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Engineered Timber An overview Deb Turnbull

4 October 2012

The need for re-engineering Timber composites Basic information Massive timber Timber trusses - what are they? - Glulam, PSL, LSL, LVL - Brettstapel - CLT - Carpentry - Plate connectors - Metal webs

Timber I-beams Timber with other materials - Steel - Cement/concrete - Insulation Timber frame

The need for Re-engineering Resource

- Length - Cross sections


- Structural performance - Species

Timber Composites
Dimensional stability - moisture content - cross laminations Structural performance - more homogenous material Welsh Oak Frame - increased lengths Greater use of resource

CTS Bridges

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Timber Composites

Timber Composites

Glulam Planks

Massive Timber

Timber Composites
Flakes Laminated Strand Lumber (LSL)

Oriented Strand Board (OSB)

Timber Composites
Chipboard Chips

Saw dust


Timber Replacement

Longer spans

Higher performance


Components and systems

Glulam LVL Plywood OSB Fibreboard



I-joists Box beams

walls and floor panels

Sawn timber


Manufacture Stock sizes - 90 to 265 wide and 180 to 2050 - square and circular sections available - curved, tapered, portal frames - Spruce is usual, pine and larch also available - Other species have been tried including UK grown - fabricators often have in-house design capability - manufacturers have free software - connections need special consideration

Bespoke Species


Glulam uses
Beams, Columns Portal Frames Space Frames Geodesic structures

Scottish parliament, Cowley Timberwork

Strawberry Lodge, Chiswick, Axis Timber

Acetylated timber in glulam beams

Parallel Strand Lumber (PSL) & Laminated Strand Lumber (LSL)

Only one manufacturer Weyerhaeuser (was Trus Joist) No longer available Sizes - stock sizes - special sizes for I-joist systems


- manufacturers have free software - connections - in UK, beams and columns in timber frames


Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL)

Typical stock sizes - thickness 27, 33, 39, 45, 51, 57, 63, 69, 75 - width 200 to 900 Spans - Floors up to 9m - Roofs up to 18m - manufacturers have free software


LVL uses
Rim boards in timber frame Beams, Columns Portal Frames Space Frames Geodesic structures Stressed skin panels

Kerto Q monocoque panels, Cowley Timberwork

Edinburgh Napier University, Cowley Timberwork

Massive Timber Brettstapel

- nailed - dowelled

Cross Laminated Timber

- glued - dowelled - interlocking

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Can use lower grade timber Nailed or all timber product Used for walls and floors

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Higher levels of automation

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Fabrication into panels 2.5 wide and up 18.5m long

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Structural design
Flatwise Stiffness - Emean for all stiffness calculations Shear deformations not so significant due to span to depth ratio Material safety factor, k mod x (strength property) m

Connections need careful thought Edgewise Racking Bending

Panel sizes and spans

Typical load span table for timber with MOE of 11,000 N/mm2 Grade C24

Thickness (mm)





Building performance
Airtightness - Relies on additional layer typically OSB

Thermal performance- 100mm thick panel of 500 kg/m3 U=0.13 W/mK

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Panel profiles External wall make-ups

Directly applied plasters

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Cross Laminated Timber

Typical lay-ups
Panel thickness 51 Mets 100 BinderHolz 126 StoraEnso 85 Mets 147 BinderHolz 200 KLH Layer thickness 17, 17, 17 37, 26, 37 42, 42, 42 17, 17, 17, 17, 17 41, 22, 21, 22, 41 40, 40, 40, 40, 40

CLT Benefits
Airtight - if edges glued

Dont generally need lintels Speed on site with large panels Good replacement for reinforced concrete - 6 times lighter - 1/3 the thickness for similar span

Hackney Academy, Eurban

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Waugh Thistleton Architects

BRE Ravenscraig Visitor Centre

Structural design
Use of EC5 multiple connected layers and Appendix B Fire charring rate

Preliminary sizing

Manufacturers design software

Other Guidance

Dowelled cross laminated timber

TechnoWood Holz100 Nur Holz Thoma

Timber Trusses

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Cheadle Hume, Cowley Timberwork

with steel

UK Sitka spruce Trusses

Compared to above using plywood gussets

Timber I-Beams

Welsh Oak Frame

CTS Bridges

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Timber I joists

Welsh Oak Frame

CTS Bridges

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Special uses with connectors

Timber in Combination with other materials Steel Concrete Insulation

Timber in Combination with Steel

Flitch beams Bolted Impact nailed

Mechlam bridges

Stress laminated bridges

CTS Bridges Page 45

Forestry Commission

With concrete
Acoustics Thermal mass Longer spans than timber alone Composite Non-composite

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Non-composite systems With I-joist floors Manufacturers linked with screed suppliers

Welsh Oak Frame

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Timber concrete - composite action

Welsh Oak Frame

CTS Bridges

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Kaufmann Oberholzer, CH

With insulation
Panels Beams

Structural Insulated Panels - SIPs

Sheathing layers Bonded insulation injected PUR foam - glued EPS

Joints - splines -thinner full sections

Fixings - Some straight into OSB

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Composite Insulated Beams (CIBs)

Increased bearing capacity - 18-30% Heat loss reduced by 56-86% Most efficient Box beams with timber or LVL flanges Beams and CIBs had increased shear and bending strength over I-joists

Timber Frame

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Can incorporate many forms of engineered timber Improved joists, I joists and timber trusses for walls and floors For replacement of steel for purlins and rafters Cassettes Acetylated timber ground beams