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1. POVERTYPoverty is the pronounced deprivation of well being. It is the inability to satisfy onesbasic needs because one lacks income to buy services or from lack of access toservices.Absolute poverty or destitution refers to the state of severe deprivation of basichuman needs, which commonly includes food, water, sanitation, clothing, shelter, healthcare, education and information. Relative poverty refers to as being below some relativeincome threshold, where this threshold differs for each society or country. One may berelatively poor, without being in the state of absolute poverty; relative poverty is oftenconsidered as an indirect measure of income inequality. For most of history poverty hadbeen mostly accepted as inevitable as traditional modes of production were insufficientto give an entire population a comfortable standard of living. After the industrialrevolution, mass production in factories made wealth increasingly more inexpensive andaccessible. Of more importance is the modernization of agriculture, such as fertilizers, inorder to provide enough yield to feed the population. People who practise asceticismintentionally live in economic poverty so as to attain spiritual wealth.The World Bankestimated 1.29 billion people were living in absolute poverty in 2008. Of these, about 400million people in absolute poverty lived in India and 173 million people in China. Interms of percentage of regional populations, sub-Saharan Africa at 47% had the highestincidence rate of absolute poverty in 2008. Between 1990 and 2010, about 663 millionpeople moved above the absolute poverty level. Still, extreme poverty is a globalchallenge; it is observed in all parts of the world, including the developed economies.The supply of basic needs can be restricted by constraints on government services suchas corruption, debt and loan conditionalities and by the brain drain of health care andeducational professionals. Strategies of increasing income to make basic needs moreaffordable typically include welfare, economic freedom, and providing financial services.Today, poverty reduction is a major goal and issue for many international organizationssuch as the United Nations and the World Bank. 2. POVERT IN PAKISTANPoverty in Pakistan is difficult to quantify. In 2006, the methodology used by thePakistani government to estimate those living in poverty was challenged by the WorldBank and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). At that time, thegovernment estimate was that 23.9 per cent of the population lived below the poverty linebut the independent organisations assessed the figure in the range of 25.7 - 28.3 per cent.Those independent bodies supported estimates of a considerable fall in the statistic bythe 2007-08 fiscal year, when it was estimated that 17.2% of the total population livedbelow the poverty line. The declining trend in poverty as seen in the country during the1970s and 1980s was reversed in the 1990s by poor federal policies and rampantcorruption.This phenomenon has been referred to as the "poverty bomb". In 2001, thegovernment was assisted by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in preparing theInterim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper that suggests guidelines to reduce poverty inthe country. Pakistan fares better than India and Bangladesh on most poverty markerssuch as the UN MPI index and its poverty rate is below those nations. As of 2009,Pakistans Human Development Index (HDI) is 0.572, higher
According to the HDI. 60. and some 22.2 Rural 28.Peshawar a sleep cantonment during British towns is a modern cosmopolitan city. 30 million live in rural areas. Punjab also has significan gradients in poverty among the different regions of theprovince The North West Frontier Province of Pakistan was one of the most backwardregions of the South Asian Subcontinent.1 of theincome According to the United Nations Human Development Report.3% ofPakistans population lives on under $2 a day. 3.14 8. Pakistans HDI stillstands lower than that of neighbouring Indias at 0. Poverty in Pakistan has historically been higher in rural areas and lower in the cities.40 5.7Punjab 19.49 5.6%in India and 49.70 1.98 20.67 3. Duringthe last decade poverty elimination programs helped many of the poor to participate and rise up. Poverty rose sharply in therural areas in the 1990s and the gap in income between urban and rural areas of the country becamemore significant.6% in nearby India and81.77 4.51 2. one Textile Mill and one Jute Factory. especially those for women.8Balochistan 33.26 3. thoughthe biggest Pathan city is Karachi where the Pakhtuns are one of the richest class of people. Out of thetotal 40 million living below the poverty line. 4.68 20.86 4.10 20. This smuggling actively encouragedby the West and by Pakistan during the Soviet invasion of neighboring Afghanistan is intact and accordingto Western reports supported the Taliban regime.19 5.26 .612. compared to 75. Thecountry has made tremendous progress and its per Capita GNP remains the highest in South Asia.16 28. Much morecan be done to invest in the social and economic structures.1 Rural 35.00 2.60 19. Despite this.75 17.83 27. These and other activities have led to abreakdown of law and order in many parts of the region. This trend has been attributed to a disproportionate impact of economic events in therural and urban areas.60 5. fall significantly below those ofcountries with comparable levels of per-capita income.6% live under $1 a day.00 22.58 2.95 12.40 5.5 Urban 20.31 5.6 Urban 16. which was formerly a part of the country itself. Pakistans humandevelopment indicators. withthe top 10% of the population earning 27. NWFP remains steeped in tribal culture.0Sindh 14. compared to 41.34 0.543.2 Rural 18.The NWFP now boasts several universities including the Ghulam Ishaq Khan University of Science andTechnology.3 Rural 11. Pakistan also has a higher infantmortality rate (88 per 1000) than the South Asian average (83 per 1000).3% in nearby Bangladesh.6% and the bottom 10% earning only 4. Spatial distribution of poverty Spatial distribution of poverty At the time of partition and independence in 1947.70 5. tremendous progress has been made in many areas.10 19.74 3.6% in BangladeshWealth distribution in Pakistan is highly uneven.43 14. Howeverthe Global financial crisis and other factors like the occupation of Afghanistan have impacted Pakistanigrowth.05 3.50 3.• • than that of nearbyBangladeshs 0.13 19.1 Rural 19.00 2.50 2. Some deal in cross border arms and drugs smuggling.3 Urban 19. Un-Employment Rates 1998 Census Administrative Unit 1981 Census Both Sexes Male FemalePakistan 19.64 4.48 34.2Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 26. Pakistan inherited themost backward parts of South Asia with only one university. furniture and small arts andcrafts business.0 Urban 21. lumber.69 3.00 6.7 4.The Pakhtuns of the region are heavily involved in the transportation.
70 29. 6. and poor industrial standards in the countrycontribute to rising pollution. Female labourrates in Pakistan are exceptionally low.0Islamabad 15.Reserved seats for women have been restored after the election of 2002 . People need to cooperate fully with government and should be sincere with their own country and put all their energies for eradication of poverty .70 16. This provision lapsed in1993. Female literacy in Pakistan is43. FeudalismPakistan is home to a large feudal landholding system where landholding families holdthousands of acres and do little work on the agriculture themselves. with proper planning and good governmentpolicies the problem can be solved. Increasing pollutioncontributes to increasing risk of toxicity.81 3.2%.33 5.20 13.70 10. People of Pakistan have too got responsibility with equal share.80 1. as of 2008.35 4. thus ensuring that women would be represented in parliamentregardless of whether or not they are elected on general seats. so parliaments elected subsequently did not have reserved seats for women.6% compared to Male literacy at 68. use of agro-chemicals.7 Rural 28. the society invests far less in women than men.0 5.• • 35. ConclusionLeadership has got central importance here.5 Urban 10. such as erosion. All they need to do is to appoint competent and wall qualified economists to help them tackle this issue and obviously their sincerity for its solution cannot be ignored as well.67 28.0 Urban 27.00 0. In legislative bodies. 51% of poor tenants owe moneyto the landlords The landlords position of power allows them to exploit the only resourcethe poor can possibly provide: their own labor. Traditional gender roles in Pakistan define the womans place asin the home and not in the workplace. Environmental issuesEnvironmental problems in Pakistan. They enlist theservices of their serfs to perform the labor of the land.92 9. and define the man as the breadwinner.40 8.10 11.Consequently.deforestation etc. contribute to rising poverty in Pakistan. Alone leadership is not enough for its solution. Women in Pakistan sufferfrom poverty of opportunities throughout their lives. The1973 Constitution allowed reserved seats for women in both houses of parliament for aperiod of 20 years. Poverty and genderThe gender discriminatory practices in Pakistani society also shape the distribution ofpoverty in the country. A country economy is the backbone of its countrywith its solution when it is saved many problems will automatically. womenconstituted less than 3% of the legislature elected on general seats before 2002.80 9.
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