Published: March 29, 1971 Copyright © The New York Times

Published: March 29, 1971 Copyright © The New York Times

FM AMCONSUL DACCA _ TO SECSTATE : WASHDC IMMEDIATE 284 7 AMEMBASSY ISLAMABA D INFO RU M SK/AMEMBASSY BANGKOK PRIORITY 43 4 AMEMBA SSY LONDO N AMCONSUL KARACH I AMCONSUL LAHOR E AMEMBASSY NEW DELH I

BANGKOK FOR AMBASSADOR FARLAN D SUBJECT : REF : PAK POLITTCAL CRISI S 19 75,196

ISLAMABAD

ALONG LINES OF CONFEDERATION, WITH SEPARATE CONSTITUTION S O R EAST AND WEST PAKISTAN, AND ONE ARMY AND ONE FORE IG N

1) ALAMGIR RAHMAN (PROTECT ) CAME TO SEE ME THIS MORNIN G WITH WHAT HE SAID WAS MESSAGE FROM MUJIB. ACCORDIN G ALAMGIR, MUJIB HAD WANTED YAHYA TO COME TO DACCA FO R TALKS AND I WAS GREATLY RELIEVED AT NEWS THAT YAHYA WA S IN FACT COMING. MUJIB WANTED VERY MUCH TO WORK OU T D WITH YAHYA SOME POLITICAL SETTLEMENT THAT WOULD AVOI BENGALI ASPIRATIONS, AND PRESERV E BLOODSHED, SATISFY SOME VESTIGE OF LINK WITH PAKISTAN . ALAMGIR OPINE D THAT IT 'S NOW TOO LATE TO TALKS IN TERMS OF SI X-POIN T CONSTITUT ION BUT PERHAPS SOME SOLUTION CAN T BE FOUN D
I

. MINISTR Y
2)

SAI D ALAMGIR, WAS "DOES TH E TO SEE MI LI TARY CONFRONTATION W I TH UNITED STATES WANT
MUJIB'S QUESTION,

DECLASSIFIED PA/HO, Department of State E.O. 12958, as amended June 9, 2005

BENGAL O R WOULD IT PREFER A POLITICAL SOLUTION T O I TOLD AL AMGIR THAT MUJIB' S THE CURRENT CRISIS?" QUESTION, PUT THAT WAY, WAS EASY TO ANSWER. W E MUJIB I S ALSO TH INTERPRET YAHY A'S
NATURALLY HOPED FOR A PEACEFUL POLITICAL SOLUTION I N LIEU OF BLOODSHED : WE WERE GRATIFIED TO LEARN THA T

THE PROSPECT OF EVENTUAL COMMUNIST DOMINATION O F

INKING IN THESE TERMS, AND E W WILLINGNESS TO COME TO DACCA A S EVIDENCE HE TOO IS DESIROUS OF ACHIEVING A PEACE FUL SOLUTION . WE HOPE BOTH SIDES WOULD APPROACH TALK S ROMISE. PCOM INTHESPROF
ALAMGIR THEN SAID MUJIB WANTED TO KNOW IF UNI TE D STATES WOULD BE WILLING TO INDICATE TO YAHYA OU R . HOPES FOR POLITICAL SOLUTION TO CURRENT CRISI S I SAID I DI D NOT KNOW IF THIS THOUGHT HAD BEEN CONVEYE D TO YAHYA IN ISLAMABAD BUT I WOULD UNDERTAKE TO SUGGES T F TO CHARGE' THAT, IF APPROPRlATE OCCASION PRESENTED ITSEL HE MIGHT NOTE TO YAHYA O UR BEFORE YAHYA'S DEPARTURE . HOPES FOR POLITICAL SOLUTION PROBLEMS FACING PAKISTA N 3) THAT EXPRESSION O F COMMENT : RECOGNIZE, OF COURSE, HOPE FOR "POLITICAL SOLUTION" AS DIST INCT FROM "PEACEFU L" SOLUTION CARRIES IMPLICATION THAT WE WOUL D NOT BE HAPP Y . ABOUT MILITARY REPRESS ION AS MLA SOLUTI ON TO CRISI S NONETHELESS, GIVEN URGENCY OF SITUATION I WOULD HOPE W E . COULD BE SOME WHAT MORE POSITIVE IN THIS REGAR D
4) 5) OUR

ANALYSIS OF PROSPECTS FOR POLl TICAL COMPROMIS E
WILL FOLLOW BY SEPTEL .
GP3

. SOLUTI ON

BLOOD

DECLASSIFIED PA/HO, Department of State E.O. 12958, as amended June 9, 2005

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correspondents who were not standing four-hour guard duty to keep out intruders. The hotel roof could hardly have been a better place for TV crews to grind away at air strikes. During the raids, shrapnel was occasionally fished out of the swimming pool, and a large time bomb planted in the hotel was disarmed and replanted in a trench on the nearby lawns. Beer soon ran out, but there was always fish or something else tasty for those cured of curry. Outside the city, reporters had to go looking for the war, and for the first few days they found the countryside, more often than not, as peaceful as North Carolina during military maneuvers. "We'll give those buggers a good hammering" had been a favorite boast of Pakistani officers. But once the serious fighting began, only a few of the outnumbered and outgunned Pakistani units fought it out in pitched battles. One of the bloodiest was a Jamalpur, north of Dacca where the Pakistani battalion commander was sent a surrender offer by one of three Indian battalions surrounding him. The Pakistani colonel replied with a note ("I suggest you come with a Sten gun instead of a pen over which you have such mastery") and enclosed a 7.62mm bullet. Apparently thinking the Indians were bluffing and that he was confronted by a company or so, the Pakistani colonel attacked that night, with five waves of about 100 men each charging head-on at a dug-in Indian battalion. The Indians claimed to have killed nearly 300 and captured 400 others. The top Indian commander at Jamalpur, Brigadier General Hardev Singh Kler, 47, said later that the battle "broke the Pakistanis' backs" and enabled his troops to reach Dacca first. A Pakistani officer waving a white flag went to a Mirpur bridge two miles west of the city to make the first surrender contact. "It's a great day for a soldier," beamed the Indian field commander, bush-hatted Major General Gandharv Nagra, who led the first red-bereted troops in. "For us, it's like going to Berlin," The scene at the Dacca garrison's cantonment seemed bizarre to an outsider, although it was obviously perfectly natural for professional soldiers of the subcontinent. Senior officers were warmly embracing old friends from the other side, amid snatches of overhead conversation about times 25 years ago. Top generals lunched together in the mess, and around general headquarters it was like an old home week at the war college. After the surrender of Dacca, death was mixed with delight. Small pockets of Pakistani soldiers switched to civilian clothes and ran through the city of celebrants shooting at Bengalis and Mukti Bahini at random. By midday Friday most of them had been hunted down and either arrested or killed. I saw one summarily executed by three Mukti outside the U.S. Consulate General that morning and few minutes later the head of another Pakistani was laid on the corpse's chest. Civilians and soldiers were killed in nervous shoot outs and accidents. Five died in front of Hotel Intercontinental, as South Asia's greatest convulsion since the partition of India and Pakistan neared its bloody finale.

March 29, 1971: NYT, "Both sides claim gains in Pakistan"

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March 29, 1971: NYT, "Both sides claim gains in Pakistan"

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March 29, 1971: NYT, "Both sides claim gains in Pakistan"

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Published: March 29, 1971 Copyright © The New York Times

Published: March 29, 1971 Copyright © The New York Times

Lt. General Sahabzada Yaqub Khan, 1998
(Photo : Muntassir Mamoon)

General (Rtd.) Musa, Air Marshal Asghar Khan and Noor Khan waiting at the Islamabad Airport to welcome the Shah of Iran, February, 1965 Major General (Rtd.) Tozammel Hossain Malik Brigadier (Rtd.) A. R. Siddiqu (Left). 1971 A Family murd ered by the Al Badar forces of Jmaat-E-Islami being taken to the graveyard on a cart, 1971 List of intellectual to be murdered : after liberation these pages from Rao Farman Ali's diary was found in Banga Bhaban. Farman Ali himself had writeen the list. The pages of the dates April 9-12, have the name of 10 persons, 13 of whom, including Professor Sirajul Islam Chowdhury, Professor Kabir Chowdhury and Professor Nilima Ibrahim, were saved because Bangladesh was liberated before their murders could be carried out. The Pakistani forces surrendering at Suhrawardi Uddayan (Ramna Racecourse) in Dhaka on December 16, 1971. General A. A. Niazi signing the document of surrender on December 16, 1971. Beside him is General Aurora, behind him are the Chief of Bangladesh Air Force A. K. Khandaker, sector commander Major Haider and other. Ramna Racecourse, December 16, 1971.

Appendix-3
Appendix-6 Appendix-9

Appendix-4
Appendix-7 Appendix-10

Appendix-5
Appendix-8 Appendix-11

The Vanquished General-1 The Vanquished General-2 The Vanquished General-3 The Vanquished General-4 The Vanquished General-5 The Vanquished General-6 The Vanquished General-7 The Vanquished General-8 The Vanquished General-9 The Vanquished General-10 The Vanquished General-11The Vanquished Genera l-12 The Vanquished General-13The Vanquished General-14 The Vanquished General-15The Vanquished General-16

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