Angle Measurement
To convert from degrees to radians, multiply by
.
180
t
To convert from radians to degrees, multiply by
.
t
180
radians, so radians t 2 360 =
t =
180
Special Angles
0
90
2
180
135
4
3
120
3
2
150
6
5
30
6
45
4
60
3
r=1
270 2 3 = / t
Special Angles  Unit Circle Coordinates
( ) 0 , 1

.

\

2
1
,
2
3

.

\

2
1
,
2
1

.

\

2
3
2
1
,
( ) 1 , 0

.

\

÷
2
3
,
2
1

.

\

÷
2
1
,
2
1

.

\

÷
2
1
,
2
3
0 , 1 ÷
r=1
π/3
5π/6
π/4
π/2
2π/3
3π/4
π/6
π 0
3π/2
( ) 1 0 ÷ ,
Trig Functions  Definitions
r
y
sin = u
r
x
cos = u
x
y
tan = u
y
r
csc = u
x
r
sec = u
y
x
cot = u
2 2
y x r + =
(x,y)
r
u
Trig Functions  Definitions
hyp
adj
= u cos
hyp
opp
= u sin
opp
adj
= =
u
u
tan
1
cot
opp
hyp
= =
u
u
sin
1
csc
adj
hyp
= =
u
u
cos
1
sec
u
u
u
cos
sin
tan = =
adj
opp
u
opp
adj
hyp
Trig Functions
Signs by quadrants
all functions positive
sin, csc positive
tan, cot positive cos, sec positive
Special Angles  Triangles
45
4
=
t
45
1
1
2
hyp
opp
sin =
4
t
example:
2
2
2
1
= =
Special Angles  Triangles
30
6
=
t
60
3
=
t
2
1
3
2
1
60 cos = =
hyp
adj
3
3
3
1
30 tan = = =
adj
opp

.

\

2
3
,
2
1
r=1

.

\

2
1
2
3
,
2
1
1
2
1
60 cos = = =
r
x
3
3
2
3
2
1
30 tan = = =
x
y
Special Angles
For the angles
( )
2
3
270 , 180 ,
2
90 , 0
t
t
t
example:
2
3t
sin
= =
r
y
1
1
1
÷ =
÷
Use the unit circle points (1,0), (0,1), (1,0) and (0,1) or look at
the graphs for the trig functions
r = 1
(1,0)
(0,1)
(0,1)
(1,0)
Graphing Trigonometry Functions
Basic Graphs
y = sin x
1
1
π/2 π/2 π 3π/2 2π
Period is and amplitude is 1.
t 2
Graphing Trigonometry Functions
Basic Graphs
π/2 π/2 π 3π/2 2π
y = cos x
1
1
Period is and amplitude is 1. t 2
Special Angles and Graphs
t
1 ÷
1
Using the graph for = = t cos , x cos y
1 ÷
Graphing Trig Functions
Amplitude Change
y= a sin x stretches or compresses the graph vertically
y = a sin x
a
a
π/2 π/2 π 3π/2 2π
Period is and amplitude is a. t 2
Graphing Trig Functions
Phase Shift
y = sin(x  b) slides graph right by b units
b
1
1
2π+b
y = sin(x  b)
Period is and amplitude is 1. t 2
Graphing Trig Functions
Phase Shift
y = sin(x + b) slides graph left by b units
1
b 2π  b
y = sin(x + b)
1
Period is and amplitude is 1. t 2
Graphing Trig Functions
Period Change
y = sin cx stretches or compresses the graph horizontally
1
1
2π/c
Period is and amplitude is 1. c / t 2
The rules for shifting, stretching, shrinking, and reflecting the
graph of a function apply to trigonometric functions.
( )
( )
y a f b x c d = + +
Vertical stretch or shrink;
reflection about xaxis
Horizontal stretch or shrink;
reflection about yaxis
Horizontal shift;
Vertical shift;
Positive c moves left.
Positive d moves up.
The horizontal changes happen in
the opposite direction to what you
might expect.
÷
is a stretch. 1 a >
is a shrink. 1 b >
1
0
1
2
3
4
1 1 2 3 4 5
x
When we apply these rules to sine and cosine, we use some
different terms.
( ) ( )
2
sin f x A x C D
B
t
(
= ÷ +
(
¸ ¸
Horizontal shift
Vertical shift
÷
is the amplitude. A
is the period. B
A
B
C
D ( )
2
1.5sin 1 2
4
y x
t
(
= ÷ +
(
¸ ¸
Trig Identities
Reciprocal Quotient
u
u
cos
sec
1
=
u
u
tan
cot
1
=
u
u
sin
csc
1
=
u
u
u
sin
cos
cot =
u
u
u
cos
sin
tan =
Trig Identities
Pythagorean
1 cos sin
2 2
= + u u
u u
2 2
sec 1 tan = +
u u
2 2
csc cot 1 = +
Double Angle
u u u cos sin 2 2 sin =
u
u
u u u
2
2
2 2
sin 2 1
1 cos 2
sin cos 2 cos
÷ =
÷ =
÷ =
Trig Identities
Sum and difference
B sin A cos B cos A sin B A sin
B sin A cos B cos A sin B A sin
÷ = ÷
+ = +
B sin A sin B cos A cos B A cos
B sin A sin B cos A cos B A cos
+ = ÷
÷ = +
Inverse Trig Functions
is equivalent to
x arcsin x sin y = =
÷1
y sin x =
is equivalent to
x arccos x cos y = =
÷1
y cos x =
Solving Trig Equations
Use algebra, then inverse trig functions or knowledge
of special angles to solve.
t u u 2 0
2
1
sin < s = example: if
0 sin > u
in quadrants I and II
and since
6
5t
6 2
1
arcsin
2
1
sin
1
t
u = = =
÷
Line of Sight
Horizontal
Angel of Elevation
Angel of
Elevation
Angle of Depression
Horizontal
Angel of
Depression
The angle of elevation of the top of a tower from a
point on the ground, which is 30 m away from the foot
of the tower is 30°. Find the height of the tower.
Let AB be the tower and the angle of elevation from
point C (on ground) is 30°.
ΔABC,
.
Therefore, the height of the tower is
A kite is flying at a height of 60 m above the ground.
The string attached to the kite is temporarily tied to a
point on the ground. The inclination of the string with
the ground is 60°. Find the length of the string,
assuming that there is no slack in the string.
Let K be the kite and the string is tied to point P on
the ground.
ΔKLP,
.
Hence, the length of the string is
Applications of Trigonometry:
mechanical engineering, civil engineering, architecture,
electrical engineering, electronics, land surveying and
geodesy, many physical sciences, analysis of financial
markets, economics, medical imaging (CAT scans and
ultrasound), probability theory, statistics, biology,
chemistry, seismology, meteorology, oceanography,
computer graphics, cartography, crystallography and
game development, astronomy, navigation, and on.
31
POLAR COORDINATE
u
r
θ) B(r,
Koordinat Kutub
B(r,u)
CARTESIAN COORDINATE
Koordinat kartesius
A (x,y)
y) A(x,
MENGUBAH KOORDINAT KUTUB
MENJADI KOORDINAT KARTESIUS
Koordinat kutub B(r,u)
dari diperoleh x = r . cos θ
dari diperoleh y = r . sin θ
sehingga didapat Koordinat kartesius
B(x,y) = B(r.Cosu , r.Sinu)
Cosθ
r
x
=
Sinθ
r
y
=
MENGUBAH KOORDINAT KARTESIUS
MENJADI KOORDINAT KUTUB
Koordinat kartesius A (x,y)
2 2
y x r + =
x
y
tanθ =
x
y
arc.tan θ =
sehingga koordinat kutub A (r,u)
b
CD
sinΑ=
a.sinB CD=
b.sinA CD=
a
CD
sinB =
b.sinA a.sinB =
SinB
b
SinA
a
=
ATURAN SINUS DAN COSINUS
Aturan Sinus:
C
c
B
b
A
a
sin sin sin
= =
Aturan Cosinus:
2bcCosA
2
c
2
b
2
a ÷ + =
2acCosB
2
c
2
a
2
b ÷ + =
2abCosC
2
b
2
a
2
c ÷ + =
CONTOH SOAL :
Pada segitiga ABC, diketahui c = 6, sudut B = 60
0
dan sudut C = 45
0
. Tentukan panjang b !
Jawab:
0
2
6
3
45
6
60
2
1
2
1
0 0
=
=
=
b
Sin Sin
b
SinC
c
SinB
b
6 3
2
6 6
2
2
2
3 6
2
6 3
2
1
2
1
= =
 =
×
=
b
b
b
Pada segitiga ABC, diketahui a = 6, b = 4 dan
sudut C = 120
0
Tentukan panjang c !
Jawab:
c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
– 2.a.b.cos C
c
2
= (6)
2
+ (4)
2
– 2.(6).(4).cos 120
0
c
2
= 36 + 16 – 2.(6).(4).( – ½ )
c
2
= 52 + 24
c
2
= 76
c =√76 = 2√19