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Computer Logic

(2.2.3)

This handout includes Distinction between analogue and discrete processes and quantities Conversion of analogue quantities to digital form Using sampling techniques, use of 2-state electronic devices (logic 0 and logic 1) for reliability.

Digital Devices

A computer system is an electronic (or digital) device. Anything that happens within the computer system is represented as a combination of 1s and 0s. This happens because an electronic device works by using electricity, and electricity can only have two states: ON (1) and OFF (0). This means that anything stored or used on the computer system must be converted to 1s and 0s which is referred to as binary. So, let’s consider this example; Assume that you want to record your voice as a digital file on your computer system. Your voice is not made up of a series of 1s and 0s but as sound waves which are analogue signals. The analogue signals must be converted to digital signals before they could be used on the computer system. This job (of changing signals) could be achieved by using a microphone, the microphone receives the sound waves (analogue signals) and converts them into binary (digital signals).

Analogue Signals

Digital Signals

Ms. P. Sullivan

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Computer Studies 2014 Syllabus

Use the previous diagram to follow the points below: Bubbles (the girl) creates a sound wave by speaking into the microwave, this sound wave is an analogue signal The analogue signal is received by the microphone The microphone then converts this signal into a combination of 1s and 0s before sending it to the computer system The combination of 1s and 0s are stored on the computer system as a digital file The digital data can now be read and understood by the computer system.

An ATD (analogue-to-digital) device is used in order to change analogue signals to digital data. In the example of the microwave, the microphone is considered to be the ATD. There are also DTAs (digital-toanalogue) devices (such as speakers) which receive a digital signal and convert it to analogue signals (sound) which can be heard by the user. The modem is another example of a device capable of converting data from digital-to-analogue and analogue-to-digital. Consider the following example of a PC connected to the Internet via a modem, the user is sending and receiving e-mails.

100101010 Dear John, Is it OK if we meet at 6? 101001010 101010…

ISP

100101010 101001010 101010 Page 2 of 7

Dear John, Ms. P. Sullivan Is it OK if we meet at 6?

Computer Studies 2014 Syllabus

Look at the previous diagram to follow the points below: Our user (let’s call him Peter) types an e-mail to John. This e-mail is stored on his laptop as binary signals. As soon as he clicks on “Send” the binary signals are sent to the modem which converts this signals into an analogue signal (sound wave). The analogue signal is passed through the telephone network. It is received by the ISP (Internet Service Provider) which sends it back to where it is required using the telephone network. Once the analogue signal arrives at its destination it is received by the modem which converts it back to binary. The binary signal is received by the computer and changed back to its original form so it can be read by John.

**Analogue and Digital
**

An analogue signal is a continuous signal with varying values, the values represented in analogue devices are not rounded up. On the other hand a digital signal has rounded up values at certain points in time. Let’s consider an easy example involving a measuring scale and two apples.

Analogue Scales

Digital Scales

If we have three apples and their total weight is 443g, the pointer on an analogue scales will point to an exact location on the scale, when using a digital scale, it has a restriction of the smallest unit it can measure. Let’s say that for this example the smallest unit is 5g, if we measure the apples on the digital scales instead of marking 443g it marks 445g because it rounds up the values.

Note: Although an analogue scale might seem more precise than the digital scales, nowadays digital scales are very precise because the smallest unit they can represent has become very small (for example 0.01g). Also, it’s very difficult to read the exact value on an analogue scale since it’s not always very clear. Ms. P. Sullivan Page 3 of 7

Computer Studies 2014 Syllabus

By applying the concept of the weighing scales to an IT situation we can use the example of a signal represented by a wave. An analogue signal recorded as a wave would look something like the diagram below.

As you can see from the diagram this is a continuous wave, you can choose any point on the graph and get an exact value. Before the sound wave can be used on a computer, it must be converted to a digital signal; the process of changing a sound wave to digital signals is called sampling. Sampling will result in the following graph.

You can now see the difference, in the digital signal the values are less accurate since they are rounded up (hence the ‘wave’ is less smooth). However, with advances in IT the digital wave is using more approximations hence making the digital signal very close to the analogue signal.

Ms. P. Sullivan

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Computer Studies 2014 Syllabus

Units of storage

A bit is the smallest unit in a computer system; this can only store the values of 0 or 1. A bit by itself is too small to store anything since it can only store 2 possible combinations; therefore bits are grouped with each other to be able to store larger amounts of data. A group of 8 bits make up a single byte. Since we need 8 bits to store a character, once byte can store one character. For example if we wish to store the letter F, the binary code would be 01000110 (according to the extended ASCII), which has 8 bits.

8 Bits

1 Byte

If we have the word Apples, we will need a total of 6 Bytes since we have 6 characters (1 byte for each letter). This amounts to the total of 8(buts)x6(bytes)=48 bits. A byte is still a very small unit to measure larger files. So bytes can be grouped with each other to form kilobytes. A kilobyte is made up of 1024 bytes.

1024 Bytes

1 KiloByte

Ms. P. Sullivan

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Computer Studies 2014 Syllabus

This system continues with the same multiples for megabytes, gigabytes and terabytes. So, to summarise: Unit Bit Byte Kilobyte (KB) Megabyte (MB) Gigabyte (GB) Terabyte (TB) Equivalent (Can only store 0 or 1) 8 Bits 1024 Bytes 1024 Kilobytes 1024 Megabytes 1024 Gigabytes

**Converting amongst different units
**

In order to convert from a small unit (example byte) to a larger unit (example megabyte) one must perform a division. When converting from a larger unit (example terabyte) to a smaller unit (example gigabyte) one must perfrom a multiplication. The following table can be used as a guideline.

Bit Byte Kilobyte Division Megabyte Gigabyte Terabyte Multiplication

If we want to convert 3MB into KB (bigger to smaller unit; therefore we must use multiplication) o 1 MB = 1024 KB, therefore 3 x 1024 = 3072 KB

If we want to convert 7680 Bytes into KB (smaller to bigger unit; therefore we must use division) o 1 KB = 1024 Bytes, therefore 7680/1024=7.5KB

If we want to convert 2TB into MB, two steps have to be done: o o 1TB = 1024GB, therefore 2 x 1024 = 2048MB Then, 1GB = 1024MB, therefore 2048 * 1024 = 2097152MB

Ms. P. Sullivan

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Computer Studies 2014 Syllabus

Typical Storage

The following is a table stating the average (or typical) storage amounts of various computer storage devices. Device Floppy Disk CD DVD Pen Drive Blu Ray Hard Disk Storage 1.44MB 700MB 4.7GB 8GB 25GB 500GB 8.7GB, 9.4GB 2GB, 4GB, 16GB, 32GB 50GB, 100GB 1TB Other Possibilities

Ms. P. Sullivan

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