisation over the years has been engulfing the villages. Without a solid identity. B A C K G R O U N D: C H I R A G D E L H I Chirag Delhi is an urban village south of the Outer Ring Road. It will also try to understand what is it that sets it apart from the rest of the city and whether one must celebrate this difference or abolish it altogether. INTACH 2008) 2 Lal Dora . AD 1274 – AD 1556) which continues to be a religious pilgrimage. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 chosen to treat these urban villages as problems instead of using them as a contextual parameter. The saint is said to have turned water from the nearby stream into oil for his workers. This dissertation will study its virtues as well as its negative characteristics. Initially. The story is that during the building of Tughlaqabad there was a shortage supply of oil for lamps for the worker to build the Sheikh Naseeruddin Mohammad’s residence. it is under only partial jurisdiction of the Delhi authorities and offers very attractive rental rates for the city’s immigrants. The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 4 . Furthermore.48). The fort walls were built around the Chirag Delhi Dargah which houses the Dargah of Naseeruddin Mahmud or Chirag-i-Dilli3 (c. but perhaps not as popular as the Nizamuddin Dargah. Thereby. in building up of Lutyen's Delhi. a neat square whose gates still remain. it is very densely packed with irregularly shaped buildings.B. it has a distinct square form which is enforced by status as a Lal Dora2 area. Urban Delhi grew fast around them while the villages remained within the confines of their Lal Doras. and a network of narrow streets. one must ponder the future of these villages. Under the Lal Dora.
Fig. This Lal Dora status makes it stand apart from the rest of the city. Panchscheel Enclave. The streets open up to small public chowks at certain intervals which act as social hubs. and the other is a more commercial stretch. this is an appropriate site particularly because of its location and its Lal Dora status. By virtue of its narrow streets. each with their own social and physical morphology contrasting that of Chirag Delhi. Chirag Delhi is predominantly a pedestrian dominated village. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 Site Justification In terms of this dissertation topic. the social activity contrasts that of a newer settlement which has wide traffic oriented roads. Hence. Author (2012). One of the axes lead to the Dargah. Ambedkar Road infamous for its BRT system. The village is bordered by two very busy roads. The square village is divided by two axes – with the Dargah in the centre. [Accessed 29th October 2012] Considering its context and its own unique character. Chirag Delhi: Aerial Imagery. The village also neighbours fairly newer districts like Saomi Nagar. Google Inc.B. 2 Chirag Delhi and its Surroundings Image Source: ed. it seems an appropriate site for the study in question. Google earth 2012. R. Its streets and chowks are predominantly social spaces as opposed to a passage for vehicular movement. to the north – the Outer Ring Road and to the East – B. The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 5 .
a framework needs to be developed based on an extensive study of existing material on social space and spatiality. most interviews were the viewpoints of small portion of the village residents and may not accurately depict the entire picture. certain degree of subjectivity can be found. The primary step would be to research and collect this existing databank. First-hand Observations The study will use first-hand experiences of the author and observations of usage patterns and social activities. Figure Ground Drawings. First of all.B. Furthermore. it is unavoidable that in this study. Second. It will also include documentation of experiences of other visitors and the residents of Chirag Delhi. Also. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 METHODOLOGY To pursue this topic. Street Sections and Sketches will be used to explain the character of these spaces and their usage. in order to grasp the heterotopic character it is important to study the cultural and historical evolution of the community of Chirag Delhi. A lot of research data is available as many architecture students have used it as the base for a project. LIMITATIONS OF STUDY Although this research was carefully prepared. To understand the spatial morphology. Lastly. This will help understand the factors that shape the social structure of Chirag Delhi. the research was conducted in a span of 3-4 months and justice was not given to potential of the topic. Many viewpoints are those of the author and may considerably vary amongst my peers and seniors. one must first understand the physical morphology of Chirag Delhi. in order to get a grasp of its relation (if any) to its social morphology. This can be studied by the following methods. Time restrictions did not allow for the upgradation of this data. research data available on Chirag Delhi are dated to the late 1990s and more current data was unavailable. The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 6 . I am still aware of its limitations and shortcomings.
First impressions of Chirag Delhi are of the narrow streets and of the general urban decay.B. The smell of food wafts into the street from the nearest dhabha. as there are always eyes on the road. the primary function of a street – its circulation. the streets are mostly pedestrian. it leads into a narrow street way. So there is not only social activity at the base of the streets but at the upper floors as well. they display both commercial (trade) and social exchange. These are mostly hardware shops with a few dhabhas. As the road widths reduce the streets vehicular movement. The streets now cater to the spill out of commercial and household functions. The Dargah also plays an important role in the social production of the streets. What used to be a walled city is now reduced to a city with four crumbling gates – a gate at each side. walking by performing their daily routine. Considering the density of Chirag Delhi. Usually formed around a tree(s). The narrow widths of the streets also facilitate communal interaction. Traffic Movement is restricted by virtue of the small roads. The entry to Chirag Delhi however. The crumbling gate makes one sceptical of the entry. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 PRELIMINARY FINDINGS FIRST IMPRESSIONS The site can be approached by the Outer Ring Road or the Lal Bahadur Shastri Road. As one accustoms to the maze-like character. The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 7 . though there are still cars and small tempos passing through. covered with advertisements for local amenities. the streets compensate by opening into chowks. There are people shopping. The streets are not the cleanest – bits of garbage are strewn at places. Apart from these occasional vehicles. The fort walls have now been replaced with a different interface – a commercial street that spills out onto the roads. is further inside and is accessible only through the internal road network. The entry into Chirag Delhi (from the Outer Ring Road) is graced with what seems to be an ancient gate. is reduced to a degree. the streets become more ‘friendly’ and navigable. these chowks are the dense centres of social activity.
(Cenzatti 2008) The term ‘heterotopia’ however has its origins in the medical and biological contexts. It essentially implies a phenomenon in an unusual place indicating the spatial displacement of normal tissue by an abnormal structure. it is produced. cultural geographer Edward Soja describes the article as ‘ frustratingly. museums. it is essential to understand ‘space’ as fundamentally bound with social reality as opposed to physical definitions of space contained by quantitative parameters. (Lefebvre The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 8 . inconsistent. it has been vital to the understanding of spaces of specialized character. In his lecture Foucault describes institutions and spaces that disturb the everyday normality of ordinary spaces. in his book Thirdspace. Space does not exist in itself. brothels. incoherent’ but nonetheless devotes an entire chapter to it. He called these spaces heterotopic spaces. incomplete. old age home. prisons. This theory follows that space in itself can never serve as an epistemological starting position. For instance. (Sohn 2008) Heterotopias as Social Space Before proceeding further.B. (Sohn 2008) Medical heterotopias have no known causes. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 T H E O R E T I C A L F R A M E W O R K: H E T E R O T O P I A S HETEROTOPIAS: Origins Michel Foucault introduced the concept of heterotopias in the field of cultural geography at a lecture for architects in March 1967. It was later published under the title Des Espace Autres (Of Other Spaces) by the French Journal Architecture /Mouvement/ Continuité in October. In medical terminology it implies a phenomenon that usually occurs as non-pathological heterogeneous condition that is present in a heterogenic composition of tissue that is not normal to the part. holiday resorts implying the vast adaptability of the concept. (Deheane 2008) Though the vastness of term has also been criticized. 1984. no secondary effects and do not affect the normal functioning of the overall organism in which they appear. He gives examples of mental institutions.
form and colour. human beings who enter into relationships with each other through their activity and practice.B. Chirag Delhi is a space. (Lefebvre 1991:33) He sees space as these three moments that co-exist. based on a set of specific relations in space. This theory deviates from the common understanding of space thoroughly only its physical characteristics such as shape. The heterotopic character represents a boundary that separates the city For further information refer to Annotated Bibliography The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 9 . where the city is compost of different granules of smaller units. and in general to describe a social space. and hence to a spatial practice that they express and constitute. their thinking and their ideologies. “ (Lefebvre 1991:16) Lefebvre explains space as a three dimensional product or a ‘spatial triad’. and of producing it. both space of representation and heterotopia disappear. as part of an interaction between 'subjects' and their space and surroundings. of understanding it. whose structure can be understood by a set of spatial relations that it maintains with the rest of the city. Its social space can be understood as the notions of its residents as opposed to those of the residents living newer neighbourhoods. Heterotopias can be seen as a representational space. They correspond to a specific use of that space. ‘As soon as the social relation and the appropriation of physical space end. (Schmid 2008:29) “A spatial code is not simply a means of reading or interpreting space: rather it is a means of living in that space. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 1991:6) Everyday discourse serves to distinguish particular spaces. interact and producing a relationship with one and another. A space is determined by its spatial practices (perceived).’ (Cenzatti 2008) This spatial difference becomes very evident in post-Fordist cities like New Delhi.’… These codes will be seen as part of a practical relationship. the representations of space (conceived) and representational space (lived). According to Lefebvre space is created by human beings by their sensitivity and imagination.
but they were primitive. prisons. Goods were predominantly hand-crafted and made and distributed at a custom scale. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 T H E O R E T I C A L F R A M E W O R K: T H I R D W A V E The Third Wave is a theory by cultural anthropologist and futurologist Alvin Toffler in 1960.B. government bureaucracies and other organizations took on the characteristics of a factor – the division of labour. The land was the basis of economy. It inclined toward a new technological and economic structure with a false illusion of the finite nature of these resources. This shift however allowed the mass production and trade of products. Industrialization also required mobility from its workers. There were trade and commerce between different places. The First Wave economy was of an agrarian society where there was no differentiation between producers and consumers. This brought about the divorce of consumers from producers. with little or no trade between them. The societies of the First Wave world were predominantly primitive. culture. artisans were no longer working under a patron but to sell their products in a “market” to a sea of anonymous consumers. Workers could no longer be held behind by a large extended family. life. mass standardised education. Schools. (Toffler 1980) The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 10 . its hierarchical structure and its mechanic impersonality. The nuclear family became an identifiable feature of all Second Wave societies which were built on a factory model. It is the second in a trilogy preceded by Future Shock published in 1970. hospitals. family structure and politics all organized around a single village unit. industrialization allowed its workers mobility to move from place to place. The first wave was the transformation of the human civilization from nomads into an agrarian society. While the first wave civilization was based on fixed permanent settlements. the women’s rights moment picks off with the second wave. Even in the field of arts. The book identifies the advancement of the human race as three waves. (Toffler 1980) The Second Wave was brought on by the Industrial Revolution and immediately accelerated the economy. women had no say in major decisions of the community and were patriarchal in nature. Industrialisation also saw the coming of women into the fore-front.
The key to a Third Wave civilization is flexibility. molecular biology. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 The Third Wave civilization is the post-industrial society. when they want and for whom they want all by virtue of the advancement in information technology. Still many of its customs and morphology reflect those of a First Wave City. oceanic ecology and the space sciences. The Third Wave also opens up the field of space exploration. The difference in these types of settlements is not just their physical characters or their economic status.B. It was primarily an agrarian settlement with centric focus around the Dargah of Sheikh Naseeruddin Chirag-i-Dilli. People can work where they want. The new technologies of the Third Wave will give rise to new industries based on quantum electronics. Its features broadly identify it as a Third Wave city building up on information technology. Chirag Delhi on the other hand is still experiencing the Second Wave since its acquisition into the city half a century ago. Toffler says that since the 1950s most countries are moving away from their industrial roots and moving to an information age. Simultaneously the rest of the city is a undergoing the symptoms of the Third Wave. It is mostly functionally independent of its neighbouring villages except the Nizamuddin village whose namesake Hazrat Nizamuddin was the mentor of Sheikh Naseeruddin Chirag-i-Dilli. women have yet to find their place in The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 11 . made up of smaller multiple towns or cities. (Toffler 1980) For further information refer to Annotated Bibliography CHIRAG DELHI: A CLASH OF WAVES In terms of Toffler’s framework we can understand Chirag Delhi’s origins as a First Wave settlement. This impact is underestimated by the general public but it is the next frontier in the advancement of human civilization. information theory. Immigrants entering the city through urban villages like Chirag Delhi are also from First Wave and Second Wave Settlements where each migrant looks to make their mark in the Third Wave City of New Delhi. (INTACH 1996) New Delhi is a typical post-Fordist city. Most major cities today are post-industrial cities. They differ also in social status.
1997) For more Information Refer Appendix B The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 12 . (INTACH.2 per cent illiterate) to be much lower than that of the head of the household. and education is still a matter of opportunity or status as opposed to a norm. A survey by the INTACH revealed that the level of education the wife of the head of the household (56. A large number of residents considered female education as a lower priority to male education. In India. Education itself is dependent on the income of a particular household. the quality of education comes with a price. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 society.B. a lot of families in Chirag Delhi are unable afford a higher standard of education.
ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 C H I R A G D E L H I: T H E L A L D O R A E F F E C T Chirag Delhi. 366. Since the late seventies. (Sehrawat. Study of Lal Dora as a Concept. Under the 1961 Master Plan for Delhi-1961. 3 Representative Diagram of the Expansion of Urban Limits Image Source: Narayan S. completely transforming the villages’ morphology. an amount of Rs. There were 20 Urbanised Villages in 1961 in Delhi. Arch Thesis. 2011) Fig. the city swallowed nearly 50 villages and another 50 post-Independence. But. schemes have been hatched to improve the civic services. with the advent of Delhi’s urban sprawl Chirag Delhi and other urban villages have been swallowed into an urban fabric. Since 1979-80. During the colonial era. rural villages that were located within urban areas of Delhi were declared as Urbanised Villages labelled as urban development. initially by DDA and later transferred to the MCD.09 crore of plan funds have been provided to the DDA/MCD and the Delhi Jal Board (DJB) for development of these urban villages. TVB School of Habitat Studies. and at present there are about 135 urban villages and 52 census towns which form part of the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCTD). New Delhi The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 13 . Unpublished B. like many other rural villages was at one point completely dependent on agriculture and predominantly an agrarian economy. (2001).B.
B. planned settlements like those of Saomi Nagar. The postIndependence government however expanded Delhi’s borders around these villages. The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 14 . like other urban villages. 1996) The Chirag Delhi village agricultural land was notified and acquired in 1953 by the Delhi government for the resettlement of Punjabi refugees. there isn’t a stark difference in wealth between Delhi’s urban and rural sprawls. (Soofi. (Gupta 1993:36) Chirag Delhi. migration and shifting paradigms. is an Administrative Heterotopia as the government has isolated it from the mainstream city. 2008) So an urban village may be defined as a traditional rural settlement which has altered and merged with the urban areas. at times leaving behind only street names like Malcha and Raisina. These villages have been stripped off their agrarian economy and forced to merge with city’s urban economy. (INTACH. Panchscheel Enclave etc. change being actuated by industrialisation. While the streets of the urban villages may be narrow and its houses small and cramped. its immediate neighbours are posh. there is a stark social difference felt in this ‘status-driven’ metropolis. However. With this isolation of sorts comes other forms of heterotopias that will be discussed in further chapters. So while Chirag Delhi might be an urban village. the British cleared away entire villages for the construction of New Delhi. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 During their reign.
The village grew along this axis and as it densified. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 P H Y S I C A L M O R P H O L O GY The Settlement The Chirag Delhi Settlement grew around the residence (and later Dargah) of Sheikh Naseeruddin Mahmud along the Satpallah tributary of the river Yamuna. (World Monuments Fund. the village now looks outward. However. as a result of which the streets narrowed. The gates were built to emphasize the axis of the bazaar and the stream. Chirag Delhi is now defined by the through roads that flank it – the Outer Ring Road and the BRT Corridor. The village grew along the stream with the main bazaar passing through it. INTACH 2008) Originally the enclosed are contained only a few scattered havelis (private mansions) and hujuras (small single rooms) of the Khadims of the Dargah. And was originally a part the Jahanpanah Forest Area. (INTACH 1996) As the settlement grew. changing the original morphology of the street. Chirag Delhi grew as a traditional settlement – around a central core within a restricted or perhaps protective shell. The core of the settlement was the Dargah and the settlement grew around it and the axis created Muhammad Bin Tughlaq within the fort walls. the quality of life is reduced in such places. (Gupta 1993) The Dargah is enclosed in a rectangular rubble-masonry fort built by Muhammad Bin Tughlaq (1325-51). the core of the village has inverted. The Chirag Delhi village slowly grew around the Dargah for two reasons – disciples of the saint and the fort acted as protection from the surrounding wildlife. with the Urbanisation of the village. the remaining areas became built area. one story house slowly added more storeys and extended retail shops on the streets. Inverted Character Roughly till Independence. The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 15 . It no longer has a central core. Now to increase opportunities for rent many have increased their houses up to four or five storeys.B. Hence. After Independence the government acquire the remaining farmland for urbanisation.
9 Chirag Delhi: Present Extroverted Character Image(s) Source: Author (2012).B. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 Fig. 8 Chirag Delhi – Past Introverted Character Fig. New Delhi The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 16 .
M. New Delhi The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 17 . ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 Fig. IP Estate.B. Unpublished B. New Delhi Base Information: Gupta. 10 Transformation of Landuse and Physical Morphology Image Source: Author (2012). Arch Dissertation. School of Planning and Architecture. (1993) Chirag Delhi: A Case Study of Urbanisation.
ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 Fig. pg. Namaste Delhi – Architecture of Rapid Change and Scarce Resources: Chirag Delhi. 17 The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 18 .B. London Metropolitan University London. (2010). 4 Physical Morphology of Chirag Delhi The grain of Chirag Delhi can be compared with that of Saomi Nagar shown below. Base Image Source: Mitchell. M.
5 Saomi Nagar Neighbourhood Study Image Source: Bhatia. New Delhi The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 19 . S. Studio Coordinator: Gupta. R.. (2011) Neighbourhood Study: Saomi Nagar. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 Fig.B. USAP. Housing Studio.
The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 20 . 7 Saomi Nagar Street Morphology A comparison of the street morphology of Chirag Delhi with that of its more modern counterparts – Saomi Nagar. encroachment and poor lighting. New Delhi The comparison of street morphology reveals a similar plotted typology but largely differing in scale. But at the same time it creates a more interactive environment. open spaces are used to their full potential. And typically. Chirag Delhi however displays an organic character. Image(s) Source: Author (2012). 6 Chirag Delhi: Street Morphology Fig. This has resulted in narrow streets. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 Fig.B. Chirag Delhi’s modern counterparts are planned. the streets are predominantly active. These characteristics are not apparent in the neighbouring colonies. its open areas defined and designed on the basis of the city’s Master Plan.
Some streets barely allow light to enter because of the encroachment by adjacent houses. But it does not create space bound by volume. And it is important to study this morphological transformation of our historical cities to understand the cultural and social implications of space. The significant meaning behind the street is lost to function of movement. There is partial vehicular movement on these streets. which caters to elementary needs of movement. The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 21 . creating a contrasting environment as opposed to narrow inward character of the streets. The Street Over the last century. Of the five. The primary streets are along the main axes of the village and are important commercial centres. Morphologically. One was the backyard of a car workshop and two were the centres of a social activity. Many chowks if not encroached by new construction. they open up the streets. They also act as spill-over spaces because of the high density of people living in the area. I identified five different spaces that showed characteristics of a chowk on the base plan and proceeded to observe these chowks. The secondary streets allow less or vehicular movement and predominantly pedestrian.B. The modern city produces a functional street. two were formed around a tree and could be classified as moderately active mainly because of commercial activity. They are usually created at the intersection of two streets. In order to identify socially active chowks. The streets of Chirag Delhi follow a hierarchical pattern. the traditional urban structures of our cities have changed drastically. are used for parking or as garbage dumps. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 The Chowk The chowk plays a very important role in the production of social space in Chirag Delhi.
and activity observed here is predominantly economic based.B. USAP. A. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 Fig. 11 Section through Main Village Chowk The village chowk is the biggest chowk in Chirag Delhi after the Dargah Chowk. This was the main central chowk of the village when the Panchayat was still intact. New Delhi. Fig.. USAP. New Delhi The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 22 . Chirag Delhi Study. Studio Coordinator: Gupta. 12 Section through Main Bazaar. USAP 2009-2014 Batch. II Year Design Studio. Kashmere Gate. It is a part of the main axes. Chirag Delhi Image Source: USAP (2010).
with shady trees dotting the irregular rectangle of the compound. a 14th century saint-king. It is an object that exists in time. one must cover their head and remove their foot-wear. It acts as an ‘other’ space that acts along-side existing spaces. and there’s a serenity that would probably have appealed to Chirag-i-Dilli himself. but mostly in silence. It also falls into the category of a religious heterotopic space. The Dargah complex encloses smaller tombs. Worshippers come and go. The ritual of removing one’s footwear or covering one’s head must be preceded before one’s entry. the Dargah has a calm and peaceful ambience which is contrasted by the busy streets outside. While it is a public space. INTACH 2008) “Perhaps the most charming aspect of the dargah complex is its relatively untouched. while at the same time it is reminiscent of a past time when the Dargah was more popular visited by many Sufi patrons. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 The Dargah History The Dargah is the shrine of Sheikh Naseeruddin Mahmud. the Dargah retains its immediate walls making it frozen in time. non-commercial nature: it’s quiet and tranquil. its value is in fact derived from this difference. This difference or contrast in spaces helps further sanctify the space of the Dargah. To enter the complex. Compared to the rest of Chirag Delhi. INTACH 2008) Observations and Analysis To reach the Dargah complex one must navigate through a series of narrow chaotic streets to arrive at a chowk bordering the complex. a prayer hall and a masjid and has a gated entry.B. (Foucault 1967)The Dargah is a contrasting space. The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 23 . it is not truly ‘public’ as its entry is restricted. The Dargah could possibly be understood in terms of Foucault’s heterotopic spaces or the ‘other’ spaces.” (World Monuments Fund. a disciple and later successor of Nizamuddin Auliya who was regarded as the ‘Lamp of Delhi’ – ‘Roshan Chirag-e-Dilli’. (World Monuments Fund. While Chirag Delhi continues to internally densify.
its fabric differs from surrounding areas where it shows organic growth as opposed to a planned settlement. The Chirag Delhi Dargah could possibly be described as heterotopic space within a heterotopic space.. New Delhi The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 24 . USAP. Chirag Delhi. 13 The Dargah of Sheikh Naseeruddin Chirag-i-Dilli. Section Plan and Sectional view of the Chirag Delhi Dargah. Because of this character. A. New Delhi Image Source: USAP (2011). Plan. II Year Design Studio. Studio Coordinator: Gupta. Hence. Chirag Delhi is in itself a space of difference. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 In the same sense. the rent is cheap and Chirag Delhi is home to many of the city’s immigrants. Chirag Delhi Study. Morphologically. the Mausoleum of Sheikh Naseeruddin Mahmud. As a Lal Dora area. perhaps Chirag Delhi could also be categorized a heterotopic space.B. USAP 2010-2015 Batch. it does not fall under standard government regulations. Fig.
Delhi The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 25 . ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 Fig. Image(s) Source: Author (2010). Chirag Delhi. 14 Chirag Delhi Dargah Complex – The Mausoleum of Sheikh Naseeruddin Mahmud Fig. 15 Generic Street of Chirag Delhi Both images show the contrast between the quality of space in the Dargah and in the streets of Chirag Delhi.B.
it was observed that since many of the owners already have a fixed source of income by the rent they needn’t loo k for jobs.000 according to a MCD Electoral document. A primary cause for unemployment is a change in the major change in occupation as farmers due to the acquisition of farmland in 1953.3 percent) belongs to the age group 1860 years. the villagers now survive on earnings from rented properties or seek jobs in the city.000. According to the survey conducted by the INTACH team and personal interviews showed that the community has a wide spread problem of unemployment. INTACH’s case study shows that more than half the population (59. Due to the loss of the traditional occupation. (INTACH 1996) The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 26 . The actual population of Chirag Delhi is 25.97. According to its residents there are many social evils in Chirag Delhi ranging from rampant unemployment. excessive alcoholism and gambling. 2012) INTACH has done intensive documentation work in Chirag Delhi and have produced a publication under their Process for Historic Development project. etc. (Gupta 1993:36) From interviews with the residents. which also includes neighboring areas such Greater Kailash. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 SOCIAL STRUCTURE The total population of the Chirag Delhi District according to the 1991 AD census is around 12. alcoholism and drugs. (Gaboli. 1996)This figure however takes into account the entire district. Many of these men can be found playing cards in the main chowks throughout the village. However quite of them are unemployed. Many fall in to the trap of gambling. Khirki village. Personal interviews with the residents revealed that unemployment is major issue. (INTACH. Domestic abuse is also common here as well abuse of the elders. The residents feel that such an environment is not conducive for the upbringing of their children.B.
Image Source: Author (2010). making them anomalies in the “normal” social order. (Cenzatti 2008) While Foucault talks about heterotopias in terms of prisons or mental hospitals. forcing them to abandon a culture and a way of life in order to merge with the city. many of these spaces are assigned to or identified with individuals who do not fit into modern social order. Such a phenomenon has left the occupants in isolation within their chowks. playing cards. resorting to alcoholism. The nullification of the agrarian settlement has left many without a secure source of income or income through rent. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 Fig. The urban sprawl of Delhi has left villagers in and isolated realm. 16 Playing Cards – Unemployment The widespread unemployment is because of alternative sources of income (rent) and lack of job opportunities in the city. The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 27 .B. Chirag Delhi. a similar trend can be seen here as well. Therefore this represents a social heterotopia. gambling. New Delhi In Foucault’s understanding of Heterotopias.
Delhi’s Lal Dora villages are good examples. These were usually converted into slums for construction workers. Amongst politicians and policy-makers. a standard western interpretation. As the city has expanded. New Delhi The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 28 . Typically. Source: Bhatnagar G. in unhygienic environment usually with inadequate infrastructure and lacking in proper sanitary and drinking water facilities’ 5 This refers to the Delhi government’s goal to make the capital a slum-free city by the year 2014. the farmers living in surrounding villages sold their land but continued to own their homes in the former villages.B. slums can upgrade themselves. (2012) “Delhi Govt.0 lakhs in 2011 to 230 lakhs in 2021. THE HINDU. But these urban villages must be viewed as stepping stone to the city purely in terms of the city’s migrators. a new population of drivers. It also needs to be mentioned that most of these characteristics are generic to those of most urban villages in Delhi. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 C ONCLUSIONS FINDINGS It is apparent from the information gathered about Chirag Delhi and a comparative study with that of Foucault’s framework of Other Places is that Chirag Delhi displays characteristics comparable to that of Heterotopias. the term ‘slum’ is defined as a – ‘Compact area of at least 300 population or about 60-70 households of poorly built congested tenements. Displaces Slum Dwellers Mindlessly”.4 Furthermore it needs to be understood that Delhi is a city of migrants. in this particular case. When the construction activity drifted away. It is apparent that there is a static view of these urban conditions. 4 Chirag Delhi was declared as a slum under the DDA in 1976 Also. (Refer Annexure-I) Most slums today are identified with urban decay. The Delhi Master Plan predicts a 30% population increase from 182. observations and statistics lead to the conclusion that places like Chirag Delhi are slums. This has however led to unpopular displacement of slum dwellers over the last decade. Over time. urban development correlates to “slum-free” cities.5 People tend to focus on the poor living conditions of the slums and urban villages. “…when property rights are clear. security guards and domestics moved in. V.
2. The Role of Chirag Delhi is – 1. 6 According the INTACH Report on Chirag Delhi. The Heterotopia of Chirag Delhi also represents certain nostalgia.B The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 29 . Eventually. as Sanjeev Sanyal says (Sanyal 2010) “property ladders”. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 this population too got absorbed into the general urban landscape and we saw yet another wave of new residents— students. There remains the possibility that Chirag Delhi might in the future. This leaves the older residents in a static heterotopic state. The older residents are nostalgic and reluctant to leave but their children like the dynamic migrants are looking for possibility outside. Building Material and supply shops along the periphery which serve the neighbourhoods around the area. become a rental accommodation hub with hostels and dorm rooms.B. they routed thousands of migrants and created innumerable jobs. 3. cafes and art galleries (as happened in Hauz Khas).” (Sanyal 2010) So it is important not to consider these areas as static areas but. These residents contrary to their older counterparts do not have a strong emotional connection to area. Since property rights were clear. the former farmers steadily invested in their property and became quite rich. Along the way. Like the rest of the city they are in a hurry moving on with their live.6 Amongst industries the garment industry is the most prominent. salesmen and store clerks. As they move up economically they will move out of Chirag Delhi looking for a better quality of life. Or even the possibility of becoming the epitome of small scale industries. The Dargah also plays an important role with the potential of historic and cultural hub The leading trend is that the demographic and economic structure continues to change as younger financially sound families are being replaced by economically weaker. clusters of cheap hotels (as in Mahipalpur) or a warren of small offices (Shahpur Jat). For More Information Refer Appendix . some villages became home to expensive boutiques. Small-scale industries attracting its workforce from other parts of Delhi. male labour population migrating from neighbouring states looking for work as cheap labour.The point is that these “villages” have proved amazingly nimble and Delhi could not function without them. It signifies a time in history but at the same time looking to the outside. Provision of low budget rental accommodation.
Building development controls must be identified recognizing the unique nature of each urban village. Developmental controls must determine or adhere to the traditional typology of the area appropriating for more habitable living conditions. Urban planning should bring about building development controls that work specifically for Chirag Delhi and not standard controls the work for the rest of the city. or even standard controls for all urban villages.B. But by virtue of its physical and social morphology Chirag Delhi would always remain out of place from the main stream city. So perhaps the best way of integrating a place like Chirag Delhi into the city is to celebrate its difference. Thereby. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 FURTHER STUDY In the process of its urban expansion how should Delhi react to the small pockets of history in its path? Currently Delhi has approached these anomalies by building boundary walls around its historic centers or tying metaphorical red threads around them (Lal Dora). its surrounding context and its historic value. And over the last few decades the MCD and the DDA have sought to bring these ‘urban villages’ into the main stream urban condition. The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 30 . visibly distinguishing places like Chirag Delhi as the odd one out as opposed to integrating it to the city’s functioning.
Fig. Studio Coordinator: Gupta.B. USAP. II Year Design Studio. 19 Landuse Plan of Chirag Delhi Main Axes Image Source: USAP (2010). USAP 2009-2012 Batch. A.. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 . Chirag Delhi Study. New Delhi Base Information: The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 31 .
the space of common sense. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 A N N O T AT E D B I B L I O G R A P H Y 1. thus the historic process of social production. In his book he explains that (social) space can be analysed in relation to these three dimensions. Lefebvre posts a theory that understands space as fundamentally bound up with social reality. It follows that space “in itself” can never serve as an epistemological starting position. the production of oeuvres. The Production of Space. These spaces are created by contrasting character. The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 32 . Space stands for simultaneity. This representation serves as an organizing Schema or a frame of reference for communication. By Production Lefebvre does not strictly mean the economic production of things but also the larger philosophical concept. Michel Foucault In this article. a French Philosopher. values. and time denotes the dichronic order. which permits a (spatial) orientation and thus co-determines activity at the same time. His intellectual consciousness was shaped by his experience in the First World War.B. knowledge. Foucault introduces the concept of Heterotopic spaces or ‘other’ space. the Russian Revolution and an intellectual change. the production knowledge. Space does not exist “in itself”. was born in 1901. it is produced. 2. In the third. built environment). In this way a (spatial) symbolism develops that expresses and evokes social norms. social space appears in the dimension of spatial practice as an interlinking chain or network of activities or interactions which on their part rest upon a determinate material basis (morphology. spaces of representation the material “order” that emerges on the ground can itself become the vehicle conveying meaning. In the first. They represent spaces that exist in isolation. this spatial practice can be linguistically defined and demarcated as space and then constitutes a representation of space. which he describes in his book. In the second. and experiences. Of Other Places – Utopias and Heterotopias. He proceeds from a relational concept of space and time. around 1910 where a certain space. of all that constitutes society. Henri Lefebvre Henri Lefebvre. social practice and political power was shattered. of institutions. The Production Of Space. the synchronic order of social reality.
one sees the projection of a three-dimensional space. The sixth principle talks about contrasting spaces. thus it is that the cinema is a very odd rectangular room. Heterotopias of time can be explained by fleeting spaces like that of a fair ground. The last trait of heterotopias is that they have a function in relation to all the space that remains. he gives the example of a brothel. a whole series of places that are foreign to one another. The cemetery is certainly a place unlike ordinary cultural spaces. The third principle identifies the heterotopia that is capable of juxtaposing in single real place several spaces. To get in one must have permission and make certain gestures or perform a ritual. It is a space that is however connected with all the sites of the city. The second principle identifies the heterotopia of the cemetery. etc. one after the other. In general.’ The fourth principle talks about the heterotopia of time. ‘Thus it is that the theatre brings onto the rectangle of the stage. This function unfolds between two extreme poles. menstruating women. Heterotopias always presuppose a system of opening and closing that both isolates them and makes them penetrable. But it has undergone important changes. as still more illusory. at the end of which. To illustrate this principle. since each individual. several sites that are in themselves incompatible. or else the individual has to submit to rites and purifications. in relation to society and to the human environment in which they live. the heterotopic site is not freely accessible like a public place. each family has relatives in the cemetery. reserved for individuals who are.. on a twodimensional screen. The first principle identifies crisis heterotopias . but perhaps the oldest example of these heterotopias that take the form of contradictory sites is the garden. in a state of crisis: adolescents. Either the entry is compulsory.there are privileged or sacred or forbidden places. The fifth principle talks about heterotopias of restricted places. etc. Either their role is to create a space of illusion that exposes every real space. He gives the example of museums to support this principle as they represent an accumulation of time. the elderly. as in the case of entering a barracks or a prison. state or society or village. pregnant women. They are most often linked to slices in time—the heterotopia begins to function at full capacity when men arrive at a sort of absolute break with their traditional time. In western culture the cemetery has practically always existed.B. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 Foucault identifies six principles that can be used to determine heterotopic spaces. The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 33 . all the sites inside of which human life is partitioned.
information theory. This shift however allowed the mass production and trade of products. Goods were predominantly hand-crafted and made and distributed at a custom scale. family structure and politics all organized around a single village unit. Third Wave: The Classic Study of Tomorrow. The land was the basis of economy.B. The nuclear family became an identifiable feature of all Second Wave societies which were built on a factory model. culture. The Third Wave also opens up the field of space exploration. The Third Wave civilization is the post-industrial society. These societies derived energy from irreplaceable fossil fuels from the earth’s energy reserves. Alvin Toffler The Third Wave is a book by cultural anthropologist and futurologist Alvin Toffler in 1960. Workers could no longer be held behind by a large extended family. The societies of the First Wave world were predominantly primitive. The first wave was the transformation of the human civilization from nomads into an agrarian society. The second wave brought machines under a synchronized system. The book identifies the advancement of the human race as three waves. The Second Wave was brought on by the Industrial Revolution and immediately accelerated the economy. women had no say in major decisions of the community and were patriarchal in nature. Industrialization also required mobility from its workers. with little or no trade between them. People can work where they want. The key to a Third Wave civilization is flexibility. mass standardised education. There were trade and commerce between different places. The new technologies of the Third Wave will give rise to new industries based on quantum electronics. Industrialisation also saw the coming of women into the fore-front. This brought about the divorce of consumers from producers. Toffler says that since the 1950s most countries are moving away from their industrial roots and moving to an information age. wind and water. when they want and for whom they want all by virtue of the advancement in information technology. the women’s rights moment picks off with the second wave. The First Wave civilization’s population could be divided into two categories – the primitive and the civilized. The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 34 . ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 3. The First Wave economy was of an agrarian society where there was no differentiation between producers and consumers. Their main source of energy was human and animal muscle power of direct energy from the sun. oceanic ecology and the space sciences. molecular biology. life. It is the second in a trilogy preceded by Future Shock published in 1970. It inclined toward a new technological and economic structure with a false illusion of the finite nature of these resources. but they were primitive. Most major cities today are postindustrial cities. This impact is underestimated by the general public but it is the next frontier in the advancement of human civilization.
in building up of Lutyen's Delhi. It has not been possible to extend even the basic-most civic services like water-supply and sewage-disposal in the narrow twisting streets and haphazard layouts within Lal Dora in all the 135 urbanized villages as on date.1.B. of NCT of Delhi.2 While Appendix 1 of the Delhi Land Reforms Rules. 135 villages out of these have been declared as urbanized villages and thus the remaining 227 remain as rural villages. 2. Possibly some Revenue Estates created subsequently by the Lt. on the one hand and with natural increase in village population on the other.18%). Source: Shrivastav P. Governor of Delhi have been included in the list of villages.1. The notification to this effect is yet to be issued by Govt. Draft Master Plan 2021 has projected Delhi's population in 2011 at 182.50507 out of which the urban population was 129. 2.3 The metropolitan town of Delhi has grown on agricultural lands acquired from the villagers. 1954 lists 358 villages in the UT of Delhi. The close layouts and narrow lanes of old village abadis were conditioned by old (now outdated) historical compulsions of collective security. Most of the dwelling units are inaccessible to ambulances and fire-tenders to attend to emergencies.05780 (93.32 sq. later only their agricultural lands were acquired and the residential areas (abadi deh) were circumscribed by a red line and that is how the term Lal Dora came into use. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 APPENDIX – A The following is an extract from the Report of the Expert of the Lal Dora Committee.68 sq.1 As per the 2005-06 edition of the Economic Survey of Delhi. Urban Delhi grew fast around them while the villages remained within the confines of their Lal Doras. 15 out of these 227 villages stand recommended by MCD (since the year 2000) to the Govt. On Lal Dora in Delhi (ECLD). the Tejendra Khanna Committee Report has put the number of villages at 362.0 lakh and 230.5 lakh) in 2001. considerations of mutual interdependence and availability all-round of vast open agricultural fields. New Delhi THE BACKGROUND 2. Out of Delhi's total area of 1483 sq. Union Ministry of Urban Development. the village abadis have become intolerably cramped. Now with agricultural fields (that provided the open environment) having been acquired by DDA or grabbed/colonised by market forces driven by skyrocketing land-values.1. P (2007) Report of Expert Cte. Initially. km and the population was 9.0 lakh in 2021. The process of urbanisation over the years has been engulfing the villages. the villages were relocated. of NCT of Delhi for being declared as urban u/s 507 of DMC Act. km. The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 35 . km.44. the total population of Delhi (2001 census) stood at 138. the urban area was 924. Thus the area of rural Delhi stood at 558.727 (say 9.
their agricultural fields and space to maintain cattle. One-time compensation at government rates for land acquired tends to go as fast as it comes.1. A big list of 1432 such colonies is slated for regularization as of date and reportedly. Creation of good modern housing and commercial areas in multi-storey complexes would mean substantial enhancement in the value of their property. to demand that they be permitted to enhance the value of their property by making as intensive use of their lands as feasible through redevelopment. highly sub-standard unauthorized colonies mushroomed in these areas. it was either this technical violation or taking to violence and crime. start small industries wherever they could. Thanks to the alleged collusion between colonisers and enforcement agencies.to satisfy their need of cheap housing. The areas covered by extension of Lal Dora and agricultural fields around the villages . On Lal Dora agricultural fields as a tribal's is to the forests that have sustained his past generations. that with our rural brethren (6.lower and higher .1. The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 36 . technically speaking. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 2.5 In the shadow of these developments and with their age-old traditional means of sustenance taken away from them. godowns and showrooms that have come up in violation. The Committee also feels.both acquired and unacquired . offices and the like. With urban Delhi hard-pressed for dwelling units to house the flood of in-migrants from elsewhere. the villagers were driven to opening shops. can one blame the villagers for the shops and industries. It would not be necessary for anyone to move away from their original area: all their non-residential activities could also be met in the vicinity itself.B. and consequent sky-rocketing of value of vacant land. rules and regulations? In the struggle for survival and sustenance. In fact. That would also relieve the acute scarcity of commercial premises in Delhi which is causing so many problems for the traders. if not the sole means of permanent sustenance .became favourite hunting ground of the middle-class . at least the younger generation.1. 2.4 What is still worse is that the villagers have been deprived of their principal. It is hardly an adequate recompense for land (with everescalating value in the urbanization process) that is a permanent and perennial source of sustenance. A farmer's life is as inextricably linked with Report of Expert Cte. Deprived of agricultural land and facilities for keeping cattle. 2. many villagers were tempted to sell off their lands to colonizers and builders. very broadly at the macro-level. it should not be difficult to adequately meet not only the present but also the future needs of our villages.64% of the total land area of Delhi.6 The solution to the problems of rural villages lies in finding ways that would inspire the villagers themselves. new markets could be created for fresh commercial and trading activity adding to the prosperity of the villages. a proposal to add 88 more to this list is under consideration. renting out their premises for godowns. Further details of this strategy will be discussed elsewhere in this Report.82% of Delhi's total population) living in 37. of the laws and bye-laws.
New Delhi. Process for Historic Site Development: Chirag Delhi – A Case Study. Lodhi Road. 1996 Source: INTACH (1996). The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 37 .B. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 The following is an extract from the INTACH Report: Process for Historic Site Development: Chirag Delhi. INTACH.
ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 38 .B.
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B. ARCH DISSERTATION 2012-2013 The Heterotopic Space of Chirag Delhi 43 .
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