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JJASAS (Journal of the Japanese Association for Sowh Asian Studies).
(amlllal publicalion in Japancsc and English, the <;urrcnl issue: No. 16)
2 Japanese Studies on South Asia Serics
No.1 H. Kalani cd., Caste System, UfitOltchabillty and the
Manahar, New Delhi, 1997.
No.2 N. Karashima cd.. Kingship in Indian IJistory. Manohar, New Delhi,
No.3 S. Mayeda cd .• 71,c Way to Liberation, Manohar, New Delhi, 2000.
No.4 S. Binoo and 1. Takashima cds., From Material to Deily, Manohar.
New Delhi, 2005.
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Edited by
Japanese Studies on South Asia No.4
Indian Rituals of Consecration
From Material to Deity
i ' ' ~ I
First publish.ed 2005
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The Formation of Hindu Ritual
2 in the Vedic and post-Vedic Rituals
3 Notes on the Installation Cercmonies
described in the
4 in thc Saiva Agamas
5 Consecration of Divine Images in a Temple
6 The InstaHation Ceremony in Tantric Buddhism
7 Liliga Worship as Prescribed by the Sivapura'.1
Index afSanskrit Words
This volume is dedicated to the studies of Indian rituals of consecration
ceremony for an image of a god. It is entitled From Material to Deity, be-
cause only through the performance of consecration ceremony the nature
of an image changes from material to a deity.
In 1996 we received in quick succession two articles on the install-
ation c,eremony.1 At that time Einoo also read some and
PuralJas and found several descriptions of the installation ceremony. At
the Institute of Oriental Culture of the University of Tokyo, where Einoo
is working, there was a young Associate Professor, Yasushi Ogura, a spe-
cialist of Indian Iconography and Architecture, who had also written an
article on the entitled 'Symbolism of Hindu Temple in South
India (1) - The Rituals performed in the Course of Temple-construcbon,
based on the Padma Sarrhitii' .
We thus had several scholars around us who were interested in the
study of the ceremonies. We also approached our friend, Y.
Tsuchiyama, who studied the royal ceremony of the Paippalada Sa1?lhi-
to. of the Atharvaveda and organized a joint research project for the study
of the installation ceremonies at the Research Institute for Languages and
Cultures of Asia and Africa, where Takashima is working. We met two
or three times a year and discussed how to carry out our project We
lected the texts which each of the contributors should examine eventually
resulting in papers in which outlines ofthe installation ceremonies in their
charge were described and analysed.
J They are written in Japanese. Their original titles and the journals. are as follows:
M. Mori. 'Indo mikkyou ni okeru (The in Indian Esoteric Buddhism),
Kouyasan Daigaku Mikkyouburtka Kenkyujo Kiyou. no. 9, 1995. pp. and H. Hikita,
'Pural)a Bunken ni miern shinzou hOlHlOU girei' (The Installation Ceremonies as prescribed
in PuriQa Literature), Aichi Gakuin Daigaku Bungakub.u Kiyou, no. 25, ]995, pp. 11-46.
2 The Memoirs of the Institute of Oriental Culture, no. III , 1990, pp. 131-92 (in
Vlll From Material to Deity
To ollr great sorrow, however, our friend YaslIsh.i Ogura died in tragic
circumstances on 16 May 1998, at the young age of 38. In spite of this
loss we continued to work towards our objective. Sorne of the contribut-
ors completed their first drafts in 1999. But due to paucity of time both
of us could not dedicate ourselves to edit this colllcction of articles and
the project did not progress satisfactorily. It took much longer Ihan we
had anticipated. Thanks to the support and tolerance of our co-workers,
however, we managed to attain our objective.
We - and here we spcuk for all the contrrbulors - would like to
dedicate this volume to the memory of our latc friend, Yasushi Ogura.
16 May 2003
(fifth death
anniversary of
Yasushi Ogura)
SHINGO BINOO: Professor, University of Tokyo. Die Ciiturmiisya
odeI' die altindischen Tertialopjer, Dargestellt nach den Vorschrif-
ten del' BrahmQ/')as und del' Srautasutras, Tokyo, 1988. 'The
Formation of the Puja Ceremony' in Stll 20, 1996. 'The Autumn
Goddess Festival: Described in the PuraQas' in Living with Sakti,
Osaka, 1999.
JUN TAKASHIMA: Professor, Research Institute for Languages
and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign
Studies. in the Tantriiloka' in Memoirs of the Institute
of Oriental Culture, 119, 1992. 'The Doctrine of the Earliest
Saiva Agamas - Doctrine part of the Svayambhuva-agama' (in
Japanese) in Journal ofthe Asian and Ajrican Studies, 48-49, 1995.
YASUHIRO TSUCHIYAMA: Associate Professor, Saitama Institute
of Technology. 'Der Konig im Rajasl1ya' in Indian Thought
and Buddhist Culture, Essays in Honour of Professor lunkichi
Imanishi on his Sixtieth Birthday, Tokyo, 1996. 'The Meaning of
the in Ancient India' (in Japanese) in Hokkaido lournal
of Indological and Buddhist Studies, 16, 2001.
HIROMICHI HIKITA: Professor, Aichi Gakuin University. A Study'
of the Hindu Tantrism (in Japanese), Tokyo, 1997. ISatvata Sa1?1-
hita: An Annotated Translation, Chapter 25 (1)' in Transaction of
Humanity, Aichi Gakuin University, 10, 1996. 'The Installation
Ceremonies as prescribed in PudlQa Literature' (in Japanese) in
Journal of Esoteric Buddhism, 1998.
MASAHIDE MORl: Associate Professor, Kanazawa University. The
Devfmiihiitmya Paintings Preserved at the National Archives,
Kathmandu, Tokyo, 1996. 'The Vajravalr of Abhayakaragupta',
Ph.D. thesis, University of London, 1997. Mandala and Tantric
Buddhist Rituals (in Japanese)., Tokyo, 1997.
Among Hindu rituals the prati.r!hii is one of the most weB-known and
most important ritual ceremonies. It was simple in origin but developped
into a very complex system in the course of time. It contains a num-
ber of ritual elements which are also shared by a variety of Hindu rituals
and even by Buddhist Tantric texts. In the post-Vedic period it was des-
cribed in many texts, both Tantric and non-Tantric. An intensive study
of the installation ceremony of an image of a god enables one to clarify
the formation and development of post-Vedic rituals both in Tantric and
n011-Tantric schools, on the one hand, and to make a good analysis of the
ritual elements of post-Vedic rituals on the other.
In Chapter 1, entitled 'The Formation of Hindu Rituals', Shingo Einoo
begins by emphasizing the importance of a group of texts which he assigns
to the level on the basis of his two early studies of the sa'!l-
dhyopiisana and the pujli. He then proceeds to select some ritual topics
such as ku1Jfla, ma1Jflala, stha1J¢lla, and homa and discusses
how these ritual elements newly emerged in the texts of the
level or underwent some fundamental changes in their connotations.
In the prati,nha ceremony the or the consecration of an im-
age of a deity by sprinkling water or other fluids over it plays a very im-
portant role. In his article in the Vedic and post-Vedic Rituals'
Yasuhiro Tsuchiyama goes into detailed surveys of the in three
aspects. First, he discusses the ritual meanings of the revealed
in the mantras and the explanations of the Brahmar,las. In the Atharva-
veda the functions mainly as bestowing power or authority upon
a person consecrated. Among powers, varcas or splendour appears as the
foremost power to be bestowed. In the mantras of the Yajurveda and the
ritual exegeses of the Brahmm:ms the number of powers to be bestowed
increases but the basic idea of bestowing power still remains even in the
post-Vedic installation ceremony of a divine image. He then turns to the
2 From Materiel! to Deity
analysis of the ritual procedure of the and concludes that there
are two kinds of in the Vedic rituals: the first. category comprises
the main ritual actions of various coronation rituals and the second one
is interpolated in the large-scale rituals such as the agnicayana and some
other royal ceremonies. The peculiarity of the abhi.yeka in the GrhyasCilras
and in the that he investigated as the third point, is that
the ideas of the and the sn[ma or balhing are run together and
not distinguished. This means that the ceased to exist as a Vedic
ritual element and changes its contents drastically.
The two articles by Einoo and Tsuchiyama elucidate the changing
features from the Vedic to the post-Vedic rituals. The post-Vedic rituals,
if seen as a structure, thus consist of ritual elements which have either
emerged newly or changed their contents to a great extent so that .it is
quite pl'.ausible to presume a clear dilscolltinuity between the Vedic and the
post-Vedi!c rituals.
There folllow four articles by Einoo, lun Takashima, Hiromichi Hikita,
and Masahide Mod which deal exclusively with the installation ceremony
using a variety of texts. Einoo's discussion is mainly based 011 the five
texts belonging to the level. Takashima first outlines the
prati.nhii ceremony according to the Rauravagama and traces the
development of this ritua.1 rite by using the earlier Saiva Agamas such
as the Matmiga, SViiyambhuva, und Mrgendra. Hikita's pap,er is
a comprehensive survey of the prati;.Ii.thii ceremony which is found in as
many as nine PuralJas; he further analyses this ceremony al'so according to
the four scriptures of the Pancaratra literature. The main source of Mori's
investigation is the Vajriivalf, a Buddhist Tuntnc text of Abhayakaragupta
but he carries out a comparative analysis of the prati.y!hii by referring to
many other Buddhist Tanlrk ritual texts.
Each contributor outlines in more or less detail various installation ce-
remonies in a schematic form. A careful reading ofthes'e schemes clearly
gives us an idea what kind of ritual rite the is and clarHies a gen-
eral course of its development into a very complex ritual system absorbing
varilous kinds of ritual
elements, In most cases the prati.,'!ha is composed
of two parts, the preparatory st.age and the main instaHation ceremony.
the first of which is almost unanimously called adh;viisa or adh;vasana
and involves a number of ritual acts (Hikita [5], p. lSI with note 26),
The causative ,of the verb adhi-vas-, however, originally means to cause
the image to spend a night while being immersed in water (BodIlGSS and
VaikhGS). Except in the Svayambhuva where the Ibigaparigraha or the
appropriating of the liliga is described, almost all the texts dealt with in
l _
Introduction 3
this volume describe the adhivasana as the preparatory day and prescribe
even a variety of adhiviisas. )
This meaning of the word adhivtisa / adhiviisana has become so
established that even in rites other than the of an image this
word has come to be used in the sense of ritual preparation.
Regarding the development of the instaUation and worship of the Zin-
ga in the early Saiva Agamas, Takashima alTived at several convincing
conclusions. The first stage is the lin.gaparigraha (Svtiyambhuva and Mrg-
endra), then the stidhaka constructs a small temple and installs a Linga in
it for his private worship (Matmiga), and finally comes the construction
of a public temple where a Linga is installed for public worship (KiralJa).
In the fully developed stage the ceremony consists of a
great number of ritual acts. ]n this respect Mori's analysis of the basic
structure of the ritual procedure of the prati.irhii according to the Buddhist
Tantric texts is worthy of notice. He concludes his analysis by saying that
'Tantric Buddhists must have borrowed the structure and elements of the
installation ceremony from Hindus, but they attached their own meanings
to accord with the Buddhist context.' This conclusion can be generalized
and can also be applied to the installation ceremonies of Tantric and 110n-
Tantric Hindus. They share the basic structure 'and various elements with
one another but they modify their installation ceremonies according to
their religious creed.
The opening of the eyes of the image, one of the basic ritual a,cts of
the is dicussed in detail by Hikita. and one of his interesting
findings is that this ritual act has a precedent in the samavartana of the
Grhya ritual. According to hilm, the ritual act in which the Vedic student
anoints his eyes after bathing himself corresponds to the opening of the
eyes of the image.
The last article of this volume stems from Hikita's comprehensive
survey of lillga worship. An image of a deity is installed only to be wor-
shipped. In order to complete a study of the ceremony Hikita
has chosen the liliga worship as an example of daily worship of a deity to
be performed after the installation rite. His survey of the lhiga worship is
1 See e.g. kala.fadhiviisana,jaliidhiviim, del'atadhivlIscma. dhiinyiidhiviisana, dhyiinii-
dhivii.mrw, V(/SIII!ldharejdhivasana, JayaniidMva.w, and .\(ayyc1dlril'iisa. For the occurences of
these words see Index of Sanskrit words.
2 See e.g. AgniP 64.18cd (ta{liigadividhi), Kl1liktiP 59.67cd (pavitriirohana). Hha.
Ili.yyaP (ta(/dgildividhi),. 4.127.46ab (VClpfkiipavidhana). 4. 176.32cd '(hira/fya-
garbhal'idhi), Mat.l'yaP 58.38ab (tClflagadividhi), 89.6 (ghrtaparvaradiina), 275.3cd
(him'Jyagarbhaviclhi), 276.3ab (brahmcll.1(ladanavidhi), LiJigaP 2.27.241 ab
4 From Material to Deity
based on a number of texts. After general remarks on the lbiga and linga
worship, he examines worshi:p of the 'plirthiva liJiga, or the Linga made of
clay, according to the SivapurufJG which uses almost exclusively the Vedic
mantras. A very scrupulous comparison of these Vedic mantras leads him
to the conclusion that some mantras show unique readings pe,culiar to the
Vajasaneyi Swphitli of the White Yajurveda and he condudes that at least
that part that dealt with the worship of the parthiva lil1ga in the Sivapurii-
'fa originated in north India where the tradition of the Vajasaneyi SaJ?lhita
was prevalent.
Hikita further investigates various modes of the linga worship des-
cribed in many kinds of texts. In his conduding remarks on the places of
lbiga worship he proposes as a general statement that the recognition of
different places for the worship of lhiga is not confined to the ritual texts
of Saiva worshippers, but is rather a pan-Indian religious belief which is
shared also by the followers of other gods.
Hikita's two articles are also characterized by a large number of foot-
notes in which he discusses many ritual elements. These footnotes in ef-
fect constitute a glossary of t,echnical terms of post-Vedic ritual and the
reader can make effective use of them with the help of the Sanskrit word
index at the end of this volume.
At the beginning of the introduction I emphasized the discontinu-
ity between the Vedic and the post-Vedic rituals. In Hikita's two articles
we have m.any cases where the Vedic mantras are used in many post-
Vedic rituals. It is even prescribed that the brahmins who repr,esent the
8gveda,. Samaveda, Yajurveda, and Atharvaveda ar,e employed to recite
their respective Vedic mantras. Do these facts contradict the assumption
of discontinuity between the Vedic and the Vedic rituals? I say no.
These are only the revival of quasi-Vedic elements in the post-Vedic rituals
having no connections with the Srauta traditions such as the
homas, and so on which have been discussed by Einoo and Tsuchimaya.
A favourite use of the piin}iihuti as a concluding act of the fire oblations is
one example. In their articles Takashima and Hikita mention the sarpskli-
ras beginning with the garbhlidhana to be performed to the newly born
fire that is also another instance of the revival of qU'Isi-Vedic element.
J This is prescribed in AgnGS 3.9.3 [169, 1-10]. Besides the passages to which Tal<a-
shima and Hikita refer this ritual act can be found in g,everal PUral)lls. such us AgniP 48,
8havi.ryaP I. 136, DevfP 126.15cd-I' 9, DevfblulgavataP 12.7.112-15a.b. 56.36-40.
It is quite possible that the post- Vedic use of the sQlrl.l'kam will be observClble in a large range
of rituallexts of the post-Vedic period. For one case in Buddhist TanUic lext, see Tanemura
The post-Vedic rituals left the arena of the Vedic ritual. They intro-
duced a completely different system from the Vedic ritual. They shared
a number of common features with one another. They borrowed many
r i t u a ~ elements from the Vedic ritual and combined them variously to give
a Vedic appearance but one can scent out a great differenoe between the
Vedic ritual and the post-Vedic ritual. I hope that this volume will contrib-
ute to a deeper understanding of post-Vedic rituals and of the discontinuity
between the Vedic and post-Vedic rituals.
__ _

The Formation of Hindu Rj tual
1 The Formation of' Hindu Ritual
The starting point of my research into the formation and development of
Hindu ritual was my experience of observing the performance of a daily
ceremony caned mahiidevapujii in a village in northern Bihar. Analysis of
this ceremony, the main procedure for thefirsl half of which is described
in a booklet called Sadiici1ra,l'are viljasaneyikrtyam, I makes it clear that
thh; ceremony consists of two parts. The first half is the modern Mithila
version of the traditional sarrzdhyoptisana, and the second half is the piljii
of fifteen deities, with Mahadeva in the fOfm of the parthiva [higas, or
lingas made of clay, as the main deity.
This finding led me La the study of the historical development of the
salfldhyopiisana and the formation of the pilja ceremony, the resuHs of
which were published in two of my articles, 'Who is the Performer of the
and 'The Formation of the PLija CercmollY'. In my
first article dealing with the sa1?1dhyoplisanG I attempted toi IIl.Jminate the
following points:
]. In several Grhyasiitras, the sar[ldhyopiisana is prescribed as a duty of
the brahmaciirin. The GrhyasOtras thal prescribe it are as folllaws:
Kii!hGS 1.25-28; MiinGS 1.2.1-5; ViirGS 5.30; Sii/ikhGS 2.9.]-3;
AsvGS 3.7.3-6; Kau1GS 2.6.3-5; JaimGSI.] 3,4
I This booklet edited by Pa':!Qila published by Babli Raghuvara Simha
Bookseller, MadhubanLis not dated. I have dealt with this ceremony ill an article wriiten
ill Japanese. 'Mahiidevapiijii: MithiHi chihou no jirei houkoku (Mahiidcvaplijii: A Study of
a Daily Ceremony Performed ill Mithilfi)'. !Julie/in oj'tlre National Museum of Ethn%gy,
l4-2. pp. 379-451.
2 Wiener Zeit,rchr([t .fUr die Kunde Siida,\·ien.r 36, 1992, SUpplClllClllbHlld, pp. 59-67.
J Sflulien zur Ind%gie und lranis/il.:. 20. pp. 73-87.
4 This means that the following GrhyasiHras do not givclhe prescription of the HJI!I-
From Material to Deity
2. Most of the older Dharmasiltras also prescribe it as at duty of the
brahmacarin or sndtaka. cr. for example, ApDhS 1.30.8; VaikhDhS
1.2 [112,11-12]; GautDhS 2.10-11; VlisDhS 7.16; Visl1uSm 28.2-3,
71.77; ManuSm 2.101-03, 2.222,4,93-94; YiijnaSm 1.22-25a.
3. There are, however. a number of texts that describe the sa'?1dhyo-
pasana as a duty of the householder. They are, e.g. VaikhGS 1.3
[3,17-4,14]; AgnGS 2.6.8 [104,16-106.,11]; HirGSS 1.1. 10-11 [4,23-
5,211, 1.2.3 [9,20-10,201; BaudhDhS -24; ParGSPS, Snana-
vidhi [410,22-411 ,9]; AVPS4I; KarPd2.1 1.54-64; VaikhDhS
2.10 [128,4-10], 2.13 L130,4-16]; VadhSm 109-128; YlijiiaSm 1.114.
Because in today's India the salfldhyoplisana is performed by the
householder, the prescription of the in these texts
corresponds to the modern situation at least as the performer of this
cer'emony is concerned.
4. In the texts that prescribe the sQn,tdhyopasana as a duty of the house-
holder, the ritual procedure of the ceremony itself is enlarged in that
the acamanavidhi, sntinavidhi, and tarparJavidhi are involved as
ritual elements.
Thus the prototype of the sa111dhyopasana that is performed in today's
India can be found in the texts enumerated in above number 3 above.
These texts belong to the level, because most of them have
the titles ending with Grhyapari§i$ta or Grhya§e$asutra [Einoo 1992:
64].5 I
In my second article discussing the formation of the puja ceremony,
my conclusion was formulated as follows [BinDa 1996a: 80-81]: .
1. The people, whose religious customs were not recorded in the
sUtras,. traditionally used fragrant paste, flowers, incense. and lamps
in religious ceremonies.
2. Some Grhyasutras introduced the use of gandha, dhupa, and
dfpa sporadically in some specific rites...
3. At the time of the latest GrhyasUtrasand the people
began to use this set of four items in the worship of personal gods and
goddesses of the Hindu pantheon.
4. At fir&t the items were usu.aUy used in combination with homa, or the
traditional method of offering oblations to the deities, and the whole
dhyopasana: they are KauJS, BodhGS, BhlirGS. ApGS, HirGS, VaikhGS. AgnGS, P'lIrGS,
GoMGS. and DrahOS,
5 See also S, Einoo. 'Chanaes in Hindu Ritual: With a P'Ol:USOIl the Morn.ing Servic,e',
Senri Ethn.ological Studie.f 36, 1993. pp. 223-33.
6See J. Gonda. Vedic Literature, Wiesbaden: Otto Harrasowilz, 1975. pp. 37-38. See
also M.S. Bhal. Vedic 1tmtri:\'m: AStudy of f.?gvidhanaoj Saunakawirlt Text and Translation.
Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1987.
7 See Gonda 1975a: 307-308 with relevant references. See also B.R. Modak, The
Anciltary Uterature of Ihe Atharva-Veda: A Study with Special Reference to the
New Delhi: Rashtriya Veda Vidya Pralishthan, 1993, especially pp. 189-482.
8 Gonda 197Sa: 38. See also B.R. Sharma, Siimavjdhana Brahmaf)owith Vediirtha-
prakiUaof Sayar;taund Padiirthamdtravivrriof Bharatasvamin, CrilicaUy Edited, Tirupati:
Kendriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha, 1964.
I) See K..P. Ain.hal, 'AgvllIiyanagrhyaparigi$ta, Edited by Ailhal', The Adyar Lib-
rary Bulletin. 27, 1963. pp. 217-87, especia.lJy IfltToduction on Pl'. 217-34.
lO See J. Gonda, The Ritual Sutra-f, Wtesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1977, pp. 609-10.
II Gonda 1977b: 610. See also Der Kannapradipa, I. Prapa!haka mit Ausl.ugen aus
dem Kommentar, des A.farka, lutrau.rgegeben und i4ber.ret"l,r von Friedrich Schrti.der, Halle
a, S.: Buchdruckerei des Waisenhallses, 1889. Der Karmapradfpa, II. Prapii!haka, Alex•.
a.,der Freilterrn von Smel-Holstein. Halle a. S.: Buchdruckerei des Waisenhauses. 1900.
Chintamani Bhattacharya reference to the Karmapradi:p.a in his notes written in
Sanskrit in his edition of the GobhGS.
12 Gonda 1977b:
procedure was prescribed according to the basic pattern of the Grhya
5. The madhuparka is a traditional Vedic rite to honour human guests.
In the course of time, some elements of the madhuparka were adop-
ted into deity worship.
6. The number of items offered to the deity increased, and the puja
moved away from the basic pattern of the Grhya ritual and developed
intoan.independent method of worship.
Again in the caSe of the puja ceremony we can find the first description in
those texts belonging to the level, such as AVPS, VaikhGS,
AgnGS, BodhGSS, HirGSS, A.fvGPS, and
Thus by analysing the mahddevapujii performed in today's India and
tracing the development of the two constituent parts, namely the sa'!1-
dhyopasana to be performed by a householder and the deity worship in
the form of pajd, I became aware of the importance of a group of ritual
texts that I collectively call the texts belonging to the level
The texts I intensively consulted in the present survey are as follows:
Samavidhiina Brahmat)a (Siimavidh),8
A/valiiyana (AsvGPA),9
Karmapradfpa (KarPd), I I
Vaikhanasagrhyasfitra (VaikhGS),12
The Formation ofHindu Ritual
10 From Material to Deity
Agn.iveiyagrhyasutra (AgnGS),13
BodhlJyanagrhya,fe\vasutra (BodhGSS),14
of the
of the Paraskara GrhyasiUra,17
As regards the date of the IJ,gvidhana, M.S. Bhat says: 'The 8gvidh is
older than all the other known Vidhl.na texts because it does notpresup-
pose any ofthem.... There is every likeUho,od that these works must have
been composed between 500 and 300 BC' (Bhat 1987: 19). He admits,
however, that the present text of the 1J.gvidhli.na contains rna.ny later addi-
tions, which are, according to his numbering of stanzas, as follows: 1.21
56 (an enumeration of various penances, mostly from the Manusmrti),.
1.72-78 and (on the efficacy of the gayarrfv,erse)" 3.21-
33, 79-114, and 134-230. On the last long passage on the puru$asukta-
v,dhiina he says that this does not form part of the 8gvidhana prior to the
ninth century AD (Bhat 1987:
B.R. Modak, in his book, The Ancillary Literature of the Atharva-
Veda (pp. 470-73), discusses the date of the Atharvaveda PariJi."a and
comes to the conclusion 'that the date of the compilation of the
Veda lies somewhere between second century Be which is the
date of the Manu Smrti and fifth century AD, which is the date of Vara-
hamihira' (Mori.ak 1993: 473). As to the date of the BodllGSS J. Gonda
summarizes as follows:. lit is certainl)' later than the Bhagavadgftii - in
BhG. 9,26 is quoted. In the grahasllnti (1,16) the names of the
planets occur in the Greek, not the Indian order. That means that the book
13 Gonda 1977b: 592-95.
14 Gonda 1977b: 586-90.
15 See Einoo 1996b: 263-68 where Einoo gives a table of contents of this lexl, men-
tioning the corresponding passages from the AgnGS. the Bo.dhGSS, and the BaudhDhS.
16 See e.G, Kashikar, A Survey of the Srauuua.rras, Bombay: University of Bombay•.
1968, pp. 11 1-12.
17 Grhya-Sarraby Paraskar, edited by Malladeva Oangadhar Bam. New Delhi: M\ln·
shiram Manoharlal. 2nd edn 1982, pp. 404·546oontain the Pari".,as of the PtJras, the sub-
jects of which are yaprkapata{ltJgartJ.mQde'llQtlJyat(Jnltna".. (I'. 404)•.(aucavidhi
and ltcamanavidhi (pp. 409·10). nitya.snanallidlJi (PI'. 410-11), salrldhyubrahmayajliavidhi
(p. 415), (p'. 417·18), (1"1". 423, 443. 456-57, 486, 497, 508-09.
519·20,531,538; on the pages between the given ones seyeral commentari'es Ilnd manuals
I.lil,e mentioned; the iriJddhasQlracorrespol1ds almost verbatim 10 the KlItytJyana.frlJddhakal.
pa given by W. Caland in his Altlndischtr Ahnenl'ult, Leiden: E.J. Brill, pp. 246,-52.. )
18 A.fvallJyani'ya.m GrhyaparW"am published in the Anllda Ashrams Sanskrit Series,
no, lOS, PI'" 141-83 as an appendix to the edition of the Ai'llGS. POl' the laumess of this text
see Aithal 1963: 230-32.
The Formation ofHindu Ritual
contains passages which cannot have received their final form before the
third century AD. It is even probable that some sections are still later, for
instance 2,15 which contains a reference to (Gonda 1977b: 589-
90). According to the same author the date of the Vaikhanasa Grhyasatra
,cannot be earlier than the fourth century AD (Gonda 1977b: 596).
As H. Jacobi states, all Indian texts that enumerate the planets in the
order of Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, and Saturn can be
composed at the earliest in the third century AD.
The same order appears, for example, in VaikhGS 4.13 [65,11-12],
and W. Caland admits the applicability of tpis rule to this text (Caland
1929: x.vi). We can find the Greek sequence of the planets also in AgnGS
2.5. t, HirGSS 1.3.4 [23,.25-26], AsvGPA 27 [260,7-10], and AivGPS 2.4
[153,9-10]. As mentioned just above, J. Gonda wants to find the same
order of the planets also in BodhGSS 1.16 by fonowing the statement of
P.N.U. Harting, who says, 'Th. Bloch notic'ed that in this ceremony the
sequence of the names of the planets is given in the Gr,ecian, not tbe Indian
order (1,16, sUtra6 and 7 in D)' (Harting 1922: XXIV). 1,16, sUtra 6 and
7 in D is our BodhGSS 1.16.6-7 which reads as follows:
bhiiskarangarakau raktau ivetau sukranislikarau /
somaputro gurus caiva tav ubhau pftakau smrtau /6/
krflJaf/1 sanaiicararp vidym ...
Sun and Mars are red. Venus and Moon are white.
Mercury and Jupiter are both said to be yellow.
One should know that Saturn is bla.ck.
The same verses are found also in JaimGS2.9 [34,4-6], HirGSS J.3.10
[28,28-29,1], and AgnGS 2.5.1 [76,14-16].20 If I do not misunderstand,
the Greek order of the planets is the order to which H. Jacobi refers, so
the order of the planets that I quote here from the BodhGSS I .16.6-7 is
not the Greek order. In describing thegrahaslinti, JaimGS 2.9, BodhGSS
1.] 6-17, and HirGSS 1.3.10
still does not follow the Greek order of the
19 H. Jacobi. 'BeitrKge lour indis'chen Cilronoloaie', Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgen-
Uindischen Gesellscha/t. 30, 1876. p. 306.
20 In the descript.ion of the 2.5. ] in the main follows the Qrieek order
of the planets, but only in the enumeration of the colours of the planets does this text adop,t
these verses. cenainly from the older tradition of thisceremol1y.
21 As mentioned above HlrGSS 1.3.4 [23,25-26], in the descripdon of the pur;ryiihtwd-
€ gives the Greek order of the planets, From this it follows that mrGss has parts that
are later than the BodhGSS. .
22 See M, Yano, 'Planet Worship' in Ancient India', in Ch. Burnet. J.P. Hog.endijk, K.
Plot'ker,and M, YIII10, eels., Studies in the Hij·tory oJthe Exact Sciences ill Honour of D!Qvid
12 From Material to Deity
There is another criterion for determining the date of a certain text,
name]ly, the occurrence of the weekdays named after the planets,
iog the sun and moon. It is assumed that ·this usage of weekdays
came known to India in the third century A0
and became common in the
fifth century AD.
As already suggested by earlier scholars,. some of the
texts belonging to the level employ some of the weekdays;
budhavara (Wednesday) occurs in VaikhGS 2.12 [30,2] (Caland 1929:
xvi); arkawlra (Sunday) in AgnGS 2.4.11 [74,12] (Gopal 1959: 80 and
91 );25 iidityaviira (Sunday) and angiirakavlira (Tuesday) in BodhGSS
3.4.1 :; HirGSS 1.6.10 [81.11]; and ravivara (Sunday) in BodhGSS 3.8.1
= HirGSS 1.6.14 [83,29]. Though B.R. Modak denies the occurrence of
the weekdays in AVPS (Modak 1993: 482), lidityadina in AVPS 17b.17.1
perhaps means Sunday.26
The concept of rlis; or the signs of the zodiac can, again, be used
as a standard for chronology of certain texts. The signs of the zodiac are
dealt with for the first time in the Yavanajlitaka of Sphujidhvaja composed
in 269/270 (Pingree ]98]: 81-82). This word appea.rs, for example, in
AgnGS 2.5.4 [82,16] and BodhGSS 3.12.1.
Finally I make mention of betel leaves (tambala), areca nuts (pilga.
phala), and a mixture of them (mukhavlisa). The app,earance of the word
tambala is sometimes used as an indicator of chronology. With regard to
the first introduction of tambala, however. there are differences of opin-
ion: according to Kane 'Uimbfila was probably introduced some time
before or about the beginning of the Christian era in South India and then
spread northwards' (Kane II: 734); J. Gonda says 'the use of betel leaves
seems to have been introduced into India in the first century AD' (Gonda
1972b: 2).27 W. Caland follows the opinion of H. Kern, who estimates
Pingree, LeidenlBoston: Brill, 2004, pp. 331·48.
23 See Jacobi 1876: 303.
24 The earliest epigraphic mention of n weekday is found in the Eran inscript.ion of
AD 484 (Hazra 1940; 83). This statement is based 011 J.F. fleet, 'Inscriptions of the Ea.rly
Gupta Kings and their Successors', Corpus lnscriptonum Indicarum. Vol. m. 1888. pp. 81
and 90. According to P.v. Kane. however, 'The cumulative effect of all the evidence adduced
above is to render it extremely probable. if not certaill, that the worship of the planets and
knowledge of the weekdays presided over by them was known to the Indians It least between
100 Be to 100 AD' (Kane II: 682).
2S We can add further AgnGS 2.4i.ll [73.12] adityavara (SundllY); 2.7.6 [113.1], .\'Oma·
vara (Monday), arkavara (Sunday), bluAumavtlra (Tuesday). and lanaUcara (S.atliJrday). In
AgnOS 2.5.4 [82,8] appearsjanmavnra which means the weekday of birth.
26 S,ee Kane II: 679-82.
27 1. Gonda refers to P.K. Oode. Studies in Indian Cultural History, I, Hoshia.rpuf•. 1961.
pp. 129(.• 159, and 16S, and toP.V. Kane, History uf Dharmalaslm, n, Poona. 1941, p.. 734.
2 . Ma·I,l·4apa
211 For the plan of this sacrificial ground see A. HiIlebnmdt, Dasaltindische Neu· und
Vollmondsopfer, Jena: Gustav Fischer, 1879,p'. 191; Chitrabhanu Sen, ADictionary of 'he
Vedic Rilu,ab, Delhi: Concept Publishing Company, 1978, Plan 4; H. Krick, Das Ri'ual der
Feuergri4ndung, Wien: Verlag der 6sterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1982,
p. Ch. Z. Millkowski. Priesthood in Ancient India. Wien: Institut fur Indotogie der Uni-
versiUU Wiel'l, 1991, p. 13.
In the Sraula rituals the devayajana, or sacrificial ground. shows some
variations in form. The simplest one is that used for the darsapur1J.Q.mlisa
and other It mainly consists of three fire sites, i.e. the site for the
giirhapatya fire in the west. that for the ahavanrya fire in the east, and
that for the dak#1Jiigni or anviihliryapacana fire in tbe southland the vedi
surrounded by these three fire sites.
The sacrificial ground for the palubandha is enlarged by construction
of the uttaravedi to the east of the lfhavaniyafire she and by ere'ction of
13 The Formation ofHindu Ritual
the introduction of the habit of betel-chewing between the Carakasarrzhitii
and Susrutasarrzhitii, which means around the fourth century AD (Caland
1929: xv-xvi), and on the basis of the first mention of tiimbiila in the
Gupta inscription no. 18 in the year of 473/4, A. MuUassigns the date of
the introduction of this habit to the fifth century AD (MuB 1988: 5).
In the texts under discussion these words appear in the following pas-
sages: tambala,. in VaikhGS 10.13 [143,5] (Caland 1929: xv), in AgnGS
2.4.10 [73,6] (Gopal 1959: 91),3.3.1 [131,13], [132,4], HirGSS 1.1.18
[8,8-11], AsvGPS 2.12 [160,25], 18 [165,17]; mukhiJvasa, in VaikhGS
2.16 [34,4], 4.4 [58,4],4.12 [65,5],5.13 [85,.10],; pagaphala appears in
AsvGPS 1.24 [152,7]. The tree of the areca nut is caHed kramuka, and
this appears in VaikhGS to.13 [143,5], BodhGSS 5.7.1 [398,3], and Hir·
GSS 1.6.24 [90, l7].
Thus the texts belonging to the contain many elements .
that clearly suggest their late composition. In the text that follows I will
further discuss the formation and development of Hindu rituals by select-
ing several ritual elements that play very important roles in Hindu rituals.
In this discussion I will work on the hypothesis that the texts belonging to
the level. with the exception of the Asvalayanfya Grhya-
were composed at latest before the Brhatsa111hitii. namely, the
end of the fifth century AD. and that the Hindu rituals that were described
for the first time in these texts were further developed in the PuraJ)a texts.
and were adopted by the Tantric texts in a major way.
14 From to Deity
the yupa, or sacriftcial post, to the ,east of the uttaravedi (Schwab 1886:
22-30 and 65-74),29
For tbe performance of the varUfJ'apraghIJsa,. which belongs to the
cdturmiisya, the construction of twa vedis is required, one constructed
according to the method for the ved; for the paiuba.ndhaand the other
like that for the (Binoo' 1988: In the agnif,oma to the east
of the sacrificial ground, which is just. like that for the a much lal'ger
ground is prepared. This is calledamahavedi, or great Yed; and contains,
among others, a sadas hut, a havirdhlina hut, the uttoraYedi, and the yapa
(Caland and Henry 1906: 74-6, 85-91, and 97-9).31
The most complicated on,e is that for the agnicayana, where between
the havirdhdna hut and the sacrificial post a five-layered cit; is constructed
using many brkks.
In the Srauta rituals several kinds of huts are constructed on the sac-
rificial ground. In prescribing the agnYlidheya, it is taught thai the three
sacrificial fires of tbegdrhapa,tya,. ahavanrya, and dDlqir;zagni are estab-
lished in a hut that is called variously: laM or vimita (58 3.1.1 ..,6); agll- '
ra or vimita (Ba.udhSS 2.12 [54,5]); stilil (BhllrSS 5,2.13; HirSS 3.2.(34)
[298,6]; MiinSS; (ApSS 5'04.1); agnUalll (VaikhSS 1.2
[3,7]); agnyagara (KarySS 4.7.8). The val1lia, or central beam, of this'hut
is directed either from west to east (S8; BhIJr5S 5.2.12; VaikhSS
1.2) or from south-to north (ApSS 5.4.1; HirSS 3.2. (34): KlltySS 4.7.9;
MiinSS; VarSS (Krick 1982: 62).
In the agnifloma there is a hutcaUed prlJcmavarpia, or hut, whose
central beam is dire'cted to the east. and this is tbe same as the hut tbat
was mentioned in the agnyiidheya (Renou 1939: 489-90). To the west of
this hut there is ano,ther hut for the wife of the sacrificer. which is eaIled
'ilr hut of the wife (Renou 1939: 490-91 ).. In the mahavedi there
are two rather big huts: one is the hut for the ht;lVirdht1na carts (Reno,u
1939: 491-94) and another is a hut called sadas (Renoll. 1939: 49'6). Thus
29 For tbe groundpla.n of this see Sen 1978, Plan, Sand Minkowaki 199].: 14,
30 The around plan. of this is given in Son 1978, Plan 6,
31: For the ground plan of chis see Caland and Henry, L' Agn/llomtJ. Tome prem!,."" Paris:
Ernest Leroux, 1906, PI. IV; A. Parpo,la, Th, .., o/lJJ,,"yano and DrllhytJya(ltl,
Vol. I: 2, Helsinki: Helsililifors, 1969,.1'1'. 16-18; S,en 1978. Plan 3; Minkowsk)' 1991: 13;
and K. Mylius. WCJrlerbuch des al,ind'.f.chen Rituals. Wi,chtl'ach: Inlltillt fUr IndololJ.le. 1.995.
1'1'.. 146-47,
32 Airoundplan·of the slcrHidal ground for Che dgnicQ'Qna Is aiven on the inside cover
of F, Staal, Agni., Vol. I, Berkeley: Asian Humanities Press, 1983. for me very comp.licated
action of the construction of the five tlds see Stu) 1983: 369-S08 and R, P. Kulkarni. La)/out
and Construction of Citis, Poona: Bhandarkar Orienla! Reaclfch losti.tUIe, 1981.
'(I have proclaimed) your wonderful deeds', etc., is the mantra for
the maIJ{lapas.
in the Srauta rituals we have several kinds of huts. What is important in
connection with the study of the word maIJfiapa is that none of these huts
is ever called ma·'Jflapa in the context of the Srauta rituals as suggested by
Renou in his discussion of the hut for the havirdhiina carts (Renou 1939:
In the Grhya rituals it is rather rare to hear about the use of a spedal
hut for the performance of a certain rite or ceremony. As J. Gonda points
out SiilikhGS 1.5.2 and PiirGS 1.4.2 refer to tbe five occasions on which a
temporary hut is constructed outside the house (Gonda I 980c: 234):
paflcasu viviihe cuflilkaraIJa upanayan.e kdiintesfman-
tonnayana iti
On the following five occasions, viz. the wedding, the tonsure (of the
child's head), the initiation (of the Brahmacarin), the cutting of the
bear, and the parting of the hair [of a pregnant woman], (on these
occasions) in the outer halt (Oldenberg] 886: 20)
According to the three GrhyasDtras belonging to the Taittiriya school,
Le. BhiirGS 2.8 [40,3], ApGS 7.19.14, and HirGS 2.3.2, two huts, called
kU!i, are made in the rite of the ialagava, and the officiant invites the
god SUlagava (BhlJrGS, HirGS) or !tina (ApGS) to the southerly hut, the
goddess to the northerly hut, and the aod Jayanta to the middle
between the two huts. The AivGS, HirGS,. and AgnGS prescribe the use
of a maIJ{ialiiglJra, or round apartment, in certains rites, that is discussed
below in the section on the malJflala.
On several occasions the KauJS makes mention of the usage of a hut
caUed vimita: Kau§S 24.3 in a rite for obtaining prosperity of cattle, 32.14
in a healing rite against dropsy, 34.3 in a rite to prevent abortion,. and
83.25, 84.6, and 9 in the funeral rite. )t is interesting to note that the
commentary called Kau.sikapaddhati on KauiS 32.14, 34.3, 83.25, and
84.9 paraphrases the word 'vim/ta' with ImalJ{lapa'. This says only that
at the time of the composition of the Kauiikapaddhtiti, namely, in the
eleventh c,entury (Kauiikapaddhati, Introduction, pp. xxxv-xxxviii), the
word 'mat;tflapa' had become preval,ent, but it was not so in the age of
the KauJikasutra. In the whole corpus of the Grhyasiitras there seems to
be onl.y one passage where the word ma1J4apa appears. This is KathGS
71.14, and the text reads as fonows:
pravo.rp dalf1sarrzsrti 1.116.25,. KS 17.18 [262,10-11])
The Formation ofHindu Ritual
16 From Material to Deity
According toa commentator, Brahma[:Jabala, the word •maf)papaI means
a small hut bui It for the inaugura.tion ceremony of a bridge: ma1J.flapa'?l
praslidikam. Another commentator, Devala, offers
two interpreta.tions: "ma1J.t;iapa' means either an oblation made of barley
(ma1J.flapaniirrz yavamayiintim) or a bridge (malJpam udakam ucyate I malJ-
t;iarrz pibatfti setur L. Renou follows the
second interpretation of Dev8.la (RenouI939: 492), and J. Gonda says
that' the word is used in a sens,e other than a sacrificial pavilion (Gonda
1980c: 234). It seems to be possible that the term I mat;lf/apa, here means
something like a bridge, because this sUtra occurs among the descrip-
tions ·of inauguration ceremonies: the preceding KillhGS 71.12 refers to
the varuQayajna which corresponds, according to the commentaries, to
the inauguration ceremony ofa tat;laka, or pond,33 and 71. 13 describes
the ki1payajiia, or the inauguration ceremony ora well, and the
ing sutra ]5 refers to the vana.spatiyajiia, a ceremony for the planting of
trees. So the word ma"flapa means a certain construction the inau.guration
of which is celebrated by reciting the mantra quoted ·in Kti!hGS 7] .14, but
we cannot say exactly what it is.
It is again in the texts of the that we can find a fuJI
description of the mal)t;lapa. AVPS 21, entitled sa'tlbhllralakfana. or the
definition of the sacrificial ingredients. describes a ma1Jflapa in
as follows:
bhumif?l saf?lJodhayet karla prilgudakprava1J.e subhe /
pracfrrz sarraJodhya yatnena tatra ktlrayet /41
vapi milam I
caluraJra/T1 caturdvaram ekordhvadvaram eva va /4.5/
tata TJllnakol)e tu snlinavedi/T1 samacaret I
daJadva:daJaoosta'tl va yathlivitlinam eva va /5.11
caturgu1J.0cchr.ayiU caiva malaslambhiis tu ye I
upasthambhlis tu ye ptlrsve tadardhena /21
kumbhal;z stambhair tathli kama;r dvaral?1 diSiJ'?I smrtam I
yajamlinocchrayam vlipi tadardhena /3/
kUl',I{ilikrti grha'tl kuryiJd dvigu1J.al7l pariver1!itam I
p1ava111 calva kul;lfiasyordhva111 nacha:dayet 15.4/
padlo dvadaiaslhunaf?1 tu madhyatal;z I
arcita111 pi1jitaf?1 nityatrt santau Jlintigrha.'f1smrtam 16.]1
netradyulloeaiobhitQ111 nlinavar1Jadhvajakulam I
rakta pftii ca dhamrli ea nfltilha pli1J.flura /2/
33 For the inaulura.tion ceremony of II water reservoir. see Elnoo 2002.
1suppose that the verse 5.2 and 5.3 are reversed in order, and the height of the main
pillar is measured according to the sacrificer's height. By this reading it becomes mlllch
easier to understand the meaning of 5.4: 'lhe form of a fire pit' is designated by the facl tha.t
the main centre pillars arelwice as hilh as the surrounding
3S fer the form of the fire pit which is a mOlllnd of a double structure consi.sling of
a lower cylinder and a smaller upper cylinder, see p. 21. But here the entire structure is

36 These twelve pillars around the pavilion and the (aurin itscelllJ'e divide the pavilion
itself into nine small squ.ares (see siltra 21.4.5); the four pillars in the centre are the main
pillars. and thelwelve pillars are the sub-pillars m.entioned i.nsiltra 21.5.2.
vicitrtl hfndranrtabhti pataktl!J /
syamii pattikil!J I
kalastln tatra 141
vastrer,uichiiditiin kuryiit sahirafJyiin prthak prthak /
. mat;limuktiiphalaiJ;r hrdyaiS ca madhurailJ phalailJ /5/
samanttid vinyastaiIJ pradfpaiS clipy alafpkrtam I
The text itself contains many passages that I cannot interpret correctly, but
I give here my tentative translation:
The performer should purify the earth on a clear ground that inclines
to the direction. After having purified (the earth) in the
eastern direction, he should cause to build there a pavilion (ma1J.t;iapa)
carefully (21.4.4), which is divided into nine sman squares (navako$-
!ha?) or consists of only one square (sarna?). The pavilion is quad-
rangular, each side having a' length of sixteen hastas; which has four
doors or has only one high door (ekordhvadvara7) (4.5). Then, in
the north-eastern comer (of the mafJf!apa), he should make a bathing
altar. (The ma1)(1apa can) also have a length of ten or twelve hastas
or can be of adequate extent (yathlivittlna'!) (5.1). The main pillars
are of four· times the height [of the sacri ficer]34 and of half height
of that are the sub-pillars in each side; so it is taught (5.2). Water
pots arelO be placed at each pillar. The size of the doors pointing to
each direction is as one wishes or of the height of the sacrificer or of
half his height; so it is taught (5.3). One should make the hut (grha,
namely the mafJflapa) of the form of a fire pit,35 twofold surrounded
which means the stair-like form of the hut). It should be
roofed with (plava) in all directions, but the part of the
hut lying just above the fire pit should not be covered (5.4). There
are twelve pillars around the paviHon; in the centre there are fOUf
The Formation of Hin.du Ritual 17
18 From Material to Deity
This is called the hut of thepadficatory ceremony (Stintigrha)
which is always honoured and revered in the pacificatory ceremony
(6. J). It is adorned most beautifully with a canopy like the eye and
so on (n.etradyulloca}37 and provided with flags of various colours.
There are sixteen flags, the co,lours of which are red, yeUow, grey,
black, dark blue. yellowish white (6..2), variegated, and sapphire.
[There are sixteen flags, the colours of which are of the colours of
the rainbow, grey, black,. dark blue, yellowish white (6..3), yellow,
red, white, and dark green.]38 Above the sixteen water pots there is a
big flag (mahlidhvaja?). (6.5) One should cover the wa.ter pots with
cloths and provide each of them with gold, ger:ns, pearls, a.greeable
flowers, and sweet fruits (6.4). The pavilion is decorated with lamps
which are placed in each direction (6.6).
A sacrificial place which is described in AVPSI8.L5-12 in the pre-
scription of the hastinfrlijana, or lustration ceremony for an elephant, even
though the word ma'J4apa is not used, seems to represent a ma'Jtlapa;
there are mentions of an arch (toraIJa), flags (dhvaja), gada.nds (mtilya),
banners (patlika), a pillar (stamblta), an altar (vedi), and water pots. As
Gonda suggests, AVPS 19b.I.5 refers to the construction of a fur-
nished with banners, an arch, a.nd doors (Gonda 1980c: 234). AsvGPS4.4
[176,13-15], in prescribing an inauguration ,ceremony of a temple,. briefly
describes a l/I1a1J(lapa that has four doors with arches made of wood of
the udumbara, a/vattha, and nyagrodha trees,and flags and
ners the colours of which are gold. red. black,grey, pearl)!•. variegated, and
white, being only the seven colours mentioned. According to BrhatS 59.1-
3, to the north or east of the main place an adhivasanamal'Jf!apa for the
installation ceremony is whkh has fOUf tqra"as and eight garlands
aDd pataktis, and the colounof these ,eight patakiis are variega.ted, red,
black, white, yellowish white, variegated. and yellow. Thus a ma':lIi1apa.,
a temporary sacri.ficial hut. has as the main elements of its construction
arches and flags or banners. The mal)t;lapa is also decorated with flower
garlands and provided with water pots. When We take these characterist-
ics o,fthe ma1Jflapa into consideration, a spedal altar constructed for the
performanc,e of the dhruviUva ceremony. as described in ManOS 2.6.4,
can be taken as an early of the ma"t;lapa. The des,cription runs as
37 Does it mean that the top part of the hut is decorated with drawinas of the eye.s Uke
the temples in Kathmandu?
38 The second enumerati,on of eight colours of the AliI liven in 21.6.3cd-4ab seems to
.be another opinion given in the form of a later addition.
priig astamaylin griimasya purastad va sucau dese
,svatthasylidhastlin nyagrodhasya vapcim vii samfpe vedylikrtirp kr-
tvii tasyam avasaktacfraya/fl gandha-
sragdamavatyarfl caturdisal?1 vinyastodakumbhasahiralJyabfjapi!ikiJ-
yam sarvagandha-
sarvaratnlini copakalpya pratisaradadhima.
dhumodakasva.stikanandyavartavatyarn agni'11 pra1)rya
After having gone out, before sunset, to the north or to the east of the
village and having prepared on a clean spot, under an Asvattha (Ficus
Religiosa) or Nyagrodha (Ficus Indica) tree, or in the neighbourhood
of water, a kind of altar, and having made ready on this (altar), which
should be quadrangular and provided with branches of forest trees,
which should be hung with strips of (coloured) cloth, which should
be fuU of perfumes, wreaths and garlands, and should provided
with a multitude of untwisted (1) white garlands, upon which should
be placed, facing the four quarters of the earth, jars (fined with water)
and baskets filled with a mixture of grains (of rice, barley, et.c.) and
pieces of gold, which should be full of f1our-,cakes, layers (of grass),
baked grain, pastries (?), auspicious objects (amulets, etc.), fruits and
unhusked barley-grains, all kinds of perfumes, all kinds of juices, all
kinds of herbs, aU kinds of jewels, and having brought the fire (to
this altar), which should (further) be full of cords, sour milk,. honey,
'exhilarating', 'auspicious' and 'joy-bring' (whe.at).
(Dresden 194]: ]29'-30)
A simpler description of this special altar is given ill KlilhGS 52.2
(Dresden 1941: 130). The very fact that this special altar is used in the
dhruvasva ceremony is important in that, as Dresden himself points out
in a note on p. 127, this is a Vedic precedent of the Hinduistic royal cere-
mony of lustratioo for horses,. which is known as nfrajana.' Because this
close relation to the royal ceremony al.ready existed in'the time of the
Grhyasutra, the assumption becomes more plausible that tbe tradition of
the construction of the maf,lflapa seems to have originated in the royal
ceremonies as described in the and Brhatsa/fl.hiUi.
In the PuraQa texts we come across ample mentions of the ma'lflapa.
In the course of ti me the word malJflapa' has come to denote .a group
of temple structures that are subservient to the main temple (Kramrisch
1946: 254-8). The mar;z{lap.as that are described in the AgniP 41 and Mat-
syaP 270 are these subservient buildings. There are a great number of
passages, howev,er, where the mat;/.flapa in the sense of a temporary sac-
rificial hut is described in great,er or lesser detail. In the description of
the ceremony, to the study of which this volume is dedicated,
The Formation ofHindu Ritual 19
I ,
20 From Material to Deity
the following texts offer some examples: AgniP 95.16cd-32ab;. Garut;laP
].48.. 4cd-22; LingaP 2.47.21 cd-26; MatsyaP 264.13-21; SambaP 29.15cd-
21. Apart from the ceremony there are many ritual occasions on
which a ma1J.4apa is constructed.
Thus the tradition of building a mafJflapa in a ceremonial rite began
in the prescription of the AtharvavedapariSi\'i!a and was handed down
through the Pura.Q8 texts.
3 Kunda
, ,
The sites where the three Srauta fires are s,et up are caned iiyatana.
order to set up fires on these sites they are prepared simply by an act
denoted by the verb ud-han- and by sprinkling with water,41 and the verb
ud-han- probably denotes an act of digging up and throwing up of earth,
so that a shallow hollow is made.
The procedure thatis prescribed by VaikhSS 1.2 {3,8-I2l for construc-
tion of thegiirhapatya fire site is a litUe more complicated. The text runs
as follows:
39 Here I give a list of passages where Ihe 1na1,lpapa is described. This i.s. naturally,
not exhaustive. The name of the rile Is. given in parenthes,es. Bhavi.yyaP 4.. 74.24-28 (Mrma.
dvad"ffvrata); I 38.3Icd-34cd (durglJpiljll); 142.21-28ab (kotihoma); 143.12ed-23 (maM-
itinti);147.32-40ab (kliflcunapurrvrala); 165. JOcd-18ab (bha,niddnavl.dhi); 175.29-5 J
(tulapllruladlinavidhi); J76.17-38 (hiror;lyagarbhavidhi); LirilaP 2.28.16-2411b (tulti·
purulavidhi); MatsyaP 69.35-36 (bhrmadvlldasiVrara): 83.10 (dhiJnyaparvata.dtJ/'I.a): 93.86-
JOOah (grahaslinti); 274.25-36ab NtlradaP J.17.90-93 (uaytlpuna of Ihe
yearly dvtldaifvrata); 18.23·26 (udyiipana of the yeArly pQrl;limOvrata); Put/maP 1.23.38-
43 (bhrmadvadair); 27.6--1 Oa.b (tapagavidhi); (udyllpana of the kamikavrata); 6.19'8.
1Oed· I Iab (bMgavata.raptiJhaJrava."avidhilna); ,SkandaP 6.267.11-20ab (tuliipurulovidhi); (durlJiipiijti); Vi.,"f)udlzP 2.1S9.2-8ab (nfrlljana).
40 BaudhSS 2.6 [41.12-13]; BhtJr5S .5.4.12; ApSS 5.9.1; Hir5S 3.3.6; Vaikh5S 1.2 [3.9].
Klity5S 4.8.141 calls them slhtlna.
41rs ud dhalili ... 4\1ok<10/;. BaudhSS 2.6 [41,12-16]1; V(JdhSS
BhlJrSS 5.4.12-13; Ap5S 5.4.1, 9.1; HirSS; Mlin5S'. Instead of the verb ud·
han- S8 uses uUikhati 'he draws (three) lines' (Ellcling.• 1882: 276); and KiitySS
4.8.14, following th,e 5B, says 'slhlJnam ullikhyabhyu.Jqya' 'The Adhv8.f)'U digs out Ihe earth
from the spol, spri.nkles it with water' (Ranade 1978: 119).
42 BhilrSS 5.4.12 agnyayaranll.ny uddhanti'The Adlwaryu should dig up the fire-pla.ce'
(Kashikar 1964: 112). ApSS 5.9.16 glJrhapa.tytiyatanam uddhatya 'Naehdem del' Adlw81'YU
... die ObertlHche del' Girha.patyastHtte aufgewfJhlt hat' (Cal and 1921: 14,ji). MlinSS
uddhatylivo!qya 'He digs Ihis up and spri.nkles it' (van Gelder 1963: 28). By doing the act
of ud-han· a certain amount of earth is dUI u.p Ilnd thrown away, so I cannot llliee withlhe
ill1terP,retation of Sparreboom et al.: Vt1dhSS Iff"y uddhatliny 'There are three mounds
of dug up earth' (Spa.rreboom et aL 1989: 46).
The Formation of Hindu Ritual 21
pasdme bhar iti gilrhapatyliyatana'!1 vrttarrt
slhalJ,flilatrt krtvii partlas
vistiira'fl hitvli madhye nimna'?J khanati tad
ardhvamekhala syat tatparigallim caturaligulivistiironnatilm adho-
mekhalarrt karoti
1n the western part (of the fire hut) with the mantra he makes
the round site of the giirhapatya fire by drawing a circle with a cord
having a length of 18 1l11guUs. He makes a round mound having a
height of 8 angulis and digs a hole having a depth of 6 a,igulis in the
centre of the mound by leaving out a round frame having a width of
4 Qligulis. This round frame left out is the upper girdle. He makes a
lower girdle having a width and height of 4 angulis surrounding the
round mound.
According to this procedure the fire site is no more a hollow, but
a mound ofa double structure consisting of a lower cylinder 4 angulis
high and 44 anguUs in diameter and an upper cylinder 4 angulis high.
and 36 angulis in with a hole 28 angulis in diameter and 6
atigulis deep in the centre of it. The lower mound is caned the lower
girdle (adhomekhalii), and the upper mound is caHed the upper girdle
. The word agnikuP;l(ia is stiB not used,. however. As Gonda suggests by
referring to AVPS 25, VaikhGS 1.8,4.1 and 6.14, the AVPS and VaikhGS
are the texts where the word agni.kulJ,fla appears for tbefirst time (Gonda
1980c: 175, 233).. VaikhGS 1.8 [9,14-17] reads as follows:
nityahome 'gnUiililyaf11 mrdll caturdiSaffl dViitri'11sadangulyiiyatlltrt
caturangulivistlirii.f11 dvyangulonnatllm ardhvavedirrz caturangulivi.
stiironnata'!'l tatparigatlirrt adhovedi'1'l ca madhye nimna'!l
lam agnikuPJ(ia'7l krtvfJ
For the daily and obligatory sacrifice he makes from clay in the abode
of the fire the upper girdle, at each quarter two and thirty fingers'
breadth long,. fOUf broad and two high; around this upper girdle he
makes the lower girdle, measuring four fingers' breadth broad and
high; in the middle of these he makes a hole of six fingers' breadth:
this is the place for the fi.re (the agnikuP;I{1a). (Caland 1929: 17)
43 VaikhSS 1.214,.2-4] and 1.3 [4,8-10] describe the construction of the fire sites for the
uhavtll1rya And the QI1IlQharyapacana. respectively. The bade form of double structure is the
same, but the lJhava.nrya is square in form and Ihe aflvahliryapacana has a fo'rm of a half
moon. the form of the fire altar. see Planche viii of SP I.
22 From Material to Deity
The basic pattern consisting of two layers remains, but the form of
each layer is now rectangular. The Ilowerlayer, here called adhovedi,
is 40 angulis long, 12 angulis wide, and 4 ailgulis high, and on this
lower layer is made the upper layer (urdhvavedi) which is 32 aligulis long,
4 angulis wide, and 2 angulis high."4 AVPS25, entitled the
definition of the fire site, and 30b.I.3-13 in the prescription of the brhalla-
give information on the agnikul)(ia. AVPS 30b.I.3, ] .8cd-9 and
] 1-12ab prescribe how to make a square kUfJ4a:
... kUfJtfam ekahasta'?'l dviha.'ua1fl caturhasfam anahastQfTl va ...
daiahaslarrz khanayet ... /3/...
dvadaiiingulamiinena ucyate /8/
mekhaliitrayam uddi.yam ubhaya1r caturmigu/am /
caturangulamiinena piirvapurviisamucchritii 19/. ..
caturtiaiiiJiguliilfl fa/ra yonil?" kurvfta I
bhaved vrttany. nirviihas tu II 1/
prii)iipatyii ca sa
He should cause to be dug up a square kwr4a with a length of each
side of ] cubit or 2 or 4 or 8 01""5 10 cubits and the depth is the same
as the length of the side. ... The field of the (upper) girdle is 12
angulas wide. Three girdles are shown. The other two, namely, the
middle and lower girdles, are 41 ailgulas wide. Each girdle is 4 angu-
las high.
... There the practitioner should make a yoni having a
length of 14 angulas which consists of a circle having a diameter of
8 ailgulas and a nirviiha having a Ilength of 6 arlgulas. The yoni in
the form of an elephanCs lower lip is called 'prajiipatya', or 'related
to Prajapati' .47
44 VaikhGS 8,6 [II: 5,18·116,3] prescribes the construction of a special fire site for lln
hermit (.Mimaka). which has three layers each having a height of 4 mlgulis, the lower one
being a rectangle 50 ar'lgulis long and 22 a"gMIi.f wide, the middle one 42 migulis long and
14 airgulis wide. and the upper one 32 anguli.l' long and -4 atlgl4lis wide.
45 The text here inserts in brack:ets ·samasralra.l'faifl vu drrghmrl va'. which I cannot
understand correctly.
41i Tile prescription of AVPS 25.1.12 in the kUf)flalakfu':Ia: 'mekhalti mrvaku,:!{le.y.u dvli-
da.fiirigulam I catumngMlamiinena purvf1piirva.l'umucchritli 1121' se,cms to be 8n ab-
breviated form of AVPS ..
47 ffirgSS 1.5.9 [57,23-29] gives another prescription of the {lgnikuf;lfla provided witJh
tile three layers of girdle linda yemi, but I cannot draw a dear piclUre of the ku/'}.(Ja according
to the description: geha.l'yeJiinadigbhage ku,!(la'!1 kurytid II
eel ararnidvayasa'f1yutam I kul)flaka,:!!htlf?1 parityqjya samantc'ld migulikramlJt II mekhaloc.
chriiyavistare eatustridvyallgulakramiit I paJdme madhyabhlige tu yoni11l bryiid l'idhtJna-
tal} II yonil!! s,aflariguli:;f{l tiryag dViJdaitinlluladairghyakiiln I a.vvalthadalcu·ufTlktWJrp kim cin
nlmndyatdl?1 .fubhilm II
The Formation of Hindu Ritual 23
Thus an agl1ikufJ,(1a has a hole or pit where the fire will be placed,
surrounding girdles of three layers, and a part called yoni, or vulva, of
more or less fat streamlined shape which is, according to HirGSS 1..5.9, of
the form of a leaf of aivattha tree. But the position of the yoni within the
kulJ4ais, at least according to the AVPS and HirGSS, difficult to decide.
According to the AVPS there are five variants of the square agniku1J-4a in
accordance with the length of the side. AVPS30b.l.4 r,ecommends the use
of the hu:z,fla of 8 cubits for the performance of the one hundred thousand
homas, but allows ·the use of other as other options, except the
kU1Jfla of 1 cubit. For the dimensions of the kUlft;las for the performance
of homas of various numbers, there are differences of opinion even in the
More interesting are the variants of the kurJ';ias in accordance with
their shapes. According to AVPS 25.1.3 there are eight varieties, the forms
being square, of the shape of a hoof, of the shape of a half moon,
gular,. circular, pentagonal, of the shape of a lotus flower, and heptagonal.
When these eight varieties of are used in one and the same rite, they
are placed at eight points of the compass beginning with the east (AVPS
25.] .5-8). AVPS 25.1.9-11 teaches the use of different kUrJ-flas according
to the differ,ence in the aims of the ritual performance: for the siintika, or
pacificatory rite, the kU'Jpasin the form of a lotus flower and of a square
are preferable.; for the abhiciira, or rite of a curse, the triangular kU1'J4.a;
for the or rite for subduing others, the kU1J-fja in the form of a
half moon; the hexagonal which was not mentioned in the enumer-
ation of the eight varieties of the is recommended for the
or rite for killing; and the octagonal, for the or rite for causing
Thus, we can find several early examples of the in the texts,
. belonging to the and this tradition of the construction
of the kWJ,flas has been transmitted again through the PuraQa texts.
411 AVPS25.2.5 SllyS Ihal a of I c\lbil is used in lhe ordinary homa. that of 2 ,cubits
in Ihe ten thousand h.(Jma.f, Ihal of 4 cubits in the one hundred thousand homns, and that of
8 cubits ill the one crore homas. According to AVPS 31.5.4 the kU1J(ta of 8 cubits is used in
the one crore homos, while that of 4 cubits is used in the hundred thouSlnd homas.
49 Por th,ese various kinds of rites see M.BloomfleId. The AthanlQveda and the Go-
paliza Strassburg: Verlaa von Karl J.TrUbner, 1899, p. 66 and J. Gonda. Vedic
lilerature, Wiesbaden: Quo HlltraSsowitz, ]975. p. 217. There is a highly interesting text
entitled wriuen by lli cerwin GIQeSa some time between AD 1619 and
,AD HI3'6. which teach,es mntllemotical rules for constructing various kut;lf!as of different
forms thlt have the same area asthllt of the s.quare (Hayashi 1987).
50 In almost aU the passages mentioned above where the ma1J(iapa is des,cribe,d, the
4 Ma.,eJala
In the texts belonging to the level:, we can find some early
descriptions of ma');;Lalas. In the medieval Hindu Tantric literature, ma')·
;;Lalas are very often used. They a.re circles, squares., or lotus-shaped in
form and a number of deities to be meditated upon are plac,ed in the vari-
ous parts of tbese diagrams.SI
In the Orhyasfitras there are places where the word appears,.
but in these pl.aces the ma1J.(lalais still something di (ferent from that
which is later very often used in rel.igious practices of it Tantric t.endency.
For studying the Araoyak.a the SiirikhGS (6.. 2.5-6) prescribes as follows
(Gonda 1980c: 233):
ma');;LalapraveJas ca iinjanagandhim iii etayarcll151
mar,z;;Lalarp tu pragdviiram udagdvliratrT vii janagriyam
':tam asa'1!badham 161
5. And the entering into the circl'e with this verse, "he who smells
of salve" (RV 10.146.6). 6. The circle should have its enlrance to
the east or to the north; it should be (praised as) exc·eUent amo·ng the
people,. not too spacious, not too nalTow. (Oldenbers 1886: 143)
Here on satraS Oldenberg notes that 'tbe Mar,4ala is a circular space
marked by a line of water: The A/vGS, in the description of the pu'rr.sava·
na, and the HirGS. in that of the simantonnayana, mention ma')flaldgara
or a round apartment as follows:
athiisyai malJ(1aliigiiracchayayli·rrz da.k#l,la.syarrz nasikiiyllm ajrttlm
osadhfm naslah karoti 1/ AJvGS ..
p I - -
He then inserts into her nostril, in the shadow of a round apartment,
(the sap of) an herb is not faded. (Oldenberg 1886:180)
.•. aparet:tdgni,." ma'Jflalagiire priicCm upavesya. . .. HirGS
(He then makes the wife) ... sit down to the west of the fire, facing
the east, in a round apartment. (Oldenbera 1892: 208)
construction of the kUIJ¢as is 1.180 pre8cri, bed. Here I add sever'ol other pa.!ls8.ges from the Pu·
rill)as where the usage of the kurxJas is stipullned: AS'lI.P
4.14L91-97ab (lak/ahoma); DevfP 26.1cd-5 ('II.alor dhtJr:iJ): 2.22.67·70ab (dh.nika
of the iilladrlqita); 2.25.2cd·7 (iivag.niklJrya);. MauyaP 9'3.12,1.-] 26ab (kolilloma); SkCllldaP
2.4. 12.9Scd-96 (dhiitrrhoma). See also Kulkami 1998 and Oup'ta 2'003.
51 J. Gonda,. Med/evclt Religious in Sanskri'. Wiesbaden: Ouo Harrlssow·
hz, 19'77, pp. 74-75. Por further references to the mQ':Iflala. in the Hindu Tantrlc texts, see
Gonda 1977a: 304. S.v. ma,,(Ia.la and Teun Goudriaan and SanJukta. Gupta., Hindu Tantrtc
and SliklaLiterature, Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowltz, 1981, p.. 237,II,V. ma"d,da.
.52 VclikJlGS 4.3 [56,5·6]., In describing 1.l1e (I\f!aktl, an old form of Ihe iriJ'ddhQ, refers
to this passa·le. AlvGP!!J< 2.14 .[ 161,25-26], in describing lhe ,{rlJcit/lw, says as foUaws: prlJ.
cyiJ1f/.tUCQU Ilr,,/Vif'fBOmayiJmblll,.stJ C:CUurcuram uttar""1 vtmulQqt:dalqi'.le mat,l(ialadl'a}'am
ullikhya; '.In the eastern part of the counyard of the house In lli clean place one draws two
..f with water mixed with cowduns, the north one bell'll quadrangular and that in
the soulh, round.' In these two ma'.lf/ala.T seats for the brahmins are to be p,repared. II is
Interesting to notc that the word m""f/"la hcreean indicate even a quadrallgular form.
S3 VaikhGS 3.7 140,9-10] ),,,t.ha hlti upalipyQparimrjya; 'With
the mantra: "Bven all ye did set free" (TS 4.9.15.w), etc., he besmeurs,'sunwise, (with cow.
dung) the circumference (of the fire), wipes Mound it' (Caland 1929: 7'). AgnGS 2.6.7
[1 02,161gomaya". maf;lf/a.la,,, 1"lVd, Interestingly enough for the study of Ihe usa.ge of the
repo'rts a modern USAge of a mat;l(lala In which, at the time of tbe vaiivathva.
offeri,ngs are made to various deities In 0 certain order, bUI he does not mention the oriainall
source of this dissram (Kane II: 747), hccording to the descriptions of the Or
o,fferi.ngs of the v.al/vat/eva are usually made 111 various spot.s of the house, but accordin, 10
KarPd 2.4.1-.5 oblotions of the va/fvadev(J ·are offered In oneceMain place, which seems 10
be one of the remote predecessors. of the modem CUSlom of using the mQt;t(Jata al the limie of
the vais\ladeva reponed by Kane.
5" I, 1,16 [7,19-21] vipriJt;tlJ'7' caluralr"m I I vlJilydnd".
wmulam iti I gomayen.Q mat;lf/atafTl krt\lt2 bho/(.lallytJ.m;'Por the
According to VaikhGS 2.1 121,5-7] 'the brahmins who are invited to
the ndndfmukha-sraddha sit down on seats within (Gonda
1980c: 234), and the here mean circular places. 52
In the description of the vaUvadeva,' the VaikhGS and the AgnGS
mention ma1J,!lala in the sacrificial ground. 53
In these examples the term 'ma1J,{Iala' still reta.ins its primary meaning
. of something ·round.
In the course of time, however. it seems that. the word ma1J.flalacame
to denote even forms other than a circle. In the directions for having a
meal. AgnGS 2.6.7 [1 19] prescribes as foHows: gomayena gocar.
mamiilra'71 caturafra'71 stha1J.flilam upalipya trikofJ,am upalip.
ya vaiSyasya vrttam upalil'ya bhojema'f1 kurute; IAfter having besmeared
a square stha':II;lila measuring a gocanna (when one is a bra.hmin), a
gular one when one is a a round one when a vaisya, (one should)
take one's meals' (Gonda 1980c: 234). Here the place where one sits in
order to take a. meal is expressed by the word sthar;t;lila. We have sim-
ilar rules corresponding to that of the AgnGS in PtirGSPS [547,2-4] and
HirGSS 1.1.16 [7, j]. In these two passages, the place of Sitting down
for taking a meal is called ma1Jflala, but the forms of the vary
in accordance with we have even a square or triangular mafJIflala
for the brahmin or the respecti.vely. In these cases the word'maQ-
fiala' does not denote something round; it has some specific connotation,
expressing a space of ritual importance, hence it can be applied even to
places that have forms other than a cirCle.
The Formation of Hindu Ritual
26 From Material to Deity
In the usage of the word I ma'Jfiala'in later Hindu Tantric literature,
we also see another connotation of the word that denotes the arrangement
of various deiUes invited to the sacrificial ground in a certain order. We
can perhaps find a similar idea already in the description of the utsarjana
given in the three GrhyasDtras of the Ta.iIUiriyas,chool. BodhGS 3,.9.3, for
example, begins with the prescription of the preparation of the seats for
various deities to be wo.rshipped on this occasion:
apiitrl samTpe stha1;u;liltini krtvd darbhan a'1yonyasma; "a171pradtiya
darbhair ilsanlini kalpaya."t; brahmtl'Je kalpayami prajdpataye ...
arundhatyai kalpayamfti /3/
Having prepared the sacrificial grounds near the water, and having
given darbha blades to each other, they arran&,e the seats with the
darbha bl.ades, by saying '] arrange for Brahm!, for Prajlpati.•... ,I
arrange for Arundhati' .
Then to the south of them the seat for Agastya isarra.nged, after that
to the north the seats for various seers beginning wi:th KnJ:ladva.ipayana.
and again to the south the seats for the sages bellonging to the Tainiriya
school and the s,eats for the ancestors of the partakers of this rite.s,
We cannot trace the development of the idea fmrn this arrangement
of the seats· for various deities, sages, and ancesto,rs in the utsarjana to
the preparation of the ma'!fi'da, but this arrangement at least offers an
interesting example of the expres.sion of the idea underlying the making
of malJflalas, that the divine beings are invited and manged a.ccording to
a certain principle on the sacrificial ground.
Even jf the word 'malJflala' is not used, we can perhaps aga.in see in
the position of the navagrahas an expression of an idea related t,athe mat,J·
fiala. Among the GrhyasDtras it i.s only the JaimGS, AgnGS, and VaikhGS,
brahmins a squat'ie, iii triangular for the k,atriyas, for the vslb'lulB circle. for a gadra a semi-
circle.· After hllving mode a ma"ciala with cowduns one should tHea meat' PfJrGSp$
[547,2-41) gomrdd bluu:manoda'keno. v, k.uryiJ'll ca,u,kol;latrl brllh·
..rya lrikof)a'TI k.,Qlriya.sya voi.fya.,,"ydbhy'ulqa.I,l"m §Qdrasya; 'One should
make a with pounde:d .rains of wild rice or cowdunl or ashes or WIler; a quad.
rangle for a brahmin. BtrbmgJe for a k,atliya., • clrcle-fQlrm for a va.ISya, and the sprinkling of
water for a gadr•.' A.fvGPS2, 11 [1(5,0,10]1 mentions only aca,ura:I'ram''',l(.lQla perho.ps for the
brahmins. For the used lithe time of laldn, a .mcal. Kane wrhtls as foHolws: 'Ac·
cording to the Bl'ahma.pul'lll)l .• ' lhe· (figures) for brllhmol)ls., k$IIrlyas, voi.g)'l.s
and §[idras should respectively be in the form of a square, a trl,angle. I circl"e and a crClIcent;
while according to Satlkha ... , Laghu-S.iUitapa 133. Atri , .. in the case of lhe Sadra water is
to be sprinkled onlhe afound below his plate'(K.ane II: I), The nde for the g,Odl'l liven
in the P(irGSPScorresponds to that siven in the medieval Dharma texts, such as the Sllnkba.
and Atri,
55 BodhGS3.9.3-8. See also BhiJrGS 3,.9.11 HlrGS 2.8.18,10-
He calls to their places the Seizers: the Sun, to the middle; to the
south of this place. Mars; to, the the Moon; to the north-
east, Mercury; to the north, Jupiter; to the east, Venus; to the west,
Saturn; to the south-west, Rahu and to the north-west, Ketu.
(Caland 1922: 60)
i.e. the Grhyasiitras of the level.
that prescribe the rite for the
appeasement of the navagraha. Ja;mGS 2.9 describes the posi-
tion of the nine grahas as follows:
grahiin aViihayanty iiditya'11 madhye lohitaf!1 (dak#lJataJ:r) purvada-
k$iIJata!J somamI piirvottarato budham uttareIJa guruf!1 purver;ta bhiir-
gavam I paJcime JanaiJcaraf!1 vidylid rl1hu'11 pasci-
mottarataJ:r ketum
56 The gro.havitlhi in the JaimGS is, according to Coland. borrowed from Bot/hGSS 1.16
" -
(Caland t 922: xi).
57 See Vo.lkhGS 4, 13-14, The description inA'gnGS 2,5. t is very similar to that of
BodhGSS 1.16 and HirGSS 1.3,10 and to some extent to that giv,en by AlvGPA 27 and 28.
BodhGSS 1,17 and HirGSS 1.6,1 lay down another method of the wonhip of the nine gra.has.
See also A§vOPA 2.1-9 and SiJn..tikalpaIO.7-17.8 [JAOS 33: For the grahailll'lt; see
M. Yano, 'Planet Worship in Ancient India', in C. Burnett, J.P. HOI.endijk:, K. Plo,(ker and
M. Yano (eds,), Studies in 'he History of the Exact Sciences in Honour of David Pingree,
pp. 331-48. LeidenIBoston: EJ. Brill (2004),
51 AVPS 66.2.lab-2cd: c:at14ro.,v,a'11caturdvlIram lJlikhel lalm III lasya
madhye 114 devda'11 Romayena nidlllJpayet J
The Formation ofHindu Ritual
The same position of the nJne grahas is described in other texts be-
longing to the level.
After having discussed several cases where the word 'map;flala' is
used, but not in the sense in which it becomes prevalent in the medieval
Hindu religious literature, and having discussed one of the important 00-
- .
tions underlying the making of the viz., that deities are arranged
in a certain order on the sacrificial ground, we now tum to the
tions of map;rlalas in the texts. In these texts there are at
first several examples of a simple constituting a clentral part of
the sacrificial ground but still having no arrangement of various deities in
it. For the go.filnti, AVPS 66.2.1 cd-2ab requires one to draw a
lar mal;l(lala with four doors in the middle of which is placed a figure of
Devesa made of cowdung.
For the brahmay/iga, AVPS makes use of adivy
that is quadrangular or circul.ar, having four doors. In the middle of this
divyamal;lf/ala, the form of a lotus flower is drawn with white flour made
28 From Material to Deity
of grain,. and a real lotus ft.ower is placed on Ihis figure which serves as a
seat of Brahma.
In the last two examples the form of the itself is circular,
but on this ma1Jflala a figure of a lotus flower is drawn. In laler times the
in_the form of a lo,tusflower becomes very popular, so these two
examples can be taken asearJy cases of lotus- tlIower-shaped mal.'If/alas.
In the description of tbe in AVPS 30b we find an
example of a proper mat;lflala:
purastad agner ildityildfn grahtin krttikildfni
svilsu diko1u lokapalan sarviJsu agnyadi-
devan AVPS 30b.l.14 .
After having established the grahas beginning with the Sun to the
east of the fire, to the north of it the nakfatras beginning with the
krttikiis and the lokapalas
in their own directions of horizon, one
establishes the gods beginning with Agni in aU the corners of the fllre
Here the word !mat:lf/.ala' is not used, but a number of deities are
arranged on the sacrificial ground in a certain orde',.ev,en if the exact
details sHU remain unknown. We can consider thi:s arrangement as a kind

In describing the ravikalpa., A.gnGS 2.4.. 11 prescribes a
shaped mat;l;;lala with eight petals and a perica.rp in its centre. On the
sacrificial ground this lotus flower is drawn with eight peta.ls I.uming to
the eight directions. and in these peta.ls pointing to fhe east,
59 AVPS t9b.2,3cd·S : tato mar,(LapamadJrye tu varta)'ed 1catura.ira.".,
caturdvarafll vrttiikaram athap; va 131 sitacurt;lena tanmadlaye likll,t padmaql .rrdoManam1
baldi ea ,{ubhrairnana /obha". pr"kalpayet 14/ madny,e PQ,dmOP'f!IU satrwhtJp)IQ
brahmiit:lam parame!varam / brahmajajflanasu.k.tena yell/loklam upa.kalpayel 15/. For Ihe
drawing of a lotus fl. ower in the quadrangular .rthot;lf/ila using sands see 3.12, I
[313,5-6] = HirGSS 1.6.18 [86,19-201 gomayt"a got:armamtJtralT'- cal.uraimtrl
upalip)'a prokfYa saikatenlivakrrya madhye paamapatra.qllikJlit'lltJ, AVpJ 19b,2.4c: mentions
the use of various colours in drawing the di'll)'amal}(laJa. Il'Ilel'll:lilll instfllctions fOIi the
struction of the malJ(lala, Agni.P 30,19-20ab, asP,V. Kane points out, specifies the materials
of five colours: the white colour Is preplll',ed tram crushed Bl'alns of 'ali rice. the red ca,l-
our from safflower, the yenew colour from turmeric, the black colour from burn,ed ,rains.
and the dark-green colour (.rytl.mQ) CJom leaves ofthe .tamf tree (K.ane V: 1133). cr. DevfP
and KtllP 86.44. Kira'.lCl. kriytJptJda 8.1 17ab enumerates dirfer,enl malerials of
five colors of white, red, black, yelloW and gre,en (Brunner 1986: 27). .
60 For the lokapiJlas see S. Einoo', 'Deities of the Tltllis and the Directions: Chonges
in the Conceptions of Time and Space' , in G. Colas and O. Tarabnoul (eds.), Rites hitld()u.\·:
transferts et tra.n.s!ormatio"9 (forthcoming).
6\ AgnGS 2.4.11 (73,15-74,3] atllavti bMmau vilikhed sakan:""kam II pur.
vopatre nyasel sQryam asneyya'l1 co divllkaram / nyasya yamye viva.Tvum",?l nairrlyli'?l 114
bhagaf/1 nyaset /I varw;Jatfl pa,{cime patre vdyavye cfndram eva ca I savitclrarn athai£iinyiim
dditY"'rr, cottare nyu,l'et /I ,rakart;Jikl1p.urvtlpalre nya.uuJ "rka,T' savdjinam / sahaSrdl7lil4'?1 da-
k..fif;ll co mdrt,J',1f/"'TllJa!lcime dUi II14uare lU ravb?! devarnlanmadhyebhaskaral7l nyase.r /I
62 AgnGS 2.4.11 [73.12-14; 74,4-5] wll" .vvobhiJte deJityavar:e adirye 'bh)'llditamiitre go.
mayena 8ocarmamlJtrcu71 caluralra'/l stha{l{1i1am Ilpalipya nuuJhye athava r:ajatalYf
va . ... eva,?, livl1da.l(lIditylJn yallu"ikrama'11 vinya.l:)'a tnadhye .varvildityarii.
pa".. vil1ya.fya.
63 .BodhGSS 4.18.1-2; JjirGSS 1.3.7 [2.5.14-19J sueau same dele gomayena gocarma-
mdtr",.,. abhyu.qya panca pew-
riJjatli.v tllmra mrnmayir vll yatMJ:a'7tbhavCJ'1l ,rh.T)iJti I madhye calurmukharn
vidyilt pQrve vajrit;lam eva ca I tu yamar" vidylU pa;{cjme varU{larn tathii I UUare
la/inam vidyllt ptJUkiJ,TthdpaflQl71 kramllt II.
M BodllGSS 4.20.2 [376,13-16]; HirGSS 1.6.22 [89, devalli.( cava.
and so on, are placed the eight Sun gods with the names of Surya,
Divakara, Vivasvat, Bhaga, VaruQa, Indra, Aditya, and Savitr, respect-
ively. The pericarp has fi.ve places, four to the four cardinal points and one
in the and these five places are occupied by Arka. Sahasrarpsu,
MarHir;u;la, Ravi, and Bhaskara.
As the quotation shows, this description is given in slokas and begins
with athavii, whereas the rest of the prescription of the ravikalpa is written
in prose, so we have the impression that this part is a later addition to
the rule of this rite written in prose. The ravikalpa in BodhGSS 3.8 and
HirGSS 1.6.14 is written in prose and has no description of the ma1,t(1ala
of the thirteen names of the Sun god. The prose part of the AgnGS, on the
other hand,. lays down the use of a lotus flower made of gold or silver put
on the quadrangular sacrificial ground besmeared with cowdung. and in
this lotus figure thirteen Sun gods arc invited and placed mentally.62
Another example in the ankurtirpalJavidhi in BodhGSS 4.18 and Hir-
GSS 1.3.7 is interesting in that here five ptiliklis, or five figures of Brahma,
and four gods of the cardinal points made of gold or silver or copper or
clay are placed in the middle and at the fOUf cardinal points surrounding .it,
and these five gods, Brahma, Indra. Yama, VaruI:la, and Soma, are invited
in these plilikas and worshipped properly.6J
In a rite to appease various unlucky portents that occurred in a village.
BodhGSS 4.20 and HirGSS 1.6.22 prescribes another type of ma.lJflala: to
the east of the sacrificial fire a place for the ma'!flala is prepared, and
one first invokes in the centre of it, Brahma to the south,
Tryambaka to the north, and to the east, and these four gods
are surrounded by the eight guardian gods of the directions beginning with
Indra of the east.
The Formation of Hindu Ritual
30 From Material to Deity
Among the GrhyaparUif,asthe seems to be the latest, being
regarded as Prayoga. orPaddhati, not as a P.arigi,·ta (Aithal 1963: 231), so
it i.s not without reaso'n that this text mentio,nls sev,eral rather complicated
marx/alas. In the prati"hlJv'i:dh.l, a quadrangular ma,,(lalais constmlcled
and its four comers are with svasriluJs. In the centre are pla.ced
Brahma. and Siva and in the eight directions, the eilhl gua.rdia.n
- -
gods of the directions. The foUo,wing description. is not clear enoulh to
give an exact image of the posi.tions of the deities to be placed. but it
says that in the spaces between the deities are to be pla.ced the following
deities: eight Bhairavas, ,eleven Rudras, twelve Adhyas., Vi§ve devAb.
S5dhyas, Nasatya.s. Marudga-:Jas'l Gandharvasand Apsaras's, Pitrga-:Ja.s
and auspicious sacred places,., and then Vighnega, Skanda, Durgl. and
In the inaugurad,on rite for a water reservoir, a dia.gram is drawn
of a lotus f10wer having sixteen corners surrounded by a quadrangular
ma1'J4'ala. In the centre of the lotus are placed golldlen figures of B.rahml,
Siva, and Vinayaka and in the surrounding spac'e are placed g,olden
fl.gures of fishes. Outside ,of them eight guardia.n gods are establi.shed in
their respective places; four wat,er potsfiHed with water are put. in the four
comers of the quadrangular and sacl1edrivers, the Ganges and
so on, are invoked in th'ese water pots.
It is interesting to note that AlvGPS 4.1e2 ,[ 175.7el'6J
and HirG$S
Myati yajlfapu,..,,,m iJlIclhayiJ'm; d'vtllya tJalqir,,,':O iJvdhaydml
tJvilhayilmldem')ld,N wls,upllrUlfJtra 4l>1tShay:lJmi 'fldl'fJdldelHJ.,iJl
cal.llihtlyiJm; ity 12vfJhya.
6S Ai",OPS 4.S [177,22-26]. As regards the elShl BhalrlvRIl SluIndaP 4.72.92-9'3
enumerates Ihefollowing names: RUN, Ashll'lll., KapAUn" Krodhana. Unmltta·
bnairava, SalTlhlraand 8M,a!)a, IDd Brahmd,,(lQP 2.64.84-8.5 enum,eratcll the follow'ln.
flames: Mahlibhairava, Sal11hlr.abhalrava, Allltlilgl.bhalrava, Rurubhmrava, Killabhairiva.
Krodhabhairav8. TimracQ4a. and
66, AfvGPS 4.9 The mQn:tnl1I1sedfor the lnvitad'on 0" the sacred: riven is
IO.75,S:/md", m' ,a:tt,e yamlln, ,orollla,i Jdtl4drl st6tMm "tical. pdr",,,, dI arilolyd
mtlrudvrddh, VildSlaid,.jrkrye Jr""hy d .ya IIi ,pallo.w my Ion. of praisc.yo,u 0Itt
Yamuna, Sar.a.svati, $utudri 10'lelhel' with .Par:u'I)Ti Listen to, you Morudvrddhl with AslkoT.
with Vitastli, Arjikiyl with Su,oml.' In this man'rtl ton name's of rivers are mentioned', and
we cannot say to wbicb wRter potl these riven are invo'ked.
,67 AsvGPS 4.1-2 [175.7-]16] pr/J,udfcy:tlm 'ra'bhya ptra"avldlnamo'n'I3:ltifmniJ IlItlli-
na", parjanya", ja)'CInlfl'1l k11IUayudha"a sllryQ'11 8al)'a'11 bh#am akiJltll",lolIyuIFIP",aI'JII'1!1
"imllla", g't:lllanalq,,'fI yam"trI',andharv
lFl mrgarilja", pi'''' .""'iJ,.,,",,,, """""",,, P"fptl·
danIa". asura'T/loka". pllpa;" roga'1l mQh.r", .lfIukhya". blaalMla". soma". S:tJrpl,.
aditi'T/ ·elaJdastJ ,.",drdn: p'Q)ayilV.
brahmabhavana.sya pQrvtidlc,,'urdilq'll a,nyadlcalurdiqu c" dfthanli ''I,U kMm,lpJl)Gma·
vivQsvanta". vibudhldhipa'T/ mllm". "lVayaq""'l,Iatr/ p,thv.rdhamm "'pava·
tstJl'fI ctJ pQjtJyltvll madhy, bmhmlll;lQ'7I stJI71pajay,tl krtvtl iikh)lfmtam try
eke Il/atha bahlr mat;lflallJd r.flll1ylJdicaturdik,u camkl'1fl vidfJrakf'1l putartiJ". pilpar4lqasfm
atka praSad; ca s"antiam aryamat;larp1 JrmbhQka.rp1 piUpiflja". ca pQjayitvlL
68 HlrO!tS 1.7.10 bmhmdf;lam SClv;tlJmrra v;vtuvantarra v;-
budhiJdhip"rra mitra". r4jay:alqmill)am pnhvrdharam ilpavatsatf1; li"hina.", par)"nya". ja.
yanlQ'fI kultJQ.'" sarya'fl ,fatya.f1I bhr.fam akasam vtJyu'fl pillal)Q'fI lI'tatha". b:rhacCMl'a".
)'amo". satu/ha
'1'l bhrn,art'Jja.rp1 mrgalfl pitrBa.l,laql: dal4viJrilcaql sUBr'tval1l PUlpadata.,lIka".
\lial'Ul)Qm a.rura'flsoka'fl piJpa'7' rosam haya'fl mukhYQ'fI bhalla"'m salJUJlchya". sarpGm adi.
ti'fl .d/tim; .rt'Jvitr:
l1l jtJ)'Qn.'a'7lrudral'fl;ctJmkfltl vi(ltllr". pilt,al'l4m; sluuatJa". YG'JIQ'"
jrmbhakarp pillpil.TtJm: lndram 0lni". )lamarra Ilir,ti". vil)'u'1l somam ualla".; u8ra.
lama.". (lilmaralfl mahiJkllla'1l plUyika'1l vllstupl4rUlam. .
69 For a list of these deities. see, e.l. BrhatS S2,43-50, Mayamtlla 7.34-41. For the
ftSllfeS of the arrangement of tl'les'e deities on the vil,tumQ(IflaltJ Iccordlng to the BrhatS.
see S. Kramrisch, Th, Hi",Ju Temple, Vol. I. Calcuna: University o,fC41cutta, 19'46, p.
32. Ind for those according to the Ma)'amala see 8, Dagefls, .Ma)'ama'a, premiere partie,
Pondlch'ry: Institut d'J.ndololi.e. 1970. Rlu.res 6 8J'Id 7. The folliowins.Puri(l1S
I've also this kind of Iisl: AgntP 93.9-30ab, BhavilyaP
253.21.od-32; 2.29.14cd-30 and 3.95.1: foUo JS8b, 1-6.
1.7.10 [105.26-106.2],68 in thei.f description of the rite for temple and
house construct.ion. enumerate deities to be worshipped on the construc-
tion ground, which is caUed vastumalJ4ala in the Ancient Indian archi-
t,ectural literature. This kind of list of deities on the construction ground
notably belongs to the fixed tradition of Ancient Indian architecture.
That the AsvGPS also follows this tradition can be seen from the fol-
l,owing passage: apal) savitrfm ekiJda!a
rudrtin pi1jayitvli'; 'And after having worshipped the Waters, Savitri, el-
even Rudras in two grids left out in the direction of isana.' Here the word
pada, as a technical t,errn in the architectural literature, means grids or
units into which the square ground plan of a house or temple is divided.
On the other hand, that the description of the HirGSS is under the influ-
ence of the vastuvidya is not certain. because it gi.ves only the enumeration
of the deities.
A remarkable point in the lists of these two texts is that the deity
situated at the south-east corner of the vastumalJfJala is Vayu. According
to the concept of the lokaptilas. the south-east comer is occupied by Agni
and four of the six texts mentioned in note 19, excepting the
and the MatsyaP, indeed mention Agni. or Agni's synonyms as the god of
the south-east comer. BhavifyaP 2.10.7b and MatsyaP 253.24d, on the
other han,d, clearly name Vayu as the deity just at this point and from this
we know that the lists given in the AivGPSand HirGSS do not repres.ent an
isolated tradition and that the tradition of the arrangement of the deities
in the vastuma':&flala has at least more than one variation. Furthermore,
The Formation of Hindu Ritual
32 From Material to Deity
outside of the vdstuma·1J9ala ,occupied by 4; deities, the A.lvGPS and the
HirGSS enjoin one to worship four deities at the foufcardinal points: a,e
the east Skanda, at the south Aryaman or Yama..; at the west Jrmbhaka.
and at the northPilipUija. or Pilipi!tsa. Agl'liP 9'3.28cd-30ab s.nd 105.1.3
inform us of a similar s,et of four deities; they are in the order of Stand.,
Aryaman, Jambhaka. or Jambha, and P'Hipinja or Pilipiccha.
, The names of the deities at west and north vary quite a lot in these
texts. Again, tbe tradition handed down by the AivGPS and the HirGSS
has another correspondence in the Agnipurdt;la which does nlol belong to
tbe proper texts of the architecture.
To sum up the devcJ.opmentof the concept of the maf;1flala inl the
Grhyasiitras and we can sa.y thaI in the earlier. o,r proper.
Grhyasii.tras the word is used in Us primary meaning. denoting,
something found. The ritualiistic use of the word implies some
ki:nd of arrangement of deities to be worshi.pped in a certain order. The
early 'idea of this a.rrangement of divine bei.ngs can bes,een in the descrip-
tion of the utsarja.na in the three GrhyasOtras bel!onging to the Taitt.idya
school. This .idea becomes clearer in the position of the navagrahas des-
cribed in the JaimGS, the AgnGS and the VaikhGS. all being regarded as
belonging to the Parisi"a level. In the the word ma!!-
flala designates a. form other than a circ:le, being square,. triangular, o,r
lotus-ftower-shaped. In these texts we have vario,us ,examplles of tbe maf;1-
flalas, ranging from a simple one having only one god i:n the centre of the
ma1;J(lala to a very complicated one, like the viJstuma·t;tflala des'cribed in
the HirGSS and the AivGPS.
It is a well-known fact tbat the employment of the maf)flalas en-
joys great popularity in Thntne Hinduism and Buddhism. In the PuraQa
70, AgniP 93.28cd-30ab tCllO m4lQudana'71 prlJcylJIfI sktlnd4,a vin/vedA)'" 12.81
dak.1i',liisilytl'T! piiplin krsamyl1 )'uldn I jambha.kl1ya ca rudlliriJl1vilQm /291
udicyll,!,pilipilijl1yQ raldiJnnal1l ""lumani ,·a. A,sn,P IOS" 13 carakfI'fJ skQndQviktJla'1t IlidiJrr".
pQtandn,l kramiJr Ijambhatrl p4pa'll pWpicchaltl YiVed rladiblJhycuat!1I31. Acca,rding co the
latter there are eiltlt beinls: Corald. Skanda, Vldbl, PoelUll. Jambha. PApa,ond
PUipiccha. BrharS52.81 Ilnd Mayamata 7.411ltlle that outside the vlJ.rtuma.1,I(kda are placed
four female demons, CaraJd, Vidlrl, Patanl,and Rlk,all,r/Plpl. on therour comers a!
east, south-easl. north-west. When the Iisl of ABrliP IOS.13 Is compared whh
thai of the latter 1W0, the reading of ABnlP lOS. 13ab seems 10 be corrupt We would ClCpect
the order of CarakJ. Skanda, Vidari. andPOtanllUld Vikata com,sponds Aryaman in
odtertexts. S,ce further Kl#hGS 54.4 grllylJbhyo n""dini .fubhage IIlIJI"ngQI.i blladtQrra/«JrDi
srakt/III "bhidok.pi,,"IJI 14/. In the IItd/vadeva these foul' female offeriflls, at
tli1e four c,omers of the house. The characters of these beinlll, as d,enoled by the namell. Ire aU
auspicious, whereas the female demoDllglvefl in the tellS of Itncl,ent Indian archicecture
may be ominous.
texts which describe even Tantric rituals we have a great number of
descriptions of and some of them show a highly developed
picture. In the prescription of the DeviP 65.58-59ab and Ka-
/ikiiP 86.56-57ab equally enumerate twelve kinds of mal)flalas, the names
. of which are as follows: vimala. vijaya, bhadra, vimiina, Jubha.da, J;va,
vardhamiina, dalva or deva (J(dUkdP), or (KiilikiiP).
kamadayaka. rucaka or rudka (KalikaP), and svastika.Wecan thus
suppose the practice of the construction of the mar,lflala had developed
into a rather complicated system. In prescribing the jayabhiofeka. LirigaP
2.27.40-228 prescribes the construction of a very complicated mafJ4ala
using one thousand water pots. There are also numerous occasions on
' 'h- . d / ., d 71
W IC. arna,:". a a IS use .
In this way the tradi.tion of construction of a ma,:"flala, which started
in the fully tlourishedalso outside the Tantric tradition.
The Formation of Hin.du Ritual
Excursion: SthandUalaksana
. .
In the Grhya rites the sacrificial ground wher,e the sacrificial fire is
Hshed is usually called
The preparation of the consists of several actions. PiirGS
1.1.2 describe them succinctly (Syed 1993: 255):
Having wiped (around the surface on which he intends to perform
a sacrifice), having besmeared it (with cowdung), having drawn the
lines thereon, having taken the ea.rth out (of the lines), having be-
sprinkl"ed (the place with water), having established the (sacred)·fire.
(Oldenberg 1886: 269)
The lines to be drawn on the sacrificial ground are sometimes caUed
or marks. However. not all t.he Grhyasfitras prescribe the drawing
71 P.V. Kane coillectsseveral passllges from tile Purl"asand other Hindulirerllure
c.ol1loerning description of the mt1f;1flalu (Kane V: 1132). I add fun:her. e.g. AgniP S9.4Ocd-
47ab: 29I.Scd-13ab. Bllav(QyaP 1.17.73-76;4.. 19; 11 r16.3,cd-6; 10.
Devrp 6S,.71cd-89. Garu(laP KllUkaP 63.5Scd-7Iab;
UngaP 2.19.6-25ab; 21.1-14: 28,47-52. NdradaP 1.116.2cd-6; U9.33-44. Matsy,aP 79.4-
8ab; 97..5cd-9.PadmaP 217·220ab; 22.78-82ab: 27.22-26ab. SiimbaP 29.22-
24ef. 103.2cd-7ab; 104. 37·59ab; 3. 167.2b-7.
72 Tills place Is designated L\lso by other words: e.g. agnylJyatanade/a (BodJaGS 1.3.1),
agnytJytlf,an,Q (AgnGS 2.3.1 [55.2]; VaikllOS 1.8 [9.5]), agnylIlayQ (VaikhGS 1.9 [10,2]),
34 From Material to Deity
of the. lines. It seems that four Grhyasiitras do not prescribe drawing lines:
BharGS, ApGS, HirGS, and Kti!hGS.
There are, again, several Grhyasfitras that mention drawing of lines
without teHing us exactly how the lines are to be drawn. The PiirGS,
mentioned above, is one of them. The ManGS 1.10.1 == 2.2.1, KauthGS 2
[4,15-16], and AgnGS L L1 [2,4-6] also belong to this group.74
The Hnes of the sthaf)rJ.ila are drawn to make certain figures. There
are several vadeties of figures. The simplest is that described in SiinkhGS
1.7.6-7 (Kane II: 208):
udaksal'!,slhl1f?1 madhye lekhtiJ?1likhitVf.l 161tasyai
urdhviim ekii1fl madhya ekiim uttarata ekiinl /71
6. He draws in the middle (of the sacrificial ground) a line from south
to north, 7. Upwards from this, turned upwards, to the south one line,
in the middle one, to the north one. (OldenbergI886: 23)75
This figure consists of four lines: one main line pointing t.o the north
and three lines attached to it in the eastern part of the The
figures described in GobhGS 1. 1.9-10 and JaimGS I. 1 [1,2-3] have five
lines, while r,etaining the basic pattern of the figure with four lines of the
stha1J.rJ.ilaf!/ madhye pracf1fl rekhiim uUikhyodl-
elrrz ea sa1flhiliiJ?1 paScal lisro madhye JaimGS 1.1 [1,2-3]
Having sprinkled over with water this stha1J.t;lila, he should in its
centre (with a grass stalk) make the mark by drawing one line from
73 In these texts the first description of the prepr.ration of the sacrificial ground does
not refer 10 the drawing of lines. BhiirGS 1.1 [1,13·2, I] priicfn.apraVQ!IQ udfcfnClpravllt:le
same va dele uddharyavok.yyagnifTI malhi/va laukikmrJ vlihr/ya nyupyopasamii-
dadhiiti II See ApOS 1.1.12-15 and HirOS In the Ka/hGS the standard form of
the Grhya riles or the pakayajfla is given in 47. I-16, and KlirhGS 47.3 reads: le.yam uktam
upasamadhiinam. The word 'slhar:Jflila' is also used in Kii!hGS 37.2 as follows: pW:lyiihe
parva1Ji vodite tv liditye rathacakramlitrafTI stha'J4Uam upalipya lasm;n yathoktam upasa·
mii.dhiiya: 'On an a.uspiciolJs day or a parva1'l day, Le. the day of new 01" full moon, when the
sun rises. he besmears the slhafJflila of the silze of the wheel of a chariot, adds firewood to
the fire.' In this description there is no mention of the
74 ManOS 1.1 0.1 uddhrtyavok.. €
ya mat;l{1alaf!l catura.vratrt vii . .. KauthGS 2 [4, 16] prarimukho
om iry uccair grhyagnau n.irfk-FyamanoltekhanaJrl ktirayet.AgnGS
1.1.1 [2,4-6] prticfnapravar:Ja udicfnapravQf,le pragudakpravaT;re same va dele uddhatyavo-
sthalJ4ilal!l krtvotlikhytigni", mathitvii laukikafTI vahrtya nidhiipyopasamii.
dadhatl. AgnGS 2.3.1 [55,2-9], however, gives a detailed description of the lines of the
75 The usage of the words 'upari,'lid urdhvam' (upwards from this. turned upwards)
shows that in drawing something the east is supposed to turn upwards.
The Formation of Hindu Ritual 35
west to east and another touching the first, at its west side, from south
to north; then three lines in the middle from west to east
(Caland 1922: 1)
madhyatab prlicfrrz lekhiim ullikhyodfcf1f/ ca sQl71hatiirrz pasciil madh-
ye pracfs tisra GobhGS 1J.9
Beginning from the centre of it he should draw a Hne west to east,
(another line) from south to north which touches that line at its west-
ern end, and three hnes from west to east (touching the northwards-
turned line at three different points) in its midst (i.e. at neither of its
ends). (OMenberg 1892: 14)
Both W. Cabnd and H. Oldenberg correlate the word paSciit with
the preceding sQlphitarrz or swphatii1f/ and understand that the second line
starts at the western end of the first line. On the other hand, according to
M. J. Dresden the word 'pasciit' denotes the western part of the sacrificial
ground divided by the second line running from the south to the north,
so that the last three lines are placed in the western part of the sthaIJ-flila
(Dresden 1941: 114). I regard this interpretation as wrong. Thus in the
middle of the sacrificial ground there is aline running from the south to
the north and other fOUf lines running to the east are attached to it, and
one of these fOUf lines starts at the southern end of the line turning to the
The third case is represented by four texts: AsvGS 1.3.1, KhiidGS
1.2.2-3, DrlihGS 1.2.2-3, and ViirGS 1.7. VlirGS 1.7 reads as fonows:
gomayena gocarmamiitrarrz caturasrarrz sthalJi;Jilam
trarrz tasmin kurvfta satyasad asfti pasctirdhiid udfcf1:!1le.
khiirrz likhati / rtasad asfti priicfm I gharmasad astfty
uttariirdhiit prticfm I madhye dve !ism vii priicfb / urjasvatrti dak#-
'Jiim I payasvatfm uttariim I indraya rveti madhyiid vii I sarviih prii-
desamiitryo /71
Having besmeared with cowdung the square sacrificial ground of the
size of a cow's hide, he should there make a mark having the length
of an arrow. Saying, 'You are sitting in the truth' in the western part
he draws a line turning to the north. Saying, 'You are sitting in the
divine rule' in the southern part, a line turning to the east Saying,
'You are sitting in the heafin the northern part, a line turning to the
east. In the middle (of the southern and the northern lines he draws)
two or three lines turning to the east Saying, 'The female possessor
of nourishment', the southern hne (of the middle ones). (He draws)
the northern line, the female possessor of essence. Saying, 'You for
36 From Material to Deity
Indra' in the centre in the case of three lines. All (of the three lines in
the middle) are of the length of a span. He should scratch them with
darbha grass.
This text gives the second figure mentioned above as an alternative.
The third figure with six lines is thus as follows: there is a Hne running
from the south to the north, and two other lines are drawn from the south-
ern end and the northern end of the first line, turning toward the east, and
finally between the southern and northern lines three lines again pointing
to the east are drawn from the first Hne. The second figure is made by
adding a eastward-turned line at the southern end of the northward-turned
line of the first figure and the third figlJre is further made by adding the
eastward-turned line to it.7
BodhGS 1.3,] shows a little different figure. The text reads as fol-
atha iucau same deieagnytiyatanadesarn sakalena priicfnam ul-
likhet trir udrcfnam /1/
Now in a clean and even place he should with a piece of wood scratch
three times (different lines) eastward and three times northward as a
site of the setting up of the sacrificial fire.
This is an intersection of three eastward lines and another three north-
ward Ii nes and is the same as what ApDhS 2.1.1. nand HirDhS 2. L13
Compared with the first thr,ee figures which are, so to speak, op,en in
the eastern side, this figure handed down in the Taittiriya school is closed
The VaikhGS and the AgnGS, which are the latest Grhyasiitras, add
something new in the description of the marks of the sacrificial ground,
though the basic form of the marks of the sthaIJrjila is the same as that
of the BodhGS. VaikhGS 1.9 [10,3-5]: uddhanyamanam iti madhyapiirvii-
parayamiigninirrtisomdtinamaruto khanati tatha pilta hy litaneti
76 This figure with six lines seems to be the best-Imown one. This figure can be found
drawn in several studies (Dresden 1941: ]] 4, Kane II: 209, and Sen 1978: plan 9. cr. Syed
71 ApDhS 2. ] .1.13: yatra kva caniignim upasamadhiisyan syiit tatra pracfr udfcf.i ca
tisras tism rekhii likhitviidbhir avokfyagnim upasamindhyiit /13/; 'At every (burnt-offering),
when he wishes to place the fire on the altar (called leI him draw on that (altar)
three lines from west to east and three lines from south to north, and sprinkJe (the altar)
with water, turning the palm of the hand downwards, and let him then make the fire bum
brightly by adding (fuel)' ( BUhler 1879: 101). See also Kane II: 207, with n, 482. Hir-
DhS 2.1,13 yasmindeie 'gnim upasamadhtisyal syiil tatra priicfr udi:cfs tisms tism lekhii .
likhitviivokfyotsicyailad udaka.{efam utlare/Ja piirve1)Q vanyad upanidadhyiit 113/,

The Formation of Hindu Ritual 37
rekhti likhitvti; 'With the mantra: "Being dug up", he digs up On the
Agni-house) by means of a stalk of Kusa-grass, the middle, the east, the
west, Yama, Agni, Nirrti, Soma, Isana and the Maruts. Having, with the
mantra: "Bind ye the strings",. drawn in the same manner six lines
(of a span 1929: 18-19). Here the sacrificial ground is
dug up at nine spots: the first spot is in the middle, and eight other spots
make up a square, the spots pointing to the eight directions; these nine
spots are connected by six lines, three running from south to north, and
another three from west to east. Caland draws a figure of this sthm:u.1ila in
a note in his translation of the text (Caland 1929: 18-19).
AgnGS 2.3.1 [55,3-7] prescribes as follows:
paiicaprastharrz suci suklarrz sikatam aniirdrQ1?l vivicya sthwu;iilarrz
krtvii samacaturasram aratnimiitram udakpriikpravalJa,!! priidesa-
miitra'!! vrfhibhir priicfql lekhiiqllikhati eva'!! madhyam
evam / pasciid udfcf,?l lekhiilfllikhati evalfl madh-
yamam eva'!! purastiit
By using dean, white, dry grains of sand of five prastha in quantity,
he makes the sthW1tjila which is square, its side being one aratni long,
inclining toward the north-east; he then draws, by means of grains of
rice, an eastward line having a length of a span in the southern part
of the sthalJr;Jila, likewise in the middle and in the northern part of it.
By means of grains of rice he draws a northward line in the western
part of the stha1)flila, likewise in the middle and in the eastern part
of it.
According to the AgnGS,five prasthas of grains of sand are used to
make the stha1J.tjila and lines are made by grains of rice, not drawn directly
on the ground.
When we tum to the the description of the sthafJ-
tjila is enlarged with other additional notes. We shall examine two ex-
amples from the Grhyasal'rlgrahapariSi{ta and the
sufra. The form of the taught by the GSP is that of the second
figure having five lines, and the BodhGSS makes use of the figure des-
. cribed by the texts belonging to the Taittinya school. GSP 1.47-59ab says
as foHowS:
78 h is peculiar that the AgnGS here uses the word 'sikata' for grains of s.and, not
sikatli. this text uses sikataas do other texts; see, e.g. AgnGS 3.4.1 [134,10];
3.6.1 [149,12]; 3.6.3 [151,11]; 3.8.1 [160,12]; 3.8.2 [162,15].
79 GSP lak,w,:wf!l tat pravak$yami pramiit;Q/'{l daivatarrt co. yar / no nakhe.
na no. kr'i$!heno. naimana mrmnoyenQ va /47/ prollikhellaIqQ1JQ1!1 viprab siddhikamas tu yo
38 From Malnialto Deity
(47ab) ] wiU explain the marks (of the stha"pUa), its siuand deilies
as well. Neither with naib, oo,r witb a chi,p of wood,
nor with a stone,. nor wi.th earthemware should a brahmin scratch
the lines, if he wishes success. (If he s,cratches) with nails, be wUI
have bad naHs. With a chip of wood, he will suffer from a diseasc.
With a stone, his wealth win perish. With earthcmware, dissension
occurs inevitably. Of he scra.tches) with a fruit. be wiJl be frulitful.
With a flower, be will ,obtain dehes. With aleaf, hie will gain wealth.
With a kula grass, hi,s Ufe's duration will be long. Therefore,. if he
wishes success, a brahmin should scratch the lines either wi!tha fruit,.
Of with a flower, Of with a I,e.af, or with a kula grass.. (51c,dl&S2ab)
After havi.ng placed his left hand fi.rmly on the ground, he should
scratch them with his right hand. He should n,o,( lift hilS hand till the
becomes established. The (fbst)Hne running to tbe
east is dedicated to Prthivi,.the line of Agni is said to lum to the nortb.
The lines of Prajapa.ti., Indr., and Soma run to the east. (53cd-S4ab)
One should mak,e a pUe of the earth dug out fromchese lines at a
place one cubit away ffom the last Hne (in the north). A door for tbe
sacrificial utensils is in tbe direction of the sthandUa.
(54cd-56ab) The two, lines of PrthivT and Soma -al1etwel!ve atigultu
long; that of Agni, twenty·,one arlBulas long, the other two, a pr/Jdela
long. The throe Unesattached to the line of Agni, which are to be
separated by intervals of six ang.ulas, should be drawn to the no,rth
.... I
of the Prthivi line. The Hne of PrthivJ should be white; the
line of Agni should be red; that of Prajipati should be black. One
should assign blue to. the line of Indra. The Une of Soma should be
yellow. This is tbe rule of the colours of the lines. (58,-59cd) This rul,e
of the drawing of the lines is aU the Grhya. rituals. The
bhavet I nakhen:a kllnakhr kJJ"hena vyadh:'m rtha:tI148,/ "ltJlfJfld dlJanalldJat- syd,"
mrnmay,eM kalir dhrNViam Iphalena phaUnl cedva p,Nlpe')a Iriyam remu; 1491 pa".lflt:ltJ slta·
syiid drrgham biena '14 I 'Qsmat phidena pa".ltllD'ha bi,na Iolt2/SOI
p.roUikhellalqm,ra'7' slddhik!JINQI ,uka:mulJIU 1stillya". b,hilmau ,ratillMp)'" prom.
kAed dalqilJena ,UIS11 ,ava,. no,t,hiJpaye, pa"ilp ylJw;,d tlBn:il1l "idMpa)'," prlJkkrtll pilr,hl'tl'f
rekhDQgneyrciJpy udak Smrld 1$2/ prlljapalJilJ ella/narr ca saumr ca 1
ut/cara".. grhyarekhabhyo 'ralnimillrt n'dMpay,' 1531 dlltJmtJl eva".tu dmvytJ"dlpt "rtII"dr.
cyiJ'r'-.diil s,",'am I pilrthivr ,alvG saumrca Idh, dve dvtldald"',u.le IS4leluwi",Jatir a,",,,r
p"iJde.Jinye smrle I ktJryd a,neyCsQl'phlldl tu 15S1 plJrthlivd)!i!Is Ilf
rekhiiyiistisl1CJS td I suk",vaf7;UJ piJrthlvr sy(Jd iJgn,eyllohltd bhilv,' IS6I prtljd·
patyd blrav,' kUl)iJ nlliJmaindrr'1l vinirdi.l" I pRavQ".IePla s12umf sylJ'll,khiln:dl'p va""al.A.
Qam 157,/ efa lethallidlli" proklo sa",e,ugrhyakDrmas.u IsQqma.r ,:a riallab ltA,.,a ',/chils tilt-
1581 elan; lattvalojitiJlViJ ,rhYi"karmil"i klJray,., IS9ab/. Fol' a OCl'man transl.·
rion see B,loomfield 1881: 556·58.
so BodhGSS 1.4.1-9 "" HirGSS 1.4.4 [41,8-19] aiM/a!) slhal'}(lilavidhiytl
mal) til sikatii.i caturangula'TI priic"inam uddhrtya paiictingulipramiil):Q'!1 paicimata urdhvam
daJqi'JQla iirdhvam arigulivihinam pancaprasrJw7'fl
.fukltianlJrdrii arotnimlitratrl samacaturaira'l1 priikprava'.1o'!1 !GaroN 12/ na
IlQ no iarkarair na nakhail) I sylil lo.r!ena kulanasanam /
putrana.ias syan nakhair bandhuvinasanam 13/lasmiit sUllan;wrajatatiimraJakale-
na vrihibhir yavair vli darbhais tad.migu.1!hena ca mahilmimnyii copasa'l1grhya tasya modh-
praci'natrl SUrTllatam rjum ulUkher I (kil1ldevalyal1l ki".mamram itl I brahmadevatyal1l
brakma jajnanam iti) 14/ rasya daqil').atab priicinaf1J sal1ltatam rjum uUikhel (kirndevatyarn
kif1Jmantram iti / yamadevatyalp nllke suparrJam ili) 151 priiclna.'!'l sa"flta-
tom rjum ulUkhet I (kirp:devatya", kiquna.nlram iti I somadevaryarn iJpyiiyasva sametu Ie
iti) 16/ lasya madhyata udfcina.rp: .raqttatam rjum ullikhet / (ki'!ldevatyaqt. ki",mantram itl /
rutiradevatyaf11 yo rudm agnau iii) 17/ pa/cad udfcfnaf11 sa".taram rjum uUtkhet /
(kitfJdeValyaf1J ki'!Imantram iti / ida". Vi.p'fur vicakrame iti) 18/ tasya purasltid
udiclnaf11. saqltatam rjum ullikhet I (ki".ldevaryaf11. kil1unantram iti I indrodevatyam il'ldraTfl
viivii avivrdhan ity) e$a sthafJ{iilavidhir bhavali /9/. The parts in parentheses appear only in
the BodhGSS. .
III mahiJnlimnya1 The term 'mahtiniimnf usually means a set of stanzas (Tokunaga
1997: L). The word for the rina finger is. e.g. anamika 'the nameless one'. The word 'maha-
namnf in the sens,e of Ihe ring finger appears also in BodhGS 1.2.36 III almost the same
expression: tasmi,,,i cit kif11. cid lipatita7'fl sylil lad mahilntimnyti copasarp-
grhya. In BodhGSS 5.1.2 we find that one should draw lines with blades of huia grass held
by the thumb and the ring finger or by the thumb and the little finger: BodhGSS 5.1.2 £38] .5]
darbhai/J: prac:fnam uUikhed angu,f/u'iniimikiibhyiitrt kani$!hikayii va.
lines are to be thin and straight and joined together correctly. After
having known this rightly, one should let the priest perform the Grhya
The next example is BodhGSS 1.4. This is the same as HirGSS
(1) And now we will explain the rule of the sthalJflila. (2) (In the
sacrificial ground) he removes sand four angulas deep from the east-
ern side, the western side is elevated five angulas, the southern side
is elevated one angula, and the northern side is lowered one angula.
There are five prasthas of clean, white, dry sand. Using this he makes
a square each side being of one cubit, inclining toward east.
(3) (One should not scratch the lines) either with a clod of earth, or
with a chip of wood, or with small pebbles, or with nails. (If he
scratches) with a chip of wood a disease occurs; with a clod of earth,
ruin of the family; with smaU pebbles, loss of a son; and with nails,
loss of relatives. (4) Therefore (one should scratch the lines) with a
small piece of either gold, or silver, or copper, or with grains of rice
or barley, or with darbha grass. By holding it with his thumb and
ring finger
he should scratch a Hne toward the east in the middle
of the ground, straight and unbroken. What is its deity? What is its
The Formation ofHindu Ritual 39
40 Fmm Material to /Jeity
mantra? It has Brahma as the deity. The mantra is bra/una jajfiii-
nam (TS (5) To the south of it he should scratch another line
toward the east, straight and unbl'Okcn. What is its deity? What is
its mantm? It has Yama as the dcity. The mantra is .wpan.lam
(TE (6) To the north of it (namely, thcllrst line) he should
scratch another linc toward the east, straight and unbroken. What is
its deity? What is its mantra? It has Soma as the cicHy. The mantra is
iipyiiyasva sametu Ie (TS (7) In the middle of the ground he
should scratch a line toward the north, straight and unbroken. What
is its deity? What is its mantra? ]t has Rudra as the dei.ty. The man-
trais yo rudro agnau (TS (8) To the wesl of it he should
scratch another line toward the north, straight and unbroken. What is
its deity? What is its mantra? It has the deity. The mantra is
ida/?l vi.p:tur vicakrame (TS1.2.13.1). (9) To the cast of it he should
scratch another line toward the nort.h, straight and unbroken. What is
its deity? What is its mantra? It has Indra as the deity. The nlQn(ra i.s
indra'!l vi.fva avrvrdhan (TS This is the nde of the sthw:u)ila.
Th,e additional remarks for drawing the lines that arc, despite slight
variations, common to these two examples arc: first, the IllCntiioll of things
not to be used in drawing them and those to be used, and the eviil and good
effects resulting from their uses respectively; and second, the mention of
deities of the lines. On the other hand, lhelcngths of the li nes1\2 andltheir
colours are mentioned only by the asp, while the BodllGSS the
use of mantras for the lines. The use of mantras at the time of drawing
the lines was also given by VarGS 1.7 and VaikhGS, mentioned above.
The BodhGSS also stipulates the drawing of the lines to the accompani-
ment of mantras at other places, Le. BodhGSS 2.20.6 1== HirGSS 1.7.14
[113,3-7]] and 5.1.2. The interesting point in thc lise of mantras by the
BodhGSS and HirG5S, however, is that each mantra that accompanies the
drawing of one line is dedicated to a certain deity. From this we know the
deities to which the lines are assigned. If we can say lhat the: idea of arran-
ging the deities, mentally or physically, at cel1an points of the sacrificial
ground underlies the making ofa maf)fiahl, the prescriptions found in GSP
1.52cd-53ab and BodhC8S and FJirGSS to assign the deilies t.o the lines of
the sthmp;lila refl'eet also this very idea common to the construction of the
mar:zt;lala. We find a prescription of this kind only in the texts to
the Gfhyasiitras.
82 The lengths of the lines are also mentioned in KarPd 1.6.9-lOc.
Although the practice of construction is fully developed
throughout the Purana texts, the tradition of the drawing marks on the
sacrificial ground for the performance of the Grhya rituals does not seem
to be described on many occasions in the PUdil)ias, partly because the
Grhya rituals are not the main subjects of these texts, and partly because
the simple figures of the sthalJflila have been replaced by the elaborate
diagrams of the malJflalas. It cannot be denied, however, that the seeming
obsolescence of the practice of the sthalJ(iilalak$a1Ja is simply due to lack
of my knowledge concerning information on this topic from the PuraDa
The Formation a/Hindu Ritual
6 Homa: Samidhs thems,elves are put into the fire
In the chapter for the BrhatS 47.77ab prescribes as follows:
mukhyasthiine juhuyiit purohito 'gnb?1 samittilaghrtiidyail,c
In the main place the royal priest should offer kindling sticks (samidh),
sesame seeds, melted butter, and other things into the fire.
But this is a strange prescription when we take into consideration the gen-
eral rules for the burnt offering in Srauta rituals. According to them, sam-
idhs are put into the fire as kindling sticks, to the accompaniment of a
certain number of samidhenf verses, or kindling verses, before the per-
formance of the burnt offerings (Hillebrandt 1879: 74-79; Rustagi 198]:
207-209). When the kindling sticks burn up and living coals are still flick-
ering, various offerings are made into the fire in this state.
Samidhs are thus, at least in the Smuta rituals, used as kindling fuel
in order to prepare the offering fire, but never as oblations. And the verb
used to denote the act of placing samidh is ii-dhii- or abhYii-dhii-.85
There are, however, several cases in the Grhyasiilras in which one is
in doubt whether samidhs are offered as oblations. ApCS 7.18.7 reads as
83 The marks of the .f/hafJ{lila given in AgniP 24.18cd-19 correspond to the third figure
with six lines. and those givcnin AgM;P 35.25-26ab arc the same as those prevalent in the
TaittirTya school.
84 For the condition of the fire into which oblations are offered see, e.g. Ap!:,(S 2.12.7;
14.1; 19.1/: 6.9.1-2. The fire is reJuled to various deities according to its condition (Bodewitz
1976: 88-92), For the condition of the fire used in the Grhya rites see Kane I]: 682. See also
Kau§S3.12-18 and KarPd 1.9.11-15.
1\5 See, e.g. Kau.fS 7.4 .tamidham iidadhiiti 'He puIs a kindling Slick: This sutra belongs
10 the general rule. and W, Caland paraphrases it as follows: 'Wo die Vorschrift gegebcn
wird: "
legl auf (ilL aufs Feuer)", (hat man ZIJ erganzen) "Brcnnholz" , (Caland 1900: 10).
42 From Material to Deity
uttarlibhis tisrbhir iiragvadhamayyas
With the next three verses (he offers) pieces of Aragvadha wood.
(Oldenberg 1892: 287)
The addition in his translation of 'he offers' in parentheses makes it
ible that Oldenberg understands this action as an offering. In the descrip-
tion of the sarpabaU, M. Wint·ernitz also regards this as an offering,
cause, as he remarks in a footnote, this action is accompanied by the
ation of three verses ending with the offering call ;j'vahii (Winternitz 1888:
In the d.escription of the general paradigm for the performance of the
Grhya rites, the VaikhGS presc.ribes that at the beginning and at the end of
the Grhya rites one should offer kindling sticks by using certain mantras.
As regards this prescription, J, Gonda remarks: 'A samidh may be thrown
into the fire as an offering (hence the verb juhoti .. ,) and requested to
fulfill a definite desire ... ' (Gonda 1980c:166).87 .
There is another suspicious case in A.rvGS
agamanfylirrz gatvliylijyarn yajayitviibhojyarp. bhuktviipratigrahyafTI
pratigrhya cityaf?1yupan,1 vopahatya punar rna ". sv/Jhli ity iljylihuti
juhuylit /8/ samidhau va /9/ japed va /10/ '
8. If he has gone to a wife to, whom he ought not togo, or if he has
a sacrifice for a person for whom he ought not to do so. or
has eaten forbidden food, or accepted what he ought not 10 accept. or
pushed against a (fire ahar) or a.gainst a sacrificial post, he
should sacrifice two Ajya oblations with (the verses), ... svahli!· 9'.
Or (he may sacrifice) two pieces of wood. 10. Or murmur (the same
two verses without any oblation), (Oldenberg 1886:
86 According to the lIeneral rules of the Orhya rites. the mere placing ofkindlins sth::ks
at the beginnJlng of every rite is performed without utteri'ni $vahil. See. e.,g. GSP 1.98 and
KarPd 1.8.21.
87 For the passages in question, he refers 10 VaikhOS 1.13 llrld 14. The first reference
is corre,ct. but the second one should be YaikhOS 1.19. Thelexl rullS as. follows: \laikhGS
1,13 [14,4] samid asi svaheti samidhatp,juhoti and 1.19 ( 18, 11] edlw 's)' tdhi,yfma'.i svlJhiI
bail..,,,,?! samid €lsi .Iejo IljO may; dheM ,fvaha palMa'71 )lamas)'a dhfmahi mf1)l0r me ptlhi
sviihd naiyagrodhaPTI .fiiryasya dMmahi cah,yur me plihi svliM lilvallluliTI somasya dhrmahi
cittaPTI me pah; svtlhaaudumbar"rrr vQyor dhrmahi prlll;liJn me plihj svllha samr"., .bra.llmaf;1o
dh(mahi buddhi'?'l me pah; .waha kMdiram iIi .vapla For a LTlmslatlon se,e Ca.land
19i9': 27 and 32-33. There is another passage in the description of the general p'l.radigm for
the performance of the Grhya rites where .ramidh.r are offered in the fire. namely. Y"ikhGS
1.21 [19.13-15].
88 For the cases where samidhas llre put Into the fire with an utterance of sviihii see. e.g.
PlJrGS 2.10.13 in the adhyayoplikarma, BhlirG$ 3.19 '[87.12-14] in thegrhyaprllyaiciUa.
and AgnGS 3.7.1 [154,9-11] ill the liintihofflQ after the pitrmedha before entering the house.
In the first two passa.ges the verb a-dhll- Is us,ed. and in the third one, abhya.dhii-.
89 The following 511nkhGS 5.10.3·6 also prescribes the offering (hulVl1) of seventeen
samidhs of pallida wood, but as Oldenberg remarks in a note (Otdenberg 1886: 139) it is a
general rule corresponding to the Smuta rule concerning the number ofthe siimidhenrverses.
It is, however, remarkable that here the action of putting samidhs into the fire is regarded as
a kind of homa.
yadi grhe madhakii madhu kurvanti I audumbarf/J samidho
dadhimadhughrtiikta ma nas toka itidvabhyiil'fl juhuyiit /2/
I. If the bees make honey in his h9use, 2. Let him fast and sacrifice
a hundred and eight pieces of Udumbara wood, which are besmeared
with curds, honey, and ghee, with the two (verses), 'No (harm) to us
in our offspring' I,] 14,8.9). (Oldenberg 1886: 139)89
This is a good example of the employment of samidhs as the offering
material, and the offering is repeated one hundred and eight times as in a
number of cases found in the texts. As OMenberg points
out, the fifth and sixth chapters of the SiitikhGS are later additions to the
original text, perhaps belonging to the level (Oldenberg
1886: 10-11). If so, we, must conclude that in the Grhyasiitras proper
If the verb juhuyiit, 'one should offer' in satra 8 can be applied also
to the following sutra 9, the two samidhs are then offered in the
most the same three options are given in GobhGS 3.3.34-36 and Khad.
OS 2.5.34-36. Howev,er, the corresponding passage of MiinDS 1.3.4 pre-
scribes otherwise: etlibhyiimeva mantrabhyam ahutfrjuhuyad api vajya.
lipte samidhav iidadhyiid api vii mantriiveva japet; 'he should offer two
oblations (of ghee) with these same two verses; or...he should put on the
fire two fuel-sticks besmeared with ghee or he should (only) mutter these
same two mantras (without any oblation)' (Dresden 1941: 12). The Man-
GS persists in using the verb d-dha- for the case of placing two samidhs
and retains the usage of the verb in other cases where samidhs
are put into the fire even with the uttering of svahii (ManOS 1.6.3 and
11.22) or to the accompaniement of certain mantras (ManOS 1.11.24 and
Setting aside the AgnGS and the VaikhGS, both of which belong to
the level, there is one case in which the use of samidhs
as the offering material is clearly prescribed.SankhOS 5.1 0.1-2 reads as
The Formation ofHindu Ritual
44 From Material to Deity
we do not have definite examples of the use of samidh.t as the offering
When we tum to the texts belonging to the I"evel, we
find numerous examples of the In the following I list sevM
eral examples. I select one exa.mple each from the various texts belonging
.to the level and the rest of the examples in each text, if
there were any, are given in the notes. Names of the rites in which the
samidh-homa is performed are given in parentheses.
AdB 1.2
samidhtim juhuylit. (adbhuta.santi)
He should offer one thousand and eight samidhs ofpaltUa wood.
piilasasamidha iijyapluttistiliihutibhir ,ra'1lbhave eel;
dvadaJa vajuhuylU. (rudrajapa.tya vidhanakalpa)91
'He shall offer six or twelve logs of paldsa wood, with ghee poured
over, and sesame oblations, with the thre,e formul,as: IlHomage to the
giver of welfare and ... ' (va.n Gelder 1963: 322)
AgnGS 2.5.1[77,20-21]
ghrtiinvaktiinii'!1 samidhiIm a,,!(dalam
ao!!iivi'!1sati'!1 va pratyrca1?1 juhuyat. (grahasanti)
He should offer one thousand and eight or one hundred and eight or
twenty-eight samidhs besmea.red with ghee together with the oblati,on
proper to each graha at each verse..
VaikhGS 4.14 [66,10-11]
saptavitrJsati'r' va trimadhurtiktabhilJ
samidbhis carut;liijy.ena eajuhuydt. (grahasanri)
90 See also, e.g. TA 2.10 ydd agndll juh6ly apr Idd sa'71,iflhate 1/
(Kane 11: 696). BodhGS 2.6.19 .ra I!fltl upcmayanapraMrti samidbhir hayala
ii samiivartaniit // (Kane II: 680). fol' this tradition in the {JaippaltJda Sa'!l.hiUJ of tbe
Athafllaveda. see Kajihara 2002: This rule has a corresilondenc,e in: ManuSm 2.18,6.
GobhGS 4.8.12 !Jl'es,cribes the offering of one hundred pelS (!a.rtku) of khadira wood. but
not samidhs (Oldenbcl'l 1892; 125). Cf. KhtitlGS 4.J..I.
91 ManSS 11.1.1-3 describes non-Vedic rituals (Gonda 19'8011: 71). In the colophons
to ManSS 11.7.1 and 3 it is said, 'iii mli.navaSrhyaparUifle nltyajapavidhiJnam /1/ and iti
manavagrhyaparWne rudrajapavidhiinalfl samaptam /1'. Hence it iIli clear Ihlt these three
chapters come from £exts 1fI1cil1ary to Ihe Ml1navagrhyasfJtra.
,92 Kinds of samidhs peculiar to, each graha are enumerated in Agl1GS 2.5.1 [77,3·51,
with mantras to be· recited for eachsraluJ [77,1Q..20], and oblations peculiar to each graluJ
[71,22·78.1]. See also AgnGS 1[82, /1·12]. offerina·s of one thousand Bnd eiaht or onc
hundred' and eight or twenty-eight .famidks of paUl/a wood besmeared with curds. ahee,
and milk in theapamrtyutrljayakaipa; AgnGS 2.5.10 [89,20-21] one thousand offeril'lls of
samidhi- in a rite to procure rain. .
The Formation of Hindu Ritual 45
'he should . .. sacrifice in the fire to each of the planets in due order
one hundred and eight or twenty-seven fuel-sticks which have been
smeared with honey, sugar and clarified butter;93 ... Then (with the
same mantras) he sacrifices to them clarified butter and portions of
the mess of boiled rice.' (Caland 1929: 120)94 .
BodhGSS 3.13.2
grhyamadhye sithili jtiyate saptahtit subhakararrz bhavaiy ala iir-
dhva1?1 prajanalfl vyadhipfflana'T1 .karoti yata indra bhayamahe iti
paliisasamidbhir anottarasatatp juhuyat ajyaytl ca
In the middle of the house (the earth) becomes loose.
Up to the
seventh day it is auspicious. After that it causes distress by disease
93 This is the interpretation of trimadhura by Caland, being identical with that given
in Bohtlingk.-Roth's Sanskrit Worlerbuch, s.v. trimadhura. See also BhaH0tpala on BrhatS
417.31 /atM rrimadhure':lQ CD I madhunii ghTlena Jarkarayacery arlha/:l. It is, however,
doubtful whether already at the time of the VaikhGS theword ',farkaro', which usually means
gravel or something similar is used in the sense of sugar. Another definition of Ifimadhura
is given i.n AVPS 36.30.lcd 'Irimadhurarrt tv atra vUFleyaql madhusarpistilatmakam';
'trimadhura here is to be known as consisting of honey, clarified buner, and sesame'. This
definition is given at the end of AVPS 36 which deals with the in which
there are several occasions on which this trimadhura is used. AVPS 36.19.1 ab reads as
follows: 'tilii diirvii trimadhural'{t hamato vyadhinigraham'; 'Sesame seeds, dilrvas, and
trimadhura cause, by the offering of them, removal of disease'. There is another passage
where sesame and trimadhura .appear at the Same lime: AVPS 69.2.5:
tu tilais trimadhurais tatoo I homal'{t kurylU'; 'He should make homas by samidhs of
.iantavrkfa (see KauiS 8.15), sesame seeds, and trimadhura
• In these two cases sesame
seeds seem to be redundant. In VaikllGS 4.14 the samidhs are besmeared with trimadhura.
There are several passages where samidhs that are to be offered are besmeared with three
items, and these three items are dadhi, madhu,. and gllrla in SailkhGS 5.10.6; BodhGSS
3.2.3, AJvGPS 4.11 [180,18-19]; Samavidh 3.1.12; or dadhi, surpis, and madhu in AVPS
36.2.5a; or dadhi, ma.dhu. ajyd in lJ.gvidh 1.24.2b; 4.20.5d. Because ghrta, sarpis, and
iijya can be seen as synonyms (EinooI988: these threF items always represent
the same things. I want 10 s.uggest, therefore, the possibility or interpreting Irimadhura
as consisting of dadhi, madhu, and ghrta/{ijya/sarpis. According to Kau!ilya 2,]5.14:
'pha1Jitagu(lamatsya1;lpiktikha,,4asarka.rlt/J 'Treacle, jaggery, unrefined sugar
and granulated slilgar constitute the groups of sugars', the word '.(arkara' means sugar
(HinOber 197), 104). BodhGSS 2.20.11 enumerates the ingredients ofpancamrla as follows:
'nalikeramrapanasakadalfntirrt phalatrayam I iarkaramadhusa'1'lyukta'1'l pancamrtam iti
smrtam' .;'three kinds of fruits among acoconut, mango, ja.ck.fruit, and banana. mixed with
JarkarfJ and honey are called nveamrtas', and in this case it is thillkable that the word
'sarkara' means sugar. So it is still undeniable to follow the intrepretation of trimadhura by
Caland and given in BOht.lingk-Roth's Sanskrit Worterbuch.
94 See also VaikhGS 6:10 [95,13] vyahrtyfJ paliitasamidho hutvfJ (punarupanaya.na);
II [96,8] siivitryti sahasrasamidho juhoti (uptikarma).
95 Because an anthill arises? For the prliya!citta for the appearance of an anthill in the
house, see Siil'ikhGS 5.11.1-2; JaimGS 2.7; BhiirGS 2.32; HirGS
46 Fmm Material to Deity
to the offspring. Wit.h t.he numtra: 'Of which we arc afraid, oIndra,'
he should one hundred and eight times offer oblation. dariHed butter
together with samidhs of paliiJa wood?! This removes cvil.
AVPS 31.6.lcd-2
nirmafhya hiivayet fafm samidllO hohan /II lmarrr saha-
srarrz kotil?1 vii virrz.§lItir da.(a vii / liintavrk\wsya sami-
dho /2/ (ko!ihoma)
After having produced fire by attrition he should then cause many
brahmins to offer the mmidh.r. The brahmins should offer one
dred or one thousand or ten millions or twenty or ten samidhs made
of besmeared with clarified buueryll
{lgvidh 1.24.2ab
audumbarfs tu juhuyacl
offer the udumbara Ifuel-sticks] sanctified by curds. honey and clari-
fied butter. (Bhal 1987: 306)99
Siimavidh 3.2.2
audumbarfr va samidho sahasraqljulwym I ga labhate 1/
Or he should offer one thollsand samidlu or udumbam wood
smea.red with clarified butter. Be obtains cows.
Ai.'GPA 27 [2,60,.6-7]
ekaikasya a:ytau v£l1 samidha
iijyarrr CarW?1 ea hurva (grahasanti)
After having offered one thousand and eight or one hundred and eight
or twenty-eight or eight (samidhs) of ea.ch wood and clarified butter
and boiled rice.
96 For the instrumental form of sec .TUInU 13 and 14 where (here urc prescrip-
tions as follows: vyahrtibhir yavair }ullo# and saptal'yiihrlibhir yavlJir ju/lO'i. From Ihis it
follows that the samidhs given in the instrumental form are offered jusllike )'UV(lS., which are
also given in the instrumental form.
97 See also BodhGSS 1.16.25: offering of one thousand and eight or one hundred and
eight or twcl1ly-eight .ramidhs in the grahaJilllli; 3.2.3 (= HirOf;{S 1.6.8 [80,19-23]); offering
of one thousand samic/hs of palasa, nyagmdha, plnk,ra, asvaulw, ,{amf, (lpamtirga, khadira.
and arka wood in the vyiihrlikalpa; 3.12.1: bUI'l! wood in the ahhivr(ldhiklllpa; 4.20.3 (=
HirGSS 1.6.22 [89. 20-21 ]: offering of on.e lhousund andcighl samidhs of Jamf wood in the
grlimasya utpdta.fill1r.i;. 5.3.11 (:: HirGSS 1.3.1 I 132,24-25]): orfering of one hundred lind
one samidhs of paliiia wood in the !Jtu,(anti.
98 See also AVPS 30.4.2-4 30b.l. I6-17 311.2.1
(ko!ihoma); 36.2.4-5ab. 7. I, 22.1 (ucchu.p1Ulkalpa); 65.3.3 (a rite to procure rain); 66.3..1
(goianli); and 69.2.5 (adbhuta#inll').
99 See also !JgvitlhI.lS.6; 22.3; 2.7.2-3; 11.3; 17.Sed; 4.IO..l-5.
100 See also Samavi(lh 3.1.12; 6.8: 9; 4.6.1 [191, 3-5; 10·12].
lOt See also AivGPA 12 [244. J 3
245.1]. ]n the A.(vGPS there arc several occasions of
Thus we can safely say that it is first in the texts belonging to the
level that a new type of the burnt offering, with even the
samidhs put into the fire as oblations, became fully prevalent. It is worth
noticing, though, that a great number of the rites in which offering of
the samidhs is performed seem to belong to certain ikitnds of rites, those
which are caned prliyascitta or expiation, slinti or propitiatory rite, and kii-
mya or rite performed for some particulaf object. In the STauta rituals, on
the other hand, the rites performed for some particular object, namely, the
kamye.y,is, were always, as the title shows, performed according to the
general scheme of the (Caland 1908). In any case, this is an innova-
tion in the method of the burnt offering which can be seen as one of the
characteristics peculiar to the post-Vedic rites.
On the other hand, it is peculiar to this new method of the burnt offer-
ing that a very large number of offerings are performed with the repetition
of a limited number of mantras. The number of offerings varies from
eight, twenty-eight, one hundred or one hundred and eight, to one thou-
sand or one thousand and eight. 102
In the Smula rituals there are oblations that count up to a large num-
ber: in the agnicayana,. oblations to be offered to the accompaniment
of the satarudriya are no less than 425 in number (Gonda 1980a: 75);
in the asvamedha, there are series of oblations to the accompaniment
of more than 530 prescribed mantras, e.g. in A.pSS 20.11-12 (Caland
1928: 236-37). In both cases each oblation is accompanied by a different
mantra, but in the cases of the one mantra or a limited
number of mantras are repeated many times. This tendency leads to
the emergence of special types of a large number of oblations, i.e. the
ayutahoma, lakfahoma, and ko{ihoma. The and kotihoma have
independent descriptions in AVPS 30 and 31 resp,ectively. We have the
examples of the ayutahoma, e.g. in 2.10.3-11.1 with the giiyatrf,
lJ.gvidh 2.l7.5cd with RV 5.83, lJ.gvidh 2.19.4-5 with the srfsukta; and
HirGSSI.7.9 [105,8-9]. Besides AVPS 30 and 3Gb, the lakfahoma
The Formation ofHindu Ritual 47
, I"
the samidh-hmna; sec A.\:vGPS4.6 [178.1-2] 9 [179,21) (vapyiidividhi); 10
[J 80,6-7] (iirc1motsargavidhi); 1I [180, 18-19] (i.antihoma).
1112 One hundred times: AgllGS 2.5.10; one hundred and eight BodhGSS 3.13.2; 5.3.11:
AivCPS 4.10; 1J; one hundred and eight or llWenty-seven: VaikhGS 4.14; one thousand:
VaikhGS 6.\1; 80dhGSS 3.2.3; Siimavidh 3.2.2; 6.8; 9; 4.6.\; 4. ]0.1-5; one thousand
and eight Bot/hGSS 4.20.3; Siimtl\lidh 3.1.12; one thousand and eight or one hundred and
eight or twenty-eight AgnGS 2.5.\; 4; BodhGSS 1.\ 6.25; AivGPS 4.6; one thousand and
eight or one hundred and eight or twenty-eight or eight: AivGPA 27; ten thousand: IJ.gvidh
48 From Material to Deity
is prescribed, e.g. in AVPS 26.5,8 with the gayarr' and so on.'03 The
ko,tihoma, which is dealt with in AVPS 31.
is also applied in other rites.
e.,g. AVPS34.1.6cd withthel!everse gtlyatrf', 70.4.3 and 5,
In the PuriQils we have a number of references to the numerous burnt
offerings.. For example,. Ag.niPI67.] cd says: grahayajifo 'yutahomala-
k.tako,tyiitmakas tridha lthe grahayajfLa is of three kinds, consisting of the
ayu.tahoma, lalqahoma., and kolihoma: in other word, the grahayajiia is
performed in the form ofeitherayutahoma, or Jak\vahoma, or ko!ihoma.
The statement that the grahayajiia can be performed i!n one of these three
forms is also found in 4. ]41.5-6 and Mats.vaP .93.5-6ab (Kane
V: 749). Thus the new tradition of these three special komas continued to
exist through the Purag..a texts (Kane V:
Lastly, however, it is worth notid.nglhat these numerous homas use as
offering materials not only the fuel sticks, but also other usual oblations.
In the description of the numerous hornas there are sometimes lists of
oblations together with the rewards to be expected from them. See
e.. g.
AVPS 30.4.2-3 in the chapter deali!ng with the lagh.ulak.,ahoma:
yavais tu vipu.lan bhogan dhli.nyair ayusyam eva ca / lilair hutviJ lu
tejasvf krrtim ca vardhate 12/ iJditYaloko 'rkamay; piJliJJr soma
iipyate IliSvatthi briihma audumbari tatha 13/
(One who makes offering) with grains of barley (obtains) ample
enjoyment;. with grains of rice, full lifetime. By offering sesame
seeds (he becomes) briHiant
thrives on vital power and fame. (If fuel

sticks) made of arka wood (are offered)l the world of the Sun (will
be attained); if those made of paUJJa wood, (the world 00 the Moon
will be attained. (Fuel sticks) made of aJvattha wood are for the sake
103 See also AVPS 3S,2,4·6ab; 70,3.lab with the sQvitrrlgllyatrf; ,!gvidh 2.9.2·IO.lab
with the gayatr;; 2,11.5-12.] with the gliyalrf; 41.15.4 with 10,15S; HirGSSI.7.6 [102.;-
7]; 1.7.7 [103, ])- ]4] with I. fflafl1ra called mrtyu'?lla)'a, i.e. 7.59.12 (Kane V: 792) and
8 with the vyiJhrtis.
104 AVPS31 ,g,4cd-9,,5 is an interest.ing general rul,e fora magical rite with the malevolent
intentions by u.si.ng the stJyatrf re,cited in, reverse order (Caland 1900: 183-84),
The reverse giJyalrf is given in AVPS34, 1.8: , yada co pra yo yo ,Ihi I IIi rna dhr va
de rgo bha )'Q1'fI'.Jl re rva IU v; Isa ta t 1/ See also'!6vidh 1.t 7.
lOS POl' thcaYlllaJIOn1(J see, e.g. BhavifyaP 4, 177.17c (brahm(JfJpadtJna): ] 78.35 (ka/pa-
vrk,adana): 179,lc (kalpalatlldcina). For the lakfahoma see e.g. Mau:yaP 239.3-26 (grrlha-
Naras;trthaP 35 (dealing with the lak,ahoma and /col/homa); Vi1t:1udhP lI65,39cd·
47 (Il/pilla/limi). For the ko!ihoma see BI1avilyaP 4.1412.54-71 (dclI.ling with fourldnds of
korihoma.r): NilaM 80.50f: Vi.If,JudhP 1.16',48-S4ab. AgniP 149 deals with the ay.ulaho"lQ,
laqahoma and kolihoma, See also A.gnlP 267.23.
106 For the lists of the various oblations in accordance with the expected results see
further, e.g. VaikhGS 1.19 [18, 5-H]; BodhGSS 3.2.3 (= mrGSS 1.6.8 [80,J 9-23]); 3.13;
4.5.3-S; AVPS 30b.t.16-17; 10.4.S-10; l,?gvidh 2.10.3·11.1; 2.11.5-12.1;
of the world of for the sake of the world of Brahma are fuel
sticks made of udumbara tree. I 06
Thus it has become clear that the ritual action of homa changed drastk-
ally in the texts belonging to the level. In the Srauta and
Grhya rituals the samidhs were used only to prepare the fire in which
offerings were performed. But in the post-Vedic rituals the samidhs them-
selves were offered as oblations. At the same time the changed homas
were repeated a large number of times by repeting a limited number of
mantras. And this type of burnt offering became prevalent among the
post-Vedic ritual texts, both Tantric and Tantric.
The Formation of Hindu Ritual
in the Vedic and post-Vedic Rituals
The or the sprinkling of fluid over the image of a god, which
constitutes one of the essentials of the ritual, has its origin in the
Vedic rituals.] In this article I propose to discuss the historical develop-
ment of as described in the Vedic and post-Vedic texts in order
to obtain an overall view of this ritual.
1 The Meanings of the
The ritual meanings or the ideas revealed in the mantras and theexplan-
ations of the Brahmal)as are not suited to be treated with such exactness
as the ritual acts prescribed in the Sutra texts. The m,eanings are not
cessarily confined to a certain scene of the ritual, but are to
other behaviours or occasions which are similar to it. They are also taken
over to the next period, undergoing some changes in the prucess. The
case of the meanings of the is no exception.. It is consequently
appropriate to treat the meanings of the independent .of the in-
vestigation of its performances. In what follows I shall first discuss the
changes brought about to meanings of the by focusing mainly
on the passages which refer to the word abhi-#c or ..
1.1 Obtaining a Qualification or a Prestige
1.1.1 The Atharvavedtl
The Atharvaveda is the first text that refers to the In this text,
the constitutes one of the rituals by which a king or a chieftain
acquires superiority among his community. In two verses of the Paippald-
dasarphitii of the AV(AVP), the is mentioned as a ritual act which
I See, e.g. Witzel 1981: 15.. Elnoo has called the author's auention to the similarity
between theabhileka of the coronations and I.bat of thepralilillti.
i I·
.' r
52 From Material to Deity
bestows varcas (the meaning of which will be discussed in the following
section) on a person. They read as follows:
The heavenly waters thai rejoice (madanti) at milk, those in the at-
mosphere and those being in the earth: with the splendour (varc.as-)
of all those waters, I sprinkle (abhi on thee. (AVP 4.2.6)
I have sprinkled on thee with splendour (varcas-) and with the heav-
enly milk. Savitr shall make so that thou mayest become an
increaser of friendship (mitravardhana-). (AVP 4.2.7)
The Saunakasarrthitii of the AV CAYS) also has corresponding verses CAYS
4.8.5-6). AVS 4.8, which includes those two has been examined
by renowned scholars in connection with the two coronation rituals of the
Kausikasutra (the and the However, this
hymn of AVS 4.8 has been appropriated for coronations by the ritual texts
of the Saunaka school and that too only superficially. In the Kausikasutra
(17.1), the first verse of AVS 4.8 is cited merely in the pratfka manner
at the beginning of the prescription of the coronation rituals. And in the
Vaitiinasiltra (36.6-7), this hymn is recited in the rajasuya when the king
sits on the throne and is sprinkled upon, leaving the contents of the hymn
out of consideration. In both cases we do not know the purpose for which
this hymn was originally used.
On the contrary, in the phase of recent studies of the AVP, it is now
known that the tradition of AVP 4.2 has been taken over by the mantra
of the TB 2.7.15-17
with other variants of the complete verses
of AVP 2.52 and 4.3, and the simple installations of a king in the Srauta
rituals, namely, the mrtyusava (BaudhSS T8.16-19) and the rlijtibhio$eka
(ApSS 22.28.1-25, HlrSS 23.4.41-66) have been formed on the basis of
the mantra collection of TB 2.7.15-]7. In these two royal installation
ceremonies the variants of AVP 4.2 are employed for the suitable acts
corresponding to their contents such as the king approaching the tiger
skin, sprinkling of water on the king, and hi,s mounting the chariot.
it is clear that the tradition of the installation mantras of the AVP has
influenced the formation of the coronations of the Smuta rituals.
2 Weber 1893: 139-43 and Bloomfield 1897: 378-80. Fonheideas of kingship revealed
in AVoS 4.8, see Schlerath 1960: 157-60.
3 KS 37.9 has varianls of AVP 4.2 and 4.3.100, but their ritual usages are not known
because its ritual manual has been handed dowll only partially.
4 Details of the relation between AVP 4.2 and the mantras of the mrtyu.l'Gva and the
have been treated in the paper read at the Second International Vedic Workshop,
held in Kyoto in 1999, and will be dealt with separately.
5. Read griimw:Zfrhyaya instead of
6 Of course, the function of bestowing power on the sacrificer is nm limited to the
word abhi-,ric. In the passages which J have consulted for the preparation of this article, ali}
('They (gods) should anoint (aii}anlu) me with splendour' AVS 3.22.2d) and sam-an} ('Thou
art prosperity Anoint (sam aillihi) me with prosperity' AVS 19.3l.I3ab) are two
examples that also show the same function of such expressions. For further passages see
Kiellnle 1979: 149-50.
The ritual function of the is not confined to the obtaining
of the kingship, bm the also serves in acquiring authority by
officers in other rituals. AVP 10.5.12 (::::::AVS 19.31.12) reads as follows:
Troop-leader art thou. Thou being sprinkled
sprinkk (abhi. .. siiica) on me with splendour (varcas-) for the status
of troop-leader.
Brilli'ance (tejas-) art thou, keep up brilliance upon
me. Wealth (rai-) art thou, put wealth on me.
This verse informs us that the status of grama1JI is acquired by being
sprinkled upon. Such function of the as bestowing a qualific-
ation seems to have been popular as one of the main functions of sprink-
Hng, as evidenced in the sava rituals of the Srauta tradition such as the
brhaspatisava, the sthapatisava, and so on (-+2.2.2).6 In the savas of the
BaudhSS the mantras relating to sprinkling show a uniformity of style
and content. For example, the mantra of the brhaspatisava (BaudhSS
18.1: 343.15-] 7) states, 'devasya tva prasave 'svinor biihubhyayt7
pu.PJ,o hastiibhyal?l sarasvatyai vaco yantur yantrel.w brhaspatisaveniibhi.
(On the impulse of the god Savitr, with the arms of the Asvins,
with the hands of Pusan, with the control of Sarasvati, of the controller of
speech, I sprinkle on thee by means of the brhaspatisava). The same
mantra also occurs in other contexts while r,eplacing brhaspatisavena
by the instrumental case of other savas like sthapatisavena, etc. With
the sprinkling of the sava the intended status like purohita or sthapati is
In the AV there are other passages which indicate that sprinkling
elevates the sacrificer to a higher status, e.g. AVS 3.22.6:
Since the elephant has become the superior of the wild
animals that are comfortable to be mounted, with its fortune (bhdga-)
and splendour I sprinkle (abhi upon myself.
Bhdga and varcas, which are bestowed upon the officiant or the sacrificer,
show the powers inherent in the fluids for sprinkling. These powers, of
which varcas is more frequently referred to in the AV, are regarded as
in the Vedic and post- Vedic Rituals 53
54 From Material to Deil)!
having the virtue of enhancing the status, like the el'epham among the
animals. This is also evident from the third verse of this hymn, i.e. AVS
With what splendour (vdrcas-) the elephant has come into being,
(with what) the king among men, among waters, (with what) the gods
in the beginning went to godhood (devatii-), with that splendour, 0
Agni, now make me into a man of splendour (varcasvfn- ).
In KauiS 13.1-3 the hymn, including these two verses,ils recited to an
elephant, while the amulet made of ivory is wound around the neck of the
sacrificer. In AVPS 4.] .10 this hymn is recited every morning for consec-
rating an elephant for the king., while other mantras are recited to consec-
rate other paraphernalia of the king such as clothes, ornaments, his seat,
his horse, and so on.
I.J.2 Vdrcas
The significance of the in bestowing prestige upon the concerned
person or things is, in the phase of the ritual ideas, ascribed to the power
of varcas inherent in the sprinkling water. As surmised from the passages
cited above, it is varcas that the sacrificer mainly obtains by means of the
sprinkling act. Thus, when it comes to the ritual meaning of the
it is varcas which ought to be examined first. The ritual meanings of
varcas contain three phases on the whole: first the splendid power derived
from the heavenly water; second an overwhelming power over the rivals,
which reflects the atmosphere of the atharvanic magic, and lastly a vital
power that secures a safe and long life for the sacrificer. I shall now adduce
some passages of the and Atharvaveda representing these aspects of
Varcas, according to the mantras cited above, is a power which is
inherent in the water for sprinkling. In a more general sense, it is a power
inherent in the heavenly fluids which are also expressed by the words
payas,. soma, and mddhu [Liiders 1959: 351-55], in which, supposedly,
the sun or Agni exists:? 'The heavenly waters (apo have I wor-
shipped. With sap (rasa-) have we been put together. Being fuB of milk
(ptiyas-), 0 Agni, have I come. Me as such unite with splendour (varcas-)'
7 RV3.22.2, 3.24.1,6.13.2, and 9.66.21; AVSS.3.I, 7.89.1, and 19.33.1. See Oldenberg
19I7b: 107-17 and Uiders 1951: 294-95.
(AVS 7.89.1);8 'A weH-flavoured ointment, a great success (samtddhi) is
that (rain drop). And that is gold (hfratJya-), splendour (varcas-), just pure
(putrfma-)' (AVS 6.124.3ab); 'Agni's portion (bhaga-) are ye,. brightness
(.fukra-) of the waters, 0 heavenly waters. Put splendour (varcas-) in us'
(AVS lO.5.7abc).9
These cosmological ideas are explicit in the mantras relating to king-
ship.IO The king is considered to hold the power of varcas: 'To thee has
come the kingdom (riif!ra-). With splendour (varcas-) arise forth! As lord
of the people (viia1?1 pati-), as sole king (ekaraj-), keep rule (or shine, vi
rilja)!' (AVS 3.4,lab); 'Let this man be treasure-lord of treasures. Let
this king be the people-lord of people (visa:1?1 viSpati-). On him, a Indra,
put great splendours (varcas-)! Make his enemy a man without splendour
(avarcasa-)!' (AVS4.22.3).11 .
This virtue of varcas, as derived from the heavenly fluids or the sun,
is shared by the king: 'The propitious fires sitting in the waters call we.
Put in me supremacy splendour (varcas-), 0 heavenly (waters)'
(AVS 16.1.13). The glorious image of the sun is, therefore, projected in a
human king, that is typically illustrated by the Rohita (the red sun) hymn:
'Rise up, 0 swift one (vajfn-) being within the waters, enter into this
kingdom full of gladness (sunftiivat-). Rohita that generated
this aU should keep thee as wen-kept for kingdom' (AVS 13.1.1), 'R6hiQI,
obedient to R6hita, is Hberal (sur{-), of beautiful colour (suvan;lii-), lofty
(brhatt-), very splendid (suvdrcas-), (AVS 13.1.22ab).12 The king, as the
possessor ofthe various aspects of varcas, can be compared with the bride-
described in the wedding mantras; the bride has the splendour (suvdrcas-)
(AVS RV 85.44, AVS 12.1.25), and acquires a vital power with
varcas (AVS 14.1.47, 14.2.2= RV 10.85.39).
Varcas, repr,esenting the sun or Agni, is a power to be obtained as an
overwhelming one over the sacrificer's opponents: 'Be splendour (vdrcas-)
mine, 0 Agni, in rival invocations (vihavd-). We would, kindling thee,
prosper ourselves. Let the four directions bow to me. With thee as over-
in the Vedic and post- Vedic Rituals 55
8 The materials cited in tllis section are confined to the AVS because the text of the -1VP
has not been fully revised. For the corresponding verses of the AVP see the table presented
by Zehnder 1999: 224-52.
9 SeeJurther RV 10.9.9. AVS 6.68.2. 10.6.8, 12.1.7,8,6.1.3.
10 AVP Book 10. which deals with coronation rituals (Witzel 1997: 278), informs of the
close connection of varcas with kingship. See. e.g. AVP 10.2.1, 8, '5.7, 10.4.
II See further 3.5.1,5.18.4, 13.1.2<l.
12 See further AVS 13.1.2,'5. Varcas is an attribute of the sun in RV 1.6.7. 6.58.4.
10.112.3; AVS 3.22.4., 13.1.22, 13.3.16, 17.1.6,7.27.28, 19.26.2,3, 19.27,28.
56 From Material to Deity
seer we overcome the battles' (AVS 5.3.1);13 'Arise, arise, 0 sun!
Arise upon me with splendour Let the foe become subject to
me. And let me not become subject to the foe' (AVS 17.6ab).14 Varcas is
also a power and if the opponent is deprived of it, he is ruined: 'As the
rising sun takes back the luster of the asterism, thus I take back the splend-
our (varcas-) of both the women and men that hate me' (AVS 7.13.1 ).15 A
king who oppresses priests (brtihmwJa) is deprived of both vtircas and
Ira: 'He (the does ta.ke away (the king's) supremacy
destroy splendour (vareas-) '(AVS 5.18.4a). Thus, wireas is regarded as
the overwhelming power which supports the authority.
The vital power (ayus) is often referred to together with the word var-
cas. The following verse which is used when a new garment is put on a
youth shows this aspect of varcas: 'Clothe, set him for us with splend-
our (varcas-)! Mak'e him one dying from age Uaramrtyu-), one having
long life (dfrgha- ayus- )!' (AVS 2. I3.2ab); 'Unite him with splendour
(vdrcas-), and make him abundant with progeny (praja-)!' (AVS-6.S.1ed).
Besides ayus, satasarad (AVS 1.35.1 cd=4.10.7cd) and anamfvd (AVS2.29,
6b) belong to the sphere of the vital powers which are attained in
nection with varcas. After death one obtains a new body bestowed with
varcas: 'Abandoning the fault, come horne (to the world of the dead)
again! Let him unite himself with a body (tanu-), having a good splend-
our (suvdrcas-r (AVS 18.3.58cd RV 10.14.8cd).16
Generally speaking, varcas stands for the cosmological power whiCh
is imbued with the vitality inherent in the cosmic fluids of the heaven, or
with the spl,endid power in the cosmic fire, the sun. By acquiring wlrcas,
one is imbued with splendour and dignity which overpower the competit-
ors in a contest, as weB as vitality which secures long life and offspring.
Such are the aspects of varcas which are consistent with the functions of
the i.e. conferring quaHfication power as ,men-
tioned earlier.
13 =RV 10.128.1 'da RuhntesgJanz oder der Nimbus des Siegers' (Geldner's note on
14 AVS 16.6a=16.7a. Sec further AVS 19.33.5cd.
15 See further AVS4., 19.36.1, and 19,49.4. Asuccessor would gain varcas
and vijiiana (discernment) from all attendal11s in the assembly (AVS 7,12.3). The words
inspired by vdrcas, when spoken among the audience, would secure an agreement of the
attendants to their speaker (AVS 9.1.19).
16 For securing the vital power indicated by vdrcas, the sprinklings of walerly medicine
are to be taken into consideration. Sprinkling of on the bruised (AVS 6.57.2) and of
nitatnron a bald head (AVS 6.136.3) can be thought of as securing varcas. namely the vital
power,. to remedy the sufferer.
17 The next mantra indrdsya yon(r asi janaya (MS 2.6.11 : 70. mI) which is addressed to
the hom with which the body of the sacriticer is rubbed up does 110t show any direct relation
with the abhifeka. The birth motif is assigned 10 the horn, not to the itself. See
Tsuchiyama 1996: 947.
tl.3 The Mantras and Ritual Explanations of the
Yajurveda and the 8rahmaQas
The idea ofabhi$eka revealed in the mantras of the YVand in the interpret-
ations of the Brahmal)as is basically the same as that in the AV, namely, the
bestowing of qualification and power. However, when examined in detaU,
they seem to differ from the AV in the power to be acquired atthe sprink-
ling (unction). The close relationship of the water for sprinkling with the
power of varcas seen in the AV is no longer a central feature of
in the YV and the BrahmaI;las; wircas in the new context becomes merely
one of the powers which are to be bestowed on the king when sprinkled
upon (anointed). There are in the YV and the BrahmaQas several mantras
which refer to varcas, but most of them are employed while preparing the
unction waters. Some unction waters are addressed as suryavarcas (TS
1.8.] la, MS 2.6.7: 68.3, VS 10.3), and they are appeased as a bestower of
varcas (AB 8.6). The waters are only addressed to bestow varcas on a
(TS 1.8.l2a, b) or to confer kingship TS 1.8.11 c, MS
2.6.7: 67.13, 68.1, VS 10.3) without referring to varcas.
On the contrary, other kinds of powers are mentioned as those which
should be bestowed on the sacrificer at the time of sprinkling. The powers
are often referred to together with various deities who preside over them.
This is especially noticeable in the unction formula of the rajasuya, which
show OJ uniformity in all the Sarphitas of the YV. The unction formula
refers to the deities and to their own powers to be granted to the sacrificer
by sprinkling, and in this context Soma (dyumna), Agni (tejas, bhrtijas:
VS) and Indra (indriyd) are repeatedly mentioned in every SarphiUi of the
YV. The unction formula of TS places Surya (varcas) between Agni and
]ndra, and adds Mitravarul;lau (vfrya) and Maruts (6)as) at the end. Thus,
the mantra of the TS fUns as follows: s6nzasya tva dyumneniibhf
tejasti suryasya varcasendrasyendriye1}a mitravaru/fayor vfrye,!a
marutam 6jasa (TS.1.8. I 4g), 'With the glory of Soma] sprinkle on thee,
with the briIHance of Agni, with the splendour of the sun, with the power
of Indra, with the strength of Mitra and Varur:Ia, with the force of the
Maruts.' The unction formula of MS 2.6.11: 70.9-11
adds viive devii/J
(kratu). Lastly the VS puts Surya (varcas) between Agni and lndra as TS
(VS 10.17, Heestermann 1957: 115). The Brahmat:Jas refer to the abhi$eka
Abhi$eka in the Vedic and post- Vedic Rituals 57
58 From Material to Deity
in the same way as the formula for the sprinkling in the rajasiiya; the gods
referred to in the mantra of the bestow on the sacrificer each
proper power; S6ma - dyumna, Ago! - Mjas . .. (TB ].7.8.3-4, S85.4.1.2),
and MS 4.4.5: 55.5 expresses the same idea in a generalized statement.
'With these powers (indriy'a-) , these deities (devata-), he sprinkles on him
(the king).'
Such multiplicity of powers to be bestowed on a king during the unc-
tion ceremony is also found in the various phases of the ritual explication.
While referring to the preparation of the unction waters a king is said
to be sprinkled with varcas (S8 and other powers (e.g. vrrya,
annadya, pdsu,SB The deities of the twelve ptirtha oblations,
which are perlormed before and after the act of sprinkling, bestow their
own powers on the king (S8, Tsuchiyama 1996: 942-939). The
powers inherent in the materials (e.g. aJvanha) with which the sprink-
ling vessels are made arc transferred to the sacrificer at the time of the
unction (TB, SB, Heesterman 1957: 114). The sacri-
fleer who receives the abhi.yeka is feared by the earth because of the great
power (mahdt) he has acquired (58 5.2.LI8,,5,4.2.20-21, cf. The Asvins recovered Indra's power through the (S8 f).18
1 would now like to examine several other points about the meanings
of The idea of guardians of the cardinal points, which already
appears in the AV,19 has also been incooporated in the Brahmm:ms while
dealing with sprinkling upon the king. There are eight mantras of the
abhi.yeka in the mrtyusava and the Of these mantras the
first two are variants of AVP 4.2.6 and 7 4.8.5 and 6) as 'indicated
earEer, and the third one is derived from RV 1.1]. L, whereas the other
four mantras, which have been newly introduced, state that the guardians
of the directions (Vasus I Rudras I Adityas I Vfsve DevaQ I
sprinkle the king with their metres (gayatrl I trio$!ubh I jagatf I I
panktl). The same idea is found in a inore elaborate form in the formulas
of the digvyasthiipana (TS 1.8.13a-e, MS 2.6.10: 69.13-70.3, VSIO.I 0-
14), one of the preparatory rituals before the spri nkHng of the riijasiiya.
18 Such a muUiplicity of powers and deities mentioned in Ihe mantnu relaling 10 sprink-
ling and the ritual explication lire also found in AB 8.7, 16.20 (punambhi¥eka and aindra

19 The idea that the direction (pradi§) bestows t.he authority of kingship is found typ-
ically in AVS 3.4: 'Let all the regions of the compass thee. 0 king' (3.4.1 c); 'Let these
fiv,e divine regions choose for the kingship!' (3.4.2b). See further AVS 5.3.1,
6.40.2,9.10.19, and 19.1.3. Cf. Schlerath 1960: 68 and Gonda 1966: 104.
20 for the table of the cosmic entities mentioned in the of the digvyaslhiipana.
see Hecsterman 1957: 103-4.
21 The MiinSS employs the expression a-sic. while the VarSS uses See Tsuji
1952: 66-67 (Japanese), 211-12 (English summary), and Schwab 1886: 110.
22 The production-motif can be seen more clearly in the mantras and the Brahmal)as
about the throne than in those of the sprinkling. See. e.g. 1"5 1.8.16c: 'Thou art the womb of
Each direction is thus related to the cosmic entities such as metre, stoma,
siiman, deity, and power (e.g. the east, samidh, gtiyatrf, trivrt, rathanta-
ra, Agni, and brahman),20 which are bestowed on the king. The unction
mantras of the aindra (AB 8.19) also indicate that kingship
is endowed with the powers of the directions or rather the cosmic entit-
ies represented by the directions (e.. g. the east, Vasus, and siimriijya / the
south, Rudras, and bhaujya). Thus, it can be clearly noticed that when
the king is sprinkled upon or consecrated he is bestowed with the cosmic
powers pertaining to the aU directions. This idea is a precursor of the idea
of the lokapiilas such as represented in Manusmrti 7.3-5.
One of the ritual meanings referred to in the mantras relating to the
is that of the birth. This is clear from the following mantra in
AB 8.7 on the sprinkling water which is used for the and
aindra mahiibhiseka.
Thee great, the universal king (saf?1riijan-) of the great people
1)i-) bore the divine (devf-) mother (janitrf-, namely, unction waters),
the auspicious (bhadrii-) mother bore.
Sprinkling (anointing) is (re-)production; on sprinkling on the victim, the
Brahmal)a explains that when sprinkled upon by the sacrificer's wife, the
victim is born again:
ydd adbhfr ptlnar evdina,?1 prdjana-
yati (when she sprinkles water (on the victim), she makes it to be born
again) (MS 3.10,]: 128.10). This idea is not unrelated to that of bestowing
powers. Reproduction is, therefore, to be understood as a variation of the
primary idea of bestowing powers inherent in the act of sprinkling. In my
investigation of the interpretation of the riijasuya represented by the three
schools (Taittirfya, Maitrayal)lya, and V£ijasaneya), I have indicated that
each of the three is distinguished by the importance it giv,es to a specific
motif. Thus, the puru-ra-motif is prominent in the TB, the production-
motif in the MS, and the Prajapati-motif in the 58 (Tsuchiyama [1996]),
even though these three motives are interrelated with one another. For ex-
ample, the Prajapati-motif is associated with the production-motif, for it is
from Prajapati that a king is born (5B 5.3.3. [5, 5.6). These three motives
are variations of the primary or the principal idea of bestowing powers.
59 in the Vedic and post-Vedic Rituals
60 From Material to Deity
The idea of obtaining power revealed in the mantras is interpreted
as the acquisition of food or (re-)generative power (annadya, .anna). This
can be found in the of the vajapeya and agnicayana in particular.
With the remnant (of the offerings) he sprinkles on him
(the sacrificer). When with food (annadya-) he sprinkles on him, he
thereby bestows the food on him. Therefore, he sprinkles on him with
23 '. . .
.the remnant.· (585.2.2.] 2)
As can be seen from the above passage, one of the reasons why the acquis-
ition of food (annadya) is so much emphasized is that the here
takes place after the vtijapra.ravfya oblation with its remnant; by means of
the remnant of the viijaprasavfya oblation, which precedes the
one can obtain food (TS,, TB ] .3.8.2, and MS 3.4.3: 47.16).
The in the vajapeya and the agnicayana is, therefore, regarded as
bestowing the power of the viijaprasavrya on the sacrificer. In this connec-
tion we have to point out that there is a difference of the ritual significance
of the abhi.yeka in the vajapeya and agnicayana, on the one hand, and that
in the coronation rituals like riijasilya, on the other. The former is subor-
dinate to the oblation as pointed out just now, whereas the
latter occupies an independent position in thai the unction fluids are pre-
pared specifically for the (42.1). At any rllte the primary
ing of abhi.yeka as bestowing power shows several variations according to
its significance in the ritual contexts. In passing it is to be mentioned that
Rau [1957: 88] empha'sized 'Fruchtbarkeitszauber' as the primary mean-
ing of based on such a ritual idea as bestowing food as revealed
in the Brahmat:tas, which, however, can be thought of only as a Brahma-
Q.ical variation of the original meaning of obtaining varcas inherent in the
sun or heavenly water as indicated above with reference to the
of the AV.
1.2 Offering lnterpretedas
Abhi$eka has a 'symbolic' meaning as is evident from the SR, which iden-
tifies the offering (ahuti) with the actd sprinkling in the ritual
explication of the agnicayana.
One of the passages in this text is that
the lordly power' in the rajusfiya. and AB 8.17: 'The lordly power has been born ... ' in the
aindra mahiibhi,l'eka.
23 See further 58, TS (agnicayuntl), 1'8 (viijapeyll) , and S8
12.8.12, 17, 18 (on the remnant of pa;\:upuro(Iil;(:u of the SlwtraIlUlfJ,I).
24 Gonda has ci.ted some Grhya passages, where the sprinkling (pra-llk.y) creates the
impression of being a dedication (Gonda 1980c: 127].
25 In the viniiyakakalpa. pouring and offering are interrelated: the priest offers (juhoti)
the offering materials on the head of a sacrificer who is possessed by the vinayakas, though
the offering materials are actually poured over his head. The remnants of offerings are given
away in the crossroads (ManGS 2.14.27, Ytijiiavalkyasmrfi 1.284,286).
2/\ For gratifying Agni, s,ee SB (va.wrdhiira) and (vajaprasavrya),
27 Gonda 1965b: 179. 200-1. For the ritual interpretation of the libation of fat gravy
of the vasar dhiirli (offering of melted butter into the iihavanfya fire on
the agni altar), which is as abhi?eka, though no sprinkling is
actually performed.
And, the reason why he offers the vasar dhiirii (in the agni altar) is:
this is his (Agni's) The gods, having (salflskr-
tya) him wholly and entirely, upon him with those wishes
(kama-), that is, with this vasar dhtirii, and likewise this man (sacri-
ficer), having completed him wholly and entirely, sprinkles upon him
(agni altar) with those wishes, that is, with this vasal' dhiirii.
The interpretation of the offering as of Agni is repeated

in the ritual of the component oblations of the vasar dhtirti
(yajnakratu-oblation in SB and in SB, ana
is found in the ritual of the \liijaprasavrya oblations (S8, the oblations of the soma juice (S8, and the
!aw (TS
Behind this interpretation there seems to be at least two ideas: that of
offering as a means to accomplish the object of wish, and of the identifica-
tion of the agni ahar with the sacrificer. First, by offering the oblations the
sacrificer gratifies the deities' and acquires or accomplishes the object of'
his wish in return. This is one of the characteristics of the ritual ideas of
the BrahmaQa period (Oldenberg, 1919: 126-28), and is here introduced
into the explication of the agnicayana.
Being offered with the oblations (vasor dharii-) and being gratified
and sprinkled he (the agn{) grants him (the sacrificer)
theseobjects of wish (kama-).26 (S89.3.2.6)
The idea of a human king as an object from which benefit is obtained is
superimposed on the image of the agni altar.
Therefore people thus implore the human king who has been sprinkled
(abhf$ikta-). (SB
Thus by making an offering on the agni altar the sacrificer satisfies the
wish of Agni and in return acquires the accomplishment of his wish .27
in the Vedic and post-Vedic Rituals 61
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r I
62 From Material to Deity
The second reason why the offering on the agni altar is interpreted
as an of Agni is because it is derived from the ritual meaning
given to the agni altar itself: the agni altar, as a cosmic man or
Prajapati, is identified with the sacrificer.
On the basis of this idea, the
ritual procedure for the agni altar i!s parallel to that for the sacrificer.
After offering the obllation (Iliijapra.ravfya-) on the agni altar, he
(the priest) sprinkles on him (the sacrificer), for that (altar) is his
divine body (ddiva- iitman-), and this (sacrificer) is his human one
and the gods indeed were first, and thereafter the men:
therefore, after offering the oblation on the agni altar, he (priest)
sprinkles him (sacrificer) with the remainder of that. (SB
Now when he offers [soma juice] in the fire, he sprinkles upon the
agni altar. So that divine body (agni altar) of him (sacrificer) becomes
sprinkled by soma, sprinkled by the immortality. And'he (sacrificer)
drinks (the soma juice): he thereby sprinkles upon himself. So this
self (atmdn-) of him becomes sprinkled by sorna, sprinkled by the
immortality. (SB
As noticed from the above passages, the offering and the drinking
of soma by the sacrificer are clearly identified with sprinkling. The agni
altar itself, which is built only during the ritual processes, is thought of as
a divine body of the sacrificer that was constructed through the process of
the agnicayana. Thus the motif of the abhi\\'eka is brought into the inter-
pretation of the offering on the agni altar. Here we can find an example of
.the symbolic interpretation of the
The significance of the idea underlying the symbolic interpretation of
the may be examined in two phases. First, this idea is inherited
from the AV and second there exists a certain relationship between the
symbolic interpretation and the idea of the prati\'1!hti ritual of the later
in the 'having thus consecrated (abhi.yicyci) him by means of those deities from
firsn no last, he thus, by means of oblanions, makes all his wishes (surva- k&ma-) successful
(scimardhayati)' {SB, see Gonda 1980b: 135.
28 Oldenberg 1918: 14 (=KIeine Schriften p.332), Gonda 1960: 193-94, I 96.5h: 176·77.
The identification of the sacriticer with the iihavanfya fire is also seen in other ritmils. For
example, the offering of melted butter into the iihavanfya fire means that brilliance (tfjas)
is put into the sacrificeI' because the fire is the resting place (c1yafana) of the
sacritlcer (PB 12.10.) 6,18). For olher passages on the identifi cation of the sacrificeI' with
the iihavanfya see TS TB, KS 21.4: 41.6 (the sacrificer's cUman), MS 3.3.2:
33.16 (vajamiinayatana). TB (yajamanadevatya), and 3.9: 13.2) -22 (aha va·
In the first place, the idea of as a means to fulfil a desire is
anticipated in AVS 11.1.27:
These purified, cleansed and worshipful women (waters) I set down
(slidayiimi) in the hands of the priests (brahman-) separately. With
what wish I now sprinkle (abhi on you, Indra: with Marots
shall grant (dadtit) that on me.
Here the water meant for sprinkling is thought to object of desire.
KausS 63.4 prescribes that the priest does what fs stated in the mantra,
that is, washing of his hands (Gonda 1965b: 213). AVS 6.122.5, showing
a slight variation (dadatu tat instead of dadtid idam), accompanies the
sarrzsthitahoma in KausS 63.29 (Gonda 1965b: 231-32). The fact that the
water for sprinkling are referred to as a desire (kama) is equivalent to
the idea of offering as a means to acquire the objects of wish revealed
in the interpretation of the agnicayana as mentioned earHer. We find the
same idea in AVS 10.9.27:
Tpe heavenly waters (apo rich in honey drip-
ping of ghee I set down (sadayiimi) in the hands of the priests (brah-
man-) separately. With what wish I now sprinkle (abhi
you, let an that fall together (sarrz padyatlim) to me. May we be lords
of wealth.
AVS 10.9.27, which has the same piidas as AVS I 1.1.27cd cited above, is
employed for setting the water pot (udakumbha) for washing used in the
sava ritual (KausS 65.8) [Gonda 1965b: 262-63].
In these passages, the water employed for sprinkling are regarded as
objects of desire to be fulfilled by the priest or the sacrificer. In other
words, sprinkling functions as a means of the fulfillment of wishes. This
meaning attached to sprinkling is taken over and is fully developed in the
Srauta ritual and in the theological explanation of the accord-
ing to which one accomplishes the fulfillment of a wish by presenting the
object of wishes to the gods in the form of the Thus, in AVS
10.9.27 and AVS 11.1.27 as treated before, sprinkling is thought to be a
means of gratifying deities, which may have been influenced by the basic
idea that the offering to the deities gratifies them.
In the second place" the idea of the is passively connected
to that of the pratinhii.ritual. As the contributors to this volume indicate,
the image of the god to be sprinkled over in the prati-$!hii ritual is identi-
fied with the sacrificer by means of various nyiisa and meditation, just as
the agni altar is identifi.ed with the sacrificer. Similarly a Hindu temple
in the Vedic and post-Vedic Rituals 63

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From Material to Deity
which is sprinkled in the temple construction ceremony is regarded as the
(cosmic) man (Ogura 1999: 199-207) just like the agni allar. Thus in the
symbolic interpretation of of the agnicayana we can find one
of the sources of motives supporting the of Hindu rituals.
2 The Ritual Procedure of Abhiseka
- .
As pointed out in the beginning of the preceding section, it is the AV that
contains the first reference to abhi$eka in India
and the AV prominently
assigns to abhi:Feka the function of bestowing power and prestige on the
sacrificer. However, details of the ritual procedure are not known very
we]] due to lack of contemporary manual texts. At present, we confine
ourselves to the prescribed in the ritual texts, that is, in the
Srauta- and Grhyasfitras. In these texts is not carried out as an
independent unit, instead it is placed in a sequence of ritual acts as a ritual
component. The reconstruction of such a sequence of rituals including
the abhi$eka, however, be undertaken in another monograph. What I shaH
undertake here is to compare various types of and to examine
other performances closely conne,cted with
A comparison of rituals brings about different results according to its
criterion which has been chosen in view of the purpose of the concerned
study. Here, in order to gel the exact idea of itself, I take two es-
sentials or rather two parameters of abhLreka into consideration, namely,
the preparation or the arrangement of the fluid to be used for sprinkling,
and the act of sprinkling itself.
In view of the significance attached to abhi,yekas of the Srauta ritual,
they can be divided into two groups. One group comprises
of the coronation rituals which are performed independently and mark
one of the climaxes among several ritual components. The other type
consists of found in the agnicayana, viijapeya, asvamedha, and
sautramWlf, where they occupy only a subordinate position in comparison
with its main performance, or, in other words, is inserted as
'intermezZo' as Weber pointed out while dealing with the abhi$eka of the
viijapeya (Weber 1892: 39).
29 In Iranian literature, e.g. in the VfdevdlJd. hie with auui means the sprinkling on a
barley field (Bartholomae 1904: 1268. ]727). hl the sense of purifying, hie with paiti is
emp,loyed, e.g. sprinkling on the head (V 8.40), the sole of the left foot (V 8.70), and variolls
parts of the body (V 9.162-66).

2.1 in the Coronation Rituals
2.1.1 Riijasiiya of the Yajurveda
Of the relating to the coronation rituals, the in the
riijasuya of the Yajurveda reveals most the complexity of the sprinkling
(anointing) ceremony. The rlijasuya itself has already been studied by
several scholars
so far. However, in our intensive study of the ritual pre-
paration of the water for sprinkling and the sprinkhngitself, it is necessary
to survey the ritual acts constituting the sprinkling ceremony. The follow-
ing is a Est of the ritual acts perfonned during mainly according
to the BaudhSS and is supplemented by other ritual texts.
in the Vedic and post-Vedic Rituals 65

. ,
. I'·
: .. I'
: ' i
1. Preparation of the sprinkling fluids:
(a) Making libation in unction fluids and drawing of them.
BaudhSS 12.8: 97.3-98.5,· MlinSS, VarSS
25, ApSS 18.13.1,3-18, HirSS 13.5.11-15, KatySS 15.4.25-45.
(b) Pouring the different fluids into a collective vessel.
BaudhSS 12.8: 98.5-7, ManSS, VarSS, ApSS
18.13..21, HirSS 13.5.16-17, KatySS 15.4.46.
(c) Putting down of the collective vessel.
BaudhSS 12.8: 98.8-9, MiinSS, varss, ApSS
18.13.21, HirSS 13.5.18-19, KiitySS 15.4.47.
(d) Putting a piece of in the collective vessel.
BaudhSS 12.9: 99.1-2, MiinSS, ViirSS, ApSS
18.13.21,. HirSS 13.5.20, KatySS 15.5.5.
(e) Pouring out the collected fluids into the four unction cups.
BaudhSS 12.9: 99.3-5, ManSS, ViirSS, ApSS ] 8.
13.21, HirSS 13.5.21, KiitySS 15.5.6.
2. Sprinkling:
(a) Standing or sitting of the king on a tiger skin
with his face
turned to the east and with his arms raised.
BaudhSS 12.10: 101.5, MiinSS, ViirSS, Ap.sS
18.15.5, HirSS 13.5.26. KatySS 15.5.25.
30 Weber 1893, Heesterman 1957, and Tsuji 1977d.
31 BaudhSS 12.10: 101.5-6 seems to stipulate that the king sits on a"tiger skin (Heester-
man 1957: 114 n.l). According to ViirSS and ApSSI8.15.10, the king' stands at
32 BaudhSS 12.9: 100.4-5, MiinSS ViirSS, ApSS 18.14.16,
KiirySS 15.5.28-29.
66 From Material to Deity
(b) Sprinkling over the king with the fluid, through the holes of a
gold plate put on his head.
BaudhSS 12.1 J: 101.15-]7, MiinSS9.J.3.2]-22, VarSS3.3.2.48,
ApSS 18.16.1-5,. HirSSI3.5.32-34, KatySS J5.5.30-33.
3. Rubbing by means of an antelope horn the remaining fluid on the
sacrificer's body starting from the lower part and moving upwards to
his chest.
BaudhSS 12.11: 102.. 1-2, MiinSS, ViirSS], ApSS 18.
16.7-8, HirSS 13.5.35.
4. Offering the remainder of the unction fluid to Rudra.
BaudhSS 12.1 I: 102.8-9, ManSS, VarSS, ApSS 18.
13.22, ]6.13, HirSS ]3.5.37.
From the above list, two points are evident: first, the procedure of the
itself is independent of other ritual performances. In particular,
this can be ascertained by the fact that the unction fluids are prepared only
for the purpose of sprinkling. This is different from other types of abhi-
in the agnicayana, el,c., in which the sprinkling fluid is not prepared-
for itself, but, as shown below (42.2), the remnant of the viijaprasavfya
offered beforehand is used as the fluid for sprinkling.
Second, the ritual acts constituting the sprinkling ceremony are gen-
eraUy common to aU the schools. Indeed there are some minor differences
in the pr,escription among the Srautasutras: in the ApSS - influenced by
the Maitdiyal;1iyas
-. the offering of the remainder len over in the col-
lective vessel to Rudra is allowed to be made before the sprinkling; in the
KtitySS neither the rubbing up of the sacrificer's body nor the offering of
the remainder to Rudra are carried out. However, the main procedures of
preparation of the sprinkling fluids and of the sprinkling, when compared
with other sprinkling ceremoni'es such as in the agnicayana, do not show
any variations among the Sralltaslitras.
Such an established sequence is not confined only to the sprinkling
ceremony of the rlijasuya. The procedures of the chariot drive and of
the king sitting down on the throne, which follow the and con-
stitute the main acts of the riijasuya besides the are also com-
mon to aU the schools. It seems, therefore, reasonable to suppose that the
33 For placing a gol:d plate on thehead see BaudhSS 12.10: 101.7', ManSS 9. l.3. 19,
ApSSI8.15.5. HirSSI3.5.30, and KatySS 15.5.27.
34 II seems not 10 be denied tllat the interruption of the 'old' Taiuiriya Iradition in the
ApSS is explained by an external impact from the Maitraya':liya (Renou 1947: 181), although
the order of sprink.ling S.- is peculiar to the Maitrayal)ilyas (Tsuji I977d: 213).
main sequence of the rajasuya, which includes the as an essen-
tial part of the ritual, has been firmly established beyond peculiarities of
the Yajurvedic schools.
2.1.2 The Mrtyusava and the
The mrtyusava (BaudhSSI8.16-18) and the (ApSS 22.28.1-25,
HirSS 23.4.41-66), despite their names being different, ought be treated
commonly, because they are dependent on the same mantra collection
(TB 2.7.15,16,17) derived from the mantra tradition of the AVP mentioned
earlier. The sequence of the main performances employing the verses of
the mantra conection is as foHows;
1. Offering of ghee (iihuti): BaudhSS18.16:361.9-14, ApSS 22.28..10,
HirSS 23.4.49.
2. Sprinkling (anointing) over the sacrificer sitting on a tiger skin:
BaudhSS 18.17:362.6-14, ApsS 22.28.13, HirSS 23.4.51.
3. Raising and lowering of the sacrificer's arms: BaudhSS 18.17: 362.
18-20, ApSS 22.28.14, HirSS 23.4.52-54.
4. Ritual march (rathiiroha1!a): BaudhSS 18.17: 363.1-10, ApsS 22.28.
18-23, HirSS 23.4.57-64.
5. Cutting of the hair (vapana): BaudhSS 18.19: 365.8-14, ApSS 22.28.
4-8, HirSS 23.4.44-48.
As is clear from the above, in the riijiibhi!jeka the cutting of the sacrHicer's
hair takes place towards the beginning of the whole procedure, while in
the mrtyusava it is practiced at the end. This difference in the sequences
is caused by the order of the anuvtikas in the mantra conection that they.
adopted. The mrtyusava employs them according to the order of anuvakas
15,16 and 17, while the uses the anuviikas in the order of
17,15 and 16. Notwithstanding this difference of the total procedure, the
sequence of itself is the same in both coronations. SprinkHng
is performed over the sacrificer who sits on the tiger skin,. although the
BaudhSS adds some other prescriptions, which show the same features
with other abhi!jekas of the BaudhSS in general; surrounding the sacrificer
with the gold and silver plates, wiping up the sacrificer, crying out in a
chorus, releasing his speech, and wiping the face.
There are two points that ought to be noted while making a compar-
ison with the abhi!jeka of the riijasuya. First, the water meant for sprink-
Hng is brought from the four directions (mrtyusava, BaudhSS 18.16: 361.6-
7) or is mixed with the young blades of sprout (tokman) or pank grass
(durva) (riijtibhi!jeka, ApSS 22.28.13, HirSS 23.4.51). The ingredients of
plants put into sprinkling water in the ApSS indicate a different tradition
in the Vedic and post-Vedic Rituals 67

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! :
68 From Material to Deity
of the preparation of the unction fluid because those ingredients put into
water in the riijasuya are confined to those belonging to cows (e.g. ghee,
curd and amniotic fljuid of a calf) and honey.35 The putting of plants into
water for sprinkling reminds us of of the coronations of the AB
(-*2.1.3) and of the post-Vedic coronations (-+3).
Second, the raising and lowering of the sacrificer's arms takes place
after It is performed after the unction as a continuous set of per-
formances without interlude. This procedure seems to be more practical
than that of the riijasuya, where the sacrificer raises his arms before the
sprinkling and chariot drive, and lowers them after these acts (Heester-
man 1957: 96-97, 101-2). Thus, the mrtyusava and belongs
to a ritual tradition which contains more simple forms of ritual
than those found in the riijasiiya.
2.1.3 The Coronations of the Aitareya Briihmana
There are two coronations belonging to the school of the namely,
the and the aindra described in the AB.
Abhi"ljekas of these two coronations consist mainly of three ritual acts: the
preparation of the unction fluids, the act of sprinkling itself, and some
activities aft·er the sprinkling such as sacrificer's of sura, giv-
ing of stepping out to the aparajita, namely, the north-east
Of these the first two acts deserve to be con-
sidered here as the dominant features of

1. Eight ingredients are poured into the water used for sprinkling con-
tained in a goblet made of udumbara. They are curd (dadhi), honey
(madhu), melted butter (sarpis), rain water collected during sunshine
rice sprout barley sprout (tokman), crude
beer (sura.) and durva. grass. (AR 8.5)
2. The king is sprinkled upon when he has mounted the throne (iisandf)
made of udumbara and covered with a tiger skin, while the officiant
35 See the list of water used ill the riijan7ya [Heestermann 1957: 84-85).
36 See Weber 1893: 111-17. is an annual renewal of the kingship, while
aindra mahiibhi.yeka is to be performed only in thefirSI coronalion of the king. SeeWitzel
1987: 9 and Keith's note on his translation of lhe AB, p. 322,
37 The Icing's stepping out towards the north·east direction means his reverence to the
quarters and the s.ecurity of his conquest apariijitiitrl dUam
pariijayiiya (AB 8.9) 'He reveres the unconquered quarter, to secure the perm.ancnce of his
conquest' (If. Keith). This performance and its meanings find their correspondence in the
expanding the quarters (digvyasthiipana) and the chariot drive in the rajasiiya. For apariijita
see Gonda 1980c:

places an udumbara branch above the head of the sacrificer (SayaIJa:
sirasy udumbarasiikhayii vyavadhiinarrz krtvii ... ). (AB 8.6-7)
]. Eight kinds of trees and plants in the shape of green shoots are poured
into the unction waters contained in a goblet made of udumbara.
They are nyagrodha, udumbara, asvattha, rice (vrrhi) with
barley sprout (tokman) , large rice (mahiivrfhi) with young blades,
panic seeds (priyaf?lgu), and barley (yava). The eight ingredients as
listed above in the are also mixed with them.
(AB 8.16)
2. The king is sprinkled upon in the same manner as in the punarabhi-
but through the golden strainer Uiitarupamaya-pavitra) which
replaces the udumbara wood in the (AB 8.17-18)
In comparison with the in the riljasuya of the YV, two points
of difference need to be not,ed here. First, in the of the AB the
sacrificer is seated on throne (iisandi) covered with a tiger skin, whHein
the rii}asiiya of the YV he stands or sits on the tiger skin in the sprinkling
act and does not take a seat till the conclusion of the chariot drive.
feature of the AB corresponds to the of the agnicayana, vilja-
peya, and so on (-.t 2.2.1).
Second, in the abhifeka of the AS the diversity of plants put into the
sprinkling fluids is prominent, while in the YV mainly the products of the
cow such as melted butter (a}ya), milk (payas), and curd (dadhi) are put
into the sprinkling waters. This resembles the of the ApSS
(-+2.1.2) and also the coronation ritual of the ancillary literature; barley,
sesame, rice and so on as weB as the five products of cow (paficagavya)
are to be put into the water of a river or of the ocean in the
(BaudhGSS 1.23.6,14) (-.t3. n. Such a diversity of the ingredients comes
into prominence in course of time. A chronological assumption that the
sections dealing with the coronation rituals in the AB are added later
not inconsistent with this tendency. The features of the coronation rituals
as delineated in this text found its way into the Vidhana literature (-.t3.3).
2.1.4 Coronations of the Kausikasiitra and the Vaitiinasiitra
of the ritual siiitras belonging to the AV are ones described in
the KausS and the VaitS. Here coronation rituals of the KausS will be
dealt with first.
in the Vedic and post- Vedic Rituals 69
Jll The prescription of the ViirSS seems to be exceptional in that the sacrificer is standing
on the throne in the sprinkling of the riijasuya (
39 Witzel 1987: 11, n. 8 and 1997: 320-22.
70 From Material to Deity
The essentials of two in the KausS ( I 7. ] -] ] : lagh
17.12-29: mahiibhi>?eka) are, paying attention to the unction waters and
sprinkling as done in the preceding sections, itemized as below;
]. Preparation of the unction water from the great rivers (mahiinadya/:t)
2. Sprinkling on the king, who stands on darbha grass in the south of the
parigrhya-vedi40 (l7.2: or who sits on a bed (talpa)
covered with darbha grass (17.12:
In these two the standing posture of the king at the sprinkling
ceremony of the is clearly distinguished from the sitting
posture of the king in the The standing posture in the laghv-
is similar to that in the riijasaya of the YV though the darbha
grass is replaced by a tiger skin. On the other hand the king's sitting on a
bed in the is akin to the sprinkling scenes of the emanations
of the AB, or rather to the of the agnicayana and other king-
ship rituals which have secondarily taken form, being modelled after the
abhifeka of the rajasuya. Moreover, the clear differences of the ritual per-
formances between both coronations of the and mahiibhi·
range over their entire ceremonies; in the laghvabhi;'1eka (n,]-1]),
after the sprinkling act, the king mounts a bed (talpa) covered with a bull
skin fiUs the and exchanges it with his
purohita. After having a dialogue with him and eating the porridge (sthii-
ll'piika), the king mounts a horse and rides in the direction
(apariijitii),. and gives a thousand cows or a village to the priest. On the
other hand, in the (17.12-29), after being sprinkled upon, the
king mounts a couch (Jayana) covered with a tiger skin and is carried to
the assembly (sabha) by the king's four sons (rajaputra), who hold its four
legs, and his feet and body are washed by s,ervants (dasa, mahiiSL7dra).
After these arghya-Iike ritual acts, a dice game, a dialogue with a vaisya,
eating food, ridi:ng a horse and serving fuod mixed with honey (madhumi-
fra) to brahrnins take place. Although the horse riding that corresponds to
the chariot drive of the riijasuya in the .YV takes place in both coronations,
ritual components are greatly different from each other, so that one can
not surmise that the has directly developed from the laghv-
It is more likely that the has been panerned after
the form of the riijasuya of the YV.
As for the of the riijasiiya in the VailS,. the similarity with the
coronations of the AB is more noticeable; the sacrificer is sprinkled upon
40 See Bloomfield 1897: 379, n. 2 and Caland 1900: 39. n. 3.
Abhi-reka in the Vedic and post-Vedic Rituals 71
while sitting on a chair (asand.f) covered with a tiger skin (VaitS 36.6-7)
and there is no reference to the chariot drive. The VaitS, nevertheless, has
a different position as a ritual siUra belonging to theAVbecause it employs
the mantras of AVS 4.8 at the sprinkling ceremony.
2.2 in Other Rituals of the Srautasiitras
Several of the rituals of which are parts of are prescribed un-
der the name of sava in the ritual literature (Gonda 1965b: 13-17). In
the BaudhSS the savas are dealt with in the ekiiha section. Further some
'major' sacrifices in which the are performed are also caned
sava; the agnicayana, the riijasuya, and the viijapeya are caned
va, varur,rasava, and samrii!sava, respectively.41 However, aU the rituals
in which an is heM are not necessarily treated as sava. For ex-
ample,. the asvamedha and the kaukilr sautrama1Jf, which are not termed
savas, contain, however, the sprinkling ritual. Hence, we shall examine
here the various forms of sprinkling in the Srauta ritual without restricting
our examination only to the sava category.
2.2.1 Agnicayana and Other Royal Rituals
First, the of the major sacrifices in the Baudh8S
10.57-58: 60.8-16 [Ikari, Arnold 1983: 603-4], viijapeya 11.7: 74.8-16
[Weber 1892: 39], asvamedha 15.32: 238.5-6 [Dumont 1927:'343]) which
show the uniformity in the forms of rituals in this text will be dealt with:
I. Employing the remnant of the vlijaprasavfya offerings as fluids for
2. Sprinkling upon a sacrificer who is sitting facing east at the place of
the sacrificer (yajamiiniiyatana) covered with a black-antelope skin,
upon and under whom the golden and silver plates are placed respe'ct-
ively. The mantra used whHe sprinkling is also the same for the three

3. Rubbing up the sacrificer's body after sprinkling.
These procedures differ from those of the riijasuya in the following three
points; first, the remnant of the viijaprasavfya offering is as
fluids for sprinkling,. whHe in the rajasuya of the YV the unction fluids
41 See ealand's note 011 ApSS 22.25.1 and Weber 1892: 39.
42 TS 1.7.l0.3h: devasya tvii savi!liQ prasav·e 'ivinor biihubhYii'TI pii.YrJo hastiibhyii'TI
sarasvatyai vaco yantur yantre,:!lignes tva tvli salTlriijyena-
bhl$inciimi bfhaspates tvii
72 From Material to Deity
are prepared independently. This means that in those three rituals, abhi-
tak.es a subsidi.ary position from the viewpoint of the ritual struc-
ture, which the impression that the of the agnicayana and
others has been incorporated secondarily into the sequence of rituals.
This subsidiary character of the may offer, from the viewpoint of
ritualistic ideas, an opportunity to interpret the sprinkling as obtaining
food (anntidya, anna) which was one of the main motives in ritual theo-
logy of the Brahmal)a texts Second, it can be noticed that the
sacrificer receives the sprinkling in the siUing posture at his place, which
is common to aU the abhi.yekas of the This posture is dif-
ferent from that of the Mai,trayaf,lIya, which prescribes the use of a chair,
so tha.t this sitting posture is presumably the original tradition of the
Lastly, the raising and lowering of the sacrificer's arms at the
time of sprinkling is absent here. This performance is carried out in the
mrtyusava and besides the riijasaya, which leads us to con-
jecture that it may have originally been part of the coronation process.
Turning to the other Srautasfitras, the Maitdiyal)iya school has the
following abhi.reka in the sautrtimalJf(MtinSS, ViirSS,
agnicayana (ManSS, VtirSS ),vajapeya (MiinSS,. ViirSS fpari-sicD, and asvamedha (ManSS 9.2.5.
6-8, VtirSS [Dumont 1927: 92]) and they exhibit certain distinct
1. Employing the remnant of the viijaprasavfya offerings as fluids for
2. Sprinkling upon the sacrificer who sits on a chair (asandi) which
is covered with a black-antelope skin or a goat skin (agnicayana,44
vajapeya), or without a covering of animal skin (sQutriima1Jl).
3. In the asvamedha, the sacrificer is sprinkled upon in the sitting pos-
ture on a lion skin, while a bull's skin and a gold plate are being
upheld above him.
These features of each are followed by the ApSS (19.9.13-15:
sautriimalff, 17.19.5-7: agnicayana, 18.6.6: vtijapeya, and 20.19.13-20.3;
asvamedha),except that in the viijapeya the gold plate is placed under the
43 fushimi [1992] has pointed out that. in the BaudhSS. the of the rajasuya
.•, serves as a model of the abhi$eka of the vajapeya. which is followed by that of the agni-
44 The sorts of hides vary according to the status of the sacrificer 01" the nature of his
wishes (ApSS 17.19.5-8).

45 According to ApSS 18.6.1-3, the sacrificeI' mOlInts a chair by stepping on the gold
46 In the saulram.a1;l I, the sacrificer who is to be sprinkled upon has already been
smeared with fragrant materials (surabhi) (KatySS19.4.14).
1. At sprinkling,. the sacrificer sits on a hide, the sort of which varies
according to the sava, and a gold and a silver plates are placed on his
head and under his foot respectively.
2. The priest rubs the fluid on the body of the sacrificer.
foot of the sacrificer.
In comparison with the abhio!eka of the BaudhSS.
the Maitdiyaf)Tya school has a chair on which the sacrificer is to be seated
at the time of sprinkling, while a gold and a silver plates., which are used to
surround the sacrificer in the abhi.,ekas of the BaudhSS, are not employed
here, except that a gold plate is used in the asvamedha. From the chrono-
logical point of view then, it can be safely surmised that the sitting posture
of the sacrificer on a chair while being sprinkled, which characterizes the
two coronations of the AB (-.t2.1J), the mahiibhi?eka of the KausS, and
the rtijasiiya of the VaitS (-t 2.1.4), has its origin in the prescription of the
In the KiitySS the ritual manner of the differs according to
the kinds of fluids used for sprinkling and the animal skin used.
1. Using as fluids for sprinkling the remains of the mixture of the seven-
teen kinds of food with water and milk (viijapeya: 14.5.24), remnant
of the viijaprasavfya offerings (agnicayana: 18.5.4-8), or the remain-
ing part of the paiupurorjtiia 19.4.14).
2. Sprinkling upon the sacrificer sitting on a chair covered with a goat
skin (viijapeya: 14.5.15), sitting or standing on a black-antelope skin /
goat skin (agnicayana: 18.5.6,9-13), or a black-antelope skin (sautrii-
ma1Jf: 19.4.8-9).46
These features vary so much that it is not easy to sum them up, but they
can be explained by the fact that has been incorporated as a sub-
sidiary component into the concerned ritual, and each evolves
on its own way without being restricted by traditional procedure of the

2.2.2 Savas
In the BaudhSS the prescriptions for the savas follow the same style and
scheme, arid those of sprinkling share common features with the other
abhisekas of the BaudhSS mentioned above.
- .
73 in the Vedic and post-Vedic Rituals
74 From Material to Deity
The differences within the savas themselves lie mainly in the kinds of
fluids used for sprinkling, the hide and the qualification to be acquired, or
the wish to be fulfilled by the concerned sava. I shall summarize below the
characteristics of each savailn the BaudhSS, showing their correspondence
with those mentioned in other SrautasiHras.
]. brhaspatisava
Sprinkled with melted butter (iijya) on a black-antelope skin
jina): BaudhSS 18.1-2; ApSS 22.7.11 (iijya, or remnant (sa'?1sriiva)
of the sukra- and manthin-graha), HirSS 17.3.1], KiitySS 22.5.14,
MlinSS (sprinkled on a chair with ajya).47
2. sthapatisava (vailyasava, miisasava)
Sprinkled with ,curd (dadhi) on a bull skin Baudh-
55 ]8.3;48 ApSS 22.25.5, HirSS 2304.3.
3. siltasava (griimar:cfsava, rtusava)
Sprinkled with clarified butter (ghrta), which is purified beforehand
with gold, on a black-antelope skin: BaudhSS 18.4.
4. somasava
Sprinkled with milk (payas) on a black-antelope skin: Baudh5S 18.5;
ApSS 22.25.11 (sprinkled with waters), HirSS 23.4.7.
5. prthisava .
Sprinkled with a mixture of four kinds of water, which are brought
from the four directions, on a red buH (rohita-anat;luha) skin: Baudh-
5S 18.6;. tfp5S 22.25,]6 (sprinkled with waters), HirSS
6. gosava
Sprinkled with fresh milk (pratiduh) on a black-antelope skin: Baudh.
SS I 8.7;· ApSS 22J2.n
HirSS 17.5.23, MiinSS 9..3.5.23, Ko.tySS 22.
11 :9-10 (sprinkled upon a king sitting on the ground
7. :odanasava
Sprinkled with a mixture of four kinds of waters, which are brought
from the four dimctions, on a red bull skin: BaudhSS 18.8-10; ApSS
22.26.11, HirSS 23.4.26.
8. mrtyusava
Sprinkled with a mixture of four kinds of water, which are brought
from the four directions, on a tiger skin (siirdUlacarman): BaudhSS
47 For other texts 011 the brhtu·pati.wva, see Caland's note on PB 17.11. For tile time of
its performance, see Caland 19i 9: 68 (n.1 0).
48 Cf. PB
49 Cf. PB 19. n 1. 7, 9. For other texts of the gosava, see Caland's note on his
laUon of PB 19.n.
The new TaittirTya school mentions two more savas.
9. brahmaTJasava
The sacrificer, who wishes the splendour of brahman (brahmavarca-
sakamaM, sitting upon a black-antelope skin is sprinkled upon with
clarified butter which has been purified beforehand with gold: ApSS
22.25.6-8, HirSS 23.4.4.
I 0.
Sprinkled by waters with the barley sprout (tokman) or panic grass
(dilrvii) on a tiger skin: ApSS 22.28.IO-B., HirSS 23.4.49-51 (-+2.1.2).
The fluids for sprinkling are provided for their own sake in nearly
a]] cases except the brhaspatisava in which the remnant of the preceding
oblations is employed,.50 but the ritual for the preparation of the fluids
for sprinkling, namely, the purification of the water with gold, is scarcely
referred to but in the siltasava and the brahmm:zasava. These simple but
independent forms of may lead us to assume that they retain
features of earlier procedures.
in the Vedic and post- Vedic Rituals 75
2.2.3 Concluding Remarks
At the beginning of this section, in order to understand the
which are described in various ways in the Srauta texts, I have selected the
preparation or supply of fluids for sprinkling and a procedure of sprink-
ling itself as valid parameters, and by fncusing on them, I have investig-
ated various types of Here I shall recapitulate the results of my
investigation, highlighting the differences between the Vedic schools.
I. The of the coronation rituals are characterized by an inde-
pendent preparation of the unction fluids and this is seen in the coron-
ations of the YV (riijasftya, mrtyusava, riijabhio$eka, and gosava),
of the AB and aindra and of the AV
and of the KausS and rajasaya of the
VaitS). while some of other rituals use the remnants of
offerings perfonned earlier, to which category the vajapeya, the
agnicayana, the asvamedha,. the and some other savas
2. Regarding the materials mixed with the water meant for sprinkling,
there has been a tendency over a period of time to diversify the in-
gredients. First, the of the KausS and the mrtyusava of
50 Brhaspatisava is often performed after the of the sacrificer in the vtijapeyp.
See Kane II: 121 I.
76 From Material to Deity
the BaudhSS
only prescribe that the uncUonfluids are to be fetched
from the great rivers. Next comes the riijasaya of the YV where some
materials such as the amniotic fluid of a calf, milk, curd, ghee, and
honey are mixed.
Besides, the of the ApSS refers to
barley sprout (tokman) and durva-blades to be added to the water.
Finally, the AB describes putting the eight kinds of materials into
:vater including tokman and dilnli as mentioned above. The diversity
of the materials mixed with the water becomes more remarkable in
the case of coronations of the post-Vedic rituals.
3. The sacrificer's posture during the sprinkling
is divided into three
types. First, in the simple coronations, that is to say, in the mrtyu-
sava and whose origins can be ascribed to the coronation
hymn of AVP 4.2 4.8), the king sits on a tiger skin while be-
ing sprinkled upon. This posture is common to all the other
of the BaudhSS, although the sort of the hide on which the sacrificer
sits varies according to the purpose of the sava. The of the
riijasaya of ViidhS 10.5
shares this feature with the BaudhSS. This
style of the sacrificer's posture accordingly belongs to the early trad-
ition. Sec'ond, in the riijas.uya of the MiinSS, ViirSS, ApSS, HirSS, and
KiitySS the king takes a standing posture on a tiger skin while being
sprinkled upon. The same posture is also found in the
of the KausS, though on this occasion the king is required to be stand-
ing on darbha grass, which indicates a simple form of the sprinkling.
Third, the coronations of the AB and aindra mahii-
and those of the ritual texts of the AVS (the of
the KausS and the rii}asiiya of the VailS), which are presumed to be
a later origin, have a chair (tisandf or talpa) covered with a tiger skin
on which the king sits and is sprinkled upon.
The use of a chair at the sprinkling scene seems to have been
first introduced by the MaitdiyaQIyas; they make use of a chair in
the of the viijapeya, ag'1icayana, and sautriima1;lI,. but not
of the riijasuya. Thus, this new type of sprinkling may have influ-
SI It is pointed out that the rii}asiiya described in the BaudhSS differs from that in later
texts like the SB and has its original meaning as an adoption ceremony. S,ee Falk 1984: 118-
52 Heestermanl957: 84-85 and Tsuji 19770: 201-4.
53 For the sacrificer's posture ill the abhi,reka of the riijasiiya. see Tsuji 1977d: 213.
S4 Ikari has kindly given me the readings of the rc7jastiya section of the ViidhtilaSS
(K4and M). For a survey and account of the manuscripts of the Vadhiila school, see Ikari
1995: 4-!2 and 1998:1-11.
55 There are sporadically some passages where the expression is employed,
e.g. AlvGS 1.11.10 where the omentum of a pasu is sprinkled (paJukalpa) and ParGS 2.13.6
where the bullock in front is sprinkled upon before ploughing. For further materials, see
VaikhGS 3.21 2.4.10 and BodhGS 1.2.22 (madhuparka).
77 in the Vedic and post- Vedic Rituals
2.3 in the Grhya RituaJs
The sprinkling ceremony in the Grhyasutras is mainly performed in two
rituals, namely, the vivaha or the wedding ceremony, and the samavartana
or the ritual of the Veda-student's returning home.
In these ceremonies
details of the sprinkling water and those of the sacrificer's posture at the
time of the sprinkling are not quite clear. Still more, it is noticeable that
the term for sprinkling, which has hitherto been investigated in this article,
is not necessarily limited to the expression of abhi-?ic, which suggests that
is not an established act as in the Srautasiitras.
I j
enced the formation of in the coronations of the AB and
the ritual texts of the AVS except which prescribes a
standing posture at the sprinkling. Likewise such a flexible attitude
of the MaitraYaJ)Iyas can also be found in the disuse of at goMen and
a silver plates in the sprinkling ceremony except for in the riijasuya;
.their use characterizes the of the rajasuya in aU schools of
the YV. Furthermore aU sprinklings in the sava rituals of the BaudhSS
strictly observe this process, while the Maitrayal)Iyas were seemingly
more free to transform the procedures of into more simpli-
fied forms and took the lead to modify the procedures of
From the chronological viewpoint, we may sum up the above find-
ings as follows: one of the earlier forms of is reflected in
that of the mrtyusava of the BaudhSS and of the of the
KausS. Both belong to the sphere of the coronation ritual of AVP 4.2
(AVS 4.8). The of the rajasuya, agnicayana, and other rituals
in the BaudhSS can be assigned to the next phase, though this text shows
a uniform schema possibly as an attempt of rearrangement of the Srauta
ritual [Witzel 1997: 316-17]. Some developed fonus of abhi?eka which
are characterized by the use of a chair as the seat and a remnant of the
offerings as sprinkling fluids in the agnicayana and so on emerge in the
school of the Two coronations of the AB and of the VaitS
are influenced by the Maitrayaf.lIyas in that the is performed with
the king sitting on a chair,and they adapt more succinct procedures by not
ex,ecuting the chariot driv,t.
78 From Material to Deity
2.3.1 Viviiha
In the wedding ceremony the head of a bridegroom or a bride is sprinkled
u.pon on several occasions. However, the act of these sprinklings is ex-
pressed by the use of various verbs; it is expressed not only with
but with mr}, and so on. One of the typical cases is the
which is performed after saptapadr or the striding of seven
steps by the bride and groom in the direction (apariijitii) ,
viz., one oHhe climaxes of this ceremony.57 SiinkhGS L14.8-10, for ex-
ample, prescribes as follows:
With the three verses he wipes (the bride and the bride-
groom) with the stheya water.
And sprinkles it on their heads (mur-
dhanyabhificya).59 (The bridegroom then) says, 'I give you a cow'.60
(tf.. Oldenberg)
The sprinkling expressed by is represented, in other sutras, by
other expressions. At first we refer to the prescription of the sprinkling
with the word ava-sic in AfvGS 1.7.20:
Joining together their two heads, (the bridegroom? the ticfJrya?)
sprinkles them (with water) from the waterpot
ya sirasr udakumbhenavasicya).61 (tr. Oldenberg)
The SiiftkhGS and the belong to the same school and
have almost similar wordings in their prescriptions, but the verb abhi-
used in SiinkhGS 1.14.8, 9 is replaced by ava-sic in ],8.29.
Prom this we can deduce that the performance which is expressed by ava-
sic may not be thought of as distinct from that expressed by abhi-#c.
Besides, there are some instances where sprinkling is expressed by
uk$; HirGS 1.21.5 reads as follows:
After he has made her sit down to the west of the fir,e, so that she
faces the east, he stands to the ,east (of his bride), facing the west, and
56 TSU1i 1977a: 312 (§23). For the see Kane II: 534.
57 Wintemitz 1892: 46-47 and Siiryakanta 1956: 25.
58 For stheya see Gonda 1980c: 132.
59 According to the commentary of Nariiyal)8, a couple is meant to be sprinkled upon.
Oldenberg remarks that there are many cases in Ihe Grhya rituals where a couple is treated
as a combined unil. See Oldenbcrg 1878: 129 and 1886: 38 (note on siHrs 9).
60 See further PiirGSI.8.5: tata enill?t Itliirdhany abhi,rilkati.
6) See further 1.8.29 murdhal1y ava-r;cya, GobhGS 2.2.15 miirdhudeJe 'vllsiii·
cati. and KhiidGS marc/fumy ava.rineet.
62 HirGS 2.3.3. in prescribingjiitakarman, employs the expression ava-sic ill the sense
of sprinkling.

. II
besprinkles her with water, with the thme verses.
(tr. Oldenberg)
The verb means, in the ritual scene, scattering some fluids in the
form of droplet; e.g. AsvGS 2.8.11 'With a samf branch or an udumbara
branch he sprinkles it (with water) going thrice round it, so
that his right side is turned towards it, reciting the santtitfya hymn'(tr.
O]denberg).65 The actual usage of this word is, however, not limited to
such a rigid interpretation. It is applied to the sprinkling in general. In
the same way, JaimGS.1.21: 22.9-]0 expresses the sprinkling by the verb
At the seventh (step), having caused her to stand directed to the east,
they should sprinkle (miirjiiyeran) her out of the vessel fiUed with
water with the three verses, beginning: lYe waters are beneficent'.
(tr. Caland)
At aU events, we cannot deny that there is some possibility of vari-
ations in the wording of sprinkling in the Grhya rituals. .In other words,
the performance of sprinkling does not retain such an authoritative value
as it does in the Sra,uta rituals. I win now examine other performances
of which sprinkling forms a part and which are aU carried out as prelim-
inary acts of the viviiha, and show that the one and the same ritual act is
expressed by various verbs in the different Grhyasutras:
1. The sprinkling of water upon the bride (Tsuji 1977a: 304 §11-2c):
(ViirGS 13.6), ava-sic (KausS 25.. 27) and ma (LaugGS 25.4).
2. The pouring of the sura upon the bride (Tsuji 1977a: 304 §11-2d):
(GobhGS 2.1.10).
3. The sprinkling of water upon the bride through the right hole of the
yoke (Tsuji 1977a: 304 §]1-2e): (ManGS 1.10.7), ava-sic
(LaugGS 25.8, Kau§S 76.13) and sna (ApGS 2.4.8).
4. The sprinkling of water upon the bride as part of the ceremony of
giving away a bride (kanyadtma) (Tsuji 1977a: 306 §12, and Kane
II: 533): (ManGS 1.8.1]) and snii (LaugGS ]7.1).
in the Vedic and post- Vedic Rituals 79
, I,
63 VaikhGS 3.4, p. 72, 6·8 prolqar;ail).
64 The meaning and lJsage of pra-ulq are dealt with by Kielmle 1979: 7-19. Her pre-
sumption that the objects of pra·ulq are ritual elements, whereas that of sic is human being
(ibid., p.I7), is not accepted.
65 See further AivGS 4.2.10 and 4.5.4.
66 The sprinkling 01' washing of the performer's body in the xa/?ldhyopasana is also
expressed with mrJ (JaimGS 1.13).
80 From Material to Deity
It is worth pointing out that in some instances bathing (mti) is sub-
stituted for sprinkling I ava-sic). The expression with snti for
sprinkling can be found more clearly in the sprinkling of the samiivarta-
na. I shall come back to this theme anerexamining the samlivartana in
the following section.
2.3.2 Samavartana
In the sprinkling of the samtivartana the student sits opposite his teacher,
facing to the east, and is either sprinkled upon by his teacher or the student
sprinIdes himself.
The expressions employed for this performance are
and snii. The word tiplavana, which is used for samavartana in
the GobhGS 3.4.6, suggests that the bathing forms the main element of
the samtivartana.
The verb is used, for example, in SiilikhGS 3.] .3-4:
Having had (the cut-off hair-ends, etc.) thrown away together with
rice and barley, with sesame-seeds and mustard-seeds, with apiimii-
rga and flowers, having sprinkled him (with
water) with the (tr. Oldenberg)
AtvGS 3.8.9 is an example where sprinkling is expressed by the v,erb snii:
Having washed (sntitva) himself with lukewarm water, and having
put on two (new) garments which have not yet been washed, with
(the verse), 'Garments with fat splendour you put on, (Mitra and
VaruQ3'), (RV 1.152.1), he should anoint his eyes with (the words),
'the sharpness of the stone art thou; protect my eye' .70
(tr. Oldenberg)
is not anestabHshed expressing the specific per-
formance as in the Srauta rituals. It is rather easily allowed to be substi-
tuted by other similar expressions. The usage of the expression of sprink-
Hng specially bears an affinity with that of bathing (sniina).
67 FOil" the manner of sprinkling. see Hcesterman 1968: 438.
68 See Einoo ]993: 232
69 See funher GobhGS 3.4.10 .tarvau\fadhivipM1;l!iibhir adbMr
bhir aciiryo 'bhi#ncel, PiirGS2.6.11 leniibhi\l"incate / lena miim friyai yafau
brahmu1;le brohmavarcasayeti, KhiidGS 3.1. 10 tlibhi.f acaryo 'bhi.)'ificet I .tva-
ya/'fl va ma.ntriibhiviJdiit, and BOOrOS 2.19: 52.5 .fQ'TIsmtibhir adbhir abhi$ii'lcali. In the
GobhGSabhi-fic means sprinkling on the body. Le. the head (3.4.15), while ava-sic means
pouring down (on the hands) (3.4.13).
70 See funher ApGS 5.12.6 eva". vihittibhir evadbhir snatvottarayo-
dumbarer:za dalo dhliva/i, and HirGS 1.10.2 atno$l)a§f/iibhir sniipayati Illpo hi
1/ iti tisrbhil;! I hira':lyavar1)ab iucayal;! /I iti catasrbhi/;! /
1/ iti caiteniinuviikena.

Now come the rules for bathing for those who belong to one of the
four orders of religious life. It is fivefold: the ablution (in water)
(abhi.yeka-), the celestial bathing (divya-), the aerial bathing (viiyav-
y.a-), the fiery bathing (iigneya-) and (bathing by) permission by guru
(gurvanujiiii- )',73 (tf. Caland)
This trend has become more distinct in succeeding ages.
] For ,example.
in the of the BaudhGSS the of the king (1.23.14) is
expressed by the verb snii in the later sutra (L23.1?) and in the
the king who is sprinkled upon with ftuids is called sniita (AVPS
5.57). There are a number of other examples too. In the gosahasra-
vidhi, the mantra with which the sprinkling upon the king is
performed refers to sntinodaka (AVPS 16.1.7). In the brahmayiiga. abhi-
(AVPS 19b.3.4) is subsequenUyexpressed by the word sntina (ibid.
19.4.2.cd), and in the ghrtakambala the person who receives the
ka (AVPS 33.6.5) is later called sniita (ibid. 33.7.4). In the context of
the Grhya-like viniiyakakaipa ManSS 2.14.26 states that the sniina is per-
formed with a mantra in which the term features.
Turning to the Dharmasiitras we can see the phrases of the assimila-
tion of sniina. The which is to be performed before
making offerings (ApDhS is, in fact, bathing because the sacri-
ficer is ordered to enter the water slowly in the next sUtra (sUtra 13). The
performance of expiation which is not infrequently mentioned with sniina
is expressed by the term (VasDhS 15.19-21, 23.27-29).
implies sprinkling upon the hands and feet (BaudhDhS, while
does not relate to the washing of feet and hands (BaudhDhS Further the king who receives is called sniita (BrhatS
47.72, KiilikaP 86.129).72
In this context the description of in the VaikhSmS assumes
importance, because in the VaikhSmS 1.2: 2.6-7 the abhifeka is dealt with
as one of the subordinate components of the sniina.
in the Vedic and post-Vedic Rituals 81
71 Einoo I996a: 79 has pointed out that .mana (bathing), which has always been
important ill the Srauta rituals, achieved new importance in the late Vedic period as a
method of purification in the daily duties of the brahmins.
72 There are, on the other hand. passages where the is clearly distinguis.hed
from the mana; the is. for example, performed before mann (VaikhSmS 9.14
VaikhDhS 2.14).
73 For further enumeration of various kinds of sOOna. see. e.g. VaikhGS 1.5 divya-,
vayavya-. agneya-, and manlrasnana, and HirGSS 1.1.6 agneya, vayavya. brahmn.
kapila, manasa, and divya. See also Saurapural):a 18.40cd-42 (five kinds of snana) and
Garu(iapuraf;lal.50.9-12 (six kinds of snana).
82 From Material to Deity
Thus, it can be seen from the above passages that becomes a
type of sniina, which certainl'y characterizes the Hindu rituals.
2.4 Relation of to Other Ritual Performances
So far I have investigated the core features of the abhi-rekas by focusing
on the two essential constituent ritual acts, namely, the preparation of the
water for sprinkling and the sprinkling itself. Here I would like to treat
the ritual performances closely associated with the that is, the
chariot drive and the sitting on the throne. Summing up in advance, the se-
quence of the abhioFeka, the chariot drive, and the sitting on the throne is a
fixed set of the ritual acts which bestow a prestige on the person concerned
and which are probably carried over to the ritual of Hinduism.
The chariot drive follows the of the riijasuya in the YV.
A chariot (ratha) is taken down from the chariot-vehicle (rathaviihana),
the horses are harnessed to it, and the king mounts it to start his drive. At
the end of the drive, the king steps down on the earth wearing sandals and
takes a seat on the throne, with some ritual acts intervening between them.
This part of the rituals is common to the rajasuyas of the YVand it also
indicates the establi shed tradi tion of the raja.ruyas (---72. L1).
Besides the rajasuya, some of the other coronation rituals also in-
elude the chariot drive. The procedure of the chariot drive in the mrtyu-
sava (BaudhSS 18.17: 363.1-1 I) is as follows. After the sprinkling and
wiping of the sacrificer's face he goes to the chariot, touches it on both
sides,75 and stands by the chariot. Then he holds the reins and mounts the
chariot, stretching a bow-string on .it. Finally, he drives the chariot, cir-
cumambulating three times clockwise around the cows which have already
been brought to the place in the north, and halts in front of them. .
. The (ApSS prescribes a similar procedure
of a chariot drive, but shows some peculiarity. After the sprinkling, the
king approaches the chariot and mounts it. He addresses the driver and
takes the reins. He looks up at the sun76 and looks over the people, but
curiously enough, the actual drive does not seem to take place.
From the above we can" conclude that there is a certain interrelation-
ship betwe,en the abhifeka and the chariot drive in the coronation rituals,
14 For the fact that the chariot drive of the riijasuya ill the BaudltSS follows the schema
of the IItijapeya. see'Heestermannl957: 131-32 and SpalTeboom 1985:45-51.
75 There are similar prescriptions of mOllllti.ng the chariot ill AlvGS 2.6.1 and ApGS
22.14. .
16 ]n the rite of mounting and driving of a chariot there is a prescription of looking al
the sun (AivGS 2.6.12). S,ee Gonda 1980c: 160·61.
Abhifeka in the Vedic and post-Vedic Rituals 83
but it is limited to certain traditions. As indicated above (-t L1.1), the
mrtyusava and contain the common mantra tradition derived
from AVP 4.2, which gives indication of the chariot drive (ibid. v.2).
Horse .riding in the two coronation ceremonies and mahii-
of the Kau§S (17.9, 22) seems to be a primitive or simplified
form of the chariot drive. As for the chariot drive in the rtijasiiya, its as-
sociation with the abhi$eka is established in aU schools. So that the dose
connection of these performances can be said to be essential to thes'e two
ritual traditions, namely, the rHual tradition derived from AVP 4.2 or re-
lated with that hymn and the riijasiiya of theYV.?? On the other hand, the
two coronation ceremonies and aindra mahiibhi$eka) of
the AB, in which the chariot drive does not take place, stand outside of
these traditions.
Turning to the Grhya rituals,it is remarkable that some sutras pre-
scribe a chariot drive which follows the (:::: snana) in the sama-
vartana (SiinkhGS 3.1.13-16, GobhGS 3.4.31-34, KhiidGS 3.1.29-31, Hir-
GS, and BaudhSS 17.43: 324.3-10). According to the Gobh-
as, the sniitaka approaches the chariot which is yoked with oxen. After
touching the sides of the chariot, he mounts it and drives it in the eastern
or northern direction to tum round from left to right and come back. to
the place where he receives hospitality, the HirGS prescribes horses
or elephants instead of oxen for drawing the chariot Heestermann has
already shown an affinity between the samavartana and the royal cere
many (Heesterman 1968). Leaving aside his approach that an antagon-
istic, that is, 'preclassical' pattern of sacrifice is rearranged by the 'clas-
sical' ritualists, it is necessary to take into account that the prescription of
the chariot drive in the samiivartana is limited to certain siitras as far as
the texts that have been handed down are concerned. It appears that the
chariot drive may not be as essential to the samavartana as to the coron-
ation rituals of the Srautasiitras. We can see rather that the interrelation
of the abhiseka with the chariot drive in the samlivartana is not so estab-
. ,
lished as in the Smuta tradition.
In this context it is significant to point out that in the vivtiha or the
wedding ceremony also the chariot drive tak'es p,lace (udviihana, Tsuji
197781: 314-15, § 26). The procedure of the drive is different from those
77 Ell the asvamedha' there is a chariot drive. which takes place on the day when a horse
is to be sacrificed. befOre the king is sprinkled upon (Dumont .927: 148-51, Sparreboom
]985: 51-53). hs procedure differs from that of coronations, as seen also in the sprinkling
ritual (-t 2.2.1).
84 From Material to Deity
of the samiivartana and the coronation ri!tuals; the nuptial fire contained
in an earthen vessel is placed in the chariot The drive has a 'practical'
purpose of taking the new bride to her new house. However, the mantras
employed on the way, such as verses from the wedding hymn of RV ]0.85,
are intended to ,ensure the welfare of the bride. We can assume that there
has been a trend that the one who receives certain status by the sprinkling
ceremony is required to undertake 'aJ chariot drive in order to affirm the
prestige or we.lfare of the person concerned.
As to the dose association of abhi-Feka with the sitting on a throne
(iisandi.) or a chair, it is doubtful whether a throne has been employed in
the earlier form of the coronation. The mantras of AVP 4.2 4.8) do
not refer to the throne. The same is the case with the mantra collection
(TB 2.7.15-17) of the mrtyusava and riijtibhifeka,. which is derived from
the mantra tradition ofthe AVP. While the riijabhifeka does not make use
of the throne, the ritual employment of the chair in the mrtyusava is un-
c,ertain; the king only 'steps down' (pratyavarohati) onto a chair in the
same way as in the riijasuya (yathii rajasuye tatha) (BaudhSS.] 8.17: 363.
11-364.2), and does not perform any ritual conducts related to the throne.
The reference to the rtijasiiya by using the expression ymha rajasuye lathii
is also found in the prescription of handing over the bow to the king in the
mrtyusava (BaudhSS18.16: 362.3), but the handing over of arrows, which
take place after that act in the rtijasiiya (BaudhSS12.9: 99016-100.1), is
not pres'cribed there. It might, therefor,e, mean that the mrtyusava. has
some ritual components restructured roughly after the riijasuya which has
come to have an authority in the Srauta coronations. It seems certain that
the throne (iisandt) employ,ed in the of the Srauta coronations
is not inherited from the original coronations presupposed by the mantras
of AVP 4.2 and TB 2.7.15-16. In other words, the Srauta coronations have
taken over the chair as a requisite from other rituals than the kingship
There are two types of chair in Vedic rituals.7
One has a pillow (upa-
bdrhalJa) and so can be inferred to have a rectanglilar seat, while the other
has a square seat of an aratnE in width .. The
former type together with a pillow is referred to for the first time in the
vrtitya hymn (AVS 15.3.3, 7). The chair or rather the sofa with such a
pillow is employed at the time of the sprinkling of the aindra mahiibhi-
ofeka (asandf, AB 8.5), at the sprinkling of the rajasuya belonging to the
711 For the chair (iisandf) in general, see Rau J957: 125.
in the Vedic and post-Vedic Rituals 85

i: I
, I
AVS (iisandf, VaitS 36.6-7) and in the mahiivrala (riijiisandf, 18 2.25).79
The seat of asandf on which a corpse is laid during the funeral rite
also be rectangular. The iisandf which the udgatr priest mounts in the
mahiivrata of PB 5.5.1 is caned taLpa in the same ritual of TB
The talpa is also employed at the sprinkling of the (KaufS
17.12).82 The paryanka of the I.S is rectangular according to
the commentary of Sankara.
which is used .for the hair cut-
hng ceremony (keJavapanfya) of the mrtyusava and can be
thought of as having a rectangular seat. The rectangular chair or sofa is
thus employed widely in the Vedic rituals.
On the other hand the use of a chair with a square seat is found ex-
clusively in the Srauta rituals, that is, in the soma rituals (riijiisandf,ApSS
10.29.7), in the pravargya (sa'rlro.fliisandf, ApSS 15.5.7), in the agnica-
yana (ukhyasandf, 58 and ApSS 16.10.16), in the sautriima1Jl
(iisandf, ApSS 19.9.10) and in the sprinkling of the (AB
8.5), although its height varies ac,cording to the rituals.
It s,eems reas-
onable to suppose that the chair (o.sandl) used in the riijasuya also has a
square seat. The employment of the square chair in the coronations is thus
not inherited from the earlier coronation of the AVP or non S,rauta tradi-
tion, but is developed within the Srauta rituals. The fact that the ritual
employment of a square chair is found in various rituals of the Srauta
texts and that some of them have nothing to do with reveals that
the adoption of the chair into the concerned has been secondar-
79 The seat employed in the mahavrata is, according to the ritual texts, square. See
SiirikhSS 17.2.6, liitySS 3.12.4 and KatySS 13.3.2-3.
80 See Caland 1896: 15- 16, note 68 and Tsuji 1977b: 338.
III See Caland's note on PH 5.1.1.
82 See Rall 1957: 73-4. Talpa is a bed for the marriage; . "bed" and "marriage" seem to
be synonymous' (Caland's note on PB 23.4.2). cr. talpa as the teacher's bed (ChandogyaU
83 Satik.arananda's comm. ad KaulUp 1.5 daqil;J:ottarayor dfrghe khafVlinge anucya.
sa'!'ijiie ... purvapa:icimayor hrasve khllfViiplidiidhiire ifr:fQ1Jye.
84 For the meaning of pro:f!ha. see Hoffmann 1987: 134; lAs an abstract noun pro:f!ha-
can have the meaning "passing the night abroad" resp. as a concr'ete term "camp bed".'
85 The feet of the riijasandf reach up to the navd of the sacrificer: BaudhSS 6.10:
166.12-13, ApSS 10.29.7. BhiirSS 10.20.8, HirSS7.3, VaikhSS 12.21: 141.17-19, and Katy-
Ss 7.9.24. cr. MiinSS (up to the thigh). The height of the sa'?1rii'iiasandf follow
the riijiisandr: 6.10: ApSS 15.5.7, BhiirSS 11.5.7-8, HirSS 24.2.4, and
VaikhSS 13.7: 260.5-6. cr. KiitySS 26.2.8 (up to the shoulder). In the chair is
as high as the navel (ApSS 19.9.10) or the knee (KatySS, 19.4.7). The Ilkhyiisandris apriideia
ill height: BaudhSS 10.12: 12.1. !I1anSS ApSS 16.10.16, VtirSS and
KatySS 16.5.5. .
86 From Material to Deity
ily made in the course of development of coronation ceremonies. In the
riijasuya of the YV the king's siuing on the throne takes place after the
chariot drive,. and coronations of the AB and other of theYV con-
taining references to sprinkling such as agnicayana are characteriz'ed by
the sprinkling on the sacrificer who is already seated on a chair covered
with an animal skin. Such a diversity in the use of the chair also ,can only
be explained by assuming that a chair is introduced into each ceremony
arbitrarily. It leads us to surm.ise that its adoption has been stimulat'ed by
a common cognition that the combination of and the throne may
bring prestige to the coronation ceremony.
3 of the Coronations in post.. Vedic Rituals
In comparison with the Vedic rituals, especially with the Srauta rituals in
which rituals are treat,ed more or Jess systematically, the rituals in the an-
cillary iiterature are, generaHy speaking, dealt with unsystematically and
sporadically. To examine of the ancillary literature extensively
is, however, out of scope here. Instead I shall pay aUention to the coron-
ation rituals, because some characteristics of the prati#hii ritual are, as I
have indicated in the preceding sections and wHl try to make dear in the
following investigation.,. closely related to coronations. The combination
of the both with the chariot drive and the sitting on the throne,
which characterize the coronations in the Srauta rituals, share a similar-
ity with the pratinhii rituals, although not aU coronations of the ancillary
literature contain such performances. There are, to be sure, some rituals
which have only the act of sprinkling out of the ritual context of thecoron-
ations, but neither the chariot drive nor the sitting on the chair occurs there.
For example, in the (the bestowing of gold or other sub-
stances of the same weight as that of the sacrificer on the priests), a king
is sprinkled upon with water (AVPS 11.1.7-8), and in the ghrtakambala
I(the bestowing of ghrta and a cloth), a king is sprinkled upon with ghrta
33.6.4-12),. but these als cO,ntain neither the, drive ",or the
$Ittmg on the chalr. The of these post-Vedic ntuals are rather
to be considered as successors of the in the Grhya ritual:s, which
have come to be identified with the sniina (-+2.3.2).
There is indeed a gulf between Vedic post-Vedic literature. The
mantracoUection is not inherited in its totality in the new stage. Instead,
the post-Vedic ritual takes over its mantras from the Vedic mantra trad-
ition of .its own accord, or codifies new mantra coHections (Tsuji 1970: ,
.llIlllh --'--
Abhi?eka in the Vedic and post- Vedic Rituals 87
21-22), formulating new mantras in the process.. In addition to it, the
newly developed elements of the post-Vedic ritual gain prominence,. as
can be seen from Einoo's first article in this volume. Moreover, some
ritual acts cease to be performed.. As regards coronations, all of
the coronation rituals in the ancinary literature lack an elaborate prepara-
tion of the unction fluids, surrounding a king with gold and silver plates,
and the raising and lowering of arms, which means a simplification of
the Srauta It should not be forgotten, however, that some ele-
ments of the Vedic ritual can still be found in the post-Vedic ritual; e.g.
the king's standing on the skin, sitting on the throne, and the chariot drive
are observed in some of the post-Vedic coronations. I shaH now describe
the main features of of the coronation rituals found in the an-
cillary hterature and examine some of the Vedic elements that still remain
in them.
3.1 The
The ritual of sprinkling in the r:Cijyiibhifeka, one of the two coronation
rituals in the BodhGSS, cannot be the same as that of the Srauta rituals
any longer; the sacrificer is not surrounded with gold and silver plates at
the time of sprinkling, and he does not raise his arms ceremoniaUy while
being sprinkled upon.. Moreover, pancagavya or five mUk products, typ-
ical requisites of the post-Vedic rituals,87 are poured into the unction fluid
in the preparatory act, which has not been observed in the Srauta coron-
ations. Similarly, the whole procedure of the differs from
the Srauta coronations. A ma1Jflala which is made on the previous day
(1.23.6) is to be elaborated in the PuraEJk coronation ritual of the pUfya-
sntina prescribed in BrhatS, 47.24-33 and KiiliktiP, 86.39-57. A crown
(maku!a) is washed (siHra 8) and a pratisara is bound to the king (stitra
10). Both the king and the chariot (vahana) are sprinkled upon (sutra
11), and this is a sort of preparation of the 'main' sprinkling that is to be
performed the following day (sutta 16). Such an optional insertion of sub-
sidiary sprinkling performance before or after the main sprinkling is also
found fr,equently in the pratioF!hl1 ritual of the ancillary literature. This can
be explained as being a result of modification of the Srauta or as
a succession of the Grhya which the sprinkling predominates
as a means of common ritual p,erformanc,es.
86 For the medieval d,eve)opments of the cOl'onations,see Witzel 1987: 12-20.
87 See Einoo's description in p. 106.
88 From Material to Deity
In spite of differences between the Srauta coronations and the
the of the can be said to be a true
successor of the Srauta coronation rituals among the coronations of the
ancillary literature. The essence of abhi-reka can be summed up as follows
(Kane II: 76-77 and Hikita 1997: 289-90):
I. Pouring rice (vrfhi), barley (yava), sesame (rila) and beans (mlisa),
and paiicagavya, the water of the oceans and the river into the pitcher
of gold (hemakalasa) (1.23.6).
2. Sprinkling the fluids contained in the horn receptacles (Sfligodaka)
on the king, who, facing the east, sits on the splendid seat (bhadrasa.
na)88 covered with a tiger skin (vylighracarma) (1.23.13- 14).
3. Rubbing up the king's body (1.23.15).
In the rlijasaya the horn was used not for sprinkling but only for the
rubbing of the sacrificer's body.89 The act of sitting on the chair covered
with a tiger skin in the ritual of sprinkling is taken Over from the acts
of a newly developed typ,e of unction, which has been apparent in the
of the AB Thus, the aspects of underwent
some changes. On the other hand, rubbing up the sacrificer's body, which
is followed by crying out ina.. chorus, releasing his speech, and wiping
his face, has an origin in the sprinkling ritual of the BaudhSS. Further,
after the main abhiseka, a chariot drive, which is one of the ritual com-
ponentsin the of the Srauta coronations of the YV, takes place;
'Turning (the chariot) from left to right he maintains his
own kingdom (svaranra-)' stated the worshipful Bodhayana (1.23.20).
Beating the drum (dundubhi) before undertaking a tour (1.23.19) is found
in the mrtyusava and the vlijapeya;. the drum has a connection with the
. royal rite (Gonda 1980c: 322). Therefore, the main sequence of the Srauta
coronation rituals cannot be presumed to have be,en abolished in the post-
Vedic times, including itself.
Another coronation ritual of the BodhGSS, namely, the
is more simplified than the in that it does not refer to the rub-
bing up of the king's body after sprinkling, which has be,en characteristic
in the Baudhayana schooL The essentials of the sprinkling are as fonows:
.Rg The name of the seat •bhadra,l'ana' is the same as tllat of the coronation i.n Brhatsarp..
him 46.47.
89 For other Grl1ya rituals employing the t{1igodaka, see JaimGS 2.5, BhlirGS 2.27,
Hj,.,GSI.4.38, and AsvGPS4.5. Einoo has pointed oul that the word irngodaka of BodhGSS
1.23.14 and AtvGPS4.5 means the 'water flowing from the horns of cows' (Einoo 1994b: 25.
n. 24)
in the Vedic and post- Vedic Rituals 89
1. Pouring of pure water (Suddhodaka) and nine jewels (navaratna)90
into the main pitcher (pradhlinakalasa), which is later placed in the
middle of a mound (sthwujila), and covering of the pitcher with a new
cloth being decorated with scented powder (gandha),
flowers scented smoke (dhiipa), and lights (dfpa) (1.24.3).
2. The king, possibly in standing posture, is sprinkled upon with fluid
from the main pitcher by the royal offidant(purohita) (] .24.7).
The of the shows the characteristics of the post-
Vedic rituals more clearly. In this context what is to be taken note of is the
ritual care accorded the pitchers (kalaia). They are decorated with such
a ritualistic elaboration as if they themselves were deities.
Such a treat-
ment of pitchers to be used for is found in the later coronation
rituals in more developed forms (e.g. BrhatS 47.37-42, 51 and KiilikiiP
86.58-94, ]05-7).
The lack of reference to the king sitting on the throne during the
sprinkling ritual is to be regarded as a result of simplification rather than
as an adherence to the orthodox styIe of sprinkling in the Baudhayana
school, though, after the king indeed sits down, but only on
erakti grass to hand over the vessels to the priest. On the other hand, a
chariot drive, which is an essential component of the Vedic coronation, is
executed (1.24.10) after the sprinkHng; he drives the chariot around his
dominion (grCima) from left to right while a drum is beaten.
3.2 The
The AV school mentions four coronation rituals, three of which -. the
laghvabhifeka and mahilbhifeka of the KausS and the rtijasiiya of the
VaitS - have already been discussed (-12.1.4). The fourth coronation
ritual is the described in the AVPS.
Its main features are:
]. Pouring waters brought from the four oceans and a hundred rivers,
and various herbs (sahli, sahadevl, etc.) into a hundred or a thousand
pitchers (kalasa) made of gold (sauvarfJa) , silver (riljata), copper
(ttimra), or day (ptirthiva) (5.1.2-5.2.2), which are later decorated
with gold (herna), jewels (ratna), grasses leaves of bilva,
90 For navaratna, see AsvGPS 2.3.
91 Cf. Buitenen 1968: 9-12. Besides coronations, there are some passages referring
to the decoration of pitchers, e.g. BodhGSS .5.3.2-5 and AsvGPS 1.22, 4.8. See especially
BodllGSS 2.15.2-10. 21.2-10 and HirGSS 1.7.15. 17 dealing with llie kalasm:thiipana.
92 For an outline of the see Hikita m997: 327-28 and Modak 1993: 237.
. ,
I j
90 From Materia! 10 Deity
flowers and perfume (galldha), and arc covered with a white
cloth (sila-vastra) (5.2.3-4).
2. Sprinkling on the king who takes a standing posture,. to the accom-
paniment of musical.instruments (5.4.3).
The ritualistic care of the sprinkling water contained in the pitch-
ers is OJ post-Vedic tendency as po'inted out 'carlier in connection with the
Although the sacrificer taking an upright posture at the time
of sprinkling and his mounting a throne after .can be regarded
as successor to the of tbe Kau§S (17.2-3), the outer ap-
pearances nevertheless differ v,ery much from those of the
and the Sraula coronations; around the throne (Sil?1hiisana or plirJapqha),
on which the king sits immediately after the sprinkling (5.4.4) and sa-
lutes the officers, women, etc. (5.5.1-4), the skins of a bull (an.a(iuh),
a tiger (vyaghra), a lion (sirrrha), and a deer (mrga) are spread (5.3.1).
Moreover, the throne is surrounded by the tuil of a yak (cantara), an
umbreHa (chatra), guards (pralihiira), and four elephants on heat (matta-
dvipa) in four directions (5.4.4-5). The chariot drive is not undertaken.
Thus, these features show a rather close to the PuraQic bathing
of the pUfyasnanas; for the diversity of the animal skins used for
the fl.oor covering are taken over to the coronations of BrhatS 47.43-44 and
KiilikiiP 86.100. The chariot drive is not perFormed there, either.
The Puram:tic have main ritual units as follows:
]. Preparatory rituals on the previous day - apujii and adivination by
means of dreams (BrhatS 47.] 8-22, KiilikllP 86.11-37).
2. Setting up of a ma'.l(!ala (BrhatS 47.24-33, Kiilikap 86.39-57).
3. Preparation of the unction fluid .- setting the pitchers, putting in-
gredients to them (BrhatS 47.37-42, KiilikiiP 86.58-94
4. Setting up of the throne and the king mounting it (BrhatS 47.43-49,
KiiLikaP 86.94-103).
5. Preparatory rituals of the sprinkling ceremony - the king putting on
a black cloth, etc (BrharS 47.50-53, KiilikiiP 86.104-7).
6. Sprinkling (BrhatS 47.54-72, Kiili.kllP 86.109-29).96
93 Fora detailed account of the see Gonda 1965a: 395-97i 1966: 93-96,
and Kane V: 792-98.
94 For the olher materials of the Pural)ic see Yogayutrii 7.13-21, Vi\ff)udhP
2.103, DevlP 65.12-67.79, and SkandaP 2,2,41.
95 The KatiktiP prescribes the ritual decoration and worship of the pitchers.
96 A new type of that is, ablution with various kinds of cIa)' (mrttika-mana),
which has already been referred to in the post-Vedic texts (BodhGSS 5.4; HirGSS 1.2.8 and
AVPS 1.43.44), is taken over into other Purlil)ic coronations 21 and AgniP 21 g).
See Hikita 1997: 290-91,328 and 336-37.
The of the Siimavidh is as follows:
7. The rituals after the sprinkling ceremony - the king's salute to
gods and his teacher, bestowing of rewards, etc. (BrhatS 47.73-81,97
KiiliktiP 86. ]30-36).
1. Unction fluids consist of rice and barley (vrfhi-yava), sesame and
beans (tila-miisa), curd and honey (dadhi-madhu), the water from a
splendid (yasasvinf) rivers and the sea (3.5,1).

I; IIi
! I,
: I
in the Vedic and post- Vedic Rituals
1. Unction fluids consist of fine essence of all plants
dhirasa) and the water of rivers (nadfr,rtirr salila) (4.21.3).
2. Sprinkling upon the sacrificer who seats hims,elf on the throne
(iisandf) that is covered with a tiger skin (vyaghracarman) (4.21.4);
he is sprinkled upon three times (4.22.1).
97 The BrhatS prescribes that the king, wearing the clothes and ornaments after the
sprinkling, should sit on a second vedi covered with skins of a bull, a cat, a deer, a spotted
antelope, a lion, and a tiger (47.76).
98 An appendix to the coronations of the KausS, namely, the AVPS 3 (rajaprathamabhi-
prescribes some requisites, which show a new tendency common to the
of the AVP.s\ the throne of lion (Si'!lhiisana), a tail of a yak, umbrellas, and flags (dhvaja)
(AVPS 3.3).
99 For a detailed account, see Kane II: 76.
3.3 The Vidhana Texts
There are some minor differences between the of the {?gvidhiina
and that of the Stimavidh in the kinds of ingredients used for the pre-
paring the unction fluids and in the manner of sprinkling. However, the
essentials namely, the ingredients of the plants and the sit-
ting on the throne during the sprinkling ceremony, are not different from
the coronations of the AB. The details of the in the is as
The PuraT,llc pu.yyasntinas prescribed in the BrhatS and the KiilikiiP have
such a common procedure of the performances that we can arrange them
in a table just above, while the coronations of the ancillary literat-
ure vary so much that it is hardly possible to make a synopsis of them.
However, as indicated earlier in this section, some essential performances
of the coronations in the ancillary literature are taken over to the Pural)ic
92 From Material to Deity
2. Sprinkl.ing upon the sacrificer who sits on the throne (bhadrilsa'na)
that is covered with a tig'e.rskin carman), with the fluids
contained in a (§rngakofa)lllO (ibid.).
In contrast to the coronations of the PUfytibhifeka and the
described above, the whole procedure of in the Vidhana literat-
ure is very the coronations end end with the priest's, address to the
king with a man,lra after the sprinkling is over (8gvidh 4.22.4), or by the
king's bestowal of rewards on the officiants Samavidh 3.5.3).
4 Summarya.nd Conclusion
Abhi.,eka has functioned as a ritual to besto,w some powers and quaUfi-
cations by the sprinkling' of fluids on the sacrificer. This ritual has de-
veloped or varied in two phases, namely, in the sphere of the interpreta-
tions of ritual and in the ritual practices. In the sphere of the interpretation,
the original meaning'of of bestowing ac'osmic power vdrcas as
evidenced in the AV has been modified, along with the developments of
the kingship ritual, into one of the essential acts bestowing more divers,e
powers on the sacrificer as can be seen from the details of the raJa.s"-
ya. The interpretation of as bestowi.ng food has been based on
the introduction of in the vajapeya and other kingship rit.uals,
in which is performed with the remnants of the viljaprasavrya
oblations. In the symboli.c interpretation of agnicayana the idea of abhi.
is applied to the interpretation of the offering on the agn; alta.r, and!
such a modification to the meaning of abhi,eka would have been possible
only due to the fact that tbe agni altar was regarded as a god-I.ike i.mage
(syena) or as a man-like one or Prajipati).lOI This interpretation
of offers one of the basic ideas of the sprinkling upon an image
of god in the rituals.
]n the second phase of the ritual procedures, has developed
in the Srauta ritual; it constitutes one of tbe main ritual in the Srauta
coronations and the savas, while, as a subsidiary unit, it was again put
into other major sacrifices like the viijapeya 'and agnicayana. On the other
hand, the of the Grhya .rituals, which has been derived from such
popular ritual as the ones reflected i'n the AV, was not dealt with as an
100 SnigakoJa is the same as /rl'lgodaka which is used for sprinkling in the fiJjyilbhi"ka
of the BodhG.SS. See abov,e 0,89.
101 For the two traditions of the inlerpretlti.on on the agnicayana•. see Oldenberg 1917a:
'9-16, (,,"Kleine Schriflen pp. 327-34)
independent ritual form, and it was mingled with a form of the ritual bath
(sniina). These various features of can be observed in the post-
Vedic literature. The authentic forms of in the Srauta coronations
have also corne to be accepted in the coronations of tbe post-Vedic and
the Purali)1c rituals. The tradition of has thus undergone a great
change in its appearance on account of the new post-Vedic requisites, such
as the employment of the various sorts of animal skins on the throne, the
deification of the pitcher, and the use of the paiicagavya. At the same time,
however, the significant elements of the post-Vedic coronations are traced
to the Sraula coronations as examined earlier. It is also evident that some
essential sequence of the Srauta coronation, namely, the itself -
the enthronement - the chariot drive, constitutes one of the origin of the
in the Vedic andpost-Vedic Rituals
i k
I •. i.. t!

, I
Nates on the Installation Ceremonies
described in the
1 Outline of the Installation Ceremonies
Among the texts belonging to the level there are five that
describe the installation ceremony for an image of a god. They are Agn-
GS 2.4.10 [71,20-72,2]., BodhGSS 2.13 and 16 ;;;;: HirGSSI. 7.11 and 12,
VaikhGS 4.10-11, and AsvGPS 4.4-4.6. The simplest description is given
in AgnGS 2.4.10 [71,20-72,2]:
atha eet pratimiirrz kurvan svarlJamayena vii loharnayena va asaktau
si!iimayena va lankhaeakragadadhararrz eaturbhuja'!l krtvii agiire vii
vimiine vii prati<?rhiipya
Now, if one makes an image, this is made of gold or of copper or,
if (those are) impossible, of stone. After having made an image of
having four arms holding a conch-shell, a disc, and a mace,
one installs it in the house or in a temple (vimlina).l
I It is not certain whether the word vimtina here means temple. In the Grhyasiitras
and we come across several words denoting temple: devakula in SiitikhGS
2.12.6, 2.7.21, Kii!hGS 19.3; devasabha in KaulhOS 12 [19,8]; deviigara in ManOS
1.7. 10, BodhGSS 3.4.4 :=: HirGSS 1.6.10 [81,23]; devattiyatana in StlilkhGS 4.12.15, Kii!ll.
GS 18.3; deviiyafanu in SiinkhGS 4.12.15, BodhGS 3.8.2, VaikilGS 4.11 [64,7].4.12 [65,8];
devalaya in AgnGS 2.5.4 [82,8]; suriilaya in 3.l35b. See also Kane II, p. 709 and
Stielencron 1977: 128, In tile BrhatsaJ?thitli and several Puril)as dealing with the prasadala.
vimana appears as one of the kinds of prasada or temple. but vimiina does 1101 mean
lemplcilself. See, for example, Br/tatS 55.17b, BhavifyaP 1.I30.24b, AgniP 102.14c, and
Mat.ryaP 168.28c. According to the information given by J. Takashima, fianalivagurudeva.
paddhali. kriyii piida, Chapter 28 describes the characteristics of temples (laqma prasiida,
nam), and in Ihis text the word vimana clearly means temple. See, for example. the following
verses: narii':1l1'!? ca ramyataya dram /I maniirrlSi ca prasfdantl' priisiidas
lena kfnifii!.? / rJlll1iimiinavidhiinarvtid vimanar{l krtam If (28.1 cd·2) 'Temples are
called because gods and the like and men are delighted in them for a long time
and because their minds are pleased. The temple is called vim/ina because it is built accord-
ing to the rule by applying various measures'. mukhyadfni vimaniini kathiNiny
96 From Material (0 Deity
Then foHows the description of the worship of according to the
procedure ofpujii just as in the VaikhGS, where aftcr t.he description of the
installation ceremony the way of the daHy worship of is prescribed
in Chapter 4.12. The AgnGS only of the materials of the image
and the form of the god but docs not go into dctails of the installation
ceremony itself.
BodhGSS 2.] 3 deals with the installat.ion ceremony of an image of
and BodhGSS 2.16 with thut. of an image of Rudra, the basic pat-
tern of the description being essentially the same as the preceding one.
BodhGSS 2.13 is translated by P.N.V. Harting in his Selections/rom the
pp. 28-32. He also gives thelext and
translation of VaikhGS 4.10-1] as Appendix 1 011 PI'. 59-64. The trans-
lation of these chapters of the VaikhGS can be found, naturally, in the
complete translation of this text by W. C•• land. In discussing the
ceremony Kane makes use of the description in this text (Kane II:
901-03). The article of G. Colas 'On the
and the is dedicated to the description and analysis of the
installation ceremonies prcscribed by the }JodhG5'S and VaikhGS.
Before I turn to the discussion of the installation ('crcmonies des-
cribed by the B'odhGSS, VaikhGS, and A.fvGPS, I shall first outlinc the
rites so as to give someidc<I of their concrete procedures.
Installation ceremony for an image of
according to BodhGSS 2.13
This rite is called (2.13.1)
Proper times for the performance. (2.13.1)
Feeding of brahmins and their proclamation of an a.uspiciolls dtly.
Making of the image. (2.13.1)
Ablution of the image. (2.11.1)
Presentation of wheat, durvll, and shoots (wikura) to the pedestaL
(2.] 3.2)
Tying of a pratisara to the image. (2.13.3)
Immersing the image in water overnight. (2.13.4)
Lifting of the imag,e from the wal,er and setting it down. (2.13.5-6)
(28.3cd) 'The main temple and so on arc explained successively'. IatrelabrahmaviHluru11rl
rnukhyiinarrl ... taw Vima/WI?1 eeti (28.4cd,
9cd) 'Among them there are main twenty tcmpl!es for the main gods such as fj<iVCl, IJrahma.
and Vi.p.w. ... And the temple called lalilah/uulra. Thus they are the twenty temples'.
---- ..... ----
Notes on the .Installation Ceremonies 97

Bathing of the image with the five products of the cow, a decoction
of the barks of various trees, and water containing gem.s. (2.13.6-10)
Opening the eyes of the image. (2.] 3.] I)
Performing the basic procedure of the Grhya rite up to the main of-
fering. (2.13.12)
Touching parts of the image. (2.13.13-]6)
Carrying the image into the shrine. (2.13.17)
Fixing of gems on the pedestal. (2.13.17)
InstaUation of the image. (2.13.17)
Invocation of the god. (2.13. ] 8)
Ablution of the god with water containing gems. (2.] 3.] 8)
Worship of the god. (2.13.] 9-23)
Untying of the pmtisara. (2.13.24)
Worship of the god continued. (2.] 3.25-35)
Performing the basic procedure of the Grhya rite up to the end.
Bali-offering with the rest of food oblations. (2.] 3.36)
Presentation of the remaining oblations on leaves of asvattha tree.
Circumambulation around the god and the sacrificial fire. (2.11.38)
Feeding of brahmins. (2.11.39)
Installation ceremony according to VaikhGS 4.10-11
The first day:
Making of the image. (4.10 [62,14])
Proper times for the performance. (4.10 [62,15])
Preparation of the kUfJ-fla. (4,10
Worship of the guardians of the directions. (4.10 [62,] 8)
Offering of clarified butter into the fire. (4.10 [62,18-63,2])
Opening the eyes of the image. (4.10 [63,2])
Immersing the image in water. (4.10 [63,2-4])
The second day:
Bathing the i!mage with various kinds of water containing various in-
gredients.. (4.10 [63,5-9])
Placing the image on the vedi and its worship. (4.10 [63,9-10])
Proclamation of an auspicious day. (4.10 [63,11])
Tying of the pratisarli to the image. (4.10 [63,11-12])
Second immersion of the image in water. (4.. 10 [63,13])

i I
98 From Material to Deity
Preparation of the main waler jar. (4. II 163.,1: 4-15])
Meditating upon the god. (4.11 163,15-64,1])
Invocatjon of the god. (4.11 164,1-3])
Offering of obl!ations into the fire. (4.11 164,5-6])
The thi:rd day:
Lifting up and carrying of the image. (4.11 164,6-7])
Fixing of gems on the pedestal. (4.11 [64,7-8])
Installation of the image. (4.11 [64,8])
Touching parts of the image. (4.11 [64,9-10])
Meditating upon the god. (:4.11 [64, to-II])
Invocation of the god. (4.11 [64, ]1-12J)
Installation ceremony according to As,'GPS [176,:U
Adhivtisana (4.4-4.6 [176,11-178,9]):
Preparatory rites:
Selection of the main and other officiants. (4.4 1176,11-12])
Construction of a ma1J4apa, a vedikil and and a bathing hut.
(4.4 [176,13-19])
Preparation of utensils for the ablution. (4.4 [176,19])
Carrying the image into the bathing hut on a cart. (4.4 [176,20-22])
Preparation of all' necessary things. (4.4 [176,22-23])
Preparation of the patron and appointment of the officiants.
(4.4 [] 76,23-24])
Ritual acts in the bathing hut:
Purification and protection of the sacrificial ground.
(4.5 [176,26-28])
Placing a pair of water jars at doors facing the four directions of the
bathing hut.. (4.5 [176,28-177, I])
Invitation to and worship of the guardians of the directions.
(4.5 rI77,1))
Purification of the bathing hut. (4.5 [177,1-4])
Worship and bathing of the image in the bathing hut.
(4.5 II] 77,4-11]1)
Opening the eyes oCthe image. (4.5 [177,11-13])
Showing of food by means of a golden mirror.
(4.5 [177,13])
Giving gifts to the officiants. (4.5 [177,14])
Notes on the Installation Ceremonies 99
Services to the image in the I1la1}(iapa:
Carrying the image on a cart to the m a ~ l ( i a p a . (4.5 [177,15-17])
Placing the image in the ma1}flapa. (4.5 n77, 17-18])
Placing a water jar which is covered with cloth and contains sprouts.
(4.5 [177,18-19])
Tying a thread and a piece of gold to the hand of the image.
(4.5 [177,20])
Introducing the 25 tattvas into the image. (4.5 [177,20-21])
Worship of the image covered with clothes. (4..5 [177,21-22])
Construction of the mm.lr.Jala before the image. (4.5 [177,22-23])
Invitation and worship of various deities in the mar;4ala.
(4.5 [177,23-26])
Fire offerings and the ablution of the image:
Preparation of the fire sites. (4.6 (177,28])
Inviting the god whose image is to be installed. (4.6 [178,1])
Performance of fire oblations by the main officiant (4.6 [178,1-2])
Placing the remaining offerings in the siintikalasa. (4.6 [178,2-3])
Touching the head, breast, and feet of the image. (4.6 [D8,3])
Completing the procedure for the fire offerings. (4.6 [178,3])
Performance of fire offerings by other officiants. (4.6 [178,4])
Ablution of the image (4.6 [178,4-7])
The adhivasana may last for four, two or one day. (4.6 [178,7])
Offering of balis to the bhiitas. (4.6 [178,7-8])
Feeding of brahmins and payment of sacrificial fees. (4.6 [178,9])
Installation of the image:
Ablution of the image. (4.7 [178,11])
Invitation and worship of the god. (4.7 [178,11-12])
Sprinkling the t,emple with water. (4.7 [178,13])
Setting up of the image, and its worship. (4.7 [178,13-14])
Carrying the image to the temple on a cart (brahmaratha).
(4.7 [178,14-15])
Depositing of gems on the pedestal. (4.7 [178,15-18])
Installation of the image on the pedestal. (4.7 [178.,18-19])
Ritual acts after the installation:
Touching of the image. (4.7 [178,19-20)
Performing the wiganyasa. (4.7 [178.,20])
Whispering the gayatrfinto the ear. (4.7 [178,21])
The main officiant paying homage to the god. (4.7 [178.,21])
100 From Material .to Deity
Patron attending upon the god. (4.7 [178,21-231)
Worship of the god by the mi.lin oflkianL (4.8 1178,25-27])
Worship of the attendant deiltics of the god. (4.81178,27])
Offering gifts to the officiants and fceding of brahmins for four days.
(4.8 [178,27-28])
Anointing and bathing of the god for four days. (4.8 1178,28-179,1])
Ablution of the god by using one hundred eight or tlfty-four water
jars. (4.8 [179!] -3])
Ablution of the patron. (4.8 [I' 79,3J)
In discussing the installation ceremonies by comparing these three
texts it would be worthwhile to refer to their descriptions found in several
PuralJas. P.V. Kane expounds on the installation ceremony in his History
of Dharmasiis.tra, Vol. II, Part II, pp.. 896-904, and refers to AgniP 60
and 66 and MatsyaP 264-66. While explaining the proper times for this
ceremony in his History ofDharma,Mstra, Vol. Y, Part I, p. 624, he also
mentions MatsyaP 264 and 3.96. Besides texts we
can add further: AgniP 61.2cd-7ab, 62.1-13, 95-99,2 Bhav('iyaP
2.. 3.19,3 DevrP 32.39-46, GarU(jaP 1.48.1-101, Li,igoP 2.47-48, Nara-
simhaP 56.19-45, Samba? 32, SkandaP, VarCihaP 179-84,
3.97-] 16, and SivaP t .11.2-25,4.12.34-
2 Notes on Mantras
As G. Colas has rightly pointed out (Colafi 1994: 519), a certain similarity
of the mantras for invocation of the god can be observed in the BodllGSS
and the VaikhGS. BodhGSS 2.13.18 [268.,2-4] (= HirGSS 1.7.11 1108,7-
9]) uses the following mantra:
0'?1 iivtihayiimi I 0'?1 hhuvalJ iivahaytimi I m?l
suvalJ puru.Jam aviihayiimi I 0rt1 bhiir plHUfwn
yami /1
The mantra used by VaikhGS 4.11 [64,1-4] reads as folilows:
2 AglliP 43.16-28 describes a rile called varwyal«(J in which people go 10 u forestlmd
select a stone from which the image of a god is to be madc. A rile for the selection .md hewing
down of a tree to obtain wood for the image is dcscdbed in BrhalS 58 ullL! SlimlmP 30.14-
31. BrhalS 42. I2·23 lays down a similar rite for obtaining wood for making the indradhl'aja,
and ViffJudhP 3.89.1,31 for obtaining wood for ttlc construclion of II house.
3 Before describing the installation ceremony of the image.. lJhavi,l'yaP 2.2.17-21 des-
cribes in great detail the rite of the construction of a water reservoir.
Notes on the bu'tallation Ceremonies 101
Olfl puru.yam orr bhuvaJ} purufam 0'!'l 0f?1 bhur
puru.yalfl niiriiywwrrl satyam acyutam
aniruddha1?l sriyalfl mahfm II
It is understandable that the first mantmis used in BodhGSS 2.14.2 (= Hir-
GSS 1.2.9 113, It -13]) in the daily worship of I.e. and
in 3.7.] (= HirGSS 1.6.13 [83,8-9]) in the but it is interesting
to note that this ma11tra is also used in the installation ceremony of Rudra
in BodhGSS 2.16.22 (= HirGSS 1.7.12 [llO,21-23]). This is also used in
BodhGS 1.11.4, AgnGS 2.5.7 [85,10-12], and HirGSS ] .3.15 [34,22-23] in
the invocation in the vi,YfJubali and AgnGS 3.11 A prescribes its use in the
The expression vytihrtibhib purU$wn iiviihayati 'With the
vyiihrtis he invokes in BodhGSS 3.20.3 (= HirGSS 1.3.12 [33,7])
in the description of the niiriiyafJabali also suggests the use of this very
At the beginning of the description of the VaikhGS 3.13
[44,14-15] gives the first half of the mantra recorded in VaikhGS 4.] 1 as
of?'l 01?1 purU$am 0'!'l 01fl bhur
bhuvab suvalJ. II.
According to note 7 ofW. Caland on VaikhGS 10.9 [140,1], where the
beginning part of it (O1?1 is mentioned, this is the pratfka
of the mantra given in VaikhGS 3.13 (Caland 1929: 222). W. Ca]and in
his note 7 on VaikhGS 8.6 informs us of an interesting mantra which, even
though rather long, is worth quoting:
giirhapatyayajiiam iiviihayiimi, yajiiadaivatavisvtin devtin iiviihayii-
mi, 01?1 purUfa1n iiviihayiimi, acyutam iiviihayiimi; anviihiir-
yayajiiam iiviihayiimi,. yajiiadaivata( viSvtin devtin iiviihayiimi), 01!t
bhuvab aviihayiimi. satyam tivahayiimi; iihavanfyayajiiam
tivtihaytimi,. yajfiadaivata(viSviin deviin iiviihaytimi), orrz pu·
iivtihayiimi, purufam iiviihayiimi; iivasathyayajnam iiviiha-
yiimi,. yajfiadaivata(visviin deviin iiviihaya.mi), 01fl mahal:t
iiviihaytimi. aniruddham iiviihaytimi; sabhyayajiiam iiviihaytimi, ya-
jiiadaivata( viSviin deviin tiviihayiim;), OIpjanal:t iivahayiimi,
iivtihayiimi; pau'!flarrkayajiiam tivtihayiimi, yajiiadaivata( vi-
sViin deviin tivtihaytimi), Of'!1 tapal:t iiviihaytimi, viisudevam
iivtihayiimi, 01?1 saryam iiviihayiimi niirtiyalJam tiviihayiimi;
aupiisanayajiiam iivtihaylimi, yajiiadaivata( viSviin deviin iiviihaya.
m;); sriimar:z,akayajfiam iivtihayiimi, yajiiadaivataviSviin iiviihayami
(Caland 1929: 188-89)
102 From Marerilll to Ddty
In this mantra the vylihrti used is not the simple tripartite one, i.e. hhil,
but the saptavylihrti, and it is those gods who appear that
are named in the mantra quoted in VtlikhGS 4.11, viz., Narayul)lu,
Satya, Acyuta, and
G. Colas, then, discusses the following nlw'llra which appears in Bodh-
GSS2.13.23 (= HirGSS 1.7.] I
imii pl7tatatnii medhyii medhyatama
arghylis ta pratigrhYQ11tii,?1 hhagavtin maha-

He designates this mantra as Inanlra A and compares it wHh the other
three similar mantras that arc given in BodllGSS 2.16.26 (= HirGSS 1.7.12
[11 BodhGSS 3.10.3 [310,11-14] (= l1irGSS 1.6.16 [85,14-18]),
and BodhGSS 4.2.2, those being designated as A I, A2, and A3. He fur-
ther takes into consideration a mantra that is referred to in VaikhSS 4.11
[50,17] by quming the beginning part as follows: idanl He
points out rightly that the same mamra is lIsed at. least twice in t.he Vaikh-
as 1.3 [3,]6] and 1.6 [7,13] (Colas 1994: 520-21). In the VaikhGS this
is further used in 1.9 [10,10] and 9'.13 [130,711. In the description of the
gafJapatipiijana, HirGSS ] .3.1 [20,9- J21 mcommends the use of a mal1tra
corresponding to AI, A2, and AI. The employment of almost the same
mantra is stipulated in SiintiK 14. L AAvGPS 2.9' 1158,201 gives the begin-
ning part (imii in the prescription of the grahayajiia.
The mantras A and AI are used in the BodhGSS at the lime of offering
the arghya-water to the god to be worshipped. In this text, then, there
follows a series of mantras which are used in the offering of perfume,
garlands and flowers. G. Colas reproduces them in a way in which their
structure can be easily grasped:
ime [or or iuhlla sarvagandhair
lor -miilyair or I pilta
suryasya rasmibhil:z II which is followed by pratigrhyantlitr prati-
bhagavtin (Colas 1994: 522).4
A mantra corresponding to the above, used for the offering of per-
fume is also found in SiintiKI4.2. Regarding the mantm for offering,
flowers, G. Colas points Ollt that this mantra corresponds to a mantra
- - I
4 See BOdhGSS (= HirGSS 1.7.11 [108,17-19J), HOllhG!){S 2.16.28 (=
HirGSS 1.7.12 [11l.1-3]) (mlmtrCl for perfume); /JOt/hGSS 2.13.27-28 (= HirCS{S 1.7.11
[108,21-23]), 80dhGSS 2.16.33 (:::: HirGSS 1.7.12 [111,5-7]) (mllntra for garlands); B(}dh·
ass 2.13.29-30 (:::: HirGSS 108.25-27]). IJodhGSS 2.16.33 [279,5-7] ("" JjirG5(S 1.7.12
[111,9-11]) (mantra fGrflowers).
:i '!I!
5 Sec BodhGSS 2.13.33-34 (= HirGSS 1.7.11 {109,3-5], BodhGSS 2.16.33 [279.13-15]
(= HirG!J:S 1.7.12 [111,l7-19]).
fi See BodhGSS 2.13.31 (= HirGSS 1.7.11 [108,29-30]), BodllGSS 2,13,33 [279.99-
10] (= Hi rOSS I. 7.12 [111,13-14]). The reason why G. Colas does not discuss this mantra
is that this Jrl£mlm is structurally vcry different from the mantras he has already discussed
intensively. In the tcxt cdited by P.N.U. Harting there is dhiipa!lhyo instead of dhupebhyo,
and sanmbhillcinam instead of san'adevclflam.
7 The purcIIJa, Part I. Critically'Edited by Anand Swamp Gupta, Varanasi: All.
India Kashiraj Trust. 1981.
given in VaikhSS 2.1 5: imas sumanasa /
piltti brahmapavitrel:ra putas 1/ (Colas 1994: 522). As re-
gards this mantra, we can again poiilt to SiintiK 14.3. The pratrka:
occurs in AVPS 20.3.2.
A mantra·used for offering a lamp reads as follows:
.fukrart1 ea tejalJ ca deviiniirt1 satata'!l priyaIJ I bhtisvara/:l
abhutiiniilTl dTpo 'YW?l pratigrhyatiirrt followed by pratigrhf}tilu,
etc. (Colas 1994: 523)5
For offering OJ lamp, SiintiK 14.5 hands down a rather different mantra:
agnil; .<ukral co jyotiS ca sarvadevapriyo hi I
prabhiikam mahiitejii dTpu 'YQI?l pratigrhyatiim /1
Agni is bright and a lustre. It is dear to all gods.
Let this lamp, a maker of light, having great sharpness, be accepted.
A pratfka of·this mantra is given in AVPS 20.3.3.
Between the mantra for flowers and that for a lamp, there is a mantra
used for offering incense, to which G. Colas does not refer. It runs as
vanaspatiraso dhilpo dhupebhyo dhupa /
sarvadevaniil!1 dhupo 'yaf?1 prat.igrhyatiim 1/6
Incense is the sap of trees, the best incense among incenses,
to be smelled by all gods. Let this incense be accepted.
For this mantra P.N.V. Harting writes an interesting note:
This verse occurs very often, with slight variations. The Nirl)ayasi-
ndhu p. 169 has vanaspatirasodbhiito gandhiitjhyo, etc.; the Skanda-
(Bombay ed.), Vol. VI, adhy. 230,46: vanaspatiraso divyo
gandhiiflhyo, etc. Thus Iik'ewise the adhy. 267,26,
where the second line runs: maya nivedito bhaktya dhupo 'yal?l pra-
tigrhyatiim. A different version: Va rtihapura/:1a, adhy. 118, 44b-
45a (VRP7 117.38) vanaspatirasQ/?l divyaqt bahudravyasamanvitam /
mama dhiipar?'l me sW?'lpragrhyatiim (devopaciiravi-
dllt). (Harting 1922: 31)
I !
103 Notes on the Installation Ceremonies
From Material to Deity
SlintiK 14.4 again records a similar mantra:
vanaspatiraso medhyo divyo gandhaflhya
sarvadeviina'!1 dhapo 'yCl'!1 (pratigrhyaUim) II
AVP8 6.2.2 vanaspatiraso madhya iti and AVPS 20.3.3 vanaspati,'aso
medhya iii may be the beginning partofthig mcmtra.
Besides the PuraQas
mentioned by Harting,, NIJradaP 2.57.37cd-38ab,
and PadmaP 6.30.15 further record similar mantras.
3 Notes on Some RUual Elements
3.1 PUlJyiihavacana
BodhGSS 2.13.1 and VaikhGS 4.10 [63,11] prescribe the proclamaHon of
an auspicious day at the beginning of the instaUation rite. According to
the BodhGSS, brahmins who have been fed pr-evio'Osly say 'an auspicious
day (purJ:yllha)', 'welfare (svasti)', and 'prosperity (rddhi)'. Unering these
three words is the usual procedure for the proclamation of anauspici.ous
day (Gonda 1980c: 261, 262).10 VaikhGS 4.10 [63,11] says only
harp krtvli 'after having made the auspicious day', but what is implied
by this short prescription is, as W. Cahmd suggests in his note on this
prescription. the performance of a rather complicated rite that is stipu-
lated in VaikhGS As J. Gonda points out, in the texts belonging
to the level, more or less detailed presc.riptions are given of the
proclamation of an auspicious day, e.g. in AVPS 1.22-26, AgnGS 2.3.3-4,
BodhGPbhS 1.4, BodhGSS 1.9 (= HirGSS L3.3), and BodhGSS 1.10 (cf.
HirGSS 1.3.4) (Gonda 1980c: 261-262). We can al.so add here A/vGPS
1. D.
o The concept of the a.uspicious day seems to have been known from
the time of In this connection it is worth quoting the AV
6.128, a hymn for auspicious time:
8 AVPS 6.2.2 Val1QJpf.4tjr a.ro and AVPS 20.3.3 vana.rpatjr (,W), therefore, ar'e bOlh 10 be
emended to vcmaspatira.w. As regards AVPS 6.2.2 MSS B, C. T reud rl1etlhyll.
g, Bhavi$yaP va.na.rpatiraso divyo I maya n;,
vediro bhaktyfJ dhupo 'ya", pra.figrhYQ.ftJm II, NlircuiaP 31cd-3811b vana.wpatira..w divyo
surabhiSca Ie I maya nived/to bhaktylJ dhupo 'yam praligrhyatlim II, PadlnaP
6.30.1 vanaspatiraso surabhlr gamlhavan lucil;r I dhl'Jpo 'Yatrt della deve/a nama.f
te praliSrhyarllm II.
10 In the HirGSthe word .wvasryayan.a 'auspicious progress'is used instead of sva,,;.
See Bloomfield, Vedic Concordance. p. pUf.1ydhlurl f€ldhim.
II Compare the occurrences of the words s/J.di/ta Ind sudinatva in the IJgveda in
Sal'lskritwonerbuch, S.V• •fuclina and sudinlUva, TB ttit pU'IIya.,,1
rejasvy 'That is an auspicious, brilliant day'. See also BOhtHngk-Roth's Sall.\:krit·
Notes on the Installation Ceremonies 105
! !
, ,
sakadhumalp nakfatriiIJi ydd rajiinam dkurvata I
bhadrlihdm asmal prayacchann iddtrl riif{rdm asiid iti /11
bhadriihdlfl no madhydndine bhadriiha'7J siiydm astu nalJ I
bhadriihdlp no dhniirrz prato. ratrf bhadriiham astu 12/
ahoriitrabhyiilp ndk-ratrebhyalJ. suryiicandramasabhyiim I
bhadriiham asmdbhYQ1'f1 riija'1l chdkadhiima tva,?" krdhl /3/
yo no bhadriihdm akaralJ. siiyalfl naktdm atho d{vii 1
tdsmai te nalqatrarlija idkadhumasddii ntimalJ /41
When the asterisms made the iakadhuma their king, they bestowed
on him auspicious day, saying 'This shaH be [his] royalty'.
Auspicious day ours at noon, auspicious day be ours at evening, aus-
picious day ours in the morning of the days;' be night auspicious day
for us. From from the asterlsms, from sun-and-moon,
do thou, 0 king sakadhuma, make auspicious day for us. Thou who
hast made auspicious day for us at evening, by night, also by day
- to thee as such, 0 Jakadhama, king of the astensms, [be] always
homage. (Whitney 1905: 377-78)12
But the ritualization of the proclamation of an auspicious day
haps took place first in the Grhyasutras.. It is curious that tire- BaudhSS
2.6 [41,9] refers to the proclamation of an auspicious day: sniinapava-
namantriicamanamantrapro(qaf).apu1J.ylihavacanani 'After bath, purlfic-
ation, sipping of water to the accompaniment of (the proper) mantra,
sprinkling with water to the accompaniment of (the proper) mantra, and
causing (the priests) to announce the day as being auspicious' (Dandekar
1958: 17).13
In the description of bhumidiina, i.e. the presentation of a golden
age of the earth AVPS 10.1.17 prescribes the use of a long hymn of AV
12.1 comprising 63 strophes and AV 19.27.11-13 for the proclamation of
worterbuch, s. v.. pUQyiiha and T. GOIO, 2000, . lind Vam!)a in RV VII 88', in B.
Forssman and R. Plath, cds., Inaoarisch, lranisch una die Indogermanistik, Wiesbaden:
Reichert Verlag, p. 154, n.23.
12 M. Bloomfield titles this hymn 'Propitiation of the weather-prophet', and translates
bhadriiham as 'good weather' (Bloomfield 1897: 160), but we can see in. this hymn, with
D. W. Whitney, somethina more magico-religious, bhadraham being interpreted almost in
the same sense as the later pU1Jyaha, an auspicious day. For the and ritual
employmenn of this hymn,especially in KauiSSO.15·16, see D.W. Whitrley's notes Oil it
(Whitney 1905: 78). cr, also AV !9.8.3ab svastamita'?1 me supriital) susliya/'fl sudiva/'fl
sumrga/'fl susakuno'?1 me astu 'Be it for me wen at sunset(?), well in early morning, well at .
evening, well by day; be it for me well with beasts, well with birds' (Whitney 1905: 910).
13 According 10 e.G. Kashikar this portion of the BaudhSS belongs to a later addition
(Kashikar 1949: 111-12). See al'so H. Krick, Vas Ritual der Feuergrundung, pp. 49f.
106 From Material to Deity
an auspicious day.liI The reason that this long hymn of AV 12.] is used
in the proclamation of the auspiciolls day is that this hymn is dedicated
to the earth, and that the donation of a golden image of the earth is the
subject of AVPS 10. According to P.v. Kane, i\rhlm.lw:rqiyoti\\'Q 7.17 tens
us that if a favorable time for the performance of 11 rite has not come near,
the proclamation of an auspicious day by a brahmin secures success of the
rite (Kane II: 604).
3.2 Paficagavya
On the· second day of the installation ceremony, 2.13.6- 10
prescribes t.he bathing of the image with the nve products of the cow, a
decoction of the barks of various trees, and water containing gems. On
this occasion BodhGSS 201 3.6-7 (;; HirGSS 1.7.11 1107,16-21]) prescribes
rather in detail how to prepare these five products of the cow:
giiyatryiigrhyQ gOJ1lutrW?1 gandhadvdreti ,,:on1£lyam I
iipytiyasveti ea k.yfrwfl veil dadhi I
.fukram asijyotirasfty lVywfl devasya tvii ku,(odllkam II
ity eta! paficagavya1r1 niinw I
atriiha kapiUiyii VarW?l .fvetllyii,i ell varwll dadhi I
raktiiyiis tu ghrtm?1 II iti
Taking the cow's urine, wHh the GaY:ltri; I.hc cowdung, (with the text)
'gandhadvtiram' (TA, X,I, 10); the milk, (with the verse) 'iipyiiya·
sva' (TS, I, 4, 32); the sour milk, (with the verse) (TS,
I, 5, 11, b); the clarified butter (with the formula) '.fukmm asi, jyotir
asi' (TS, 1, 1,10,0); the decoction of Ku§a grass (with the formula),
'deva.\ya tvii' (TS, VB, I, II, a). These arc called the live products of
the cow. Here he says: 'Of a brown cow the milk is best, of a white
one the sour milk, of a red one the clarined buBer is best, of spotted
and black ones the two remaining products'. (Harting 1922: 29)
This prescription makes two important points: one regarding the mantras
to be used in preparing ingredients of the paiicllgavya, and the other con-
cerning the colours of the cows from which these ingrcdi,cnls are to be
brought. In many texts belonging to the level and to the
Dharma tradition, we can also find similar prescriptions. The following
texts almost unanimously prescribes the usc of a set of six II/antra.\' men-
tioned above: AgnGS 2.7.7 n14,9-11], BodhGSSI.23.9, 2.20.7
289,3] =HirG5S 1.7.14 [113,23-28]., 5.3.10;; f1irGSS 1.3.n
14 AVPS 10.1.17 .mtYW!l hrhad it)' anuvclko ye dewl dilly ek{jd(/,fcl siheti pUIJyiHult71
Notes on the Installation Ceremonies 107
[32,19-21], AVPS 38.2.2-3ab, BaudhDhS 4.5..12, PlirSm ] L32-33ab. In
the Pural:ms we can find tile same description, e.g. in AgniP 175.25cd-
26, MatsyaP 267.5-6ab, 7.L107.24-25ah, VigrudhP 3.99 [363a,
Preferable colours of the cows for ingredients of the pancagavya are
also prescribed in the foHowing texts: AgnGS 2.7.7 [114,2-5], BodhGSS
2.20.4 = HirGSS 1.7.14 [112,26-27], AVPS 38.1.5-6, PiirSm 11.29-30ab,
NiiradaP 1.123.54, and 3.99 [363a,1-2].16
AgnGS 2.7.7, AVPS 38, and AgniP 175, which are referred to just
above, deal with an atonement ceremony called brahmakurca. Besides
the two things discussed above, they also refer to the quantity of each
ingredient. AgnGS 2.7.7 [114,6-8] reads as follows:
gomCitraikapalmn dadyiid migU.Yfhiirdharn tu gomayam I
saptapala,!l dadyiid dadhi tripalam eva ca I
ghrtam ekapal alfl dadylit tathaiva ca kuJodakam I
One should give one pala of the cow's urine; the cowdung is as much
as the half size of the thumb. One should give seven palas of milk
and three palas of sour milk. One should give one pala of clarified
butter and so much of kusa-wuter.
AVPS 38.2.1 prescribes almost the same quantities of the ingredients
of paiicagavya as AgnGS, 17 and according to AgniP 175.24d the quantity
ofthe sour milk is two palmi. In the description of the sarrltapana krcchra,
BaudhDhS 4.5 .13ad lays down the proportion of the quantities of the in-
gredients: of one unit eacll ilre the cow's urine, clarified butter, and the
kusa water; of half a unit the cowdung; of three units the milk; and of two
units the sour milk.
In the definition of the sti,!ltapana krcchra, Kii!hGS 7.3 enumerates
the six ingredients of the paikagavya as fonows: gOlnutrarn gomaya1?1
15 For the use of these mantras see P.N,U. Harting, Selections from the Baudlulyana.
Grhyapari.fiHasiitra, 1922, p. 29; W. Gampert,. Die Slihnez.eremonien in der altirulischen
Recht.diteralur, 1939. p. 49; P. V. Kane, Hr'story of Dharma,(jiStra. Vol. n, Part. n. 1974,
p. 774. Vol. 4, p. 146; J. Gonda, Vedic Ritual, 1980, p. m85; and 8.R. Modale, The Ancillary
Literature ofthe AthanJa-Veda. 1993, p. 305.
16 For the colours of cows see Kane II: 774; J. Gonda 1980c: 47; Modak 1993: 305.
17 For the quantity of cowdung AVPS 38.1.1 b says angu,HhagrQ/11 iii gomayam 'the
cowdung is liS much as the tip of the thumb'.
18 For the quantities of the ingredients see Gampert 1939: 49; Kane II: 774; and Gonda
1980c: 185.
108 From Material to Deily
dadhi ku.1odakanll ekanltmpavds{l.v ell krechm'll sii.f?'ltapa-
na,?l smrtam'(Partaking of) cow's urine, cowdung, milk, curds, clarified
butter, and kusa water, and fasting for one night, that is called the sal?!-
tapana krcchra' .19 BaudhDhS 1.5.11 ..36 pl'Cscribes Ihe parl.aking of these
six ingredients when one is bitten by an insec!.
The word pm1cagavya is usually interpreted as the five products of
the cow, and these five products are milk, curd, clarined butter, urine,
and cowdung.
From the above discussion of the use of the six mantras,
quantities of the six ingredients, and the enumeration of six ingredients in
the definitions of the brahmakarca and siin,llapana krcchra, it is clear that
the pancagavya, even if its Iileral meaning may be the five products of
the cow, consists of six elements, namely, these five products of the cow
and kula water.
It seems, however, lhat in the course of time the word
paiicagavya came to denote only the five product.s of the cow.
19 The same verse is given in (?f!.l'idh 1.7.4. According to Gonda, this is identical to
MatI/ISm 11.212 and corresponds to Y((jPiIlSm 3.314 (Gonda 1951: 15). 'rllis is also identical
to BaudhDhS 4.5.11. Sce also 46.19. For the .I'(lt!ltfl/'(/f1(l k!l'chm, sec Campert
1939: 48-49.
20 Sec, e.g. the Sanskrit dictionaries of Biihllingk-Roth, A.A. Macdonell, M. Monier-
Williams, V.S. Apte, 11l1d K. Mylius. s.v. pw1caf!.Ol'y(l. Sec also Sabdakalpadruma. s.v. paiica·
gavya. Atri.wf?1hil{i [37,24-38, I] and Milc7k\wril on YiijriaSm 3.263 mention only these five
21 Therc arc mainly two intcrpretations of the word kldodalw. According to the first
interpretation it means a decoction of kula grass (G. BUhler's If. of Baudhl)hS 4.5.10-11,
Gonda's If, of lJgvidh 1.7.4, Harling's tr. of 2.13..6, sec also Garnpert 1939: 49,
or watef in which kula grass has been boiled (BUhler's tr. of Va.IDhS 27.13,
Jolly's II'. of Vi.yt,lUSm 46.19). See also BUhler's tr. of 8audhDhS 'water hoiled
kula grass', V.S. Aple's S.Y. ku.fodaka, 'water in which kuJa gras.s.l1as been
illfus,ed', Bohtlingk-Roth's Wbrlerbuch, S.Y. kuJaVliri, 'mit l'lufgekochtes Wasser', In
Ihe MandHk's edition of the Manal'a J)/wrma p. 1419, there is a footnote on the
commentary of Raghavananda on ManuS", 11.148: lwlodakwlI = .m/m kWdhitam
udakam 'kula WaleI' := waler decoclCd with grass'. This commentary supports the first
interpretation. According 10 the second interpretation. e.g. of' Monier-WIliiams's Dic-
tionary, s. v. kulal'ari, it is 'water in which grass has becn soaked'. In the introductory
note to the chapler on the bralwUlkiirc(/, i.e. 38, Bolling and von Ncgclein names it
'water in which kula-grass had becn steeped'. Sec also Modakl993: 305. P.v. Kanc renders
it with 'water in which ku:<a blades hud been placed' or simply hy 'kusa watcr' (Kane II: 773
and 774). According to the second interpretation, the water is not boiled or decocted. The
commentary of Sarvajnanarayal)a on ManuSm 11.148: vit/hivat
t,ramantre'.la sarllskrlW!' ku.fmnikitwll vari, 'wUler which is ritually prcp<lfcd by using the
mantra for laking the ku§a water in the !U11?lIl1pWW atoncmenl lind mixed Wilh kul(l grass',
and his commenlary on ManuS", 11.212: ku.l'o(/akll/ll ku.1amilmjalam, 'ku§a water is water
mixed with kula grass' supports the second interpretation. I would mther agree with the
second interpretation.
22 Bha!1ot pala, in his commentary on Br1wrS 59.9. still refers 10 the kulodaktl.
Notes on the Installation Ceremonies
3.3 Nyasa
According to BodhGSS 2.13.13-16, just before the image is carried into
the shrine, its parts are to be touched in the following manner:
atha upajuhoti idmr! vicakrarne iti
ptidayos spr§et II 3/ punas tenaiviijytihutrr juhuyiit nu kam Iti
niibhide.se spr.fet /14/ punas tenaivtijytihutfr juhuytil alo devti avantu
ifi murdhni sp!Jet /15/ plmas tenalvtijyahutrr juhuyad arha
sarvtiligal'!l sprser siikterza /16/
Reciting the (TA, III,12) he should offer oblations of
clarified butter; (reciting the verse), 'idarp vi cakrame', etc.
(TS, I,2,13,e) he should touch both feet (of the image), Again he
should offer oblations with that (same hymn; reciting the verse),
'vi$lJor nu kam', etc. (TS, 1,2, 13,i) he should touch the place of the
navel (of the image). Again he should offer oblations with that (same
hymn; reciting the verse), 'ato deva avantu etc, 1,22,16) he
should touch the head of the image. Again he should offer oblations
with the (same hymn, and) he should then touch the whole body (of
the image), reciting the (Harting 1922: 29-30)
According to VaikhGS 4.1] [64.,9-10] touching of parts of the image is
done after the image has been installed:
bimbasya mrirdhni ntibhau pade ca suvaI' bhuvar bhilr iti hrdaye pra·
','laVW?,1 vinyasya
He places on the head of the image, in its navel and in its feet .. ,
and saying successively: ... ,into its heart the
syllable Om, (Caland 1929: 1] 7)
In the description of the AsvGPS briefly refers to the ritual
act of touching parts oUhe image.
In this connection G, Colas remarks, 'although the VSS [Valkhdna-
sasmartasutra] does not elaborate on this act, this obviously corresponds
to the practice of nyiisa often described in the Tantri.c and Agamic texts,
sometimes applied to an image, sometimes to the body of the performer'.
Regarding the first case where the is used, he refers to
vidh 3.30, which describes the imposition of the different stanzas of the
23 AivGPS 4.6 [1 78.3] sims)' urasi 'then having
touched the image on its head, on its breast and on its feef; 4,7 [178,19-20] atha devo'?l
sp!'!f!va tarmwyo bhiitva, 'now having touched the god and having become one made of
him'; 4.7 [J 78,20] praf,luveniiriganyiisal?l krw{i, 'after having done the of the
syllable 0t!1 on its body'; 4.7 [178,26] devarfl SQJ?lsp!',fya, 'after having
touched the god on his feet. on his navel and on his head'.
110 From Material to Ddty
each on a differenl part of the hody',2'1 and regarding the
nyasa itself, he refers to A. Padoux's articlle 'Contribution al'etude du
Mantrasastra n, nyc7slI: I'impositioll ritucllc des mamm: Bulletin de
I'Ecole Frallfaise LXVII, PI'. 59-102 (Coltls I! 994: 518
with note 2).
A. Padoux, in his article just mentioned, remarks: 'Le mot.lui-meme,
d' ailleurs, dans ce seils technique, nc sc rencontre guere
aux reuvres agamiques et purul)iqucs, deja lantrisces, nl! clans des t,extes
bouddhiques anciens. Des impositions sont ccpendant prcscrites dans des
ouvrages rituels rel1ativemcnt anciens, marques d'hindoui,sme sans doute,
mais dont I'esprit n'est pourHmt nullement tmltrique', and refers to Bodh-
GSS 2. I8 and 4.7 (Pacloux 1980: 60). BodllGSS 2.18.1 1283,5-14], in the
description of the bathing and worship of Rudra, prescribes how to put
various deities on the parts of the body of the performer, beginning with
iitmani sthiipayet prajanane brahmii li..I,thaw I piidllyor ti$-
!hatu I 'he should put the deillies on his body by saying "Let Bnthma stay
in the organ of generation, let stay in the feet" .... and ending with
sarve,yv sarva cleva/a ymhas/Illi/lalrl ti.. Ilna'?l 'Let
all the deities stay in all. parts of the body properly, let they protect me'.
Thus, we already have in the texts belonging to the level
several ex.amples of ritual acts that correspond to the 'nmtricacts ofnyasa.
Besides these passages we cun mention four more from the
texts of this level. They are, first, AgnGS 2.4.11 [73,] 74,5], where it is
stipulated in the description of the ravikalpa how to place, the verb used
being nyas, eight epithets of the Sun in the eight petals of a lotus flower
drawn on the ritual ground. The second is Miin::}S, which pre-
scribes the nyiisa of Rudra's nu:mtras on different parts of the body of
the performer (Gonda 1980c: 77)., and the third is !-/irG5{S 1.2.11 [14,23-
15,13], which also likewise prescribes the nyiisa of mantras dedicated to
Rudra. Fourth, in describing the 1.5 [142,25-
28] prescribes the anganyiisa of the gayatrf verse. Further, Y,rddhahilrf-
] [202,21-203,4] prescribes the nyiisa of the twelve names of
beginning with Kesava..
24 See also Gonda 198Q,c: 461.
25 See Dlwrma.(lislmm/Tlgmha, cd. Pandil JTvlmmda Vidyus:igara. CalcuU8. 1876.
Vol. I. pp. 194-241.
26 These lIrc Kcs<lva. Narayal)a. Madhava. Govinda, Yilil)U. Mlldl1uslildana. Trivikrama.
Yamana, Sri'dhara. Hrli'ikdu, Padmaniibha. and Damodtlru. In the pm/j.yrl,li ceremony both
BodhGSS 2. 13.35 and VaikhGS 4.11 [64.5-6] niinma .\:a}ywrl CW'lu?1julw-
yilt allude to these twelve names. They urc discussed by many scholnrs (e.g. Gonda I 972b:
Notes on the Installation Ceremonies
.---------- -
As regards the nyiisa that appears in several PUdil)tas, P.v. Kane says:
'the item of nyasa was taken over from Uintrika works in the PuriltJ:las for
the rites of the orthodox people', and refers to the following PuralJas:
Garu(laP 1.26. 31,32; NiiradaP 2.57.13-14; BhiigavatapuriifJa 6.8; Brah-
mapuriif}a 60.35-40; KiilikiiP 53.36, 77; PadmaP 6.79.17-30, 6.85.26;
MatsyaP 266.29; Devfbhiigavatapuriif}a 7.40.6-8,11.7.26-38, 11.16.76-
91 (Kane V: 1122). In discussing the Tantric influence upon the Puram:tas,
R.C. Hazra mentions the practice of nylisa as an element of Tantne origin
(Hazra 1940: 260-62).27 The Tantric influence was so strong that the Bha-
Padm.a, and Matsya PuriifJas describe the nyiisa of various epithets
of deities on different parts of the body of the performer even in the annual
rites and festivals which otherweise do not contain any Tantric elements.
It is intereshng to note that BodhGSS 4.7.5, i.e. the second passage
that A. Padoux quotes from this text as an early example of touching dif-
ferent parts of the body of the performer, prescribes, in the context of the
iicarnanavidhi, by which fingers one should touch different parts of the
body. It runs as fonows:
samupasprset /
bhyan.1 tu niisike tu srotre
yamiibhyiif!l tu bliha caturmigulfbhir hrdayam nlibhi'?1
sarvair miirdhiinalfl samupasprfet
He should touch his eyes by the ring finger and thumb, his nostrils by
the forefinger and thumb, his ears by the thumb and little finger, his
arms by the thumb and middle finger, his heart by four fingers, his
nave] by the thumb, and he should touch his head by all fingers.
The same prescription is also laid down by several texts belonging
to the level, such as VaikhGS 1.2 [2,14-3,3]; HirGSS 1.3
23, Krick 1977: 87-88, Colas 1994: 515). According to them, among the earlier Hindu
texts. they are enumerated in the following passages: VaikhGS 3.13 [44.16-18]; AgnGS
2.5.7 [85, BodhGSS 1.1l.7 =HirGSS 1.3.15 [34,26-28]; {'?gvidh 3.27.1-4; BaudhDhS; Mbh 13, Appendix I. No. 12,5-27.
21 For the mentions of the MyQSa in the PuraJ:1as see Index. s.v. nyiisa of R.C. Hazra's
Studies in Ihe Records on Hindu Rites and CU,ftoms, and Studies il'l the Upapuriil)Qs,
vols. I and It
28 In the descriptions of the Ii/Mvra/as we can find the l1yiisa, e.g. in the following
passages: Bhavi.rY(lP 4.13.74cd-76ab, 25.18-22ab. 26.11-14.45-50,27.5-12,31.35. 34.3cd-
Sab. 37.43-45a. 75.9-11. 83.21cd-24ab, 44-45ab. 55-57ab. 69-71a, 82cd-84, 91-93ab. 99-
100. 107-108ab, 113-14, 123, 128. 84.7-12ab. 85.6-lOab, 86.9-11 ab, 97.5-8ab, 106.36cd-
40, 108.20-26ab, 109.6-17. 111.35-38, 147,45cd-49ab. 206.8-13ab; PadmaP 1.7.16-18ao,
2L27-32ab, 22.73-76. 109-15, 23.23cd-26, 25.7-15, 26.8-13ab. 29.19-29ab. 6.35.5Icd-
54ab. 36.12ab, 78.17-29. 225.45-47; MarsyaP 7.16-18ab, 54.9-20ab, 57.8-13ab.
62.11-14, 63.4-1 lab, 64.4-10. 69.22b-25ab, 70.35-J8ab. 81.6-11. 95.9-14ab. 99.6-9.
112 From Mataiallo Deity
[2,7-12]; A.(:vGPS 1.2 H41..21-24], and KurPd 1':.1.5-7. Several Dharma
texts also prescribe the touchilng of pmls of the body after sipping wa-
ter simply by indicating the parIs to l")c touched. such as GaulDhS 1
ApDhS; HirDhS 1.5.7; 62.8; ManuSm 2.53. 60; Yajiia-
Sm 1.20ab; and Mbh ]4, Appendix I, no. 4, 1532-35.
Thus, it seems that the touching of different purts of the body after
sipping water has become an custom. In the Srautasutras we
can find severa.learlier exampl,es of this custom. They appear always in
the same context: the Brahman priest, after having eaten the prliSitra
portion and sipped water, touches several pm1s of the body which are
indicated in the mantra used. The mantra is TS 5.5.9.g:
vt'l,l ma asdn priil}(} .6'()tral'?1 b£11mv6r
·balam aruw5r6j6 v(§vany allgiini tawls tamtvii me saha namas
te astu ma ma hiqlSflJ
May speech be mine in the mouth, breath in the nostrils, sight in
the eyes, hearing in the ears, might in the arms, force in the thighs,
may all my members be uninjured; may thy bodly be with my body;
homage to thee; harm me not. (Keith 1914: 448)
See also BharSS 3.18.1-2. ApSS 3.20.1-3. 2.8.30-32, VClikh-
SS 7.1 [69,7-9]. ManSS VrJrSS and VoitS 3.13-14.
ParGS 1.3.25 prescribes the similar usc of the corresponding mantra in
the madhuparka. According ot GobhGS 1.2.6-9, JaimGS 1.1 11,14-15],
VaikhGS J.2 [3,5-11], PlirGSPS 1410,12-19.1 the touching of different
parts of the body is required after sipping water to the accompaniment of
different mantras, of which that used in VaikhGS clearly shows the deities
related to these palls of the body and this view is repeated in P£7rGSPS
[410,12-19]. There are also other cases in which the touching of parts
of the body is prescribed; see, e.g. SiillkhSS 4.] 1.6, ManGS 1.1.18-24,
, .•... I 29
1.9.25, BodhGSS5.41391,IO-18].
In most of these cases, mantras that arc used in these actions do not
expli.citly indicate the deities. It may therefore be diffi.cuh to sec in them
the precedents of thelat,er rite of assignment of deities to different parts
of the body. As I have remarked just above, however, the mantra that is
used in VaikhGS 1.2 definitely shows the relationship between the deities
and parts of the body. The mantra is composed as foHows:
prfl:uifu 'Let the moon act kindly'. This is lIscdhl wiping of the
29 Compare also the use ofnhe lIumlra beginning with ,fifO tile e.g. in 19.10.2.
30 At the end of the prescription of this wiping of the different parts of the body nhere
is given an alternative opinion that one should louch (s",.lali) them.

mouth. The parts of the body to be wiped are, then, the head, the eyes, the
ears, the nostrils, the arms, the heart, and the nave], and the deities who
are brought into relation with them are Mahesvara., Aditya and Soma, the
directions, Vayu, Indra, and Agni respectively. The prescription of
PiirGSPS [4] 0,12-16] is constructed as follows: yan mukham upasprsa-
ty agnis rena prrfJiiti, 'By that one touches the mouth Agni acts kindly'.
The correspondence between the parts of the body and the deities are as
follows: the nostrils and Yayu, the eyes and the sun, the ears and the dir-
ections, the navel and Brahma, the heart and Paramatman, the head and
Rudra, the arms and
The ritual action of touching different parts of the body to the ac-
companiment of mantras has been widely prevalent from the time of the
Srauta rituals onward. This action may be performed with a view to mak-
ing the part of the body touched to function perlectly. When the deities
come to be involved in order to effect the same purpose, as is clear in the
cases just mentioned, the basic underlying concept seems to be not far
from that on which the ritual action of nyasa is built. Thus, I would like
to see the direct precedent of the nyiisa in the ritual action of touching
different parts of the body, especially on the occasion of the ritual action
of sipping water.
NOles 011 the Installation Ceremonies 113
" .
" -
in the Saiva Agamas
The Agamic Saiva tradition is by far the most important among the vari-
ous Saiva traditions. For purposes of this study I use 'Agamic Saiva'
for those sects which are based on Saiva Agamas. In current day Western
terminology, this corresponds to the Saivasiddhanta and the Kashmir
' .. 1 .
The earliest Saiva Agamas began to be composed around the seventh
century AD and the composition of the oldest parts of the earliest Agamas
(Kiral.'la, SvayambhuvQ, Raurava) must have been completed around the
eighth century.
But many of the Agamas which deal with pratio$!hii cannot be dated
so early. Most of them may be dated around the tenth and the eleventh
centuries and some Agamas which describe very complex rituals may be
dated post-twelfth century.
10 this article, I first propose to give a general scheme of
according to the Rauraviigama, and then with a view to reconstructing the
development of the ritual, examine the early Agamas.
I For the evidence that the two traditions are offshoots of one basic Ag.amic tradition,
see my article J. Takashima, 'History of Early Saiva mathas- 8th to 13th Century'. JJASAS,
no. I, 41-59, in Japanese (I 989).
2 Svayam!JhuvQ and Raurava are commented upon by Sadyojyotis (alias Khetapala).
Khe\apala is quoted by Somfumnda (Sivadmi 3.13-4 and 3.64-65ab) who in turn mighl be
dated around the lale ninth century. The same Somananda mentions Kirat:/Q in his Sivadr:f!i
(3.16ab), so Kir£It:/Q is earlier than the ninth century yet it must be dated a little later than
3 I think that Agamic instruction concerning the structure of temples and organization
of temple rituals do 1101 preceed actual temples but follow the real development So, the
Ajiliigama, for example, must be later than the eleventh century expansion of big Saiva
116 From-Material to Deity
1 LiJiga according to the Rauravagalna
I have chosen Raurava's description as a representative of the
ritual, because it represents just a middle way situation. Though its doc-
trinal part (vidya pada) should be dated before the eighth century, the
contents of its kriyii ptida are neither so developed nor so primitive that it
may be dated around the tenth century AD,4
One peculiarity must be noted in the description of prati.rrhti in the
Raurava. It has two portions which describe that ritual. The first consists
of Chapters 27 and 28 entitled balalingasthapanavidhi and lingasthtipa.
navidhi respectively. The second consists of Chapter 30 entitled
The title of Chapter 30 indicates that its subject is a linga
constructed in the open air, such as on a river bank or cremation ground.
But, in reality, after brief description of these sites (up to vers,e 12), it
treats a regular temple without the ritual of the biilaliilga.
The balaliliga, literally a'chiJId-li'iga', is small sized and' is used for
worship either while the temple is being constructed or is being repaired.
This ritual element is not to be found in most of the A.gamas, at least
during the construction of the temple. My hypothesis is that the original'
prati-r.thii section was Chapter 30, and Chapters 27 and 28 are the later
additions based on Chapter 3D, reflecting the architectural enlargement of
temple construction.
So, the following description will be based mainly on the ritual pro-
cess of Chapters 27 and 28, but related material1s from Chapter 30 will
also be used.
1.1 Synopsis of the rituals
In the Raurava, such items as the selection of the temple site, selection
of the stone for the liliga, etc., are not treated. It simply begins with the
principal ritual procedures.
]. Installation of biiJalinga
(a) Necessity of balali/iga (27.1-4)
4 Architectural parts (para/as 39·42) might be stillialer.
5 It is clear from 30.38cd (lif1sw!1 prlHildamadllye lU kilicid r.fiil1am (j.fritam) that the
rituals described between 30.13 and the end of the chapter concern the construction of a
temple (pra.fada).
6 For the details of these rituals, see M.-L. Barazer-Billorct. 'L'inSlallati,on des liriga et
images dans les temples scion les agamas siva'ites', Bulle/in des Elude,l' Indiennes, Vois. 11-
12, 39-69 (1993-94).
Prati.;I'!hii in the Saiva Agamas
It is staled that the construction of the principal (mula) temple
without hiilalinga brings about death (27.3b),
(b) Temporary temple for biilalinga (27.S-8ab)
A temporary temple for biiJalinga (here caHed must
be constructed in the east or north-east of the primary temple.
Its dimension is three, four, or five hastas
wide, in the form
of a square, with an antechamber (agramal,'l(iapa) of the same
or three-fourths dimension of it Its height should be the same,
three-fourths or half the width. Made of clay or bricks, and
with grass-roof, it is a very simple structure,. but has a door with
(c) Size and substance of blilalinga (27.8cd-12ab)
As for the size of the temporary linga, it can be one of the fol-
lowing nine: 7,9, I I, 13, 15, 17, 19,21,23 angulas,8 These
must correspond to the nine sizes of the primary Zinga given in
Chapter 28. The Linga is made of wood or stone and the pqha
of wood or plaster.
(d) Ritual hut (mW1(1apa) (27.l2cd-15)
The size of the ritual hut is not mentioned, It should have four
doors and four lorafJas, decorated with kusa grass and flowers,
and a high banner. Its central part forms an altar, with a sub-
altar on it. It has eight fire pits around it in eight
directions from the east to north-east.
(e) Adhiviisa (27.16-25)
After completing paryagnikarar,ta
and pUfJyiiha,JO and making
a sthm,u)ila (ritual surface made with rice) [on the altar], the
ticiirya worships Siva with five brahmamantras.
Then he anoints the liliga with (musk), sprinkles water
with aghoramantra, 12 He wipes the lbiga with paficagavya and
1 One hcwa is the Icngth from elbow to the tip of middle finger. about 50 em.
One wigu/a is thc width of a finger, and 1124 of one hasta, about 2 em.
9 Sec Raumva 15.27, This reference must be understood as the end of entire fire
preparing ritual (agnikiiryavi(lhi).
10 The ritual. speech act of proclaiming 'auspicious day.'
II The five brahmmnantras are the mantras symbolising the five faces of Sadasiva:
Isiina, Aghora, Vamadeva and Sadyojata.. This worship of Siva at the beginning
of rituals is also the ritual act of transforming the guru into Siva incarnate, because any outer
worship (hahiryaga) is preceded by an illller worship (antaryiiga). The teacher must have
the conviction 'I am Siva' to perform such a ritual. See, for example, Sf IV pp, 1141-16
(verses 120-25).
12 The text has ghommanrra, but it is very common that aghora becomes ghora fol'
metric reason. Tile Ilormal form is: Hunl Aglwra-hrdayaya NamafJ.
]18 From Material to Deity
kusa grass by hrdaya mantra. I] Then he wraps the lbiga with
cloth, etc., and lays it down on the ritual bed, with its head dir-
ected eastward and face turned upward. To the side of the head,
a pot for Siva is p.laced. The pot is filled with scented water,
and five kinds of jewels. North of this is placed the pot for the
Goddess 14 and around these two pots are placed eight pots for
the eight Vidyesvaras.
The liciirya shows the padma mud-
and the liJiga !nudril
? to the pots. Then he meditates upon
Siva, Goddess and Vidyesvaras in the respective pots and wor-
ships them in respective order. The saiva brahmans recite the
four Vedas in the four cardinal directions, and mantras such as
paiicabranma, fiva-miga, 18 etc., in the fOUf
mediate directions.
(f) Homa (27.26-29)
The iiciirya executes ] 1 lwmas for the six miga-manrras and
five brahma-mantras, with different oblations each a hundred
times. Then he also performs homas to vyiihrti,20 and sprinkles
water. For the purification of ritual instmments, he performs
25 homas to each by mantra. Finally, he performs
piinJ-iihutPI with kavaca mantra.
(g) Vastuhoma (27.30-33)
The viistuhoma for the propitiation of the deity of the site is con-
ducted to the east of the temple. A of olle hasta width
13 The normal form is: Om !-Jar!1 Hrdayiiya But in this case, only hc7r!I, Ihe bija
of hrdaya, may be used. cr. SF m, p. 30. note 56.
14 This pOlis called vardllanf. For the possibility of the notion of laktj imposing over
that of weapon (astra). see SP II, p. 72, note 2.
15 The eight Vidyc§varas are the powers of Siva who act directly in the impure
world. They are: AnanIa, Sivaltama, Ekanetra, Ekarudra. Trimurti, Sriht:l!h<\ lind
16 See PL. I-I I in SP I.
17 See PL. 1-19 in SP 1. This imitates the Ii,iga in the yom'.
18 Mantras symbolizing five (without "etm) or six 'limbs' of Siva, "rdaya (heart),
(head), likhii (topknot), kavacll (armor), astra (weapon) and "etra (eyes).
19 '01[1 ii", chi/'(l k.yurikii,l·traya plwf.' This form is suggested by the editor based all a
study of the present day practice, as Rauralla. kriya pada, 1.15 mentions only the first three
20 Bhiir. bhu'lIar, svar.
21 Piir'Jiihuri, 'a plenary oblation' is an oblation of a ladleflll of ghec offered into the
fire while the practitioner is medilating thai his soul becomes olle wilh the oblatioll and is
offered to the fire which is one with God. See Tantraloka. xv. 424cd-43I for the meaning of
this rimal.
in the Saiva Agamas
is made of clay and there deities from Brahma to
are worshipped by their respective mantras and flowers,
etc. This is followed by seven homas to each deity, and a
purt:liihuti and paryagnikarat:lQ'.
(h) Next morning rituals (27.34-36)
After spending the night in wake, at sunrise the master first
bathes with water and ashes, and then performs sakalfkarafJa.23
He then proceeds with the worship of the linga, the pot and the
fire. Next he perfoms homa by jaya, abhyiitiina, and
bhrt.24 At this moment, the yajamana pays tribute to the iiciir-
ya, the astronomer (daivajna) and the assistants (adhyetr) with
ample honoraria.
(i) Installation of the temporary Linga (27.37-46ab)
In the garbhagrha, after declaring put:lyiiha and sprinkling
water, the master deposits gold in the middle of the while
reciting the After worshipping the pf!ha with
inc,ense, etc., he performs the nyfisa of silrzhfisana on it He
must clearly visualize the iisana beginning with the anantiisana
and ending with yogiisana.
On this iisana visualized upon the pf!ha, he installs the linga
while reciting the sadyojiita-mantra. The pots which had earlier
been placed on the vedikii are brought in front of the linga, the
master should worship them with flowers, etc. He anoints the
head of the linga with ghee to the accompaniment of the hrdaya-
mantra. [God, His Consort and the eight Vidyesvaras have been
residing in the pots after the adhivasa ritual in their mantric
forms] the master extracts God from the pot meditating upon
the mUla-mantra, and places Him in the centre of the linga with
Gaun, in her mantric form, is similarly taken out from the
vardhanf pot, and placed to the left of the pf{ha. The eight Vi-
dyesvaras are also extracted from their pots and placed on the
outer circle of the p(tha. Then the master performs the abhif,eka
22 For the list of these 53 gods to be worshipped as deities of the site, see j§a.ltasivagu.
rudevapaddhati. kriya paaa, 27.1-34.
23 Ritual placing of mantras on the hand and body. See Brunner Soma.iambhupaddhati,
vol. I. Appendix I (pp. 323-25).
24 These are Vedic mantras. S,ee Caland's note 7 to VaikhGS 1.16-18 on p. 31.
25 For the construction of the throne of Siva according to the Raurav.a, see kriya pada,
120 From Material to Deity
of the linga with the water of the main pot and the five brahma·
mantras and Also Gaun's is performed
with gaurf-gtiyatrf
at the pf!ha and the eight
with their respective mantras. Encircling deities should also
be worshi.pped as described in the section on arcana.
0) Visarjana (27.51-53)
Once the temple ,is constructed, the temporary linga should be
freed from the divine presence and consigned to the fire (in the
case of wooden one) or thrown into the sea. If the temporary
one is , however, continued to he used as the main linga, it will
only lead to the disaster of the kingdom.
2. Installation of the primary linga
(a) Size and proportion (28.3-13ab)
The size of the Zinga is classified into three categories each con-
taining three degrees: the best 9, 8 and 7 hastas, the middle 6,
5 and 4 hastas, the lowest 3, 2 and 1 hastas. The garbhagrha
should he constructed in nine sizes according to the nine sizes
of the linga. The size of the linga is defined according to the
status of the donor (the biggest three sizes are reserved for the
brahmins and kings, and so on).
The three parts of the linga, starting from bottom are named
brahma, and rsvara, and are rectangular, octagonal and
circular respectively. If the" three parts are equal in length, the
liliga is caHed samakha1J.fla. The vardhamlina type has its three
parts in the proportion 9/24,8124 and 7/24 in length starting
from the top. The siviidhika (augmented siva) type's proportion
is 6116, 5116 and 5/16 from the top. The svastika type's is 4/9,
3/9 and 2/9 from the top.
(b) Rounding the top part of the linga
(28. Bcd-14)
The top part of the linga must be rounded. The width of the
linga is one-fourth of its height. The shape which is formed
26 This mantra is not g.iven in Raurava. lianaiivfJgurudevapaddhali. kriya paM; 56.
gives, if my interpretation iscorre,ct, 'subhaglJyai vidmnhe kllmamtitinyai dhimnhi Ian
no gauri pracodayllt' (yoi of subhagayai can be understood as t'Jftnd t to have the normal
gayalrf metre [lowe tile information that such metric construction is frequent in Vedic texts
to Prof. Hideaki Nakatani)).
27 J(riya p,ada, 10tlil palata.
28 The process of rounding the t0f! of the Uriga is technicaHy known as sirovartana.
Aocording to the lfiina/ivagurudevapatldhati, kriYl1 pl1da. 37.72:-83, sirovartana is clas-
sified tn five types: the parasol (challra)·shaped, the cucumber (Irapu,fa).shaped,. the eg!
the half-moon (ardhendu)-shllped and the bubble (budbuda);Shaped.
29 Simply interpret.ed, this passage may mean 'the height of the rounded part is two-
thirds of the width'. However, this shape is too protruded to be caIled'half-moon' and also .
the iianaJivagurudevapaddhati. kriya plida, 37.81 says that ardhacandra type has the height
of one-third of the width. So I propose to interpret the phrase as 'drawing a circle from the
centre top of the tinga with a radius equal to the two-thirds of the width', thus one can obtain
two crossing points with the outer lines of the linga which determine the lower limit of the
rounded part
. 30 The word uddhiira can be tran!>lated simply as 'tracing'. However, I think there isa
notion that this tracing is an extraction of the potentially existing form from the .stone.
with the length equal to the two-thirds of the Ihiga's width,29 is
called ardhacandra (half-moon); this type is tit for aUjatis..
(c) Extraction of features (28.1S-22ab)
The ritual called (extraction
of features) con-
sists of ritually drawing-tracing the sculpted lines-the lines
which represent the shape of the glans of the unga. Two vertical
lines are traced in the front of the unga. Their length is 9/]6 of
the height ·of the upper f1vara part of the linga, called 'piijii-
part', and are separated with a distance of 1/24 of the same
measure. Starting from near the tops of the vertical lines, two
lines, one on either side, are traced sloping down until they
reach a distance of 2/16 of the height of the puja-part; they
should be in a horizontal plane so as to meet each
other at the back and make one encircling line. A curv,ed line
should be traced to unite the two tops of the central two vertical
lines. The teacher traces these lines with a golden pen dipped
in ghee, etc. As this ritual corresponds to the eye-opening ritual
for the statues, the teacher 'shows' a cow with her calf to the
linga. Also, brahmins and the assembly of people are shown to
the liliga while reciting different mantras.
(d) Purification of the linga (28.22cd-23)
The linga is polished with water fortified by the astramantra,
ash and paiicagavya, etc.
(e) Adhlviisa of wat,er (28.24-26)
First, the lbiga and tbe pi1Jflikii, fully decorated as they should
be, are taken to the pradak#fJa of the village. Then, they are
immersed in the water kept in the ritual hut. This is carried out
for one, two or three nights.
(f) (28.27-33)
The ritual hut for the adhiviisa is constructed in front of the
temple. Its form is rectangular, with sixteen poles. The space
between poles is 2 to 7 hastas. The hut is divided into nine
in the Salva Agamas
122 From Material to Deity
equal sized squares and the centre square is made into the ritual
altar (vedikii). It is made of red clay and is ] hasta high. A sub-
altar (upavedikii) is also constructed; its height is 5
Around the altar 5 are constructed
in different directions: a square-shaped one to the east, one half-
moon shaped to the south, one round shaped to the west, one tri-
angle shaped to the north and one lotus shaped to the north-east.
The iiciirya prepares these fire-pits accompanied by necessary
Then, he proclaims pU/:zyliha and sprinkles water.
(g) Pit for bathing (28.34-35)
In the northern part of the ritual hut, an elevated pit for bathing
should be constructed. It should be square-shaped and should
measure one hasta in width with three mekhaliis.
(h) Adhiviisa (28.36-41)
On a board placed on the bathing pit, the li/lga taken out of
the water is placed. It is bathed as described above (28.22cd-
23), and then worshipped. A protective string (pmrisara) is tied
around the neck of the lil1ga and clothes are put on.
On the vedikii, a rit'.ml area (sthalJr;lila), filled with eight
bucketfuls of grains of rice, is prepared.. Inside this area an
eight-petaled lotus is drawn with rice and the lotus is decor-
ated with flowers and grains. Over this lotus, a bed is prepared
with separate layers of a skin, feathers, wool, cotton and silk.
After worshipping this bed, the linga is laid on it with its head
pointing eastward and the face downward. His covered with a
red cloth and worshipped.
(i) Setting of the pots (28.42-44)
In front of the head of the lbiga, a pot for the worship of Siva
is placed, with a pot for the Goddess in the north and eight pots
for the Vidyesvaras around them.. All the pots are filled with
31 In the mahorsava rite, a sub-allar is used to perform rituals relating 10 the 8 mmigaltu
(a mirror, a bull. etc.. see 18.78-80). BUllhcre is no description of the usc of sub-altar in the
32 All the rituals which lI'ansfOl"m the rimal fire to be identical wHh Siva arc described
in Chapter 15.
33 Mekhalii is a technical term which denotes encircling parts ('bell' or 'girdle') of II fire
pit. the form of which resembles stairs stepping down from the top with two or three steps.
See, Einoa [I], 3, and also Planche viii of SP l.ln Chapter 30. the bathing is performed on II
mana- vedi (30.1Scd and 18cd).
34 See Bnmner's n. 105 in SP IV, pp. 32-34 quoting Suprahheda.
3S Here. only Ihe lbiga is described, but in fact. the pil.1flikii is also set with the lirlga.
Pratinhii in the Saiva Agamas
perfumed water andjewels and gold, covered with a white cloth,
decorated with kula grass and bound by white strings.
0) Dhyiina of Sadasiva
The iiciirya performs the nyiisa of the miilamantra upon the pot
for Siva, then practises the dhyiina of Siva as follows:
He whose form is five-headed and five-faced, ten-armed and one
body; who holds in the right set of hands a trUiila, a hatchet, a
sword, a vajra and fire, and in the left. a rope, a goad, a snake,
a bell and abhaya[mudra] (the pose of the hand with the palm
exposed and the fingers pointing upwards). He has a reddish
complexion and is besmeared with ashes and with a crescent
moon on the topknot, etc.
(k) Dhyiina of ManonmanI (28.51-54)
In the vardhanl pot for the Goddess, the dhyiina of Manonmani
is as follows:
She with three eyes and four arms, who in her right hands has
a lotus and vamda[mudrii] (the hand pose with the palm ex-
posed and with the fingers pointing downwards), left hands with
a conch-shell and abhaya[mudrii], beautifuBy decorated with a
thrice-bended stance (tribhaflga), looking sideways towards the
(I) Dhyiina of VidyeSvaras (28.55-57)
From east to north-east, the Vidy,esvaras from Ananta to SikhaQ-
C;iin are meditated upon: with three eyes and four arms, vara-
da and abhaya gestures, hatchet and triiala, and looking at the
The iicarya worships them till the offering of food. In the
four cardinal directions, Vedas ar,e recited, and in the four
intermediate directions, brahmamantras and allgamantras are
(m) Homa (28.58-61)
The homas are performed successively: for 5 brahmamantras
and 6 angamantras should be given oblations such as wood,
ghee, caru, parched barley, ground wheat, pulse, sesame,
mustard seed, beans, cane-sugar, bananas, each respectively
100 oblations. Another 100 oblations with Siva's mulamantra
is performed. At the end, a homa with the 50 alphabets is per-
formed and then the linga is sprinkled with water. The aclirya
and the assistants thus pass the night with recitation, etc..
124 From Material to Deity
(n) PurTJiihuti (28.62-64)
At dawn the next day, the iicifrya and his assistants should take
twofold bath with· water a.nd ash, applying sakalrkarafJa on
themselves, and the iicilrya should worship the linga, the
pots and the fire with hrdayamantra. Then he performs homa
by jaya, abhyiitlina, and Also, ten homas with ghee
by brahmiingamantra and vidyiingamantra
are practiced.
FinaUly a purlJtlhuti with agne
is performed.
(0) Veneration of the iicarya (28.65)
At this point, the donor should worship the iiciirya with cows,
land, gold., etc. Also, the munipas and the astrologer should be
(p) Bringing the linga to the garbhagrha (28.66-67)
At the auspicious time, the linga should be lifted up from the
altar and decorated with ornaments. It is then led to the pra-
of the temple. At the entrance to the garbhagrha
the head of the lbiga is anointed with ghee and the linga is
brought into tbe garbhagrha.
(q) Installation of the foundation stones (28.68)
In the centre but slightly to the north-east of the garbhagrha,
the foundation stone (iidhiirasilli) is laid.
(r) Depositting of jewels, etc. (28.69-70ab)
Nine kinds ofjewels, medicinal substances, and seeds are placed
in the holes of the foundation stone.
Thereafter the foundation
stone is duly worshipped.
(s) Installation of the Unga 71)
At an auspicious time, the lbiga is set up facing the entrance.
The base of the litlga is fixed firmly with nandyiivarta stones
and then the is placed over the linga.
(t) Forms of the pf!ha (28.72-81)
The pf!ha can be made of stone, bricks and mortar, or of mixed
materials (upper part is made of stone and lower part is made'of
bricks and mortar). The one made of stone offers liberation, the
one made of a mixture of materials offers both liberation and
36 The mention of vldyailgamanll'Q indicates Ihal the rituals concerning the pifko are
performed at the same time.
37 This mantra is found in Agnive.(yagrhya,filll'a 2.5.3 (81.12]; 4 [82.20].
311 See 30..41-46 for the details of the things put in the foundation slolle.
39 Four rectangular stones which fix the four facies of br:ahma part of the Ii/tgo.
in the Satva Agamas 125
enjoyment, and the mortar one enjoyment. Two forms of pf{ha,
padmapf!ha and bhadrapf!M,. are defined.
(u) Purification of the linga and the pf!ha (28.82)
The Linga and the pf{ha are puri tied with the astramantra, then
pU1J.yaha, and sniina are performed.
(v) with the water of the pots (28.83-89ab)
After the around the temple, the pots are set in front
of the Linga as was done in the ritual hut. The Siva in the bata-
liliga is transferred to the central pot, and he is worshipped
together with Manonmani and the eight Vidyesvaras in their re-
spective pqts. The iico.rya takes out the bUa of Siva from the
central pot, and meditating upon him places the miilamantra
in the centre of the Linga with the hrd-mantra. The goddess
Manonmanl is taken from the vardhani pot and placed to
the left of God in the linga. The eight Vidyesvaras are placed
around Siva and the goddess, taken from the eight Vidyesvaras'
pots. Then each deity thus placed is anointed with the water
from their respective pots.
Thereupon the surrounding deities and (bali-
pf!ha) are installed.
And normal pujo. beginning from asana
and ending with tambala is performed.
(w) The merit of (28.89cd-90)
If one accomplishes the installation of linga with respect and
in accordance with the ritual rules, he and his relatives up· to
21 generations
obta'in liberation in the Sivaloka.
From the above description of the prati$,hii rituals. two of them ap-
pear to be essential acts of 'divinization' of the material stone linga: one
the adhiviisa and the other the abhi$eka.
40 Those two figure in the Rauravagama's edition, pp. 7 and 28-9 foldouts.
41 See palala 33
42 Kulaikavif71J(a should be interpreted as 10 generations before and after him,
ing himself: eval1l prayu;ijano dafa pl1rvan dasdpariJn atmanal1l caikavi'l'liati'?1 panklitrJ ca
punati (BodhGSS 404.18). As for other similar expressions in Saiva texts, JiUina§ambhu's
comm.entary to the .Sivapujastava cites a passa.ge as from laUa pujapa!alante
- 'evaf71 kurute martya iitmarthal1l ca parqrthakam I kulaikav;,p,sam .uddhrtya -fivaloke
mahiyatt' iti (p. 94 of the Devakottai edition, 1935). The commentary
to the PtlSupatasutra cites a text in praise of ash-besmearing: ya/) snanam iicaren niryam
iigneyal1l I 14ddhrtya sa gaechel par:amal'fl galim II (p. 30, l.
1·2). Fol' othel' references. see note 18 of S. Eilloo 'Notes on the Inauguration Ceremony of
a Water Reservoir' in Kimura Kiyotaka Hakase Kanreki Kinen Ronshu (Volume in HOllour
of Professor Kiyotaka Kimura on. his Sixtieth Birthday): East Asian Buddhism: Its Genesis
and Development, Shun.jusha, Tokyo 2002, PI'. 718·703.
126 From Material to Deity
2 in Early Ag.amas
the rituals as described in the Rauravtigama are rather
simple compared with those in the later texts, they represent a stage of
development where a synthesis of various elements is achieved through
I would now like to look into some of the oldest salva scriptures to
discern various elements which contributed to this development.
2.1 Malanga
The Matar'lgapiiramesvariigama, an uptigama to the Parametvara. is one
of the rare Agamas that has all the four ptidas which theoretically are
essential of all the Agamas. This text is commented upon by
who can be dated approximately to the second half of the
tenth century. Also. Abhinavagupta cites MatQ1iga several times and refers
in one place to a commentary of Matmiga by a certain Aniruddha.
it can be assumed that the Matanga's text existed in its present form before
the first half of the tenth century. As its four ptida construction suggests
its relative lateness,44 it might be situated sometime in the ninth century.
Lingasthiipana is described in Chapter 13 of the kriyiipiida. The first
two slokas of this chapter are signi ficant.
sarvamantradau '[bigasya sthapana'!1 subham /
yasmin sa'!1nihita};t siddhi1!/ yacchaty aninditiim //1
bhagavan paramefano mantriis
varapradii};t 1/2
kriyii-piida. 13.1-2)
It is auspicious to install lhiga for aU the mantras etc. The Highest
God who is present in it gives complete siddhi quickly. The Lord
and the mantras with their unfailing saktis give grace to the sadhaka
intent upon the worship of the nature of mantras.
43 Tantfa/oka 13.293cd-294ab.
44 See the argument of Goodall in D. Goodall. BhanG Commentary on
the Kjra1;latanrra, no. 86.1 in Publications du Deparlement d'lndologie, (1998)
45 ] translate here 'svariipa' as 'the nature of mantras' because the Highest God Himself
is represented by the form of a mantra.
in the Saiva Agamas
This shows very clearly that the installation of the Jinga is intended for the
who pursues his personal accomplishment, and not the temple
worship by the public.
I skip verses 3 to 9ab as these merely describe how to select the stone
for the Linga and adhiviisa to obtain it.
Then verses 9cd to 11 ab specify that the U/iga with a size of 3 hastas
is the best one and that the shape of the linga is the normal three parti-
tioned form (square at the base, octagonal in the middle and round at the
top). The indication of the size shows that in the time of the Matmiga,
no bigger lingas wer,e envisaged. The description of the shape indicates
that the three partitioned form was well established. The earliest textual
indication of this form is found in the Brhatsa".lhitii (57.53), which may
be dated around the sixth century. Archeological evi,dences suggest that
in the Gupta period the mukhaUliga form with a round top and a square
base was the most prevalent.
Verse 23cd/24ab
says that the form of the pilJfl.ikii is square. As the
form of the pilJ(1ikii in the later texts is normally round shaped, this in-
dicates an earHer stage of development in which liflga-yoni representaion
was not so common.
The temple should be located in a forest (v.26) and its size should
be 9 hastas with a door to the west (v.27). This stipulation that a temple
should be constructed in a forest indicates that such a temple is not meant
for the public but is in fact a private temple for the siidhaka.
Verses 28 to 33ab describe the adhiviisa and of the
Uliga to be performed in a mm;u;iapa furnished with a malJfl.ala.
The most appropiate time for the installation of the Linga is the spring
equinox (v.33cd). A turtle made of gold should be placed under the found-
ation stone (brahmasilii) and various jewels, various metals and medicinal
herbs must be deposited around the turtle (v.34-36ab).
46 In the Agamic Saivism the initiates are c1assifiicd in four categories: the sGI7U1yin
who has received the samaya dfk.yii and qualified to study the teachings. the putraka who
has received Ihe nirvii'.lCl df/qti and whose liberation at the moment of dealh is assured, the
iiciirya who has received the acarya abhifeka and qualified to teach and to give and
finally the Jiillhaka. This last one has received the siidhakaabhi!jeka and qualified to practice
various rituals including especially man/ric practices to obtain supernatural powers. See H.
Brunner, 'Le sadhaka, personnage oublie du du Sud', lA. pp. 411-43 (1975).
47 See, for example, Vidya Prakash, Khajuraho; A. Study in the Cultural Conditions of
Chandella Society, repro 1982, Bombay: Taraporeva.la's (1967), p. 136, 1.
48 In tile verses skipped, verses 18-19 indicate that the concern of the text is for libera-
128 From Material to Deity
The linga should be instaUed in the centre, and the pir,u;iikii should be
placed over it (v.36cd-41 ab).
Verse 41cd says that 'the siidhaka should give dak#lJii to the ii/pins
as much as he can'. This clearly shows that the yajamana of thisinstaU-
alion is the siidhaka himself, which means that this section describes the
installation of the linga for the siidhaka's private use and not for public
2.2 KiraIJ.a
The Kiral)iigama has sections on pratinhiiin its caryiipiJ.da (pa!ala 21-
27),49 and because of its fairly simple description it may be dated a little
earlier than the Raurava. As there exists a palm-leaf manuscript dated
Nepal Samvat 44 (=AD 924),50 we have here a sure ante quem date for
this Agama.
The twenty-first pa!ala is introduc'ed by the last verse of the preceding
chapter on guruvrata:
khyiitam etat samlisena vidhiniJ sadhakasya tu /I (20AOcd)
mantrasiddhis tu tasyiipi litigaparigrahiit /I (20.40 112)
This [guruvrata] was explained concisely, However, for the siidha-
ka the realization in mantras can be obtained expeditiously by duly
appropriating a linga.
In response to Garuc;la's query as to why is /inga called thus, Siva's initial
reply is:
laYQrp gacchanti bhutan; saqthiire I
tena Ungam iti prokta111 sil!qmqtvallingam ucyate 1/ (21.2)
With the end of the World aU the things go (Jgam) into dissolution
(laya from verbal root lin, bence, it is called linga, and by its
ness too it is called Unga (sign).
Thereafter the various forms ofavyaktaUnga are described, The size
of the liliga is classified from I to 9 hastas
For the sadhaka there are instant lingas (k#pralinga) made of
dungs (gomaya), flour (21.52) or other substances meant for
various purposes such as health, prosperity or mukti.
Verse 21.61 says that there is no restriction concerning the size or the
form of a /inga born by itself (svliyambhuva), made by ",is or made by
49 It is only Kiraf}a and Mrgendra which have sections on in caryaplida. Also
Siddhiintasariivali describes pralillhii in its, caryapllda.
so Cf. Goodall (1998), p. Ixxxiv
---.------.---.. ----------.--.--..
51 Yogapradli can be interpreted as 'giving success in yoga'.
52 Perhaps was a bulb·]ikeelevation at the centre of the pitha as its literal
meaning suggests, Cf. pil){likii madhyadeii syat karmapmhavad unnatil,z (Kiilottara cited in
Jlianar:atnlivali (T.231 ) cited in H, Bnmner-Lachaux, Somaiambhupaddhati, rituels dans: La
tradition sivai'te selon Sornaiambhu, partie, rituels optionnels: no. 25.4
in Publications du D,epartement d'Indologie, Pondichtry (998), p.. 213 [3,St])
which in later texts is the uppermost part ofthe pftha. should.
according to this text, be situated in its yoni. and is made of red substances
(PiIJflikli syat svayonisthii kiIrya raktaiS ca dhlitubhi/J, 24ab). This passage
might indicate that piIJflikiI was originally something different from its
current form.
Lingas made by gods should be recognized by their forms: for ex-
ample, an aind,a linga has a parasol like shape and it gives sovereignty
over the Earth to the siidhaka (21.62-3).
The twenty-second palata (69 verses) deals with vyakta-lbigas, i.e.
normal divine statues.
The twenty-third palata (24. H2 verses) deals with vyakta-avyakta
litigas, commonly known as mukhalitiga, or Ibiga with faces. The mukha-
linga described here should have three or fOUf fac,es., the east face is that
of Bhadresvara with three eyes, the southern one a fearlun face like a
black mole (tilaktilaka), the western and northern faces are harsh but with
youthfuU ardour (23. 10).
The latter half of this chapter is devoted to the description of pf!ha.
The pitha's size is of the same length as the linga (23.12). The eight forms
of the pf!ha are described in verses 18-24.
Bhadrti is of a square shape with two mekhallis, and gives yoga
19cd and 22ab).
YaIr is with three mekhaltis and gives cows and buffaloes (23.20ab
and 22ab).
Vajrf is hexagonal (hexagram?) and gives long life (23.20ab and
TrikofJli is of a triangular shape and is meant for the destruction of
enemies (23.20cd and 23cd).
(or vedl) is of a round shape like the full Moon and
provides wealth and grain and 23ab).
Padma is lotus-shaped and yields happiness (23.21 ab and 22cd).
Ardhacandra is bow-shaped and offers sons (23.21cd and.23ab).
is with two mekhalas and is suitable for aU sort of desires
(23.2lcd and 23cd).
in the Salva Agamas
130 From Material to Deity
The last verse of this chapter says that pi:[has are to be installed in a
temple (prasada) and not in a house (mandira).
The twenty-fourth chapter deals with the places whkh are fit for
the construction of temples, the method of removing inconvenient things
(Salya) from the site, vlistupiijii, etc.
The twenty-fifth chapter deal's with the features of a temple. II sug-
gests a temple plan with a garbhagrha and a prlikiira; its square ground
plan is divided into sixteen equal squares, in which the central four parts
constitute the garbhagrha, with a fikhara, which is twice the height of the
wall, standing over it (25.2-3).
The garbhagrha's size is specified to be two and half times (or twice)
that of the Linga (25.10). Hence, say for a li/1ga of 6 hastas, the size of
the prasada ought to be 24 or 30 hastas. In other words, the size of the
supposed temple size is not very big.
The rest of the chapter describes different types of .fikhara and the
orientation of a temple in a lawn or a village, etc.
The twenty-sixth chapter treats the prati,y!hii proper. The stone for
the Linga is brought in the northern part of the temple and carved into a
linga in the first mar,z!apa,53 and lak.yal.la is engraved on it by a whetstone
Verses 4cd to 8 lay down the qualifications of the officiating teacher.
Verses 9 to 24 describe four ways of drawing lak:'ia'Ja.
In front of the temple a maIJ,tapa for the adhiviisa is erected (26.25).
It is nine or eleven hastas wide and furnished with banners of lokapiilas
(26.26ab). It has four entrances with a torar,za in each of the fouf directions
A pot containing Cal)Qika and eight pots with Siva's mUrlis begi:nning
with Ananta are made and brought into the mal.1!apa accompanied by song
and music (26.28cd-30). Then the ritual of offeril1gfire (agnikarya) is per-
formed by the teacher with miirtipas (26.31 ab). Those mUrtipas. whose
number may be four or sixteen depending upon the affordability, should
be grhasthas (26.3 kd-32ab). They should preferably be sadhakas or pu·
trakas, but if such persons are not available, then samayin or Brahmans
with bhakti to Siva may act in their place (26.32cd-33ab).
On the third day or even later,54 on an astrologically auspicious day.
homas with (pafica- )brahma-mantrasare performed starting from the east,
53 Rilual hut; malJ¢apa and ma'!rapa are interchangeable words.
54 This means perhaps that in the normal case, the first day is meant for lak,rm;lOddhara
and [he second day for agnikarya followed by adhivasa proper (wake) in the night.
in the Saiva Agamas
and in the mid-directions homas with miitrkiis are performed (26.33cd-
Near the head of the Linga the teacher performs the homa to Siva
(26.35cd). Then the touching of the Linga with kusa grass is perfonned
After the homa, the Linga is placed in an upright position, and is then
covered with red doth (26.37cd). To the accompaniment of musk, the
Linga is taken out of the mar;!apa with the aghora (bahurupa) mantra and
is brought through the door (of the temple) with the sadyojiita mantra
(26.. 38).
The linga is placed and worshipped with the vamadevamantra by the
murtipas who take their positions around it and by the teacher with the
mantra of the Lord (26.39-40ab),
Then, eight kinds of jewels are deposited from the east to the north-
east (26.42).55 Various minerals,56 grains
and herbs also are deposited
(26.43A5ab). In the centre, a tortoise made of gold is instaHed (26.45cd).
Also weapons beginning with vajra should be deposited (26.46cd).
In the centre, the nyiisa of the (iidhiira) sakEi is performed slowly
Then the Linga is placed in the vedi (perhaps the pf!ha without the
pjlJtJikti), and the vedi (perhaps the ph7-tJika) is placed over the lil'zga with
the matrkii (mantra) (26.47cd).59
To the linga. the nyiisa of the Fifth (brahmamantra) is performed,
and in the north-east of the plfha that of the sakti (26.48ab).
In a pot which is conceived as though it was a linga, the teacher per-
forms and transfers its powers to the linga.
The nyasa of
the five ailgas are performed on the Linga (26.51cd-52).
Thereafter, the 'invoking' (iiviihana) rituals are performed with the
hrd[mantra] , and 'placing' the god again [into the Linga] with the. sadyo-
Hila mantra, etc., the teacher worships Siva. Then he performs puja with
food, etc., and recites the japa (26.53-54ab).
55 Where to deposit is indicated in 26.40cd-41 (the garbhagrha 's side length is divided
by four and in one [1116] part). butlhe description is not clear.
56 Tala (orpiment), etc.
57 Yava (barley), etc.
5R This must mean materially the brahmasila, in which adhiirasakti-rnantra is depos-
ited. The word 'slowly' (sanaiM indicates that the material depositing is meant here.
59 Or, simply the nyiisa of miitrka is performed on the vedi. In that case, the lbiga is
placed in the pf!ha which was installed beforehand.
60 This may be done with the pouring of the water, though them is no explicit mention
(sakalfkrtya ({Jcchakrifll tmrasthiifll vinivelayet),
! I
I .
i ,
I !
: ' i
132 From Material to Deity
]t is obligatory to perform the japa and pilja everyday (26.54cd). In
such a country where the japa and pl7ja are performed there will be no
food shortage, no calamity, no thief, the king will attain victory and wives
will bear many children (26.55).
Different kinds of worship using eight kinds of arghycl water (wa-
ter, milk, kusa tip, rice, wheat (suman{t), sesame, barlley, mustard) and
respective mantras should be offered (26.56cd-58ab).
After these pujas, the puja to the teacher with appropriate gifts should
be performed (26.58cd).
The twenty-seventh chapter, which ends the kriyii-pada, describes the
statue of a bull and the replacement of an old lhiga UfnJoddhtira).
For Chapters 21 to 27 which I have described briefly earlier, I propose
to distinguish at least three layers of the text. As swted in the introductory
verse to Chapter 21 (20.40 1/2), the oldest layer should have been devoted
to lingaparigraka,
This can be attested to by the passage 26.54cd, which states the
necessity of everyday japa and pujii. This mention of japa
reflects a
passage of 20.9cd (sthiine krtvti japal} krtvii lbigaparigraham
'establishing in (a lonely) place, after appropriating a lillga, japa should
be practi ced'), 62
To this stage of lingaparigmha, is added a second layer describing
a simple form of lilrga installation rituals. This installationii; for the
sadhaka's or guru's personal use, as the description of different fruits
for different shapes of the (23.12-23) suggests.
The third and final layer added to the text should be those portions
concerning temple construction rituals, which I have only mentioned in
2.3 Sviiyambhu1l'a
The printed edition of the Svayambhuva does not have a section on prati-
But it has a passage which describes liligaparigmha.
I quote
61 Piijii is for the public worship bUljapa is for personal practice,
62 Note that Chapler 20 concerns the guru's personal vrafa (gums ,\wlrthm!1 vratmrl.
20.1 b),
63 I regret thai I could not consult the lmnscript T. 39 of IF!, which has chaplers on
prali.,\:!ha, BUI, Goodall, in his note IlIon page xlix. indicates that those chapters noL
contained in the 23 chapters of the printed edition are probably an intcrpohllion of laler
64 Pages of pril1tfd edition,
65 The text qUOIcdis a,s it is printed (with word-separation added),
and translate fuJI text as the printed edition is not easily accessible:
dine I
sampiljya devadeveSatrl kurytit lirigaparigraham //13
sthiipita'?J pilrvaf(! I
iisrayet siddhidalfllingaf(! svayarrl vii parikalpitam 1114
kflita1?1 varjayet I
uparyupari lingaii ca l11.ukhalhiganl tathaiva ca 1/15
athavti lak{ialJair yuktatfl stha1Jflila'?J parikalpayet I
'pi hi mantriit}iirr siddhir iisu pravartate In 6
pasclinmukharrz liligam abhiive priinmukharrz smrtam I
yiimyakauberavaktraf?1 tu na siddhtiv i,yyate If] 7
parigrhyepsital?l lingal?1. lingakalpoditalfl Jubham I
piljayet satatal?1 niantrf marvti deham astisvatam 1/18
toyabudbudasarrzkiisa/?1 divyai.fvairyavivarjitam I
purrzslirn iti matvli sarna'?'l vrajet If] 9
gajaviijirathastrflJiil?1 na sprhet tu kadacana /
bandhahetaval:z //20
etad rupam adharmasya yat sprhet siidhakalJ striyam I
tasmiic citta,?1 manau sthtipya cared vai vidhicoditam //21
yady /
mantrair tik!$ya bhufijfta na bhastrf.f ca sprser /122
tlibhis saha ramet tlivat yadi pfflital:z I
dehapiito bhaved yiivat tato nirvlilJam rcchati 1/23
api I
svalpiim api matil?l mantrfna kuryad aupasargikfm //24
priidur bhavanti siddhasya sarvarthii virn.allisvayam
tasmlit SarVa1?l parityajya mantrasiddhiparo bhavet 1/25
(Sviiyambhuvasutrasarrr-graha 21.13-25)69
On a day with a good and omen, with purified body, wor-
shipping the Highest God, he
should perform the appropriating of
a tinga (lHzgaparigraha).
in the Saiva Agamas 133
66 Read
67 Read ciib(llti{l.
611 Read vimalas svayam.
69 ed. by (Mysore. 1937).
Chapter 21 is entitled ·priiya.fcitta-para1a', as the last part treats that subject. But in fact.
Ihis chapter describes mainly vm/a.l: for iiciiryas and sadhakas (athiiciiryavra/GI?l
21.1a). .
70 The concerned person is a siidhaka or a deJika, as is written in verse 21.6cd
ca deiikas sadhakas latlta), and paraphrased later as mantra-practitioner
134 From Material to Deity
He should have recourse to a liliga which was founded earlier
by r.yis and which has all necessary features to give success [i n
siidhaka's practice], or [if such a linga is unavailable thell he should
have recourse] to a linga made by himself. He should always
avoid those founded by demi-gods (vipra), Skanda, Indira
and Matrs. A mukhalhiga71 should also be avoided.
Alternatively, he should make a ritual surface (slha':lflila) with
necessary features, because accomplishments can be gained quickly
also with a sthafJflila.
The best [lifiga] is that which is westward-facing, and if that is
not available, the next best is eastward-fading. Those facing north or
south are not prescribed by the wise for accomplishment.
After having appropriated a desirable good n,iga as described in
on] the fabrication of iii/ga, the mantra-practiti!oner
should always worship it, meditating at the same time on the corrupt-
ible nature of the body. '(The body is) like a bubble, lacking divine
sovreignty, and the root of all sort. of pains of human beings', thus
thinking he should attain tranquility.
He should never long for elephants, horses, chariots and women.
(Women are) like shadow play, momentary and also the cause of
bondage. A stidhaka's longing for a woman is III sign of unright-
eousness. So, he should devote his mind on the mantra and perform
what is prescribed in the rule.
If given to the enjoyment of his senses, he should use mantras to
attract Naga, Gandharva and women and enjoy them, but he
should not touch feeble (abala) terrestrial women. He should enjoy
himself with these (celestial) women as long as he is given to the
enjoyment of his senses. When he dies, he can attain The
mantra-practitioner should not pay any attention to any temptation
like music or dance, etc. (Then) he will obtain all the pure objects
of a siddha in due course. So, he should discard all other things and
concentrate upon the perfection of the mantra.
These passages indicate the milieux of early Saivism, in which the
siidhaka was predominant.
Lingo. worship is described for the adept's personal accomplishment.
He can construct his own lingo. or he can use an existing one on the
71 This i.s an indication thai mukhalb'lga belongs to other traditions than the Agamic
Saiva (probably tile Pi§upata).
72 Or it may be a separate book.
in the Salva Agamas
tion that it is not contammated by lower deities. The linga is necessary in
support of the worship ora particular mantra (which may be a mantra of
Siva's particular aspect), and a can also serve the same purpose.
2.4 Mrgendra
The Mrgendriigama too does not have sections on the but has
passages on the (appropriating a place with a linga) in
the caryii pada.
The caryii piida of the Mrgendra is wen ordered: it describes general
activities of saivas, the two duties (drkfii and teaching) of acarya, duties
of putraka and samayin and finally the .riidhaka's way of tife.
After a general description of the daily rituals of the slidhaka and the
manner of seeking alms, the text describes the method of securing the
place for the practice of worshipping a selected mantra:
parigrhyiithavii saUingiidhikrtarrt vaset I
galJesaVNabhaskandamiitrloke!akflitam /I 94
mahiijanlikula1?1 1/95
sopadravaf!! ca sa1!1tyajya iicaret I
biifJe lilige svayal'!1vyakte II 96
svakalpoktena vidhinii svayal?1 vii parikalpite I
suklapak:r;e //97
kuryiit parigraha,?1 vidviin va I 98ab
Or (the stidhaka) should appropriate a place with a good linga
and live there. Avoiding those lingas founded by GaQesa,
Skanda, Matr and Lokesa; avoiding Siva's sanctuary with a gate
to the south or north, or already taken by some other [siidhaka],
frequented by many people, or far away from firewoods (samidh),
flowers, kula grass and water, or with fear of calamity, he should
perform the appropriating rituals on a linga called biilJalinga, or
spontaneously born finga, or a lbiga which was served formerly by
a muni or siddha. or made by the siidhaka himself according to
prescriptions defined in the siidhaka's own ritual treatise.
On the 14th or 8th tithi of the bright fortnight. preferably when
the sun is in the uttariiya1J.a, I.e. the period of the sun's progress to the
north, he, who knows, wen, should perform the appropriating ritual
with an attentive mind.
73 There is at fragment of the section on prati,Ylhii with two verses. See Appendix I of
printed edition.
136 From Material to Deity
I skip the verses 98cd-l 03 which describe how to protect the site by
mantric defences.
yan nasti tad durat sahiiyapahrtarr bhajet I
na siddhik\'Ietram utsrjya padam apy anyato vraJet //104
mantro homiic ea I
svaiiistravihitiirr vrttim iisthitasya prasiddhyati 11105
Those things which are not available on the site should be fetched
from far (outside) by an assistant; the siidhaka himself should not
walk out even a step olJtsilde leaving the site for accomplishment.
By the japa of hundred thousand times multiplied by the number of
syllables of the mantra and one-tenth of hama, the mantra will be
mastered by him who follows the rules defined in his school.
These passages are very close to those of Sviiyambhuva quoted above.
However, it is onl'y with reference to the siidhaka that the liligaparigraha
is stated.
3 Reconstruction of Dev,elopment of
3.1 Analysis of Four Agamas
From the above descriptions of the Matariga, SVliyam,bhuva and
Mrgendra, we can discern a few characteristic features of the in
the early phase of the development of Saivism.
The first point which becomes clear is that the Linga worship men-
tioned in these texts is not a public temple worship for the common be-
lievers, but rather a private worship for the adept (siidhaka or guru),
The SViiyambhuva and the Mrgendra do not tell us about the construc-
tion of temples, instead they describe how to appropriate an existing site
having a Linga for the accornpHshment of special rituals to help acquire
the power of mantras.
The Matanga has a section on the lingasthiipana, in which the temple
construction is described. But, from its content, it is clear that the temple
in this text is meant only for the personal use of a sadhaka who wants to
obtain the siddhis in mantra practices.
The description of in the KiraJ:la resembles that in the Rau·
raVG, and the temple plan with priikiira and sikhara represents a simple
form of a temple for the public. But the way Chapter 21 is introdced at the
end of Chapter 20 suggests that in an earlier version of the ther,c
was merely a description of IM.gaparigraha as in the SViiyambhuva or in
the Mrgendra.
in the .Saiva Agamas 137
In the arrangement of thes'e descriptions of the earliest Agamas from
simple to complex, the first stage is the lin.gaparigraha as in the Svayam-
bhuva and Mrgendra. The second stage is the sadhaka's personal temple
as in the Mata'lga and the third stage is the public temple as in the KirafJa.
Since the liligaparigraha presuposes a pre-existent lil1ga duly con-
structed a,ccording to the norms of the .Agamic tradition, either the
Matanga stage is historically an earlier or that a simpler fonn of
lifigasthiipana should have existed before the first stage but which
was lost in the earliest Agamas.
The first possibility seems less likely. The Matariga's well ordered
composition in four piidas appears to reflect a more developed stage of
Agarna redaction than the SViiyambhuva and the construction of a personal
temple must have been preceded by a much simpler Zinga installation.
Then should we say that the oldest and simplest form of linga instal-
lation description did exist but is now lost? The answer is both yes and no.
There should have been present an elementary oral tradition on the con-
struction of linga, but it appears that the teachers who wrote the earliest
A.gamas were not so keen to write about it.
In the later tradition, dflqii and have become the two
major tasks of the iiciirya, as isevid'ent, for example, from the Varu.,a-
paddhatP4 whkh deals with only these two subjects. However, in the
earlier phases, it was only the and the teaching which constituted
the main activities of the ticiirya as is written in the Mrgendra.
was in fact a concern of the sadhaka and not of the iiciirya.
As stated in the SViiyambhuvG, those rituals which a siidhaka per-
forms on the Linga can be also practised on the sthw,uJila. In case he wants
to use a liirga as the platform of his rituals, there are three possibilities: to
use a bii/Ja-iinga, to re-use a pre-existent linga, or to construct a lbiga by
The second' case is that of lingaparigraha which must have been a
common practice. If the belief in the efficacy of the naturally born linga
was as strong as it is now, it can well be understood why the svtiyambhuva
lbiga was preferred. And because the biilJa-lhigas are also naturally born
rounQ stones they can be regarded as more powerful than the artificial
stone hewn liliga.
74 T,835 of the French .Institute in Pondichery.
7S Biil.la.liilga.l' are speciaHy associated with the river Narmada (see. for example. Nara-
commentary to the Mrgendra piida, 1.96.). This may indicate the place
of origin of the Agamic Saiva. with the fact that the earliest k.nown ma!has of this tradition
are fOllnd in the ancient Kalachurl' realm. The legend relating biiT:la-liriga to the Asura BiiJJa
138 From Materiel! to Deity
For the re-use of man-made lhigas. the prohibition of the mukha-lin·
gas may suggest a rival relation with the Pusupata sect. We know from the
archeological evidence
that the Pasupatas preferred this form of linga.
Now let us examine the reason why the third option, which is the
construction by the siidhaka himself, was not preferred.
3.2 Lirigapiijii in the Tantriiloka
To understand better the stidhaka oriented situation of the early Agamic
Saiva tradition, I would now like to examine a text of the northern Saiva
tradition, viz., the Tantriiloka of Abhinavagupta.
I shall first translate a part of the chapter on the worship of the linga
(the 27th lihnika) of the Tantriiloka.
Now will the worship of the lhiga according to lhe Mtilinftantra be
told. (1) The mantras which are told in the upper tradition, these man·
tras should not be installed externaIIy, as these give siddhi by their
secret nature. (2) The mantras give siddhi as they are impregnated
with the power of penetration of their greatness of vigour and feli-
city, so their externality means the loss of their nature. (3)
And it is also said that Siva who is full of mutual penetration
is by nature an enjoyer, is full of desire for enjoyment, and if the
enjoyment is to be curtailed,. his nature turns violent (4) If his body is
installed [externally as statue, etc.], it becomes restless and its hunger
is increased. So, the person who has estabBshed it perishes if it is not
fed. (5)
This is told by the Highest God in the Jiiiinottara: (6ab) 'Siva is
fond of sacrifice.especia.lly when he is in the midst of the Miltrs. (6cd)
Therefore, the wise should never install the mantras belonging to the
secret scriptures in external [linga] forms. especially in statues'. (7)
So, the pratinhii for the dead told in other scriptures should not
feature in our scripture. However, common should be per-
formed. (8)
The putraka and the siidhaka should rely on a vyakta or avyakta
[lingaf7 until the accomplishment of identification [with the mantra]
and the desired fruit is achieved. (9) The putraka should depend upon
(Anantasambhu ad 147) might be considered as II later invention.
76 See, for example.I!.R. Bhandarkar, 'Mathura Pillar Inscription of Chandrllgupta n.
Gupta Era 61', Epigraphia Indica, Vol. 21, 1-9 (1931/32).
77 Jayaratha comments that by the prohibition of the exlernal solid prati\l"ha, movable
(eala) one should be instaHed.
in the Saiva Agamas 139
the guru [for the installation of a Linga], the slidhaka may instaH it on
his own provided he knows the way, otherwise he also should ask the
guru. (10)
The guru, in the fixmng (nirodha) phase of the ritual, should re-
quest the Lord, 'May you stay here, until the accomplishment of the
fruit or as long as this one is Hving.' (11)
The lingas may consist of btifJa-linga, jewel, peart flowers, rice,
cloth, or fragrant powder. But a linga fashioned by artisans from
stone should not be constructed. Metal made lingas,. except those
made of gold, shouId be avomded. (12-13)
As for the size of the linga, no restriction is imposed, as it gives
6uit by the radiance of the great power of mantra. (14) For the Linga
also, the purification should be done according to the rituals stipulated
for sthaJp;lila. (15ab)
The mantra should be worshipped in the same way. The nirodha
shouId be performed as we have just said. (15cd) Then tarpalJa in the
fire and dak:filJii to the guru should be speciaHy abundant. (l6ab) The
rituals of satisfying the poor, etc., and a very elaborate sacrifice may
be added. (16cd)
Among aU the avyaktalitigas, the primary ones are those that are
not made by human hands. (17ab) Likewise, it is said in many places
in the scriptures concerning the manifestations of the Highest Lord
that in the ]satra, in the vessel, in the flag, in the cloth, in the
worshipped naturally born or in the [Lhiga] born by the
stream of a river, there is no calling up (iihviina), no meditation of
the form (ka/panii), no pfFha, no temple,78 no partition of .rnantra, no
[definite] time is stipulated. (17cd-19ab)
Or, the guru should install vyakta-lingas, in the form of a picture,
plastered statue, pine wood made, or made of gold, by good artisans
who have received dfk?ii rituaL (l9cd-20ab)
Alternatively,. he should lise a',skull bone
or skull-bone, made
vessel, which have necessary features such as fivefold lines, circle,
sala, lotus, etc. (20cd-21 ab)
(Tantraloka 27.1-21 ab)
A stone-made liriga once installed must be worshipped with appropri-
ate offerings everyday, otherwise God win be displeased and give harm to
78 Read prasada for prasada.
79 This item must have been favoured by Abhinavagupta, as its description occupies the
8 verses that follow.
140 From Material /0 Deity
the one who installed Him. So, unless an institutional system of worship
is assured by a temple patronized by a king or some one else, an ordinary
person is advised not to install such a /iliga.
The absolute necessity to continue with daily puja of the installed
linga was so evident that in the Agamasit is only mentioned in passing:
'he should performpujii daily' (pujayet pratyaha,?l halti/, Kirm,w 26.54d).
However, in the inscriptions, the kings insist that his donations of II and,
etc., to the temple he founded, should be continued forever.
In the chapter of the Soma.fam:hhupaddhati,
God is asked to stay as as the moon, the sun and stars exist (eandrar.
katiiraka,?1 yalJan l11.a'ntt:rdair saha 1/ svecehayailJa tvaya I1titha
sthiitavyam iha l11.andire 1 42cd-43ab). This should be contrasted with
the above statement of Abhinavagupta asking God to stay only 'until the
accomplishment of the fruilt or as long as lhi!s one is living'. Though
Abhinavagupta (c. 975-1023) appears on the scene much after the eariest
Agamas, his milieu was shill that of adepts seeking personal salvation and
not that of public temple worship.
The above passage of the Tantraloka also makes clear what is the
essential point in the ritual of the
It is the nirodha phase of normal worship in which the worshipper
pleads with God to continue to reside in the image until the fulfilment of
his vow or until the end of his life, instead of normal request of asking
Him to stay on until the end of the puja.
This is the simplest form of in the earliest phase of the de-
velopment of Saivism. It should also be noted that the material object
required for this installation could be of many types, such as the ako$a-
sutra, flag or skull-bone made vessel.
The which becomes prominent in the later phase
should have existed concurrently as ill non-tantric tradition, as a brahmanic
or popular architectural one, like the construction ceremony of a temple
described in the Puraf,las, etc. Tsuchiyama's essay in this volume gives
abundant evidence of this. It is possible that the element was
first introduced to the abhioFeka ritual of the aearya and then transposed to
the ritual.
These two currents, tantric and non-lantrk, must have come to form
an amalgamated ritual, when, as is seen in the Matanga, the sadhaka
gUlred sufficient wealth through rich patronage to be able to construct a
temple for personal use.
80 See, for example, 'Glirgi stolle inscription of Kokalladeva II' (Cll. Vol. 4, pp. 224-
33), verse 43.
For the word the following five definitions are often given:
prati$!hti, sthiipana, sthitasthiipana, utthiipana and iisthtipana.
In the
the liriga is first installed on the brahmasilii stone and then the
pf!ha is put over the linga; in the sthtipana the pre-existent liliga such
as is set on the pf!ha; in the sthitasthtipana the lbiga and the
pfrha are made from one stone or one metal and are inseparable; in the
utthiipana the old pre-existent Linga is removed first and replaced by a
new one; and in the tisthtipana it is the statues that are installed first and
all the rituals follow.
Among these, the first is considered to be the prat;§rhii
proper, because the sexual symbolism of the union of Siva with the God-
dess is manifest
However, this symbolism of sexual union expressed by the ritual of
the fourth day84 is scarcely visible in the early literature. The square form
of the pf!ha in the Matanga, contrary to the round form of the later period,
also suggests that the yon; symbolism of the pf!ha was not predominant in
the earlier stage.
As Siva is always considered as saktimat, and the adept visualizes
the presence of the sakti in the form of Siva's throne in every pujti, this
symbolism might have been always present in the minds of the adepts, but
it was not an essential part of the ritual.
The passage following the above quoted passage of the Tantraloka
sheds a light on the practice of Zinga worship of the slidhakas.
By the putraka or the sadhaka, when they have accomplished the fruit
of identifying onself with [the desired mantra], [the ritual support
on which the mantra was installed] should be transferred to another
[stidhaka], then to another. And for him also 3111 these rules aply.
When there is no one to transfer, then it should be thrown into deep
water after releasing [the mantra]. Thus, the ritual rules of the
for oneself is told by Siva. (Tantrtiloka 27.53-55ab)
in the Salva Aganias 141
I ;
!'I 1
1 i
81 These defin\tions appear only in ritual manuals and tile earliest one known is the
Somasambhupaddhati (Bnmner-Laehaux (1998), p. 3, n0te 4).
82 cr. Brunner-Lachaux (1998), pp..
83 For example, such a definition of prati.y!hti in the Soma.fambhupaddhati: pf!harrr
Jiva sa (prari.y!hii) (ibid. led).
84 In the later texts, on the fourl.1l day after the installation. a special homa is performed.
This can be compared to the founh day ceremony after the marriage.
85 Note that even in a lale literature such as Siddhantasaravali. which states that the
linga is Siya and the pr!ha is iakti, the linga is identified with jiiiinaiakti and the prIM with
kriyiisakti'(paradrkkriyiitmakatanub 143). See also SP IV, 3.39 and n. 99 on p. 220.
]42 From Materia.l to Deity
Thus, it is attested that an object on which a mm1tra was installed
was recommended to be transferred to anol:her siidhaka, rather than being
thrown into deep water. One reason for this must be the fear of the residual
power in such an object, which might still require due worship.
Another possible reason is that such an item which had once led to the
successful accomplishment of the desired siddhi is also considered suit-
able for another adept. Be that as it may, the practice of li,igaparigraha
described in the earlier Agarnas is in accordance with such attitudes. This
also supports. I think, my hypothesis t.hat the earliest stage of the p r a t i ~ ! h a
ritual is the lingaparigraha.
Consecration of Divine Images in a Temple
1 What is the Meaning of
The establishment of buildings, images., implements, etc., for effective
worship is said to be a pan-Indian phenomenon. In order to be used for
religious purposes, these objects need to be consecrated. This consecra-
tion ceremony is usually called and can be traced in many kinds
of works such as PuraJ;las and sectarian liturgical writ-
ings of Saivites and Saktas. The meaning of and its
use, mainly based on the Brahmal)a texts, are amply surveyed by Gonda
According to him. there are two different definitions. First this term
means 'to place a definite power in an object, to endow an object with
divine faculties, etc.'. By going through this process of 'consecration',
the nature of the images changes. They are no longer mere materials but
become endowed with life and supernatural powers. The second inter-
pretation is that the ceremony merely serves to enable the worshipper to
realize the presence of the divine power, the god's presence, in the image
so that it becomes an ·effectual means of contact between the divinity and
the worshipper. I
I See Smith 1984: 50-52,67-68, Colas 1986: 75 and Goudriaan 1965: l71, n. I,
on the terminology and tbe object of the prati\ffhii. Concern!ng the SP IV:
1. led [po 3] mentions that is the ceremony for unifying Siva's power and S,iva
himself by of the mantra of Siva; sakli/] .avo liilgatrr radyogaf:J sa
Bnmner-Lachaux says that the essential act of this ceremony is not the descent of Siva into
an image or material fixation of the linga into the pedestal but the unification of Siva and
Sakt.i, each by a object. Se,e 1998: vi. 10
AgmP 56.1. 100, thiS IS nothmg other than the union or the Supreme Bemg and
or his inlegral power. The former is represented 6y the image and the latter is by its
pedestal (pil)(iikii). On the olher hand, 38.3-41,3 Pancarfitra text, says that
the is performed to imbue the elemental images with the mantras (nive:fana'!l ca
mantriilJii'!l (lravyajiisv yal/).
144 From Material to Deity
According to Kane []I: 889-93], the construction of temples, wells,
etc., is included in piirtC'--dharma, which siidras, women, etc., arc allowed
to p,erform. In contrast, the men belonging to the upper three castes are
authorized to perform i,y!a-dharma or Vedic sacrifices. etc. The reward
for the sacrifices is only heaven, but by the parta one secures release
from transmigration (sQI'!1stira). So the religious act of constructing wells,
reservoirs of water, et.c., and dedicating them to the public has been re-
commended from ancient times, In this context, the term 'dedication'
indicates two Sanskrit words: (md utsarga. The former gener-
ally means dedicating to the public under prescribed rules, while the latter
means divesting oneself of ownership over a thing and dedicati.ngit for
the use of all. In the case of temples and images of deities. the proper
word to be used is and the word Utfwrga is usually employed for
the construction of ponds, lakes, trees, etc.
The pratif!hii ceremony is considered to belong to the kc7mya type.
becauscit is performed for the attainment of special rewards.
The re-
wards are an auspicious thing (bhiiga) on earth and heaven (svargo) in the
next world (BrhatS [Bhat cd.] 60.18cd). Nrsi/?1haP 32 enurnerates in de-
tail the rewards for building the temple of NarasiJ1lha, making his image.
consecrating it and worshipping it. In particular NrsirrrhaP 32.20 admires
the excellent reward of this ceremony. saying that through this ceremony
one will attain the world of and never fall from there.

2 Such a difference is not clearly kept. The two terms ofpmri.Yflul lind lJt.mrga are often
mingled each other. For instance. the Bhalii,ryaP uses the IeI'm prari\l'!hll for constructing a
water reservoir (jaUUaya) (2.2.17-21) and also for laying out a garden (iirtlmll) , planting
trees like aivattha. bUva, etc., building a sacrificial shed (mw:l(iapa), a big sucrHicial pole
(mahiiyiipa), and so on (2.3.1-17).
The term appears in SarlkhGS 5.3.1-5 (Kane II: 896), and Bhavi"'yaP;, while the term {lrcima-ut.mrga appcurs in AsvGPS 4,10 1180, 1-10]
(Kane II: 896). See also vrkfaprati;fthii in SP IV: chap. 14 Hnd
AgniP 70.1-8. vrkriiropa1:lavidhi in PadmaP 1.28.1·32; US; Mat.ryal> 59; HirGSS L7.3 ,[96,
22 - 98, 25J and vr1qaropal'}a in Vi.p'JudhP 3,297; PcldmaP 6.27.13-18; MauyaP 255.
In the case of a pond, etc., we find that both terms have been lIsed. The term ursarga ap-
pears as. tafJagadijaliisaya-utsargavidhlina in HirGSS 1.7.1 193, 17-26]. whi Ie the term of the
appears as vapfkupata(JagiiriimmieValayaraniintil!' pratinhapwramin Kane 11: 891.
n. 2072, kupaprati#hii in SP IV: chap. 13 and kiipavapftu(iagapra.
tif!OOSU visefavidhjvaf1;lana in Bhavi.,yaP 2.1.11 and l1aJinfviipfhmdaprmi"I'!hiividhivamana .
in Bho.vi¥yaP 2.3.5.
3 See Bnmner-Lachaux 1998: ii.
4 S,ee also Nrsil!lhaP 32.12-19, 21; 56,45cd-50.
2 Types of Prati!j!hii
3.115 also mentions that one will acquire aU kinds of enjoyment (kiima)
in this worM and attain the world of after death.
Not only the per-
former himself but also his family can enjoy the reward of this ceremony.
For example, AgniP 60.35ab has the passage that the consecrator leads his
famHy as weB as himself to the region of
Kane [II: 896-906] introduces several kinds of consecration
of an image in a temple reconsecration of images in
temples rehabHitating old or dilapidated temples, etc.
Ufn:lOddhlira), and founding of a monastery or a college for teachers and
pupils (ma!ha-pratif!hli).7
SP IV: 1.2-5 enumerates five kinds of sthiipana,
sthitasthlipana, utthiipana and iisthtipana.
First, in a narrow sense, is defined as unifying a linga with
the brahma-stone.
Next sthlipana is defined as making a linga penetrate
the pedestal in the correct way.IO Third, installation of a linga equipped
with the pedestal is caned sthitasthiipana.
The installation to be per-
formed after extraction of the liJiga is called utthiipana.
Last, the in-
staUation in which the purificatory rites (SQ'?1sktira) are performed by the
wise after having fixed a lbiga on the pedesta.1, is caned .iisthiipana.
145 Consecration of Divine Images in a Temple
5 See also JaytikhyaS 20.243b. 353-54; SatvataS 25.1-3ab; SiimbaP
6 See also VarlihaP 180.40; 181.37; 182.29; 183.34; 184.43. .
, See 1998: vii-viii for the list of different kinds of prati$!hii treated
in the SP: vi$lJ,u-sthapalla, dviiraJrita-pra·
(installation of divinities 81 the door). (installation of the vas,e
which is the heart of the temple). (installa-
tion of a crest. a standard-pol.e. a siandard and a temple).}frlJoddhiira-vidhi,
(consecration of a pond), (cons.ecration of a well), vrlqa-
prati.y,thii (consecration ora tree). See also Morl [6] 2.3 and 2.4. See SiilvataS 25.329-50 on
\he jir1)oddhara-vidhi.
Il See also 15.2 (sthapanii. asthapana, saf1'1Sthiipana., praslhiipanii and prati.
9 Yalra sa I (I.3ab).
III S,hiipanar!llU yathiiyogya,?1 pr,tha eva nivelanam /I (1.3cd).
II .l'thir.asthiipanam ucyate I (l.4ab).
12 UtthapanaJ?1 tu sa proktii II (l.4cd).
13 Yasyiim tu lirigam aropya kriyate I iisthiipana'!l lad uddina'?'l
paficadheyal?" §iv(7Sri!ii II (1.5).
146 From Material to Deity
The scope of this article is limited to the consecration of an image 14 in
a temple, based mainly on the texts by taking into consideration
the above-mentioned five kinds of
3 Framework of Pratisthii
In connection with the simplest scheme of the process of this ceremony,
Gonda [1975b: 372] mentions four principal stages: the saI'!lkalpa, i.e.
solemn declaration of purpose or intention, the homa or oblation offered
into the fire, the utsarga, i.e. the declaration that the object has been ded-
icat'ed, and lastly the or feeding the brahmins.
this scheme is too simple for LIS to know how this ceremony should be
The BrhatsaJ?lhitii composed by Varahamihira (AD 505-87) gives the
earliest explanation of this c,eremony in Chapter 60
(Bhat ed.). This text gives us dateable historical evidence of this cere-
mony.16 According to the text this ceremony has three elements.
14 In every temple we may find lin image of thc mllin deity phlccd inside the sanctum
sanctorum (garbhagrha) and another just in front of it The former. called muJa-vigmha. is
usually made of stone or mortar and the latter is metallic. Tim fonner is fixed to the spot and
cannot be removed. Hencc. it is called immovable (srhiivam). The metallic image is usually
ta.ken out in proc,ession whcnever necessary, and. hence, is called ulsava-vigmha a.nd also
movable Umigama I cata). Both of them are prepmed by artisans called Jilpins according
to the rules laid down in the Silpa§astras. The metallic images are broughlto the temple by
the mpins in an almost finished condition. Just before hamling them over to the lJmlkas for
this ceremony, the opening. of the eyes called nelrodghll/wlum is usunlly performed by the
iilpins. This is the last or the finishing touch. See Rangllchllri 1931: 114-15; Smith 1984:
On the other hand. ill the Vaikhiinasa sect. the image (pmtima. bimba 01' bera), whether it
may be dhruva, kautuka, bali or snapcma. .actually rcpresents who descends in
the iconic figure designed for the worship and the devotion (hllt/kli) lllld pl.llYS various roles
in the temple. The dhruva-bera or rnula-bera is considered to represent under the
stable (acala) and indivisible (ni.rka/C1) aspect. It is pcrmllnently fixed llod protected by three
coverings (avaraI,lCl). In front of it is erected the image for worship (kautukcl-bem), synonym
of the image for festival (utsava-bera). It represents the god under the aspect of having a
form (.wrupa), furnished with all the divisions (saluda) and movable (caltl). The bali-bera
is used at the bali-offering. The .snapana-bera as well liS the ul,wva-bera are used in tile
daily wors.hip. The first three images are accompanied by the images of Sri and Bhii, while
the last two, namely. the bali- and mapana-bera are deprived of Ihem. See Colas 1986:70-
75. Concerning the g,enerlll feature of the image, see Rno 1914, vol. I. 73-115 and
Banerjea 1956: 2641-77;. Bhattacharyya 1991.
15 See also Kane II: 892.
16 As Kane [II: 901] points out, VaikhGS 4. 10-15 seems to contain the clirlicstextant
detailed descriptioll of this ceremony. Gonda [1977b: 596] assumes that the date of this text
cannot be earlier than the fourth century AD. But as the exact date of the compilation of
the passage conceming this ceremony has not been.specified, it is impossible to say when
this ceremony began according 10 this work, nor is il possible for us to say so regarding
the literature such as Einoo [1] (p. 13) hypothesizes that those texts
except the AlvGPS were composed at the latest before the BrhatS, namely the end of the
fifth century AD. See Banerjea 1956: 36-107 concerning th.e study of the origin of images
and this ceremony.
17 bhiigavatiin ca sabhasmadvijiin I
miit!'nam apt vipriin vidur /
iakyan sarvahitasya siintamanaJ:o nagnliij jiniiniiJ?l vidur
ye yar!1 devam svavidhinii tasya karya kriya 1/
(BrhatS [Bhat ed.) 60.19)
18 3.96.l30-33ab mentions that an architect (sthapati) names ,each image.
The image of ends with his own name, that of the goddess ends with KeSava, that of
Brahmaends with niitha, that of Hara ends with Uvara, that of the Sun ends with mihim and
images of other deities end with their own names.
The first element is the appropriate time (60.20-21) and personnel for
the ceremony. BrhatS 60. ] 9 says that the worship of is regulated by
the Bhagavata brahmins; that of Siva by the Pasupata brahmins; that ofthe
Sun by the Saura brahmins (maga); and that of Buddha by the Buddhists
(1iikya).17 At the time of Varahamihira,. brahmins belonging to different
sects used to perform this ceremony in accordance with the difference of
the deities.
Further there are different participants in this ceremony-
the chief priest (sthiipaka), astrologers (daivajfia), brahmins, the members
of the assembly and an architect (sthapali) (l7b-d).
The second part of the ceremony isadhiviisana or the preliminary
rite, which consists of: (a) description of the sacrificial shed (adhiviisana-
mafJflapa) (60.1-3), (b) materials of the image and its bathing (4-9), (c)
laying the image on a bed (1ayya) and putting it to sleep (adhiviisya)
with accompanying sounds of musical instruments and chantings of Vedic
hymns 00-11,14-15), and (d) fire-ofleting (12-13).
The .third part of birnba-prati$fhii is the actual act of installing the
image in a temple, which includes: (e) carrying the image into the sanctum
sanctorum of the temple (]6), (0 offering bali-food and worshipping the
brahmins and members of the religious assembly (]7ab), (g) depositing
a piece of gold into the cavity of the pedestal (Pi1Jflikii-svabhra) (17c),
(h) instaUing the image on the pedestal (l7d), and 0) giving honorariums
to the chief priest, etc. (18ab).
2.3.18 describes the ceremony to be completed in ·a day
(ekahasiidhya-pratinhiividhi). This description is simple ,enough to show
the framework of this ceremony.
! :
! i
147 Consecration of Divine Images in a Temple
148 From Material to Deity
It further states that the poor can perform this kind of pratitqhii in the
Kali age and that the excellent tantrists (ttintrikottamaM can perform the
one-day adhivtisa (sadyo- 'dhiviisa) with ghee (2.3.18..1). The description
includes the following:
I. The time of performance and the enumeration of thirty-two different
names such as Narayal)a, etc. (2-3ab).
2. Worship of Gaf,l,esa, etc.,. and performance of the abhyudaya-(!riid-
dha) (3cd-4ab).
3. Feeding the brahmins (4cd).
4. Worship of stars, the guardians of all directiollsin each of the water
jars and worship of as well as his attendants placed on the
mound (sthaJ;t;iila) in the sacrificial shed (yiigagrha) (5).
5. The image of the principal god to be bathed with five kinds of water:
panciimrta, paficagavya, five balls of clay (paiica-mrt-piJ;fJaka), etc.
6. Infusement of air fire-offering (homa), dona-
tion of honorariums and a ladleful of oblation (pu":lahutl) (l0).
Smith [] 984:54-63] enumerates sixteen steps for the image instaU-
alion ceremony of the KapifijalasarrzhiUi, a late text of the Pancaratra·
The first step is the construction of maJ;flapa, a special shed to be
erected in front of the prasada-structure.
This step also involves se-
lecting personnel, determining the proper hour, performing miku,tirpa':lQ.
(presentation of young sproutsl
and ,expressing the due intention of per-
formance (sa1?'lkalpa). The second step, called jala:dhiviisQ (immersion in
the water), consists of 'opening the eyes of the image' (nayanonmrtana)
19 Precise references to chapters unci verSes of this prati.)·/ha ceremony in the PancarAtru
works can be found in Smith 1980: 64. Rangachllri f 1931: 114·34) reports the process of
this ceremony performed at Lakshmipuram near Kuppam in soulh India from II to 13 of
May in Ihe year 1927.
20 See Einoo [I] 2 on the feature of the mmxiapa.
21 This ritual has the function of promoting fel1ili.ty and cspcciully the successful exe-
cution of all kinds ofritu<ll acts. It was (and is) very common in south India and described in
many texts. See Goudriaan 1965: 167-68 and Gonda 1969a: 259-62. See also Gonda 1965a:
403-4 for a description of in the cakriibjama'J.¢ala dfk.,·{J. in the tradition or Sri'-
See also BadhGSS 4.18 p71·73j,; 5.2.11; HirGSS 1.3.7 [25, 13 - 26, 17], SkandaP (in the rathapmti\f!hilvidhi): 2.2.4 I.2cd (in the pu.yya.mano/savavrata).
As regards youllg sprouts of barley (yaviifikura), sec Hillcbcitel 1991: 53-78; Meyer 1998:
III; Biardeau 1988: 93- t 17; SivaP 4.12.34cd; NiiradaP 1.11' 0.31 ab; Devlbh'lgavataP
5.34.24cd. See also AVPS 5.2.5bc on sprouts of diirvii grass., and Gonda 1960: 327; AgniP
68.3-5al> on auspicious sprouts (marigalcilikura).

without mantras by the silpa-artisans, its immersion in water and laying
it down so as to repose it horizontally on a bed of grain (dhiinyadhivlisa).
These two rituals are perlormed on the first day.
On the'second day, the third step, snapana (ablution),commences.
The ablution of the image is done in a special shed set up for bathing
and includes the second nayanonmfla-rite with mantra.
Then the image after being duly is made to recline on a bed of
grain and cloths or skin. This fourth step is caHed sayaniidhivasa. The
fifth one is referred to as agnisarrrskara22 or consecration of the fire in or-
der to summon various mundane powers and cosmic elements. Here the
brahmins standing at the fire-pits in the cardinal directions recite the four
Vedas, so that the deities of the directions may be invoked. Pots of liquid
are also prepared. This step is followed by the sixth one caHed santiho-
ma (offering in the fire to appease the faults) and the seventh step called
briihmaIJ,abhojana (feeding the brahmins). The eighth step is sparsana
or offering in the fire while touching each part of the image. The pre-
ceptor anoints each part of the image with one of the liquids from the pots
prepared earlier. By doing so, each part of the image becomes the entry
point of jfva, prakrti, buddhi, ahayt1kiira, etc. It also includes the rites as
infusing breaths like priifJ,a, apiina, vyana, udana, samlina, etc., into the
image the pratisarabandha (tying of a thread),23 and
nre-offerings to ensure the just mentioned.
Early in the morning on the next day, the ninth step gehasuddhi (the
act of purifying the precincts of the temple with the mantras and sprink-
lings of water) is performed. The tenth step is ratnanyiisa which means
placing precious gems into the cavity atop the pedestal. The cavity is
considered a female and the gems, the male seeds. The eleventh step is
piirfJiihuti (offering of a ladleful of gheeinto the fire) to atone for any
faults. The image, taken from the sacrificial shed, is raised on to the ped-
estal and fixed onto it This is the twelfth step known as sfhapana (raising
the image). The thirteenth step is called In this the
preceptor goes to the biilageha (the temple constructed before the sacri-
ficial shed), takes the pot (kumbha) and pours its contents in
order to transfer the power contained in it to the image. Then, in the four-

Consecration of Divine Images in a Temple 149
22 Bhav(ryaP 1.136 describes the consecration to the fire in the following order:
garbhiidluma (I. I 36.30d), sfmanla (31 a), jiitakarmcm (31 c), nam(lkam1;la (32b), annaprii.
lana (32d), cu(lopakarman (33b), vralabandha (33d), samiivartana (34a) and patnfsa/?1Yo-
jana (34c). See AgniP 48; Narasil!lhaP 56.36-40; AgnGS 3.9.3; SP I: 4.16-21; JaylikhyaS
23 See Gonda 1980c: 323.
150 From Material to De.ity
teenth step, called mantranyiisa, he imbues the image with themiilaman·
tra,. etc. This is followed by the establishment of the peripheral divinities
(pariviira), which is the fifteenth step. The last step is or giving
honorariums to the priests.
The daily worship (nityarcana) commences only on the fourth day
after this ceremony is over. On this day one performs the ceremony to
be done on the fourth night of the marriage (caturthfkarman) between the
lord and hi s consort.
Next in the domain of the Vaikhanasas,25 Colas [1986] enumerates
the twenty-five phases of the great cons'ecration (mahiipratinhii) based on
the MarfcisQ'!1hitli.
Preparatory ritual: (l) arikurarpm:/.Q, (2) sa1?1hharahara(la (collection
of the sacrificial requisites).
The first day: (3) (opening of the eyes), (4) bimbasuddhi
or the ritual immersion of the image in the water Ualiidhiviisa), (5) agni.
manthana (producing of the sacrificial fire by friction), (6) vas.ruJuddhi
(purification of the sacrificit;tl ground), (7) agniprar:tayana (bringing the
fire into the fire-piO, (8) kumbhapiijana (worship of the pot), (9) kalasa-
snapana (ablution of the image, with the water from the fourteen. pots),
pratisambandha and sayaniistaraIJ-a (preparation of a bed), (10) saya.
nadhiviisa (laying the image on the bed), (11) vedadhyayana (recitation
of the Vedas) and sarvadeviircana (worship of every god), (] 2) hautra-
sarrsana (prais,e of the function of the hotr priest), (13) pradhiinahoma
(the principal offering in the tire).
The second day: (14) devasyotthiipana (raising the image) and snana
(bathing of the image), (15) ratnanyasa (disposition of jewels in the cavit-
ies on top of the pedestal), (16) dak#r:tlidiina (distribution of the honorari-
ums) and agnisQ1?1grahaf,la (transport of the fire), (17)
(circumambulation of the image around the temple), (18) caliicalasthii-
pana (erection of both a stable image and movable images) and rayor
Qviihana (invocation of the god into both the images), (19) anyadeviiniim
iiviihana (invocation of other deities).
Rituals after the proper instaUation: (20) pu,:/yiiha (proclamation of
the auspicious day), (21) nityiircana (daily worship),. (22) briihmar:ta-
bhojana (feeding of the brahmins), (23) utsava (a festival), (24) snlipana
(ablution onto the instaned image), (25) mahiihavirnivedana (offering the
great oblation).
24 Se,e Slaje [1997: 220, n. 60] for the references on this c:afurlhrkarman ritl.lalafter !he
2S See also Goudriaan 1965.
26 In AgniP 59.1 ab, the ritual of making Han approach the worship'Peris called adhi-
vasa: harelJ .rli'?'lnidhya-karal)am adhivasanam ucyat€ I. In Vi:jf)udhP 3. m0\, one mays the
image 011 the couch, .invokes the vinal br,eath 8.nd the venerable lord. Then the image is
wrapped in a pair of cloth. This is the main framework of this adhivilsana. Then this Purfu:1a'
mentions 'adhiviisite co bhagavati'. So the wordadhivasa means invoking the god nearby,
hI MatsyaP 264.24cd-25, the duration of mis ritual lasts one, thre,e, five or seven nights.
MatsyaP 265.51·52 adds one day (sadya) 10 those p,eriods. Here long nocturnal. festivals are
observed with dancing, music and auspicious songs (mangala) during the adhivasana. This
festive ceremony (adhivasa-utsava) is considered as begetting fruits to all sacrifices. If the
pratinha was performed without. this adhiviisana, one would not acquire its fruit (BhaviuaP Moreover, in MatsyaP 266.54cd-59ab, on each day during tile seven days of the
adhiviisa, the image is anointed with each of the various articles. If the adhiviisa takes one
day. all of thes,e articles are used at one time. See also 3.96.B3cd-40. VariihaP
180.12 mentions that during the adhMisa. all the pn,ests spend tile whole day and night only
by partaking barley and mme See Brunner 2000: 109.
There might be much similarity between the ceremony and the initiation cere-
mony. According to JayiikhyaS 20.145-47, one should perform the ritual of adhiviisa to an
image in the same way as that of an initiation (drk#i). Brunner mentions that. the precepto.r
directing the prati#lui ceremony is not a ctifferem persoll from the one who performs the
initiation ceremony (Brunner-Ladtaux 1998: x). It is one of his functions.
27 See note 146.
Comparing these four texts, we can derive the elements common to
them. They unanimously prescribe the detennination of the correct time,
selection of the personnel for the ceremony, erection of a special shed
(maIJ-tjapa) and the necessary rituals such as ablution of the image, the
to be performed therein. The ablution is, however, in some
cases performed in a special shed for its own use (snanama1J.(1apa). There-
after the image is laid horizontaHy on a bed to sleep over night. These
phases are all referred to by them as adhivasa or adhivasana.
morning, the image is raised and carried in a car to the sanctum sanc-
torum of the temple. It is then raised on the pedestal there after jewels
have been put into its cavity. Lastly, the priests beginning with the main
worshipper are fed and given the honorariums for the ceremony.
On the other hand the BrhatS shows a certain peculiarity in that there
are special elements which do not appear in the Br-hatS but they do in
the other three works. The BrhatS does not contain any referrance to
the immersion of the image in water (ialadhiviisa), the opening of the
eyes of the image (n.ayanonrnrlana) , and setting of the water jars in the
special shed (kalaiasthiipana).27 Therefore, the following ritual acts are
also unknown to the BrhatS; along with his power (Sakti) is invoked
in these jars so that the god's dynamic power is drawn into them. The
is then poured on to the image on tts installation. Lastly, the vital
air (priiIJ-a) or the root-mantra is infused into the..image.
, I.
Consecration ofDivine Images in a Temple
152 From Material to De.ity
4 The Process of the as prescribed
in the Garuflapurii1J.a
The process of this consecration ceremony can be seen in' severa)
I)ic texts, especially works, because the Saivite works under-
standably teach the consecration ceremony of Siva's linga.
Here we .
propose to restrict ourselves to those which describe the ceremony of
the divine image. The Pu(81)8 sections under discussion are: Garu!laP
1.48.1-101, AgniP 56-60, 61.2cd-7ab, 62,]-13, 66, 95-99,29 VifrJudhP
3.97-116,30 MatsyaP 264-267,31 NrsiJ?lhaP 56.19-45,32 D'el'iP 32.39'-46,
28 for instan.ce, see AsniP LitlgaP 2.47-48; SkandaP; SivaP See Baraz,er and SP IV on this oeremony as
seen in the scriptu.res of the Saivasiddhirlta. III the KtJ"likllgama of this sect, this ceremony
consists of twenty-two pha.ses; 1dravyasa'7lgr:aha':lQ, 2 bjmbanjrmlllJ,a, 3mar,tflapanirmill,Ul,
4 ratnanyasa, 5 nayanonmflana, 6 beraJuddhj, 7 8 jalavda, 9 ma'Xiapll·
lanl"ti, 10 vastuhoma, 11 sayydk/p:ti. 12 pratimlWhtlpana. 13kaululwbandha. 14 'ay,ana.ro·
ha"a. 15 kumbhastMpana, 16 ktlrya, 17 mllrtytJd.tvinylba, 18 homaklJrya, 19dalqj.".tJ,dtJna,
20 mantranyasa. 21 snapana, 22 arcana.
29 The AgniP is a very interesting text because it is closely connected with both the Piil'l·
carlUra sect and the sect. Rocher [1986: 135] and Hazra 11940: 13,6] mention
that the AgniP is deep,lyconnected with some PllI'icarlUra liturgies, especially the
paficarlJtra. Recently Brunner-Lachaux indicates the close reiatio'llship of the A.gniP with the
Somatambhupaddhati, a Saivasiddhinta work, as follows; SP IV. chap. 1(iiUMnyiisavidhjJ
'" AgniP 92 (prati$l.hiMdhikathanam), 93 (vOstupajlJdivjdMn.am) and 94 (.mlJdivinyiJsavi·
dhli.nam). SP IV. chap. 2 adhivliJa) :0: AgniP 95 (praliIIMstlmagrj.
vidhdnam) and 96 SP IV. chap. 3 (§ivalin8CJpruti-1fh.lJvidhi. sthapana)
=AgniP 97 (Jivaprat101JhlJ.kat.hanam). SP IV. chap. 4 =AgniP 98 SP IV.
chap. .5 = AgniP 99 SP IV. chap.. 7 AgniP 100
(dvdraprati."hlikathanam). SP IV. chap.. 8 (hnkumbhDprat;ffhavidhi) =AgniP 10I (prd.
·stldapratj.ltM). SP IV. chap'. 9 (cQlakadhvajadaQ(iadhvaja,devakulaprarinhlJ) = AgniP 102
(dhvajaropaQarfl). SP IV. chap. 10;0 AgniP I03
30 The Vi$QudhPis considered to be closely connected with the Plift,carltra secl Ind Is
said to have been compiled in north India c. AD 600-900. See Rocher 1986: 252. The third
kha"fla of this PurAQll describes the manner of paintillI pictures (cilrasi1tra, 3.35-43) and of
making images (pratimdlak\fana, which interested several scholars like Kramrisch,
etc. See Rocher 1986; 2S land Bhattacharyyal991. 3.85-95 desribes three kinds
of materials sllIch as wood, stone a.nd bricks r,equired to bllilda temple (deVlJlaya),
vestigation of these materials and the ground to build the temple, consecration of the ground
(bhaiod.ha1'la), extraction of thorns worship of the Barth (vlJstupuru$CJ Ilrr-
visnuvlJsudeva), etc.
'. 31 The Mauya.P describes this c,eremony in detailinclllding both the Vai,,,avil.e Ilind the
elements. So it is never biased in favour or allY sectarian dogmatism. See Rocher
1986: 19'9. Th.e Matya.P and the AgniP are used for the e.iltplanotion of the temple 8l1chitec-
lure. See Kramrisch 1946. ..
32 NrsirflhaP 56, describes the manner of building I temple (56.1-9ab) and makin.g an
image (9cd-19.ab)' that proc(cd to the pratilfhll c,eremony.
Consecration of Divine Images in a Temple 153
VariihaP 179-184,33 2.2.19; 2.3.19,34 and SambaP 32.
AgnlP 60.35cd-ef has a special remark that the ceremony
is defined as being common to aU deities. except the miilamantras which
vary according to the principal god.
eva devtiniim siidhiira,:£o vidhil:t I
malamantrii/) prthak karyalfl samiinakam /I
In the following, 1 would like to present the GarugaP as a typical
example in order to show the procedure of the installation ceremony of
an image. The corresponding passage of the other are given in
the parentheses. Since Garuc;fa means the special bird which served as
mount, this PuraQa is considered to belong 10 the group.
It is also considered to have been modeled after the AgniP and compiled
in c. tenth or elev,enth century.36
Recently Gangadharan [1993] has made a detailed survey ofthe Vedic
mantras used in the passage on the This PuraQa contains many
Vedic mantras that seem to have interested this author greatly. So it gives
us a clue to determine whether the ceremony described here might have
been influenced by any Vedic tradition or not. It seems to be the best
text among the PuralJ·as which enable us to know transitory phases of this
ceremony from the BrhatS to the late sectarian works. Moreover, it con-
tains both kinds of elements-non-tantrie and tantric-· . and describes the
ceremony, briefly but systematically.3?
33 This PuraJ:)a describes the installation ceremony of the image made of madhuka wood
(179), of stone (180), of eanh (181), of copper (182), of (183), and ofsilver or of
gold (184).
. 34 Some passages of the are closely connected with the Sambapurat:ta. BOO-
vifyaP I.130.42-60ab mentioning the construction of the temple for the Sun god (suryaprii-
.rlidanirmi11;1a) corresponds to SambaP 29.7cd-24. 1.131 which mentions
igation of the wood roughly corresponds to SambaP 30. 1.132.2-
24 which describes the characteristic features and sizes' of aU gods, especially of the Sun
god corresponds to SiimbaP 1.133 deals
with the Sun being in the slate composed of all deities (survadevamayatva) and
1.134 enumerates the good days, good planets (graha) , good constellations (nak.$.atra) for
Ihe ceremony (pralif{hayajnakarman). Bhavi\ryaP which dea]s with the rit,e of the
pratif!hli and its reward roughly corresponds to SambaP 32. The Vedic mantras to be recited
in offering in tile BhavifYaP are mostly different from those in the SambaP. See the list of
the corresponding chapters of th.ese two texts in Hazra 1958: BhavifyaP
describes the adhiviisana rite of Kilf,etc., and then the pralif/hii ceremony of the .rivalinga
in the manner admitted by the Talltra. (tanlramata)
35 Se,e Rocher 1986: 217·19 on the connection of the SdmbaP with the and
the history of sun worship and the role of the Magas.
36 See Hazra 1940:144 and Rocher i986: 177.
37 Kane [II: 896·901] already introduced_the brief process of Ihis ceremony as seen in
the MatsyaP and the AgniP.
154 From Material to Deity
Previous day: preparatory rituals:
1. The time of the ceremony (48Jcd). {Cf. MatsyaP 264.3-12; Nrsitrl-
haP 56.19cd
;VisnudhP 3.96.1-129; VarahaP 180.11; 181.13; 182.2;
183.2; 184.8; 2..2.19.1-5.]
2. The qualification of the priests and their number (2-3). {Cf.MatsyaP
265.2-7; Vif1)udhP 3.97J-2;Bhav#yaP 2.2.18.]
3. Th,e pre'ceptor, after performing nyasa upon himself, commences the
ceremony39 (4ab). [Cf. 3.98;40 VartihaP 180.4-6; 183.2-4;
4. The sacrificial shed is erected in front of the temple
(prasada). It is ten or twelve cubits (hasta) square and has sixteen
piUars (stambha) and eight fla.gs (dhvaja). In the middle, there is
an altar (vedi) of four cubits square, on which sand taken from the
confluence of two rivers is strewn. Five fire-pits of vari-
ous shapes are pl.aced (4cd:7). [Cf. MatsyaP 264.13-15ab; SambaP
32.21-23ab;AgniP 56.2cd-7ab; BhavifyaP 2.2..19.6, 12-1'9.]
5. The main priest, following the injunction of the rite for peaceful com-
pletion of the main work (santika.rmavidhtlnena) and seeking the
filment of aU desires, offers oblation in the fire (homa) at the head of
the image (8).
6. Four entrances (dvara) are made near the gates (toraQa)oT the
sacrificial shed. The arched gates are made of the pol,es of nyagrodha,
38 Nrsi,.,.haP 56. 19cd mentions only an auspicious moment of the purvapakia.
39 Bhavi.iyaP 2.2.18,32cd-36 emphasi.zes the import.ance of the declaration of th'e sol-
emn intent of accomplishing the ceremony (sClqtkalpa): na sCI"dwlpaf1l cared yagaf1l vrala",
deva.rcanal'{l tatoo 1/ (3200) .rarrt/dapamalab kamo va; sa,rtkalpa.ra/1lbhavah I sa'7l-
lealpena vina vipro yal kiildt kurule /I (33) phala/Tl ctJlplilp,akaf7l. lasya dharmasytJr.
bhavet I taamal sarvaprayat.n.ena yagal'{l sa/Tlkalpayet 1/ (34) kiJmlU para
bhaven .ni,ktJmo 'pi na soblumah I tasmlll klJmamayatf1 dharma". vina mok,a". 1'kJ'
cacarer 1/ (3$) sa'7lkalpena vina )las IU dharma/Tl caral; I na la.sya pholam Qpnoti
nityanaimittlkasya ca 1/ (36).
According to Kane U: 212. all rites begip with ticamana by the perfo,rmer. prtJyaicilla
by him, reference to the de/a (place) and kala (time) and saptlkaJpa (a deClaration of what
rite he is performin.gand for what purpose). For instance, mrGss 1.5.12 [61.' 17) says that
the .satrtka.lpa should be performed first: pU{lYtiha'1l vlicayit'J.lQe:tau kmluSa'1lkalpaparvalcam.
40 The ceremony commences (karmdrambha) with the recitation of 0"'. vy;{Jnrti and
then the gQyalrf with the firas part The ,{i,as part of the gQyatrf is '0,," tJpo jyOlf raso
'mr1al1l brahma bhilr 01'/1'. See Siya.,a ad TA 10.27 [744, 1'0-11].
41 For example. one offersarghya water Bnd recites the/mantra; yo 'sau bhavtin sarva-
jagalpravrraJ, samo 'gnitejtl mahati I elena mantre"a tu viJ.fudeva prallara"y"'"
varQha jayasva v,ar:dhasva eel vardhasva 1/ (180.5).
42 See Einoo [I] 2.
43 See Einoo [1]3.
... 1;",
Consecration of Divine Images in a Temple 155
udumbara, aivattha, bilva, paltiia and khiidira, each five cubits high.
They are bedecked wi th cloths and ftowers. Four pits, each of one
cubit in depth, are made on the four sides (9-] 0). [Cf. MatsyaP
264J5cd-17; Nrsi",haP 56..20-21ab; AgniP 56.7cd-9ab;
7. The figure of a Hon is put at the eastern entrance with 'agnim fie'
1.1.1); that of the king of horses at the southern one with.' twi'
(= tva', TS; that of a bull at the western one with 'agna
Iii yiihf(SV 1.1); that of a divine tiger at the northern one with 'ia",
no devfr'(AVP 1.1.1) (] 1-14ab).
8. Nine banners are erected. Their colours differ according to the dir-
ection, but the central banner is of various colours. Vedic mantras
are recited to these banners: indravidya (:: 'triitilram indram' 8V
6.47.11) in the east, sa'r!supti-mantra in the south-east, 'yamo niiga'
in the south, (VS 5.25/ TS in the west, 'viita'
10.l86.1) and 'iipydyasva' (l,('V 1.91.16) in the north, the same
mantras in the north-east, and loke' 9.113.1) in
the centre (14cd-18). [Cf. MatsyaP 264. 2Ocd-21; AgniP 56.10cd-
9. Two pots (kalasa) are placed at each arched gate. These are covered
with two cloths, bedecked with sandal-paste and many varieties of
flowers, and empowered by mantras (19-20ab). [Cf. MatsyaP 264.
18-19; AgniP 56.9cd-l Oab;45 3.98.
10. Then the guardian deities of the eight directions (lokapala)47 are wor-
shipped. To the east is recited' triitaram indram' ({lV 6.47.] 1); to the
44 In ViI1JudhP 3.98, erection of the four arched aates (tora"a) and the four flags
(dhvaja) over them are described. What is worth notina here is that these sianify four
yugas. The eastern one signifies krtayuga. the southern one Iretayuga. the western one dvti·
parayuga and the northern one IulUy"ga. 3.98 deals with the way of acquiring the
trees for the arched gates and the quality of these trees: vanapraveiokltna vidhind pras,asta-
vrk$lif.1dm anyatamasya IOra"iirtha'1l dnfya upasthlipayet I
na tora1Jaftl kuryiit 1 na kubjam I lorafJdi co sarve samapramiilJil':t I. See
BrMIS 59 (Bhat ed.) and Goudriaan 1965: 100 for the vanapraveiokte.na vidhinii (die
manner of entering· the wood).
45 AgniP 56.l4cd
16 mentions.that ill addition to these pots, one hundred and twenty-
eight jars (gha!o) are pla,c,ed outside the arched gates and four water jars at the comers of the
sacrificial altar.
46 Four pots (kumbha) full of water are pla.ced in the four cardinal directions between
the three mounds. These are called sahasrQvfrya. vimala. satadhiira and pramandan.a. Then
a vessel of parched arain (liijd) is pla.ced in the east; a vessel of sesame in the south; a vessel
of white 'mustard in the west; and a vessel of alqala grains in the nonh. Four lamps are
placed between these pots.
47 See Einoo (fonllcoming).
156 From Material to Deity
south-east 'agnir mardhii' (R,'V8.44.16); to the south 'asmin (=
'yasmin vrko$e' J.lV 10.135.1); to the south-west 'itas caiva pracii.ri';
to the west 'kiifceda.dhiitu'(= yat kincedam 7.89.5); to the
north-west Iii ea tviim'(.{?V 3.43.4); to the north 'abhi tva deva,48 (.{?V
1.24.3); and to the north-east 'ima rudraya' ].114.1) (2Ocd-22)..
[Cf. MatsyaP 264.22-24ab; .AgniP S6.17-31ef;49 3.98..5°]
11. The various articles for fire-offering are pla,ced in the nonh-west. The
preceptor purifies all the materials such as conch-shells, etc., through
casting his glanc.es (lilokan.a).51 Then he purifies the sacrificial shed;
first by touching aU the materials of the shed with the kula-seat (vif!a-
ra)52 previously infused with the astramantra, second, by scattering
unhusked rice grains also infused with this mantra clock-
wise from the east to the north-e.ast, third, by besmearing it with cow-
dung and fourth, by sprin.kling it with the water from the arghya-pot
into which he previousJ.y infused a set of mantras (mantra-grlima)
(23-28). [Cf. MatsyaP 264.17; AgniP 57.1.
12. The main wa.terjar (kala/a) is placed in the and the partic-
ular shaped water jar (vardhanl)ss in the south. The former is named
48 The text reads 'bhinnlJ devr which cannot be specified. I amended it to 'abhi tva
deva' following Gangadllaran t 993: 18,1.
49 The AgniPspecifies both the invocation mantra and the worship mantra of the guard-
ian deities of the ten directions. For ins.tance, Indra is invoked with 'indragaccha devarlija
vajraha.sla gajasthit,a 1/ ()7cdJ) purvadvara'71 ca me raklfJ .ralla namo 'Slu Ie I (lSab)'
and worshipped with'tralaram indram' (lW6.47.11).
so One erects II canopy on the mound for worship. There one sets up four arrows (Jara)
with the feather (putnkha) and the points (phlJla) in the fOllr corners beginning with the
north-east. These are called kandarpa; somana.Y, durdhara and .I:ikhara. Thcguardians of
cardinal directions supervising these lliOWS are lndra, Yama, and Dhanada. One
binds them with five-coloured strings to encircle this spot.
51 See Gonda 1969b: 47f., 56, 58 for the purificatory power of a glance.
S2 Avil\'!ara is a seat with twenty-five tlarbhn.r. See Kane U: 543. n. 1259.
53 See Brunner .2000: 19 on the ritual function of this rice grain.
54 The AgniPcalls this purification 'encircling of the, sacrificial ground' pari·
"srahatn). The title of the fifty-seventh chapter of the ABniP is named the 'the way of per·
forming the adhivastl of pots' This ritlJal is performed in the spe-
elal shed for bathing (manamat;lf!apa),. where two water pots. namely, the main pot (gha,a).
and the smaller one (karaka), and many other pots to be IIsed for ablution are prepared.
5S The particular shaped wat.er jar is considered to be the abode of the astramantra,
while the main water jar the abode of the Supreme God, Hari. The sacrificial shed i.s purified
with the water stream from the vardhanr. See AglliP 34.14-16 (in. the pal.li.rradhiva.savi.
dhi). See also Ag/'liP 78.28-31. 34c, 36a, 511 (in the pavUrliroha':la): 92.., tl2d: LingaP 2.27.45d. 49c (in thejaylJbhifekavidhi); 2.47.J8I1b (ill the Ul'igQ.
pratinhavidhi); SivaP cd-22l1b (in the litlg.aprati$fhal,idhi): SambaP 32.208. (in the
.rilryaprati$!h(lvidhi); Brutmer-Lachaux 1998: xiv; Brunner 2000:164-65.
Consecration of Divine Images in a Temple ]57
after the god to be installed and the latter is considered to represent
the astramantra. The main water jar is considered as the locus in
which the god resides. This jar has with the sacred thread tied around
its neck
and is' covered with a pair of cloth and smeared with
cinal herbs and unguents.. It contains jewels. The latter is used for
purifying the ground (29-33). [Cf. AgniP 57.2-4ab.
]3. The priest worships the ga1)as in the north-west with 'gaIJiiniilTl tvii'
2.23.]) and in the north-east with the
mantra 7.54. 55) in order to appease the fauhs of the ground.
Then he offers bali-food to the spirits and the lord of the galJ-as to the
east of the jar. With mantras (vidyii),58 he performs the rite of seizing
(iilambhana).59 With 'yoge yoge' 1.30.7), he spreads kufa grass
(34-36ab). [Cf. AgniP 57.4cd-6.]
The first day:60 adhivasa:
1. The preceptor along with the priests sets the image on the pedestal for
bathing. They carry it on a chariot in a procession (brahmaratha)61
with the chanting of Vedic hymns pUfJy.iiha
56 The main water jar (goo/a) and another small jar (karaka) are considered to be the
receptacle of Hari and of the astramanlra respectively.
57 He is supposed to preside over the foundation of a house. See Kane II: 833-36 for
the construction and occupation ora new house (vast.upratii!hii). See also BrhDrS (Bhat cd.)
53.j I-54, AgniP40, MatsyaP 252 and AivGPS4.1 7] on the characteristic features of
Vastupuru$a..In BodhGSS 4.20.2 [376, 15-16] and HirGSS 1.6.22 [89, 15-16],
is invited to appease the calamities which happen in a village (gramasyotparaiiinti). See
also HirGSS 1.7.8 [103, 29 - 104, 28], AivGPS 4.1-2 [174, 29 • 175. 26], AgniP 93 and
2.2.10-12 on viistupujavidhi.
S8 Gangadharan [1993: 183] points Ollt the possibility of uDders,tanding the vidya as the
mantra beginning with 'vidyaha va; brohma1Jam CijaglJma' 29.9).
59 Does it mean 'killing an animal at a sacrifice''] English translation of this Purina
(Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology Series, vol. 12, p. 157) explains this term as 'splIt-
ting the twig' reading iilambana foralambhal'la of the text I tentatively translate the term
into 'seizing' with reference to AgniP 60.6b (pratimam alabhed gllruM. According to Gupta
1972: 250, n. 4
the alambhana means cosmetics such as lacquer and saffron colourings used
for painting the lips, hands and feet, the gall of the co,w for painting the forehead, and the
60- According to AgniP 58.1, in the first phase of this day the preceptor offers oblations.
in the sacrificial shed, to the fire of (vahnim ca one hundred and eight
times with tile gliyatri. -
61 It also appears in AivGPS 4.7 [178, 14-15]; AgniP 58.29; 60.12 (brahmaylina) (in
the pratJ\f!hiividhi);. 96.72a (in the Bhavi$yaP 4.176.21b (in the hiralJ.-
yagarbJuJdanavidhi); MatsyaP 265.11.
62 See Binoo [3]3.1.
158 From Material to Deity
With 'bhadraf?1 (I,?V 1.89.8), he bathes
the image and puts the sacred thread on it (sutrabandhana) (36cd-
39ab). [Cf. MalsyaP 265.18ab; Nrsi'TtkaP 56.21 cd-24;54 AgniP 58.1-
3;65 Viff,tudhP 3.97.
2. Then the eyes of the image are opened (netrodghi1!a)67 with 'agnir
jyotir' (SV 2.118] / VS 3.9). With a golden twig (suvarr,tasya sii·
khayii), ·he applies (anjayec) to them the mixture of honey and ghee
contained in abeU metal: or copper vessel. The sthiipaka mentions the
name ofthe god once. Then comes the cooling operation (Jitalakriyii)
of the eyes with 'ima'!l me gange' (lJVIU.75.5) (39cd-42ab).68 [Cf.
MatsyaP 264.27-40;69 AgniP 58.4-13.]
3. The rite of bathing the .image begins.
First it is bathed with soil from
an anthiU with 'agnir murdhii' (I,?V 8.44.16);72
63 Tiley carry the image to tbe special shed for Its size is
usvally smaller than the sacrificial shed. See MatsyaP 2M.25cd·26.
64 Tile ablution of the image is done with the pUl;lylihamantra.
65 Tile rite of tying a wrIst band (kautuka) is performed in the working shed (karuJiilii)
along with artisans (JUpin) and other priests (mfirtipa). The kalltllkais usually used in l!I mar-
riage ceremony. See Kane II: 537 and Tsuji I977c: 114. This corresponds to the prarisara
that occurs very often in other PuraJ:las.
66 It is the kalpaka priest who binds the right hand with a thread: la.fyo. sl1iirasyaha·
tava.rana.ra'!Jvfta.rya gomayenopalipte deft! .lvastivikanapun1akavacanena. kal·
Jita.riirre'.lu .rilavastre1;l£l siddhlirrhakavaclin bcu/dhvd duk$i'.ltlpa.I!:lQu pr.arisara'l1 kari·
kaf;la'?'l badh/'llyiil.
67 The text (48.39cd) reads .sa/flsntlpya kurycu tiirytldi (durabhi)wi.
I can tentatively translate this passage as 'After bathing (the image), ooe should
perform lak..ra'tJoddhiira with music:' Here the word U4kftll;lO€leJlu.2ra is usually applied to a
linga, not the divine ima.ge. Another edition by Ramshankar B.luHtacharys, reads" salfl:SniJ·
pya dViirQ/!1 kuryiid So it is very diJtkult 10 decide the reading
of lak$aQoddhtira. I would like 10 indicate the possibility of readingak,fQI;lOr u,ldhlJra with
reference 10 Mai3yaP 264.29.
68 Before the opening of the eyes, the sacriticer iives honorariums to the sculptors
(iUpin) and dismisses them. See M.atsyaP 264.27-28ab. cr. AgniP 58.7ab.
69 These verses include lak$aQoddharaf)Q of the linga.
70 According to Nrsi'!JhaP 56.25-26, he immerses the ironiC in II river for three or seven
nights (jattidhivtisa) before the alolutionof the image of Ketuva in the sacrificial shed. See
Hikita 1997: 335. n. 85011 the jallidhivllsa.
71 Various origins of earth are described in many texts. See. for instance, BadnGSS
5.3.2-3 [388,10-12]; HirGSS 1.3.11 [32, 1-3]; A,rvGPS 4.5 [177, 6-8]: Br'uirS (Bhal
ed.) 60.9; AgniP 69.10;. 9.5.32cd-33; 218.12cd·17ab; Bhavi,vyaP·20Sac;
4.124.23; 4.125.5; Mal,ryaP 58.38cf; 67..5; 68.23; 93.23-24; 267,3·4;
6; 2.104.86cd·9.; 2.1 05.12cd-13a.
72 BodhGSS 5.4.41 [392. 19-20] mentions balhlng with eal1l1 (mrttikdsntifla) as al1 expi-
.rite of great. brahmahatytigOVadhallundalpa.nm'PtJfI.
teyadlsarvapapa·pral',lalanam ItI vlJiiliyate. Se,e also BodllGSS 5.4 and HlrGSS
______ __'T_.. ..:.:.
Consecration of Divine Images in a Temple 159
then with the decoction of the barks of five trees
of bi/va, udumbara, asvattha, vQ!a and palii.Sa; then with the five
products of a cow (paficagavya?4 with 'yajiiii ya/fui (;;;; 'yajfiii
yajnii' 6.48.1); then with water in which medicinal herbs like
sahadevf, balti, satam"ilIf, satavarf, kumarf, gw;lucf, si'?lhf and
vyaghrf are soaked. with I yii (J.?V 10.97.1); and lastly wi th
fruit juice (phala-sntina), with 'yiilJphalinf' 10.97.15).
After the rite of rubbing off (udvartana) with 'drupadiid iva' (AV
6.115.3), the image is bathed with water from the four pots called 'the
ocean' (samudra) placed in the four directions. These are empowered
by the mantras such as 'iipyayasva' 1.91.16), 'dadhikriiv/Jo'
4.39.6), 'yli (.{lV 10.97.1) and 'teja'si' (AV 7.89.4).
After bathing and dressing, incense (dhupa) and gum resin (gug-
gulu) are offered. Ablution performed with water
from the holy rivers (tfrtha) reciting the samudramantra.
is put into the pots with 'yii (J.?V 10.97.]). Finally, he offers
the arghya water.
Scent (gandha) is offered with 'gandhadviirii' 5.
87.9), the nyiisa is done with the Vedic mantras and garments are
offered with 'yuva1?1 va;triiIJi'77 (.{?V 1.152.]) (42cd-54ab). [Cf. Mat-
syaP 265.7-] 0; SiimbaP 32.1-20,25-28;78 Nrsi1?1haP 56.27-28; AgniP
1.2.8 [12, ,6 -13, 8], and AgniP 22 on this mrttikiisl'lana.Et counts one of the seven types
of bathing ill the P1ii'icaritra sect: vayavya. divya, agneya,. varulJa. manasa and
mdntra. See Gupta 1972: 196, n. 2. 1.50.9' enumerates six types of bathing:
brahma. (jgneya. vayavya. divya, varuf:laand yaugika but omits bathing with earth.
73 In the JaliUayotsargapaddhati 31, 14-15, the pancakafaya is made when the barks
of plakfa, pippula, Ud!Hnbara, vala and bi/va trees are grounded oll.nd mixed with water
(anel'laiva vatabilvanii/?1 valkalani saf?1.ciirl',lya jale tena
sniipayet). See MatsyaP 265.7; 266.7.
74 Concerning the method of making the pancagavya, see Kane U: 773-74; IV:
141; Gonda 1960: 315; Gonda 1980c: 185; Einoa [3] 3.2; SkandaP 7. 1.1 07. 23-25.ab;
NiiradaP 1.116.43cd-44ab, 123.53cd-55a; MatsyaP 267.5-6; GarufiaP 1.128.1Oed-II c:
AgnjP 34.9cd-11ab; 175.24-26;. 3.99; AVPS38. 1.4-2.3: 38.3.2-7: BodhGSS 1.23.9;
2.13.6-7; 2.16.7-9; 2.20.4i; 2.20.7 [288,21-289,3]; 5.3.10; HirGS'S 1.3.11 [19-2m]; I.7.11
[107,16-211; 1.7.n D10,2-7]; 1.7.14 [112. 19 - 114, 12]; 1.23.7; AgnGS 2.7.7 [113, 18-
'14, Il]1; JaimGS 2.6 [31,13]; KiilhGS 7.3.
7S See Brunner 2000: 132-33.
76 This mantra may be 'ramudra/?1 gaccha sviihii' (lJgvedakhila 5.49.2; 6.48. I; VS 6.21).
77 The text reads 'imam mantra' which makes no sens,e. I propose to read 'yuva/?1
vastra' referring to another reading 'itnaf?1. vastra' (48.54b) of The Garufia MahapurafJLJm
(NAG Publishers).
78 According to Samba? 32.2300-24, the invocation (iiviihniina =iivahana?) is per-
formed just after the ablution of the image.
160 From Material to Deity
58.14-19ab, 21cd-28ab;19 VarlihaP 180.15-18: 181.
15; 182.3]
4. The image is brought into the sacrificial shed with 'kavihau' and laid
down on the bed (iayya) with 'so.",bhavdya' (= sa"abho.vii-
ya'? VS16.41). The rite of sakala-n;#ala
is done with 'vUvatai
(.{?V 10.81.3), and the mamranyl'lsai:s performed on the im-
ag,e. It is covered with a sheet of cloth and worshipped. Sacrificial
fo,od (naivedya) is offered at iU foot. A water jar empowered by pro.-
and covered with a pair of cloths is set al the head along with a
piece of gold (54cd-S8). [Cf. MatsyaP 265.11-17; SambaP 32.29cd-
34; Agn.iP 58.28cd-33,82 59J-32;83 3.101.
] .
5. Then comes the ri!te of offering oblations to the fire. First. the pre-
79 According to Agn!P 58. 19cd-20. afler Ihe invocation the preceplorloosens the mar-
riage thread from the wrist of the image and also from his own wrist (kawllk.amocana).
80 One purifies Ihe iml.ge (dl1cll'J,fau,ca) by sprinkling it with tw,ent)'-one items whUe re-
citing the relevant Vedic manmu. These ore water (ambu), clay (mrtO. Ishes (bha.rm.an),
cow.dung (somaya), white mustard (,aum,rar,apa). ashes of the three socred fires (tnUlg-
nibhasman), pafl.cagavya, etc. .
81 This Is the rile to make the transcendent Sod (nl,kala =para) evolve into his divisible
state (saica.ltJ =apara). See Bl'Ul'lner-Lachaux 1998: 269,n. 12.
1I2 AgniP 58.34 calls tl1isJar (gMla) 'sleep' (ntdrt/) which is wrapped in cloth and placed
near the head of the imRle.
llJ According to the Alln/P. he performs tile rhe of puriftcadon of physical ellemel'lltll of
the lmag,e (bhiita/uddhi) by burning (dahcma) lind drenching (apya)'ana). Then he performs
three kinds of nyiJsQJ to the image:mlJtrklJ-, tat/va· and mantra-nyllsa. AgnlP S9.37c:d-38ab
mentions that tt1is ritual is also called'lnfu!liing life inlo the image' (,I:lljfVakara{la): cuha
vll! yasya devasyQ prlJrabdha". .rthapa"a". bhav,et 1/ la,vyalva ,fajwakara"a".
bhavet I. See Brunner 2000:198.
84 One I:ays on the couch the lma.ge with 1111 hea,d 10 the south or to the elllt. There one
lays the imaae of Ananta, the divine snake. Then comes the invocation of the prlnclpa.l. life
Ufvasydva.hana), redlatlol'l of the s'va.sa1(1ka,tpa hymn (VS 34.1-6) and invocatl,on of the god
(bhagavantam tlvahaytlt).. All the people kneeling on the sr,ound, bow down saying, 'The
ven,erable lord has come here.' The livasa.'7Ikalpa hyl1U1 appears 11'1 VlJJ:DhS 26.6 as the pun- .
ficatory teltt for a theft of gold. See Kane IV: 48, V: 759; mrass 1.2.1 I 'l15. 21) concerning
the I.iwual'(lkalpa. The Vi:fI;lUdh.P mentions the mantra of invoking the principal life (3. m2)
Ind then (30103·06) enumerates many mantms of invoking various deilies in delail. These
mantras are classified broadly into four types. The first type is: llvlIhayiJmy aha'71 devau
nasatyau sUryanandanal.l 1 tJg.acchetliql mahabhlJgau varadau clUvinall lubhall " (10'3.4)
and ends with,idamarghyam ida'7l padya'7l Ctl dhopo ')'a'11 pradsrhyatlJm /I (1 03.3cd). The
second type is: av4hayamy aha",. deva'7l bmhm't;larra paramellhlnam 1(104.1 ab) . .. aga.
cclJQ bhagavan brahman yajamana"ya vrddhaye 1/ (Sed) idam arsh)'am co
dhfJpo' 'ya'7l pratigrhyatiJm " (6ab). The third type is: lokiJn ltvlihaYIQytlml ha",saruplln rna·
noharan IllyiJntu vlJhanalVeno ye II (105.1). The fourth type ends
with: ydjakarp )'ajamllna'7J ca sreyasfibhyetya y,ojay,a I idam ar,hyam ido'11 plldya'11 dhilpo
'ya'11 pratigrhyaillm II 006.2).
8S The text reads 'sahiijinam' but other manuscripts read •savajinam,. See Ganga-
dharan 1993: 179.
116 This textappeal'8 in Va,fDhS 28.13b.
87 This text appea.rs in VasDhS 28.15'b and 56.27.
1111 See Gonda 1980c: 276. 323.
119 This appears as one of the purificatory texts in GautDhS 19.] 2; BaudhDhS 3.10.10;
ViJsDhS 28.15;. Vi-r.,uSm 56.27.
90 This may be bhliru'.l(lasaman which appears in Vi.HuiSm 56.13 and VasDhS28.12c as
one of the purificatory texts. Acco,rding to Nandapar,l(;lita's commentary on 56.13.
this consists of the twenty-one verses beginning with 10.16.6. This verse, however, is
not found in the SV. See OliveUe 2000: 711.
91 This is found in 56.22; VasDhS 2801 4a; GautDhS 19.12 as one of the
ficatory texts. In commentary on 56.22. this is identifl,ed as the
verse beginning with 'brahma devanii111 pralhamalJ. sa'1'lbabhilva'. See MUfJ:f1akaU 1.1.
92 This may be the skambhasukla (AV 10.8).
93 cr. Brunner 2000: ]38.
ceptor, standing near the fire-pit, sets the fire (agne/:l sthiipana) with
the mantras laid down in his school or with the Veda-mantras. The
Hotr priest in the east recites JrTsukta (J.?V 1.165), pii·
vamiina (= piivamllnf, 9.67.21-27), vasa, diisya'!l (= diisyan, AV
6.7L3b), saViJjina
(= 'sa viijina'll' 7.95.3), (=
pay;' J;?V 10.86.13) and mitra (= 'maitralJ' VS 39.5). The Adhvaryu
priest in the south recites rudrasukta ('namas te rudra manyave' ,. TS
4.5.1), (J.?V 10.90), Jlokiidhyiiya, .fukriya (VS 33-40),
brahman, pitr (= pitrsukta) and maitra (VS 39.5). The Chandoga
priest in the west recites vedavrata (= devavratasiiman SV2.488ff.),86
viimadevyasiiman (SV 1.169),87 (SV 1.273),88 rathan-
tarasiiman ($V 1.233)89 and bheru1J4asiiman.
The Atharvaveda
priest in the north recites atharvaJiras,91 kumbhasukta,92 nftarudra
and maitra (VS 39..5).
The rna.in priest sprinkles the fire-pit with the astramantra and
then brings the fire Uiitavedas) in a copper vessel and places it in
front of the fire-pit.. Second,. he (desika) ignites the fire with the astra-
mantra and envelops it with the kavacamantra. Then he trainsforms it
into an eternal one (amrtfkaralJa)93 with the mantras. After whirling
the vessel around the fire-pit, he places the highest brilliance (para'rl
tejas) in it in the way. Third, he places brahman in the
south and pra1)rtii vess,els in the north. He spreads in all the
directions as an enclosure (paridhi).
Brahms, Hara and Isana are worshipped with the common
mantras. The fire in the vessel is placed on the darbha grass and
enveloped wi.thit.
Consecration of Divine Images in a Temple 161
162 From Material 10 Deity
Then comes the consecration (stJlT'skilra) of ghee. The preceptor
looks at the waving lights (nirlija).94 He then offers oblations of ghee
to the fire five by five (pancap'aiictJhutfr hutvtJ). While the rites from
garbhadhllna to godt2na are performed to consecrate the fire,9s he
offers ghee with the mantras and ladleful of ghee (pur"iJhuti) for
the fulfiUment of his own desires (pur"lJl p.Qr'Jamanorathab).
After such a worship. the fire is transferred into the fire-pits. To
the eight guardians of the directions li.ke Indra, etc., are respectively
given a hundred oblations (ahuti) with their own mantras. At the end
of each hundred oblations. a piir"tJhuti is offered to aU the deities.
The main priest, unifying gods, mantras, the fire and himself. offers
a piin,ziihuti. Then he offers bali-food taChe gua.rdians of all direc-
tions, spirits and snakes. Sesame and sacrificial wood (samidh) are
the principal materials and ghee is auxiliary to both.
The following hymns are recited in the four directions;
sakta 10.90) in the e.asl, rudrasukta {TS 4.5.1) in the south,
jyefl.hasaman (SV.1.273), bhCrut:Jpa,96 I tan nayami' in the west,and
nrtarudra, kumbhas.uktQ" an integral part of the Atharvaveda, in tbe
north. Bach deity is satisfied with a thousand oblations (havana) at
bis head, and similarly at his body and foot. Then he offers a p'Url)ii·
hut; to spots aro,und the heads of these deities. During this time, the
brahmins recite the princip,a.lmantras of those deities, or the mantras
of their own scriptural code or simply the giiyalri 3.62.10).97
The main priest recites the gtlyatrf, vyahrti or pra'.lava [Cf.
MatsyaP SiimbaP 32.29ab;98 Nrsi'11haP 56.30cd-33;99
. AgniP S9.48cd-56ab; 3.101,100 109; Vara.haP 180.21.]
6. The preceptor infuses, the mantras to each part of the image as fol-
lows: to the feet lagn.im fle' (QV 1.1,]). to the ankl.es tva' (T5
94 JayakhyaS 15.1 IOcd-25ab enumerates ten kinds of consecration or ghee: adhiJ,,,·
sa",plava, utplavana, uplldhilmyat;la, prasadl1caral;ld, pavitrf1cam"a, nrrt?ljana, ava·
"u",hana. Qvalokana "and amrtlklJra. Here in the GarllpaP, we can see the process of the
seventh and nlnthcol1socrltlons. SCie Hikita" [7] n. 48 (p. 258) concerning the rite of
95 This is the s(J'1JS/(Dr;a 10 the fire. See note 22 above.
96 Similar mantra is bheru':Jdd,,; in another verse ("'c). Oal1ll1dharan [1993: 182]
proposes to read 'bhiJrulJpa' (ll!! 'ud va)'al7llamalaS pari'8V 1.50.10).
97 This is liUlo,lhernam,e for Ihe siMlrf verses, which are set in the slJyarr! metre.
98 SdmhaP 32.29ati speaks of theJlJllti·homa alone.
99 Nrsi'7lhaPS6.29.30ab mentions that the sacrUieer reeds sixteen brahmins before wor-
ship of the guardians of all direction.s. cr. A.gn.'P S9.S6cd·S1.
100 The Satvatl priests worship WylJ) on Ollie mound and on another the Hotr pri.est per-
forms the fire-offerin.g (homa).
Consecration ofDivine Images in a Temple 163, to the calves 'agna a yahi' (SV 1.1), to the 'fa,?,
no devr (AVP 1.1.1), to the thighs the brhatsiiman (SV 1.234) and
the rathantarasiiman (SV 1.233), to the belly to the heart
(= 'dfrghliyutviiya' VSK 3.9.3), to the ne,ck 'irTS ca
te'(YS 31.22), to the chest 'triitiiram indram' to the
eyes 'triyugmakam' (= 'tryambaka",' 7.59J2). and to the head
'murdha bhava' (= 'murdhli bhuvo ,bhavati' 10.88.6). Then he
continues with the offering to the fi.re until an auspicious moment
arrives (86-89ab). ref. AgniP -
The second day: the installation of the image: 102
1. With lUI brahmaf)Qspate' (.(?V 1.40..1). the image is ere,cted and
taken around the temple clockwise with the Vedic pUf,lyliha mantras
[Cf. MatsyaP 266.8-9ab; SambaP 32.35ab;I03 AgniP
60.12-15ab; 104 ViflJudhP 3.110.
101 Mental images of twelve different manifestations of the god Vi$Qu should be
ted by mental represent.ation into different parts of the body ofthe image. These are Kegava.
NliriyaIJ8, Mlidhava. Govinda, Vi$l)u, MadhusOdana. Vimana, Trivib.ama, Sridhara, Hr,i-
kda,Padmanibha and Di.modara. These are twelve names of See Jaiswal 1981:
79; Kane II: 250, n. 567; Krick 1977: 87ff; Colas 1994: 515. See also Schrader 1916: 41-
42; Gonda 1969a: 25-28,117-18; Gupta 1992: 164-78; HikIta 1997: 73
78 for the twelve
names of the Vyiihantara deities of Vi$l)u. For the twelve names beginning with Ke§ava;
see VaikhGS 3.13 [16-18]; AgnGS 2.5.7 [85. BodhGS 1.11.1; HirGSS 1.3.15 [34.
3.136-142; BaudhDhS 2.5.10; BrhatS (Dhat ed.) 105.14-15: Bhavi.ryaP
4.73.14; A.gniP 59.33£1-36; PadmQP 6.225.45-47. Bhavitya.P 4.66.•'6cd-17 enumerates the
twelve names beginnina with Vasudeva: Vasudeva, Jan.ardana, Dlimodara, Madhusiidana,
Padman.abha, Kr$QI,. Vi$l)u, Govardhanl, Trivikrama, §ridharl, Hr$lke§a and
The various names of Vi$t;lu appear along with the vyiihrtiman.lra in the passage on
worship of ValkhGS 4.11 [641, )-4]; agn/fIl par/fleya hautrafll pra/a'flSYll daklitJapra"idhyam
0'11 bhQI} purulam Ofll bhuvaI;J 0'11 0'11 Mar bhuva" suva" pllrulam
satyam aeyutam aniruddha'1l.iriyam mahrm iti niimndviihya.
The number of the names is 110t decided. There is ,a van,ety of numbers. For instance,
there are six names in BhavifyaP names in paamaP6.34.66-68ab and GaruflaP
U36.7cd-lOa, eleven names in AgniP1S9.8-10, names in Kane II: 31S, n.
748a 11.16.18cd&21, thirty-six names in BhavifYaP 4.68.8-12ab,fony
names in GarufiaP U31.l0cd-ISab and one hundred eight names in PadmaP 7.17.103-17.
102 According to VariihaP 180.22, the next day commences with the expression 'when
the nisht has passed and the clear morning emerg,e,' (vyatrtiiya", IU iarvaryam prabhate
vima.le tata.I}). See also 183.10; 18,41.12: SambaP 32.35a.
103 SiimbaP 32.3Sab says. that one wakes up (n.ibodhayet) the god It dawn.
104 Before putting the imaaeon the vehicle, the preceptor performs the fire-offering
on dle mound of sand (sthaf,l.fiUa) and sprinkl,es the head of the image widl 'the water of
appeasement' (.tiJntyudaka). See Gonda 1980c: 131 concerning this water used in the'Vedic
ws Vif'.ludhP 3.107 gives dle mantra for waking up Visudeva (vasudevavibodhana)
]64 From Material to DeilY
2. Seizing the pedestal (pi':'flikalabhana)lo6 with 'devasya tvil' (VS L
24),107 the priest installs (vinyaset) the guardians of all the dire,ctions,
jewels (ralna), metals (dhtltu), medicinal plants 108 cook'ed
red beans (lauhabrjani siddhani)109 and then the god's image
91). [Cf. MatsyaP 266.. 9cd-30c; StimbaP 32.37-38ab; AgniP 60.4-
7;110 3.110.
] -
3. The image is not to be placed exactly in the centre of the sanctum
sanctorum (garbha)1I2 or nearby.. It is to be placed sl.ightly awa.y
from the centre so thai any defect mi.ght be Bvoided.
He places a little amount of sesame to the north, saying 1
bhava siva bhava prajtibhyaf canamo [Cr. Ma.tsyaP
266.2-4; SambaP Nrsiq1haP 114 AgniP 60.1-3,
lScd-17; liS VarlihaP 180.26; 18201 I;. 184.17,116]
which starts with devatrl vibodhayi.yytlmi 1I11su(/evamajaltl vibllu1I1/ (2ftb) llnd ends with tyaja
bhuvanapale 'ghasQlTlcayt'Jpaho me / .Nay; bIIavati
h, ya.s)'a nath," Maktir ugrt'J gatir aliiay€Jnf 114 ta,fya /I (. IS).
106 According to AgniP60.6b. the pJlcceplor seizes lhe Imase: p,a,imilm lilabhed
101 011 Ihe temple t1
oo,r are placed a stolle in the form of 1\ 'tortoise (/(armaiiilJ). the
brahma&stone (brahma/illi) and the pedestll.1 (Pif,lfliklJ) i,n due order from below. See Mauya.P
loa These are sahOOevr, balli, salamalf, saUlvarf, guflaci. ,1'jrpMand lIyaghrr. S,ee
Garllf/aP 1.48.44cd-4Sab. As rClards the enumeration of tlte Nee Kau1S8. 16; Mat·
syaP 267.14cd·lS; SkondQP; Vtfl',luclhP 2.I04.77cd-g.l; Gupta 1972: 249,
109 This rite is called 'putting jewels'. (r:atnanyt'J..ra).
110 He inserts jewels, etc.• into the nine holes of the eight. dirccLions and of Ihe centre of
the pedeslal.redtil'll the narQ.rif71hamantra.
1.11 One places jewels, ele., into the ho,le (.rvabhra) of the f)j.rJflikd. sets Ihe image on the
pede.stal (pjJhika) and makes it immovable with '''''rwvdt/yaur' (I,lV 10.173.4).
I. J:2 According to MatsyaP 266.30d-32ab. II hole (.fvabhru) in the sanctum slnctOl1Jm is
besmeared with plIyasaand then covered whh I piece of whhe cloth. The image is installed
there with 'dhruva dyaur' 10.173.4).
1113 There are two cases for the liri,ga's shifting from the centre of the temples in south
India. In thel'irst case the litiga is pla.ced away from the c,entra] poinl of t.he
torum. In the second case the tinga is pla.ced In its c,entre lhougn ils ccntr1: itself Is shifted
from the centre of the temple (v'mtlna). Ogura p996] assumes thlilihis fact might be inl:1u&
enced by the idea of marman. the weakest point of Vistu,puru,a. where nothing should be
114 He installs the image in the (upasl1llipya) wUh the tlfw:wlkra and fixes it
(sa'llslhiipya) with the 1.1541.1-6) or the pavamdna (pav,amanf I,W
IU He installs the image onto the pedestal with ·veda.. Wit (VS 1.24). fixes it with
'O'll Irailokyavikrdntaya namas Ie 'stu trMkruma' and smears it with pali.cagavya. 'dhruva
dyaur' 10.173.4) and 'v;sllatas cak/ur' ((W 10.81.3).
116 Tbe image is installed at the centre of the altar (vedl).
Consecration ofDivine Images in a Temple 165
4. The preceptor performs the nylisa with 'devasya tva savitull (VS
1.24) to the six adhvans like tattva, var1Ja, kala, mantra, pada and
(94-95ab). [Cf. MatsyaP 266.32cd-44ab;118 AgniP 60.
5. The priest bathes the weH-instaUed image
with water from the
jar caned sarrzpiita-kalasa, 121 and worshilps it with lamps,. incense.
scent and food. After offering arghya water and bowing down to the
god, he prays for forgiveness to dismiss the god (95cd-
96). [Cf. MatsyaP 266.50cd-52;122 SambaP 32.44-45;123 Nrsif[lhaP
56A2-45ab; VisnudhP 3.111-14;124 VariihaP 180.27-37; 181.20-29;
182.16-24; 183'. i 9-29; 184.19-34.
6. A vessel, a pair of cloth, an umbrella and divine rings are given as
honorariums to the assistant priests (rtvij)126 (97).
111 The text (48.94cd) reads tattvavar1;lakallimatraf!l prajani bhuvanarmaje, which does
not seem to make any sense. It is evident that this passag,els closely connected with the
foregoing word, ia¢bhyal]. indicating the six courses (Ia(l-adhvan). If we take this into
consideration. this passage must contain tartva. kala. mantra, pada and bhuvann. So
we may suggest some amendment to the miitral11 prajiini in order to find out the two courses
of mantra and pada.
The sixadhvans are the six steps from the ultimate god to the ,empirical world:
mantra, pada. kalil. tattva and bhuvana. The first three are caned the indicators (vacaka)
and the latter three are called the indicated (vacya). These are found in Kashmir Saivism and
Saivasiddhanta. On the contrary, Stitvalasal?lhitti 19.141-50, one of the Pancaratra texts, does
not distinguish those six as thc;J,Adicators and the indicated. They are rallked va'1la, kald,
tattva, mantra, pada, and bhuvana from above. See Hikita 1997:440-43, Padoux 1990:330-
71 and Gupta 1979: 100-1.
118 Accordina to MatsyaP 266.32cd-44ab, the worshipper, placing his hand. on the head
of the image, contemplates first the indivisible form (nitkala) of the god as ,evolving himself
from the highest existence (paramasadbhtiva) and then any ·of his decorated forms after
having identified himself with it.
119 AgniP 60.19cd-29ab mentions that after the rite of sakalrkarat,ul. the preceptor per-
forms the rite of 'restoring life into the image' (sajivakara')a) and then the rite of 'bringing
near the aod' (sQl'fl1IidhyakafiQ1;IQ).
120 After the image has been installed. the hole is to be up with sand so that there
might be no laps ther'e. The image should be stable. See MatsyaP 266.59cd-65.
121 This satrJpdtakala.ia can mean ajar (kala/a) into which the rest of the ghee used for
the oblations is poured. See Gonda I980c: 191 f.
122 MatsyaP 266.44cd-50ab says thattbe invocation (iiv,ahana) of the god precedes its
123 According to SdmbaP ilintikarma is done by its specialist for the a.ppe.ase-
ment of ritual faults commined by the He may be an Atharvavedin.
124 This text mentions the great ablution (brhatsnapana) to the image.
125 The installation is followed by the worship of the image with bathing, anoint-
ment (udvartana), offering of fragrant paste (ga.ndha), garlands, clothing, incense and food
(prdpQlJ.a), and the repetition of the Jlimimanlra.
126 MatsyaP 2M.53-54ab makes mention of the rite of feeding the poor. The sa.crifi.cer,
166 From Material to Deity
Rituals on the fourth day:
1. On the fourth day (caturthltrJ), the sacriflc·er (yajamtJna) offers a
hundred oblations (lIhuti) and then a pilr"ahut;. Outside the sacri-
ficial ground, the main priest offers to the gu.ardia.ns of
all the directions and he, having flowers in his hand,. anows them
to go (visarjayel), saying IForgive me' (98-99). [Cf. SambaP 3236;
NrsiTf1haP 56.36-40ab; 127 AgniP 60.29cd-32ab.
2. Articles such as a brown cow (kapi/a), a chowde, acomnet, ear;.rings,
an umbrella, a bracel.et, a girdle,!. fan, viUages,. garments, et.c., and
the nice sacrificial shed with subsidiary things a.re donated to the main
priest by the sacrificer at the end of thle sB'crifice. He feeds the pries,ts
lavishlly. Thus, the sacrificer achieves everything that he has desired
(krtakrtya). He even obtains the liberation (mulcti) by the grace of
main priest (stbapak,a)129 (100-00.. £Cf. Ma.tsyaP 266.53-54ab;
SambaP 32.47; NrsitTJhaP 56.40cd41 ; AgniP 60.32cd·34; Vif·l',ludhP
3.115; VarlihaP 180.38; 181.30-36; 182.25-28; 183.28-32;
I would like to indicate three characteristic features of the pmtif!#uJ
ceremony as described in the GaruflapurlllJO. The first feature is tbat the
on this occasion, gives food to the poor, the blind, the distressed and others. On this rile
of fee,Ung the POOl' (drnabhojana), see t 9b.S.3
jya/ranek.adhlll Qn.napiJnavihrntJ",.f CQ vlJe$,na pmpQjayel II in the brahmaydBa):. A,n"
97.64b (al the end of the Bhavi-1yaP 2.2,20,297bc; (in
the 4. t76.S8od (in the 4, t91.42cd (in the
UrigaP 2.39.8 (in the MauyaP 266.S3-54ab
(in the pml#/hiJ); StJ""b:aP 32.26cd (In the sQryapra/jllhdvidlr.i); Vi,,,lIdhP:U 17 (in th,l'
devQytltrtlvidhi): DevfP (1111 tile \lQ.for dhariJ); 31.26cd and 32,.43cd-44ab (in
the pratimdpratJffhillltdhi);· SdlVataS 25, 1351> (dana". dftltuan'lv apl).
127 He consecl'ates the fire by performilll8 the ,ratrl.,rkilrQ IikejtJI"karma.I1, etc., with ,aya-
3.62.10). And he o,ffers ghee in the eastern part of the fire-ph wlt.h 'I,d/am"" indram'
6.47.11); in the southernplU1 with 'paro diva' 10.82.5);. In the western part with
''''/I(Utlda' 1.2S.101 vs 20.21 TS; in the northern pan with 'ya I' rl4dra'
(YSI6.2, 491 TS 4.S.I.I; 10.1). and lastly everywh,erewilh two hymns beginniR8 with 'pam
milt""" (.fW7.99.1). After the oblation he recites 'yad asyil' ,(AV 20.13,6.1 1 VS Ind
then obtains any fruit that he wishe's. '
12BHeworships the attendant deities (partvilra) such as ClU)4u and Pr8lcar;Jlc;la, Oaru'c;la,
the guardians of all the directions IUld VI,vaksena, There are four pairs of the chief gllilck.eop-
ers in the VaI'l;Javite pantheon: Ca.Q4a lind Praca.,c;la; Jaya and Vljaya;Dhltland! VidhlCl;
and Bhadra and Subhadra. See LalqmlT 37.46..48; Gupta 1'972: 234. n, S. See IIlso "sniP
76 and SP I: 278-28S on the detailed proce.ss of wD,rstdpping Cll;lqa.
129 The pmtilfhii ceremony proper is followed by th,e greal festival (mahotaavtJ) 10 be
celebrated for thre.e,fiv,e or seven days, On the foul1h day aft.er the proper ceremony, I
great bathing (maMsnilna),and the marriage (calurthrkarmDn) Ire performed. See MalsyaP
266.66-67. . .
Consecration of Divine Images in a Temple 167
GaruflaP describes the ritual of adhiviisa more elaborately than the instal-
lation of the image in the temple. This means that the Garut,iaP places
more stress on the consecration and purification of the image than on its
installation. The second feature is that the GaruflaP likes to use the Vedic
mantras as Gangadharan [1993] already indicated. Though it repeatedly
mentions reciting the common mantras or the mantras 'in accordance
with the injunction in his school of the Veda' (svasiikhoktavidhanena),
it really gives us the mantras of the four Vedas. The Hotr, Chandoga,
Adhvaryu and Atharvan priests also appear as the rtvijs. The profuse use
of Vedic mantras may be a sign of revival of Vedic traditions among the
brahmins in the later period of the PuriJ)as. Of the mantras, we
can find only 'olfl sthiro bhava sivo bhava prajlibhyas ea nama
(48.93cd), 'tattvavar1JG,kaliimiitra'!l prajani bhuvaniitmaje' (48.94cd) and
tu Iqamasveti visarjayet'(48.99d).130 The third fea-
ture is that we can find manytantric elements like nyiisa,131
etc., and also sectarian features, for example, in the prescription 'in the
way' (vaiflJ.avena yogena). So we may conclude that the cere-
mony of instanation as seen in the Garut;iaP was compiled during the
period when the tantric ceremony became s,ettled and popular in
many tantric texts by putting together both the Vedic and tantrie dements.
5 Pratif!hii Ceremony in" the Siitvata-satphiti
Among the P1U\caratra liturgical literatures, the Slitvata-, Paulkara-, and
Jaylikhya-salflhita are caUed the 'three gems' (ratnatraya) and these three
have been given special honour through centuries and have been con-
sidered to belong to the oldest satphitas by recent scholars.
these three, the first two seem to have be,encomposed in north India in-
\30 The A.gniP us,es not only a tremendous number of Vedic ma1ltras but also, PauriQic
mantras and the sectarian mtUltras like the mulamantra, the nara";'flhamantra, the eight-
syllabled mantra, ere. These three kinds of manlraare independently used in some phases
and united in other phases.. For example, the 8uardians of all the quarters are invoked with
their own Paudl}ic mantras and worshipped with the Vedic mantras or the PaurlJ.1ic mantras;
the is done with th,e Vedic mantras and the twelvewsyUabled mantra together;
and the rite of sajrvakaraf,la is done with the Pauriil(lic mantra alone.
131 The rite of nyasa does Ilotseern to be the mntne f:eature in a rigid sense, because this
is in the level works too. See Banoo [3] 3.3.
132 See Gonda 19771: 52; Schrader 1916,: 20. According to livarasa'!Jhitii
these three texts belona to the divine origin and were ex.pounded by Hari in accordan,ce with
the Root Veda desiring the welfue of the living beings. In Paramdvamsa'flhita 1.19, these
three were known to the sage SW:i4il)'ll.
168 From Maleritll to Deity
eluding Kashmir and Orissa. The last one. the Jayllkhyasa'11hitll,. may be
associated with central India or the upper Deccan because it speaks of
both the and northern styles of temples.
Among these three,
both the SlltvataS and tbe JayllkhyaS describe the process of the pra.tillha
ceremony in detail, but the Pau"karasa'11hittl does not include a full de-
scription of this ceremony.134 I would lik,e to sketch the pratinha which
is dealt with in the twenty-fi.fth chapter of the SatvataS in compa.rison
with the twentieth chapter of the JaytlkhyaS,135 Furthermore, since the
["varaS and the PdrameivaraS are considered to have been compiled in
south India and have many parallel passages with the SlitvataS
these texts
are also referred to for comparison.
The preliminary phas,e:
1. The sacrificial shed (yligastilii / ma·lXlo.pa) is erected to the east of the
temple (devagrha).. It contains an altar (vedi). A is drawn
on the ahar. To the right 'is a couch (Jayana) and a fire-pit (kuf,lrJa) to
the left. Eightftre-pits surround the central one. (SlltvataS 25.2-16 :;
!svaraS 18.1cd-16ab; ParameSl,taraS 15.108-120 =SlItvataS 25.4-16.
. Cf. JaylIkhyaS 20. B3-38ab.
2. A bathing shed (sniinageha) and a. shed for opening the eyes (na.
yanonmrlanagehal drgdanageha) are 'erected. The former ,c,ontains'a
bathing stand made of sand (valuklIpr,ha) and the latter contains a
pedestal, a couch and wat,er jars.. The features of the bathing stand
(sntlnapflha-la!qatJ,a) are described. (SlitvataS 25.17-23ab :; TJvaraS
18.16cd-22:; paramdvaraS 15..l21-27ab.)
m See O,onda 19778: 54 and Schrader 1916:16,
134 The consecration ceremony for the foundation of II temple (priUlIdaptldapraliflhiO
is described in the Chapt,er 42 and the same ceremony of images is described in Chapter 413
of tile PauikarasalfJhittl (Sree Samhita. edited by ItH. Sri YlliraJa Sampathku-
mara, Bangalore. 1934). Although these two chapters hold the name of prad\t,hlJ. it does
not give us the detailed process of this ceremony. 8,0' this sluJIlhita is skipped o,verin this
arti,cle. Recently P;P. Ap,t.e edited this safJl1hlti withBl1lgli.sh translation. but. unfortungtely it
ends with Cha.pter 26,
I.3S The Jayakh)'iaS describes the characteri,stic features Ind materials of the image
(bimba) (20.3-,69)., of the pedestal (Pflha)., of the sub-pedestal (upapf/ha) (20.70-9.5) and
of the temple (20.96-127).
136 The Ja)'lIkhyaS describes the erection of a shed (ma,,(lapa) named kaustubha
gem in front of the templ,e door (20.128·3Iab) and the time of execution this c,ere-
mony (20.131-32), .Ja)'akhyaS 20.13Scd·38ab lists five Rltan (vedi) In the sacrificial shed
(adhivllsamt:U)(lapa): the northern one for the fire-pit. the western one fol' openin.g the eyes.
the cenb'al ol1efor the lotlils-shaped ma"pcda. the eastern one for the couch (iayaI1Q) and the
southern one for the ba.thlng ritual.
137 The PdrameivaraS does not contain the verse that describes the worship of the main
water jar (SlllvataS 25.41 cd).
138 SalVa/aS 12.178ab enumerates five birds: Satya., SupaJ1)a, Garuc;la. and
139 The commentary (p.503) mentions that this siiman begins with 'Jokadviiram apii-
vmu'. which is unfortunately not specified.
140 Evil spirits obstructinl the sacrifice are removed by givina the divine sight (ava.
lokana, See Gmlda 19'69b: 45·46.
141 Se,e the commentary (p. 504): fBvedibhir ii/harva{likaiS ca
142 This may be a festive chariot (brahfMra/ha) seen in SalVa/aS 25.130b.
3. The features of the entrances (dvara), arched gates (torafJa) and
pits (kurJ4a) of the sacrificial shed are mentioned and it is stated that
if one is deficient of wealth, (vibhava), one can perform aJl the due
rituals only in a sacrificial shed instead of in three different sheds.
(SatyataS 25.23cd-38 ::: isvaraS ::: PilramesvaraS 15.
127cd-40ab; 144cd-46.)
4. One may hire another preceptor weB versed in mantras and ritual pro-
cess. All the utensils are placed in the sacrificial shed. The preceptor
worships the main water jar (kalaia) and performs the fire-offering
by way of a The arched gates and flags are put up. (SiltvataS
25.39-42ab::: lfvaraS 18.49cd-50, 51cd-52ab, Paramei·
varaS 15.165-66ab. 167. 174cd, 148ab.
5. Eight flags.are put up around the altar and the four birds beginning
with Satya
are worshipped with 'uta devil 10.137.1).
Various coloured discuses on the arched gates are worshipped with
(SatvataS 25.42cd-45ab =: livaraS 18.39cd-
40ab, 54ab, 55cd, 57ab, 58cd::; PiirameivaraS 15.148, 175ab, 176ab,
177cd, 179ab.)
6. The preceptor approaches the image with the assistant priests
(miirtidhara), sees it (avalokana) with netramantra
and strikes
it (ttiflana). With water from. the six. jars just placed, he washes it
worships it (abhyarcya) and wipes it (udvartya). Finally,
he washes it with the water empowered by the astraman·
Ira. (SatvataS =lSvaraS 18.59-62ab =PliramesvaraS
15.179cd-82. cr. JaylikhyaS 20.141 cd.)
7. He ties a thread around the wrist of the right hand of the image (prall.
sarabandhana) with 10.87.1; AV 8.3.1) recited by
the and Atharvaveda brahmins.
(Siitva/aS 25.49-50ab :;;:
lsvaraS 18.62cd-63::: ParamesvaraS 15.183-84ab.)
8. The image is put on an excellent chariot (rathottame).142 Four
Consecration of Divine Images in a Temple 169
170 From Material to Deity
mins standing on the right side of the chariot recite karmarambha
and another four brahmins representing the four Vedas stand on the
left side. The chariot proceeds accompanied by dancing,
music, etc. The brahminsrecite 'idalp vi cakrame'
1.22.17) and the Ekayana brahmins144 '0,?1 nama brahmal)e.' sakuna-
sukta (,f?V2.42.1-3) and the srfsukta 1.165). After donating of
gold, etc., to them, the preceptor makes. them enter the sacrificial
shed. (SatvataS 2S.S0cd-SSa == !svaraS 18.64-68ab ::: PiiramesvaraS
cr. JayakhyaS 20.142-44.)
9. Aspecial method for bringing a large image into a temple a.nd special
rules for the case of apainted image are laid down. (SatvataS 25.5Sb-
62ab::: fJvaraS 18.73cd, 7S-80ab::: ParamesvaraS lS.194.ab, 195cd-
10. After bringing the image into the sacrificial shed, the pr,eceptor places
it under the arched gate and performs the fire-offering (homa) with
the astramantra. (SatvataS 25.62cd-63ab == lsvaraS IS.82ab, 69ab :=
Parame§varaS lS.202cd, 189cd.)
The first day:
1. The ma.nner of setting up vess,els (kalaJasthiipana)146 for ablution:
forty vessels containing various items are sel on the left side, another
forty containing cold plain wat,er in the back side and another forty
containing fragrant water on the right side of the image.
143 The commentary (fl. 504) replaces it with vedaghofaand llso (p. 50S) indicates the
mantra beginning with 'bhagallalo balena' 0'1' the mafltra '0", bh.agavan eva
144 See note 198 on the Eklyana.
145 The livaraS and the PlJrame/varaS do 110t have parallel verses with SaMHaS
S6ab. See also the editor's note in the SiJtvataS (p. 50S).
146 For the manner of settin.g up ja.rs (kala.ta.sthiJpanavidhj). see BodhGSS 2.15.
2·10; HirGSS 1.7.15 (114, 15 - 115, 2], 17 (116, 6-22] and HjrGSS 1.3.2 [20. 21-29]
(kumbha.flhiipanavidh.i). This ritual figures in Bo,dhGSS 5.8. I (1.1'1 the ugraratha.JlJ.n.tividhi).
Furthermore kumbha.rthllpana appears in BodhGSS 4.20.2 [376, 12] Ilild HirGSS 1.6.22 [8'9,
22) .(jnthe gramasya urpiJra/li/'lti). This kumbhtutltlipatltl appears in KauiS 65.8. where AV
10.9.27 is used for seuing up a water pot (udakumbha) for washing and sipping Oil .\oClva,
a c,orrespondenceof the coronation ritual as seen in the Sraul8S£ltras. See Gonda 19Mb:
262-63 and Tsuchiyama [2] 1.2. KauiS 3. 1·2a150 describes the utlaplJtrasthapana. See
also VariihaP 180.14 kalata/1l.f caiva p(ltlamale .nhlipayet); 183.S; 184.9; AglliP

147 According to 18.164-165 and parameharaS the vessels are
classified into thr,ee ,roups. The firs.t fo'rty are called the (sthilltJ-para) to, be
used on the day of adhivli.ra, the second fo.rty called the (srhQla-sQlqma)
to be used 01'1 the day of the pralillM. and the third forty are caUed the 'gross-gross' (.flhUla-
.rrhula) to be used on the fourth day.
.;..:, ... _u., _
Consecration of Divine Images in a Temple 171
empowering them with the malamantra and the twelve-syllabled
mantra, the preceptor ties coils of thread around them, puts lids
on them and covers them with doth. (SatvataS 25.63cd-90ab;
SatvataS 25.86cd ::: IsvaraS 18.I63ab ::: ParamesvaraS 15.287ab;
SatvataS 25.85. cr. livaraS 18J62ab :::: Piirame.fvaraS 15.286ab.
Cf. JayakhyaS 20.J59-61ab.
2. He prepares two couches and worships Ananta, etc. there: one for
the rite of opening the eyes and another for the rite of adhiviisa,
with the recitation of the sarpasiiman
and the name-mantra con
sisting of knOWledge (jftiina) and strength (bala) (::::
(SiitvataS 25.90cd-92ab == !svaraS 18J84·cd-86ab ==
PiiramesvaraS 15.307cd-09ab.)
3. While offering one hundred and eight oblations to the fire with the
mu/amanira, the preceptor prepares a maIJljala. Then he perfoons
a fire-offering to appease any fault. (SiitvataS 25.92cd-93 ::: fSvaraS
=PliramesvaraS lS.309cd-l0.)
4. Near each fire-pit, he places a vessel and worships the Quadruple
god, who evolves Himself into four gods: Vasudeva,
Pradyumna and Aniruddha (ciit.uratmyatrl) there. A ladleful of obla-
Hon (pur1)ilhuti) is offered to the central fire-pit!' The Eldiyana
mins and the Yajurveda brahmins reCite the Atharvaveda formula
(asravita) 'purIJdt punfam' (AV 10.8.29). (SlitvataS 25.94-96ab ==
isvaraS 18.I 88-90ab ::: PliramesvaraS 15.311-13ab.)
5. Ablution of the image is done first with the water from the auspicious.
reciting the astramantra; then with clay-mingled water
(m.rdambhas) reciting the verses (TA 2.3)153 and the bala·
mantra; thi.rd, with cow-dung reciting 'iha giivaJf (AV 20.127.12);
fourth, with ash reciting 'bhutis tvam'; and lastly with paiicagavya
141 UvaraS 18.87-1416 and Piirame!varaS 15.212-72 explain the rite of immersing the
image in water (jaliidhivii.sa) for the manner of setting up vessels. So the parallel vers,es
with the StitvataS cannot be found in the !svaraS or the PiirameivaraS
149 Four jars are placed in the pericarp and sixteen jars arepla,ced in the sixteen petals
of the sketched lotus.
ISO According to the commentary (p. 510), tbe sarpaslinwn is the hymn beginning with
'car,yalJi'dhrtaf11. maghavanam' (SV 1.374).
151 is considered as consisting ofjliana and bala. See SlitvataS 3.6cd.
IS2 The commentary (p. 511) explains thai these are three pots for padya, arghya
and ileumana.
153 The kiitmiilJfla verses, namely, the four formulas of T.4 2.3appe.ar in GaulDhS 19.12;
20.12; 22.36; 241.. 9; BaudhDhS U9.16; 2.2.31; 3.7.1; 3.10.10; 4.7.5; VasDhS22.9;
28.11; Vi$lJuSm 56.7.
172 From Material to DeilY
reciting those four mantras together. After worshiping the image, the
preceptor sets it on the couch. (Sa/valaS 2S.96cd-1 OOab :::: [iva,:,aS
::: cr. JaytJkhyaS 20.
6. The manner of opening the eyes (nayanonmflana) is d'escribed. Then
a worshipp,er (liradhaka)lss gives honorariums including the stick to
the artisa.ns, a cow to the preceptor (guru) and as many
urns as possible to the other assistant priests (murtipa). (SatvalaS
!ivaraS 18.206ab, 207ab, Jab, 214cd =Param-
eivaraS 15.329ab. 330ab, 337cd. Cf. JaytikhyaS 20.16Icd-
7. The rite of bhiUasuddhi is performed to the image. This rite consists
of mentally burning (dahana) and drenching (iJpydyana) the image..
Then the image is imbued (nyaset) with the mantra
from the head to the feet The image is placed on the ba.thing stand
pervaded by seven pervading divinities (vyapli) such as Ammta and
so on. (SatvataS 25.106cd-8ab :: {/varaS 18.217, 218cd, 219cd =
PiirameivaraS 15.340. 341cd, 342cd. Cf. JayakhyaS
8. Ablution of the image is done with water. The' preceptor
firstly bathes it (sniipayet) with water from the vessels, cha.nting the
hrnmantra twelve times. The brahmins redte 'ofadhfniim' and then
'ya (RV 10.97.1). The four assistant priests (murtidha.ra)
sprinkle it with water from the four ja.rs. The brahmins
cite'ud uttamatrJ' (RV 1.24.) 5), the Yajurveda brahmins'
(VS TS, the Samaveda brahmins the vii.ru'.lasa.
man ('imam me srudhi' SV 2.935), the Athuvaveda. brahmins
'aya'11 te varu"ai 00', then the brahmins aga.in Ie'
(8V 9.83.1), the Yajurveda brahmins •vasal) pavUram asi' (VS 1.3 I
KS 1.3), the Samaveda brahmins 'pavitra'?'J tel (SV 2.225). The
Ekayana brahmins recite the four plivamani 9.67.21-27)
ivel.y, the paramantra, the vyuhamant.ra beginning with 'bhagavan
the pavUramantra (= 'pavitra'11 te'l;lV 9' .. 83.1) and 'idarp vi,,,ur vi
cakrame' (I;lVI.22.17). One sprinkles (secayitvlJ) the im.age with
water from the vessel empowered by the v.ibhavama.ntras. the vyuha.
154 The image is anointed with the water from ,el.ghl jars so thai an)' defect committed in
the workshop mIght be removed (karmasalotthado';avldhw.I.r,1sa.niJya).
Iss He is the same person as the sacrificeI' (yajamilna).
156 It is worth notinl that the slidhaka draws the ,eyes with a golden stilck (iallJldJ) Ind
the artisan makes them manifest with a knife (ialtra)" Afler this rima!. one who knows the
mantra (mantravid) releases the thread (kau'uka". mocayel paJcll/) (20, 138c).
-- --
157 Other manuscripts give 'dhiitar yeti' for 'ydtavyeti' of the text. So there is a
billly that the corre,ct mantra might be 'dhatar ayanru' (TA 7.4.3).
IS8 0trl aVlihayiimy bhu'IIanakilra/J.am apra-
meyam I adyaff,l sanliUmatanu'!l
pam II (StitvataS 25.119) dhyeyatrl para'?l sakalavedavidii11l ca vedya11l variihakiipilanrke-
.rarisaumyamurtim I kaumodakfkamalaiarikhara_
rhangahastam II (120) sarvatrago bhagavan kila yady api tvam lMihayiimi hi yathii vy-
ajanena vtiYUtn I gupko yathaiva dahano mathaniid upaiti dvdhlto 'pi hi ratM tvam upaili
cdrcam II (121) maltidharticyuta vibho paramiUmamtirte sarvajna niitha parameivara sar-
vaiakte I iJgaccha me kuru dayti1fl prarimii1'fl b.hajasva pQjam grhlll'}a madanugrahakilmyayti
'dya II (122)
159 The JaytikhyaS enumerates these ph.ases leading to the chariot procession (ratha-
yiilra). They are visualizations of both the image and the pedestal as consisting of all the
courses (adhvan) of both the pedestal and the bt:ahma-stone as being imposed
by the energy of support (adhtiraiakti) (189cd), covering both the and the
pedestal with cloth (l90ab), and waving lights (nirlijan.a) (I90cd).
160 Some Samaveda formula. is requested here. livaraS 18.236b reads "ard/as tu' lind
ParameivaraS 15.359b reads 'arcatatli. But, in my view, it is possible to read the formula
as 'arcata prarcata' (SV 1.362).
161 This is 'jitutrJ te namas te vi.fvubhlivana I nama.r te 'stu hr$ike.ia muha-
piirvaja II' ( SiJtvataS 7.25a. 26b, 27c, 28d). See also lAlqmrr 24.69; (lgvidMnQ
(Bhat's 3.175.
162 This be the gl'iyalrasaman. This is the giiyatrl verse sung in the saman manner.
paramantras and the paramcmtra. Last, one offers oblations to the
fire to compensate for any fault more than a hundred times. (SiitvataS
25.108cd-16 =lsvaraS 18.220-28ab =PiiramesvaraS 15.343-51ab.
Cf. JayiikhyaS 20. 170cd-79, 183-84ab.)
9. Infusing the vital air into the image the worship-
per infuses Off1 into the image. The brahmins recite 'mii pra
glima' 10.57.1), the Yajurveda brahmins liigneniiyur' (= 'agne
naya'? VS 5.36 / TS, the Samaveda brahmins
hi', the Atharvaveda brahmins va; nama/:l' (AV 11.4.1), and
the Ekayana brahmin the highest mantra beginning with 'ya tavya'
(= 'yii tava' VS 5.6; 5.40).157 (SiitvataS 25.]]7-18 = IsvaraS 18.
228cd-30ab = Piirame.rvaraS 15.351cd-53ab.)
10. The worshipper (iiriidhaka) recites the invocation (iiviihana) formu-
(SiitvataS 25.126-28 == fsvaraS 18.246cd-49ab = Piiramesva-
raS 15.369cd-72ab. Cf. JayiikhyaS 20.187cd. IS9) .
11. The image is wiped and worshipped with arghya, etc. The Vedic
brahmins recite 'arciimi te' 4.4.8), the Samaveda brahmins 'ar-
citas tu,I60 and the Ekayana brahmins (tajjiia) 'bhagavlin'. After the
fire is satisfied, the worshipper recites thejitantamantra,161 the Sama-
veda brahmins recite the giiyatrfsiiman ('tat savitur SV
2.812)162 and the rathantarasiiman (SV 1.233). (SiitvataS 25.123-
Consecration of Divine Images in a Temple
174 From Material to Deity
25 =livaraS := PiiramdvaraS 15..
Cf. JaylikhyaS 20. 184cd-87ab.)
12. The worshipper' perfo,rms the recitation Uapa), shows mudra
gestures), prostrates hims·elf (praf,liima) and makes a request (vijiUi.
pana).163 (Siitva.laS 25.126-28 = [ivaraS 18.246cd-249ab= Piiram·
eivaraS 1
13. A procession of the festiv,e chanot (brahmaratha). With 'ut tiltha'
1.40.1) recjted by the brahm'ins, the image is put on the
festive chariot. In order to ward off famine and deprivation
brahmins recite 4asya viimasya' (.{fV
1.164.1).164 the Ekaya.na bra.hmins the balamantrafive times, and the
worshipper himself recites the kavacamantra enveloped in the hrn.
After performing the bali-offering, donation of jewels, worship
of the divine sanctuaries (divyayatana) and the Plnlcadltra brahmins,
etc., the chariot proceeds for a distance of a hundred st.eps accom-
panied by music. Stopping it at the arched doorway, the preceptor
worships the god with plidya, arghya, flowers and incense, After
bowing down, he recites 'ut the mantra and
thejitantamantra. With the «(lV JO.90) it is brought into
the sacrificial shed (yagaveiman). (StitvataS 2S.129cd-38 = fsvamS
18.252-61= PiirameJvaraS 15.375-84. Cf. JaylJkhyaS 20.191-93.)
14. The image is laid down on the couch (sayylldhivasa) with the hrn.
mantra. After the in the procession (ylitrtihoma),a water
jar (gha!a) is placed on a discus near the head of the imag,e, and the
netramantra enveloped in the astramantras is worshipped there. The
image lying on the couch is worshipped with arghya, flowers, ,elc.,
and covered with the varmanmantra.
Each part of the image is imbued (nyaset) with the relevant man-
tras (lafichanamantra). The twelve VyLiha.ntara deities begi.nning
Sometimes other verses set in the gayatrf mell'e are used. See Olivelle 2000:712. This
sarna" appeal's as one of the purifica.tory texts in VlJ.rDhS 28.12.
163 The formula of the request is: 'mQrtibllillfma riJpel)a anenalva hi silmpf'Qlam 110·
kan ajfili.t;Qltllwa,'fu til samahllidaya nagaran II (StiwataS 25.127) yenlinlah sultlpr€lvl\fltJflQ
r,atkiilavaldl tu vai ljanmiJrI.tara·,f"lla.rroll.hlln mole.,:am ayfJnti ktlbl.11111l ( 128).
164 This is a rather lona hymn known as a.ry,avamryaof .{lV 1.164 contlIning
verses. This hymn is recited sBently 0101'18 with the ,i'Qlpkalpa formulae by the man who has
stolen gold 10 alone for Itle wron.g. See VdsDhS 26.6.
165 The worshipper recites first the IIrnmQ/'Itra. then Ihe k"vac.'amal'ltra and the hrnmantra
166 The twelve Vyfihintaras and their Saktis (in square brackets) ar,e as follows; Kebva
Narayal)a (VaaUvarY), Mlldhava (KantO, Govinda (Kriyli), (Sakti), MadllU.
sMana (Vibhiiti), Trivikrarna (lcchi), Vimana '(Priti), Sridhara (Rati), (Maya),
Padmanabha (Dhi) and Damodara (Mahima). The SiJtvataS, chapter 8, desribes elaborately
how they evdve themselves from the Vyiiha deities. See Gupta 1992.: See also note
167 According to th,e commentary (p. 515). the seed mantra of the lord is that of
1611 This is in contrast to the creative (pr:abhavQ or order. In the rite of bhutaJutidhi,
a worshipper visualizes that each element of all the ontoloaical realities constituting his
body resolves into its preceding source, until ill the end he is resolved in his cosmic source
). This is called the absorptive order. See Gupta 1972: 202, n. 2 and Gupta 1979:
136. Usually the creative order is clockwise, while the absorptive order is counterclockwise.
169 These are the mantras that achieve absorption (upa.sa'!thara). See commentary on.
p.515. .
170 To the ritllal acts descri.bed by the SiJtvataS the JayiikhyaS adds the sprinkling of
with Damodara, their Saktis beginning with Mahima,166 the seed-
mantra of the lord (aiSvarelJa bfjena),167 the mantras indicating each
part of the image and the highest mantra (= the mulamantra) are
placed onto the twelve parts of the image from the fe,et to the head
in absorptive order (apyayayuktyii).168 The god is visualized as tran-
quil as the ocean without waves. The Pancaratra brahmins recite the
mantras like 'vidyii1f1 gadii1f1', etc.,169 and the mantra named 'sup-
The brahmins recite 'jfmutasya' 6.75.1)
and 'nasad lisft' 10.129.1). Fire-offerings of a hundred, fifty or
twenty-five times are performed while placing each mantra on the im-
age, and lastly a ladleful of oblation is performed. Next the preceptor
meditates on the highest brahman manifesting itself (abhyudita1tt)
along with the essence of all its saktis, and then on the mUlamantra
accompanied by the radiating six saktis in the heart-lotus (lotus
located at the heart part) of the image (bimbahrtpadmaga1f1).
The bhutaiuddhi is performed on the image.. Through this ritual
by meditation-visualization, each of the five elements (dravya) con-
stituting the image is resolved into its preceding source successively
untH in the end into the cosmic source (prakrti). Thereafter all the ele-
ments which constitute the image ar'e re-created in a fresh and pure
state. The Atharvaveda brahmins recite 'sahasrafirasQrp devam' and
brahmins recite 'dhiitary 'yo visvatas calqur'
10.81.3). j dhyiitavyo bhavati', 'dvli suparlJii' 1.164.20), 'ato
1.22.16), the (.1,lV 10.90) and 'paratamii tu'.
(SlitvataS 25.139-59ab = fsvaraS 18.262cd-63, 268cd, 283cd-300 =
ParamesvaraS 15.385cd-86, 391cd, 393ab, 406ab, 408-25ab. Cf.
JayakhyaS 20.194-200.
Consecration of Divine Images in a Temple
176 From Material to Deity
15. He worships the lord of mantra now staying in the image lying on
the bed. He should ensure the presence of God o'n
the ma1Jflala until the end of the ceremony. (Salva/aS 25. 159cd-60
= iJvaraSI8..302ab. ::: Piirame!varaS ]5.563cd, 566. Cf.
JayiikhyaS 20.207cd-21 ab.
16. The head of the image is sprinkled with water from the vessels repres-
enting their figures (murtlkumbha). Fire-offering is performed in the
central fire-pit and in the fire-pits in the eight directions. with ghe,e
(tijya) , etc., in order to satisfy the god and his .attendants, and then
a ladleful of oblation is made. In order to infuse more power (iipylJ-
yana) to the mantras,each of the four material!s like ghee, etc., is
offered in the fire twelve times after touching the respective
parts of the image while reciting the hrnmantra four times for each of-
fering (iihuti) made. Finally,. he mixes these four materials and offers
them in the fire after touching the fuU Jength of the image. (SlitvataS
25.161 =:: fsvaraS 18.305cd, 3J 317cd-22 ::::: ParameJ-
varaS 15567ab, 576, 579, 584cd-88. cr. JayakhyaS
17. Fir,e-offering is performed one hundred and eight times to consec-
rate (sarp.skrtya) the pedestal and the (.filii). The Vedic
brahmins and the Ekaya.na brahmins recite the gilyatrfman,tra (.{?V
3.62.10) and 'ajasya nllbhiiv' (8V 10.82.6). is then
made with the mantra for carriage (vahanamantra:;
and others. (SCitvataS := l!varaSI8.323cd-29ab;;;; Pdram-
18. The god is confined (saftlrodha) along with his attendants until the
end of the ceremony.ln (SatvalaS 25.174-75 = fJvaraS 18.329cd-
31 ab =PiiramesvaraS 1: 5.595cd-97ab.)
19. The brahmins are fed and given honorariums. (SiitvataS 25.176-77ab
= lJvaraS 18,331cd-33ab::: PararnesvaraS 15.5,99-600.)
the head of the ima.ge with water for appeasement (8rJnlylldaka) (20.203-4ab) and repetition
or the mantras to be used in that ritual fjapaf(l c:a ktlrmamantrlJ".tJtf1) and tile ofJ\ering of
bali-food (204cd-5ab).
171 This method is known 8.S 'adhivlisana by meditation (ci"ylina)' by means of which
the god is stabilized. This is followed by the method of granting the paramount lordship
to the image (JayakhyaS 20.221 cd-31), unhing the imag,e wimh sound (.rabda.ramlihi1r1u)
and uniting the im.age with mantra (manlrasQrtldhrJfla) (20.244-881:1).
172 AU the priests. such IS the preceptor (ilciJrya) and asslstarll pri.ests (rtlllj), partake
in this confinement. The deities presiding over the assistant priests standina in the flre-phs
dug olll in the four cardinal dilrections, reside In their respective images (m.i1rtj) of Vlsudeva.
Sa·fJlikar$al}a, Pradyumlll and Aniruddha. In this else the rtllij means the l11i1rtidhara or 'the
bearer of the figure'. And the god, residing in the four fire-phs, lives In the words and sounds
of those v,cry Vedas (.trlltimaya.rya) which conslructed him. See the commentary (p. 520).
20. While the god is sleeping, the Ekayana brahmins recite the twelve-
syllabled malamantra and the Vedic brahmins recite orp. to the ac-
companiment of singing of the eulogies, dancing, etc. (SiitvataS
25.177cd-79ab::: iSvaraS 18.333cd-34ab, 335cd, 336cd::: Parames-
varaS 15.603, 605ab, 606ab. Cf. JayakhyaS 20.248cd, 294cd,)
The second day: 173
1. The worshipper enters the temple and removes any obstacle (vighna)
there. By dividing the sanctum sanctorum into seven parts, one makes
out forty-nine grids, which are classifi,ed into four groups of domain:
pisaca, manava, deva and successively from out-
The central hole (svabhra) is dug out to install the brahma-
(SatvataS 25.179cd-92; SatvataS 25. 179cd-80, 187cd, 189cd,
191cd, 192ab;;: lSvaraS 18.346, 347ab, 357, 358ab, 359ab; SatvataS
25.179cd-80, 191cd, 192ab =PiiramesvaraS 15..6] 5cd-66, 704.
Cf. JayiikhyaS 20.294cd-96ab.
2. After the hole is first sprinkled with water imbued by the astramantra
and then anointed with sandal, etc., with the hrnmantra, the mantra-
formed deities already confined in the pots (gha!a) are transferred
mentally and reconfined to that hole. He worships these deities and
173 According to llvaraS 18.339-40al> and ParameSvaraS 15.608cd-9, they k.eep vigil
(jiiga,.a) that night and when the night is over, the chief priest bathes himself and commences
the due ritual in the temple: eval7l krtviidhivasa1/11U jagare1)a nayen niJam I prabhalaya'!1IU
iarvaryii1/1 kriyalJ.lI a/varaS 18.339) iirabhel paiciid
I (340ab).
According to JayiikhyaS 20. at the auspicious time, the chief priest declares the
commencement of the installation of the image onto the pedestal: bha-
gavan sQI1IQj.fta Iwrul,liispada 1/ (20.293cd) niveJayami Ie ytJvat pribiJde brahmapi!hikiim f
174 See Kramrisch 1946: 79-97 on the structure of the and ibid..
232-33 on the pro'portions of the temples. See also, the Mayamata (edited and translated by
Bruno Dageos, Publications de l'lnstitut FranJ;ais d'indoloaie, No. 410.1, Pondichery: 1970)
vol. I, pp. 13-16; Garu"aP 1.46-47; Colas 1986: 23-66.
175 SatvataS 2S.185cd mentions that the central grid known as the storie (Jila) is used
to install the imag,e of the Quadruple god; ciJluratmyapratiflhtiyal7l Jill1khytJl7J nwdhyamaPlJ
padam" (l8Sed).
176 It is hardly possible to find many parallel passagCli of the Sl1rvataS in the [!varaS
and the Paramesv,araS, because livaraS 18.339cd-63ab not only describes these do-
mains (paiiaca. and brahma) more elaborately but it also sugaests the way
of installing tile images of deities, whereas piJrame!varaS lS.609-732ab enumerates various
divisions of the s,anctum sanctornm such as seven, eight., nine, etc., and the way of inslalliing
the m.ula.bimba. karmabimbo, etc., or four or nine forms (navamilrti) of the Quadruple god.
177 He should get rid of obstacles witlt both the cakramantra and theastramamra.
177 Consecration of Divine Images in a Temple

178 From Material to Deity
performs fire-offering ending in a ladlcfll) of oblation with 'prati.y!ha.
sf (TA 4.42.1). A stone with ninc apertures is set there. (SalValaS
25. 193-97ab = lfvaraSI8.363cd-67 = ParamdvamS 15.732cd-36.
cr. JaytikhyaS 20.296cd-306.
3. The manner of putting jewels, etc. (ratnl1dinyii.m), into the nine aper-
tures of the stone (Jilavatefu): first some materials are pul in the four
apertures in the cardimlil directions five by five in t.hc creative order,
i.e. clockwise standing from the east. Then other materials arc put in
the four apertures in the corners in the ahsorptive order, I.e. counter-
clockwise, from the north-east All of these nUllcria)s are together put
in the central aperture. The Yajurveda hrahmins recite the cama\w!ka
(the camaka-sukta, VS 18.1-27). (Sl7tllataS 25. I97cd-206ab == f.{varaS
18.368-76 = PiiramesvaraS 15.737-45. Cf. Jayiikhyc4S
4. The pedestal is put on the stone and the discus (cc4kra), etc., are put
in the aperture of the pedcstal.
(SlUvcltaS :;:;; f.fvaraS
] 8.377-82 = Piirame.fvaraS 15.746-51. Cf. JayiikhyaS 20.319-23.)
5. The preceptor wakes up the god (pmbodhayet), lifts up t.hc god whose
sleep is shaken off with the hrnmantra and erects (uu}u7pya) him with
his name-mantras (murtimantra) along with the help of other priests
(murtidhara). The image which is taken out through the arched door-
way, goes around the temple clockwise four times. Then after being
worshipped at the door with padya, arghya and (icammla,180 the im-
age is brought into the temple with the hnul'Iantm. The brahmins
(tadvidas) recite 'catu§ cakra' and 'pumm ekiidasa'. The feet of
the image are wrapped in silk cloth imbued by the varmanmantra,
while reciting the Jikhiimantra. The image is put on the pedestal with
1711 A pOI (kala.fa) is inserted into the hole (.tvuhhm). It is conch-shell shaped, made of
gold or copper,alld is of four cubits. A hrahma-slone is put onlo tile pot. See JaytikhyaS
179 In the case of insta.lling the Quadruple god (caUm'1fm(m), five malerials such as a
discus, Ananta, II tortoise, al1sh and a lotus are placed 011 IIpcrturc. See commenta.£)' on
ISO Water for ritual sipping. See Brunner 2000: 174-76. 011 the ritual of sipping waleI'
(iicamana), see Kane II: 315- 16. Gonda [1972b: 6] emUllerales lTIulnly the DharmasOtra
references to this ritual. See also Gonda J989': 53: P'"dmuP I.49.114cd-120ab; SkandaP; MBh 14, Appendix 1530-38. See Kane II: 701-2 on the manner of this .
ritual. See DevfblziigavataP 11.3.1 On the six bnds of the .ticam(Jf1(I. lind DevrbhagavataP
11.3.2 on the various o'ccasions of this BUhn,cmanll if 1988: 65] mentions tlull the
offering of water for sipping (acamanlYa) is not counted separately whenil follows sOIne
services, like the food offering.
About the water for this rite (acamanrya), see AgnrP 34.21, cd; 57.23ac: SivaP 2.1.11.
41 cd-42ab. BodhGSS 2.13.21 suggests various ingredients for preparing this Willer.
181 According to the commentary (I'. 526), there may be two mantras beginning with
'prali$!hiisi' (TA 4.42.1) both in the and Siimaveda, or in the Samaveda
and 'dhruvii dyaur' 10.173.4) in the Yajurveda.
182 According to the 'JayakhyaS. a request to the god is added 10 the installation of the
image on the pedestal. The request is 'iiradhito 'si bhagavan siidhakanii,!, hitiiya ca I tvaya
'py anugrahiirtlw,!l eel vastavyam iha sarvadii /I (20.331) tvat]11i$!hasi prabho yalra latm
siddhir na I bhaved vai siidhakendriif).iim ity ukra,!, ea plml rvaya /I (332) tasma(d)
dhruvaF?1 sada sanukampi'iparo mahan I sada hy anugrahaparas tif,hasva candmta-
rakam II (333).'
183 About the features of the cement, g,ee BrharS (Bhat ed.) 57 and 3.92.1- ]:5.
184 Sec also SiitvaraS 25.284 on the infusion of the limb-mantras into each part of the
temple: trya/fl,(ena ;(ikhariid ucca/fl I sarrtskrtya dhvajadaf,lpaF?1 ea
.fikhiimantref,la vinyaset II.
ISS The sixteen BhavopakarlUJ3! deities are from Kala, Viyat, Niyantr, Sastra to Vasudha.
See SiitvataS 9.95cd-96ab. About the Vibhava gods, see SaIVataS 9.77-84cd.
, 'I
179 Consecration oj Divine Images in a Temple
the two mantras indicating the (SiitvataS 25.212-20ab =
lSvaraS 18.383cd-89ab; 395-98; 401 ab = ParameivaraS 15.783-85,
792-95; 798ab. Cf. JayiikhyaS 20.324-26ab; 326cd-28c.)
6. The image- is shifted a little outwards from the centre. The reason
is that the highest God, though retaining His own essence which
is quiescent brahman, evolves into Vasudeva having six aUributes
in order to seek the welfare of all beings. (SiitvataS
25.220cd-22ab ;::: !svaraS 18.401cd, 403-4ab = PiirameSvaraS 15.
798cd, 800-1 abo Cf. JayiikhyaS 20.328d-34ab.
7. After untying the amulet thread (kautuka) from the wrist of the image
with the hrnmantra, he fixes the image, the pedestal and the stone
with cement (vajralepa)183 empowered by the hrn- and the astra-
mantra. (SatvataS 25.222cd-24ab ;:;:; [svaraS 18.404cd-6ab = Piira·
mesvaraS t5.801cd-3ab.)
8. The preceptor visualizes that the mUlamantra pervades the whole of
the temple from the base to the top of the flag.. This is the general
way of joining the image (siimiinyasa/fldhiina). Its special joining
sarrdhiina) is that the mulamantra is divided into six parts
according to its limb-mantras and these are joined to the brahma-
stone as their gross (sthl1la) feature, to the pedestal as their subtle
feature and to the image as their highest (para) feature. 184
(StitvataS 25.224cd-26 ;:: f§varaS 18.411-13ab = ParameSvaraS 15.
814cd-l?, 823cd-24ab. Cf. JayakhyaS 20.334cd-40ab.)
9. The nyasa of Bhavopakaral)as deities from Kala to Vasudha
is per-
formed on the base of the pedestal. If they are not available, the nya.
sa of thirty-eight Vibhava deities from,Patalasayana to Padmanabha
is performed from the spot of the main water jar to the upper part of
180 From Malerial to Deity
the pedestal. (Satya/aS 25.227-29:= f./varaS 18.413cd-14ab, 415cd-
J7ab =: PiirameivaraS 15.. 824cd-25ab, 826cd-28ab. cr. JayakhyaS
10. While the image of Ganu;la is installed, the brahmins r:e'cite
'si' (VSI2.4; 17.72 I TS 3; and the aslraman·
Ira. (SawalaS 25.230-37ab :: fJvaraS 18.430cd-37 :: Parame./varaS
11. The image in the sanctum sanctorum (devanikerana) is bathed (snapa-
nTyas) with water from the forty .vessels set down beforehand behind
the image in the bathi.ng shed. Fi.rst, the brahmin sprinkles
(secayet) the image with wa.ter from a vessel infused with the agha-
mar.,alJ.amantra 10.190.1-3)186 and lhe and
then the worshipper himself sprinkles the image with water from
six vessels infused with the six angamantras like the hrnmantra and
the rest. Second, the Yajurveda brahmin and the worshipper do the
same. Third, the Samaveda brahmin and the worshipper do the same.
Fourth, the Atharvaveda brahmin and tbe worshippe.r do the same.
Fifth. the worshipper and the Ekayana brahmins sprinkle the image
with the wat·er from four vessels infused with the pavitramantra. 1,87
At each interval they sprinkle the ima.ge with water from four vessels
empowered by the mantras of the Quadrupl,e deities (caturmartima-
yair mantrair). Lastly, the worshipper .gathers the remaining water in
a pot (gha!a), empowers it with the mUlamantra and the paramantra
a hundred times, and sprinkles the head of the ima.ge with this wa.-
ter while all others reFite thejitantamantra.' (SllwataS 25.237cd-44c
=: lJvaraS 18,,438ab, 443-49c = PilrameJvaraS 15.856ab,
Cf. JayakhyaS 20.343a.
186 This is the hymn used in a particular ritual to efface sins. See G.autDhS 19.12; 24. ]0,
12; BaudhDhS 2.8.11; 2.17.37; 3.4.. 5; 3.S.. 3.10.10; 4.2.7,]S; 4.3.7; 4.4.2; VlJsDhS 22.9':
23.19,23; 26.8; 28.]1; \1fQuSm 56.3,; MUfluSm H.260·; MBh 12.148.26-27ab; /.l8\1idMna
4. 120..22ab; A.tvGPS 1.4 [] 42, 10- 11); I..i.lllymlT 42.1 ];. Kane n: 317, 686; Tokunlgl 19'97:
292, note on the 8.92cd-93ab. See Brunner 2000: 89. (Jup'ta [1912: 219. n.. 4)1 giv,es th,e
tanbic aghomortaf,'t' rite which differs somewhat from the Vedic one.
181 These Ire the four vessels infused with the mantra that begins with 0'71 Ind ends in
the pavi/ramanlra. See SiilVataS 24. 290ab. This pav/truman"" seems 10 be 'pavi'rclI7'te
vitatam' 9.83.1 )..
188 According to the JayiikhyaS,. after the ablution, the adep't worships the goo at the fOUir
places such as mtlQpala, etc. (20.343b-44ab),. for the installation of tbe Bod
.46ab), praises the god (346od-48ab)., does the clrcumambuladon and pays reverenoe lollile
god throws bali-food and lasl1yofferl a ladleful of oblation 11'1 the
fire to appease the faults of ex,c,es.sand deficiency (352).
12. The temple is purified with water infused with the astramantra and
worshipped with various materials without bathing. (SlitvataS 25.
244d-45; SaNataS 25.244d-45a := [fvaraS 18.449d- 50a = Piiramef-
varaS 15.866b-c.)
13. Honorariums to the main worshipper (guru) and other priests (murti-
dhara) are given. He bows down to the god (pra1J.llmya)
and asks a favour of the god (vijiiiipya).189 Then going outside. he
rins,es his mouth. the bali-food and enters the temple again.
(SiitvataS 25.246-48 = [svaraS I8.454ab. 456-57, 468cd =Piiramef.
varaS 15. 870cd, 871cd-73ab. 889cd. Cf. JaylikhyaS 20.353-58ab.)
The fourth day after the proper installation:
1. After the worship of the image•. the worshipper with the help of the
assistant priests performs the bathing ritual (sniinakarma) with water
from the forty vessels sanctified by the hrnmantra and placed
hand on the right side of the ima.ge in the bathing shed. Then he wor-
ships the image in the temple with thre,e kinds of offerings, 191 shows
hand-gestures (mudrii) , redt'es the mantra Uapet). praises the god,
asks for his favour and goes outside. (SiitvataS 25.249-52 =IsvaraS
18.469-72 = PiiramesvaraS 15.890-93. Cf. JayiikhyaS 20.358cd.)
2. Fire-offering: The preceptor (mantrara}) offers one thousand and
eight or one hundred and eight oblations to the fire. Other priests
offer hundreds of times with the gay.atrr
preceded by 0trl and the
Ekayana brahmins do the same with the name-mantras of the Quad-
ruple god. While offering a ladleful of oblation (pur'.liihuti), first the
189 The formula for asking a favour is' tvam arcantargato deva mayii yaccMyaniidifu I
nito 'ri cabhimukhyam tu qantavyam tan mamiicyuta II (SatvataS 25.247)',
190 The commenliry (p. 531) gives simply 'on the fourth day' (caturthe 'hani), but. the
commentary (p. 227) of the JayiikhyaS says 'on the fourth day from day of
don' (prati.1!htidinac caturthadine). According to JayiikhyaS 20.357-58ab. one should keep
offering oblations of the sacrificial fire for four days after the day of installation.
191 Siilva/aS 25.252a makes mention of enjoyments beginning with seats (bhogatr
iiranapiirvais). This seems to indicate the four kinds of offerings described in SliwataS 6.23-
69ab:iisaniidyupaciira. snanasaniidyupacara. alatikiirasanopacara and bhojya.ranopaciira.
Ahirbudhnyasamhil:ii 28.36cd-79ab enumerates six kinds of mantriisana.
sniiniisana, alankiirdsana, bhojyiJsQnQ, mantrasanQ again and paryarikiisana. iA4mTF39.2-
32 also gives six kinds of seat-offerings; asana. sniJ.niisana. alatikarasana. bhojyllsana.
mantrasana and paryatikasana. See Gupta 1972: 248, n. I; Brunner 2000: ] (ala.'7l-
karasana); (l4pacara).
192 The gayatrimantra seems to indicate here the VifQugiiyatri. Usua!1y the mantra reads
'niiraya.Q,aya vidmahe vaslldevliya dhfmahi I tan no pracodayuJ II' (TA 10.1.6), but
JayakhyaS 7.104-6 reads 'om vitvarapaya vidmahe viivatftaya dhfmahe I tan no pra-
181 Consecration of Divine Images in a Temple
182 From MaJerial to Deity
Vedic brahmins and then the Ekayana brahmins pur.
':lam' (AV 10.8.29) and 'pur1J.am asi' (TS L6.5.1). After reciting that
mantra with reverence of salutation, he prostrat.es himself, satisfies
the spirits with the bali-offering, enters the templ'e and begs foregive-
ness from the god who resides in the main water jar, the
ma1Jt!ala and the the-pit at the same time. (SiilvataS 25.253-58ab ::;
isvaraS 18,473-78ab = Piirame.tvaraS 15.894-99ab. Cf. JaytikhyaS
3. The worshipper adorns the preceptor"etc., with ornaments, donates
the sacrificial materials (yiigadravya) to him or his son. The image
should be provided with attendants who care for daily services i:n the
temple.. (SiitvataS 25.258cd-60ab; SiitvataS 25.258cd-59ab::; lsvaraS
18.479 = PiirameivaraS ]5.900. Cf. JayiikhyaS 20.361ab-62.
From SiitvataS 25.260cd onwards, the Sii/varaS describes the man-
ner in which a vessel is placed on top of the temple and thei:nstaUation
ceremony of the temple itself (prasiidaprati.,:!hii). The !.(var:aS and the
PiirameSvaraS do not include parallel passages to the SiitvataS any more
from fsvaraS 18.480 and ParameSvaraS ]5.90 I onwards. So we may
conclude that the ceremony of the divine image is over at this
point. The JaytikhyaS adds the special' met.hod of the installation of a pk-
ture (lepabhittipa!asthiiniim) (20,364cd-68ab) and the rite of replacing a
damaged image with a new one (bhagne bimbe) (20.368cd-86).
Comparing the SiitvataS with the JayiikhyaS, we find several dif-
ferences between them. The first difference is that the SiitvataS starts
the proper installation day by saying, 'One should enter the l.emplc with
arghya water, flowers and unhusked rice grains (ak,'ata) in one's hand'
(25. I79cd), while the JayiikhyaS lays down certain detai.ls of rit,es to be
performed before the most auspicious moment (lagnaktila) arrives on the
day of instaBation.
193 This means 'allowing the invoked dcily to go' (vi.mrjm/fl). This is performed utlhe
end of any ritual. On the contrary, the invocation (av£l.hllflu) is performed III the beginning.
See commentary on p. 531. SP IV: 3.511 breads: k.yama.l'Veri vi.l·arjlmam. See liiso Brunncr-
Lacl1aux's note on that verse (p. 234, 11. 130),
194 According to JayiikhyaS 20.360-61 ab, towards the end is worshipped
in a jar fuJI of water (toyapiirite). is the deily who functions as the remover
of all obstacles in any lernple or sacrific·e. Be is worshipped by offering bali-food, See
SiitvaraS Lak.pniT 40.78-84; JaytikhyaS 15.242-44 lind GUplll I. 976. The jar
full of water (piirt:takumbha) is a source of well-being. blessing. prosperity. from which one
expects to acquire fullness. abundance, Clc. See Gonda 1980c: 131.
195 JayiikhyaS 20.363-64ab gives the final bath (avabhrtha) as the /lnal element of Ihe
ceremony. This Vedic I,erm appears oHenin the fiincaralra texts. Sec Brunner 2000: 150.
1\16 These rites are a visualization of the god as descending from the highest slllte (paral
Consecration of Divine Images in a Temple 183
The second difference is that the SatvataS gives the first few words
of each Vedic mantra, while the JayiikhyaS does not describe any Vedic
mantra but uses only the PauraQic mantras, even if the four Vedic brah-
mins take part in this ceremony.
The third difference is that in the SatvataS, the Ekayana brahmins or
the Pancaratra brahmins play an important role in this ceremony. They
recite their own mantras like the mu[amantra, its six angamantras, etc.,
along with the four Vedic brahmins who recite their own mantras. In the
JayakhyaS, we can see several terms like paiicariitra (l6.342d; 20.265b),
ekantin (20.266a; 21.80b; 22.l3b), vaikhanasa (l8.54c; 20.266d; 21.81c;
22.15a) and siitvata (20.267c; 21.8181; 22J6d).197 Though they are dif-
ferent tenus, aH of them recite the Ekayana
mantras. So they seem to
belong to the same sect. Rather, we can see a c.lear difference between the
JayakhyaS and the StitvataS in the following point The JayiikhyaS men-
tions that the director selects four iiciiryas or siidhakas at the beginning of
this ceremony. This means that the siidhaka has performed temple wor-
ship in place of the iiciirya or under his Originally the sadhaka
is supposed to have been adept at magic who after having mastered his
own mantra, can perform black or white magic like $a!karman
for the
padar) (JayakhyaS 20.249), unification of the pedestal, the brahma-slOne and the image
(250-51 ab), the rite of m.antranyii.ra and the worship of the image (251 cd-60),
ments of the priests in their respective directions (261-74ab), of the elements
(rattvapaddhafi) of the brahma-slone and Ihe pedestal, offering of oblation.s 10 the fi re with
the adhiira.rakfimanfra (274cd-76). sprinkling for app,easemenl (;fanryudaka) on
bruhma-stone, the pedestal and the image with the mulama1ltra, making a to the
god for staying (.rarflnidhyaprartharw) (277-80ab), erection of the image, prostration 011 the
ground with his eight limbs and worship of the god in the manner of laya and bhoga (cf.
JayakhyaS 12.76cd-82ab) (280cd·82). offering of oblations of four materials to the fire to
propitiate the Vibhava gods, the Vyliha gods and the subtle mantra-formed god (.riintihoma),
offering of oblations to the fire after touching the respective parts of tile image with the five
upclngamanfras from Aninlddha to Satya, offering of a ladleful of buuer oblation with the
millamantra. giving honorariums, ctc., to other assistant priests (283-92).
197 These terms often appear in the twelfth volume of Mahiibhiirata (critical edition,
Poona). See the E-lcxl of Mahiibhiirata arranged by Prof. M. Tokunaga.
I\lll This Ekayana is traditionally considered a Vedic school (,(llkhti) which belongs to
the Vajasaneyin of the White Yajun1eda. Traditionally, it is also considered as the root Veda
(mulavel/a) expounded by Vasudeva. lSvaraS 1.64-66ab mentions that Had taught the
Veda which expounded to Ihe world. The divine texts such as the SiitvataS, the
Pflrame,fvaraS and the JayakhyaS originated from this Veda. The commentary (p. 12) of the
Siitvat-aS says that the Ekiiyana Veda emerged from the root-Veda for the sake of people as
follows: yac cha.l'tram lastram. tasman mulavec/cld jagaduddhara1)iiya
parisrtam. See Gqnda 1977,01, 50, n. 84; Bhattacharya 1967: 206; Dasgupla 1922: 21;
Brunner 2000: 2S1 (ekiintill), 252 (ektiyana). This lerm also appears in ChandogyaU 7. I.2.
199 These are ltinti, vasfkarm.1Q. s/ClTr'bhana, uccafanG and maralJQ. There are
From Material to Deity
sake of others. On the other hand, t.hc liclirytzis authorized to maintain
his own tradition by having disciples under him and imparting them the
initiation ceremony The fact that the siidhaka performed thiS kind
of worship in a temple indicates that the original notion mentioned above
slowly disappeared and the sildhaka's role bccanlc mingled with that of
the aclirya.
The fourth difference is seen in the rile of infusing the vital air into the
image In the SiitvataS, this rite is performed by the
four Veda brahmins and the Ekayana brahmins wilh the recitation of their
own mantras, before invoking the god. On the other hand, neither does
this term nor does a similar kind of ritual feature in the JayiikhyaS. Among
the Paficaratra texts, we find the rhe of infusing the vital air, for example,
in Nliradfyasa1flhitii ] 5.]: 88-20Iab, a text compiled luter. It rnentions that
the rite of imposing the individual soul is performed on the
image after its installation on the pedestal. First several kinds of
aplina, samiina, udiina, etc.- arc imposed on the respective parts of the
image, and then the individual soul is soon infused in the image (sajlvii
jiiyate 202
The fifth difference is that the SiitvataS lays emphasis all the
ruple god (ciituratmya I caturvyaha), namely, Vasudcv,l,
Pradyumna and Aniruddha, while JaytikhyaS enumerates five
deities named upiingapancaka., putting Satya at the head of these four
deities. Satya also appears in SatvataS 5.68-79 as one of the fOUf deit-
ies in the absorptive order, namely, Satya, Acyuta and Vasudeva.
So what is remarkable here is not the appearance of but. the differ-
ence in numbers, namely, fOUf in the SatvawS ,md nve in the JaylikhyaS.
Concerning the number five, Goudriaan says that in the temple of the
Vaikhanasa sect, five figures are arranged in the four cardinal directions
and the centre. These are Satya, Acyutu, Aniruddha and
in the centre.
Nevertheless, his too audacious 10 concliude that the
olher varialions to Ihis ;ra{karman. See Gupta 1979: 35 lIlid Goudrillun 1978.
20() Se,e Brunner 1975: 439-42 and Gupta 1983: 87-88.
201 See Kane II: 900: Bi.ihnemann 1991.
202 The rite of infusing vital air is less common than the rite of imposing the individual
soul. See 2.3.1 Oab. AgniP 59.1 cd-40ub; 60.19cd-23 describes this
in detail. According 10 3.101, one performs invocation of the individual soul
Ufvasyiivahana) in the process of the adlrivii.rCl. The lIexl chapter mentions this Inanrra
(3.102.1-7). Sec also Hrunner-Lachaux 1998: 216, n. 94, conccl'lling cailtlllymryii.\Y/ or }fva-
21J3 See Goudriaan 1965: 116-17,230·40; Colas 1984: 354, 366. About Satya. see
Gonda 1968.
Consecration of Divine bnages in a Temple ]85
JayiikhyaS was influenced by the Vaikhanasa sect. Though SlitvataS 5.2-8
mentions the four seeds of brahman (brahmabfja) without a detailed ex-
planation, Lak.pl1fT ]9.30-33 and AhirS 16.83-85 mention five seeds of
brahman (paiicabrahmabfja), namely, k\m (= Satya); ha (= Vasudeva), sa
(= !fa (= Pradyumna) and sa (= Aniruddha). Hence, it may
be mentioned that the SiitvataS emphasizes the number four much more
than the other Paiicaratra scriptures.
6, Some Features of the Prati#hii Ceremony
6.1 Qualifications and Number of Officiants
In the ceremony described above, several kinds of personnel
have a role to play. Their number varies according to the text, and their
nameS are common in some texts and different in others. Hence, it is
important to focus on their names, numbers and functions here.
First the names of the priests and their qualifications wHl be invest-
igated. In the sect of Rangachari [1931: 99-101] mentions
both Arcakas or Bhanar the specially trained and initiated
men who carry out all the temple rituals connected with daily worship,
worship on special occasions and the establishment of idols and invoking
of god's spirit. These men are distinguished from the ordinary
Q8vas in that the former are ordered to go through the cakrabjamalJflaia
dfkshai only after the upanayw1Q ceremony, while the latter undergo the
sami'iSraya'!a ceremony after the upanayana. Rangacharl [1931 :115] then
mentions that once this ceremony has taken place, a very com-
petent person is selected from amongst the BhaHars. Such a person knows
the processes to be performed during this ceremony. In order to assist him,
two or three other Arcakas are also sdect,ed. The Arcaka selected for
forming the chief role in the ceremony is called the iiciirya and the other
assistants are called rtviks. The number of rtviks may be sixteen at the
most but the minimum required is two. The various articles in
this ceremony are obtained and brought in at the appropriate time by 8
pariciiraka. He does not take part in the actual ceremony.
Among the Piincaratra texts,204 the SiitvataS also mentions several
personnel involved in this ceremony (25.1 First come the as-
sistant priests called murtipa (38d, 106b, 25481).205 In the commentary
204 As regards the personnel in the VHil<hanasu sect, see Colas 1986: 67-70.
205 They ffiHy also be preceptors (acarya) but they should act under the supervisioll of
the chid preceptor. or slhiipaka. See Brunner-Lacllaux 1998: x.
186 From Material to Deity
(p. 502), competent assistant.s (yogyamiirtipa) (38b) in particular are con-
sidered to be the same as rtvij. They arc Vedic brahmins because the
text reads rgvediidyiilfls tu murtipcln (255b). Another term for them is
miJrtidhara (45c,161b, 211e, 2l5b, 238c, 246b, 250c). They are also
Vedic brahmins since the text reads calliI' II ,rkslimapur-
vair (11 Od-It a). Furthermore, this word is explained as 1'I'lI7rtipa in some
passages of the commentary (p. 504 ad 45c) and as rtvij in other pas-
sages (p. 525 ad 2I5b). So we may conclude that milr/lpa, miirtidhara
and rtvij indicate the same person, i.e. the assistant priest. The Veda and
the Vedic brahmins are often described here: IJ,gveda (I' 09d, 111 c, 117c,
146c), f.?nmaya (239c): Yajurveda (111 d, 113a, 206a), Yajurmaya (96a,
117d): Samaveda (l18a, 1: 24b), Siimavid (45b), Siimaga (l13b), Siimajiia
(112b, 125b); Atharvaveda C147b), Atharvan (1l2b). Some passages also
mention the Vedic brahmins such as rksamapiirvan \lame tu briihma'!aqls
tu II (5led), (l70b), etc.
Among the assistant priests, some brahmins belong to the Paikaratra
sect. They are cal.led ekayana (53c, 96a,162b,170d. 254c, 255c, 259c,
242a) or piiiicarlitrika (145d). From the text which rcadsekiiyanli.1?"s
murtipan (113d-14a), it is clear that they are among the murtipas.
Furthermore, they belong to the brahmin caste since the text reads vipriin
ekiiyanalfls (l 18d). They are also called tajjfia (I 24a) or (132a).
Next comes the preceptor who plays the most important role ofdirect-
ing the assistant priests to perform the ritual process and to recite
mantras. He is called the guru (W5b, 246b, 258c, 259a) or mantrariij
(214d, 253b). He must be the preceptor of the mantras, skilled in the
rituals and equal with the worshipper himself (litma-tulya) (39cdAOab). 206
Here the original word indicating the preceptor is upade.r!a,
which is explained as ticarya in the commentary (p. 502).
Then the word 'worshipper' (aradhaka) is very importanl. He gives
honorariums to the artisans (iilpijana) (J05h), the preceptor and the as-
sistant priests (105cb-6ab). He recites the invocation formula of the god
(119a) and reaps the fruits of worship (kratuphala) (136). Hence, he is a
sponsor who spends on aU the necessities of thils dtUlll. Furthermore, in
the above passage (39cd-40ab), the preceptor who is hired is regarded to
be equal to the worshipper himself. Th,e worshipper is surely the same as
the sacrificer (yajarnana)207 described in other texts. The most important
point to note here is that the preceptor represents the worshipper himself.
206 Manrriit;liim upade,I'!ii ru iilmarulyo II (39cd) yoktllvyab krlrftlluJaksas til
sarvesv avasaresu ell I (40ab),
21i7 See 1998: iii for the characteristic features ofyajamc1n.a orkartr.
IIJII""!""'--'-=---- _
Consecration of Divine Images in a Temple 187
JayakhyaS 20.139cd-40ab mentions that a director (deSika) selects
four acaryas or sadhakas who performed the nyiisa of the name-mantras
of Vasudeva, etc. This means that the most important person of this cere-
mony is the director under whose guidance the four iicaryas or siidhakas
perform the actual rituals. He also gets the four Vedic brahmins to recite
their own formulae (261 cd-264). Moreover, a preceptor (guru) appears
here alone and plays an important role in the ceremony (207b, 210b, 241d,
271 b, 278b, 295b, 305b, 330d, 361d). So it may be safe to say that the
defika and the guru are the same person. The person with the most confus-
ing role is the preceptor (iicarya). In 140ab, four preceptors are selected
by the director, but in other passages (163d, 226a, 275b, 280d, 362b),
he appears alone and plays the leading role. So we can say that the four
preceptors and the single preceptor are different and the latter is the same
as the guru or de:J:ika.
Unlike the Satva/aS, the JayakhyaS scarcely menbons the assistant
priests, murtipa (142a, 206b. 362d) or miirtidhara (295a). On the con-
trary, the siidhaka appears very often in this text and leads the actual cere-
mony (146b,150b, 163a, 219b, 222d, 240c, 247b,. 274b, 281 b, 283b,
326d, 332c, 338b). He covers the image with cloth whHe reciting the
narasilrzhamantra,20R and sets it on the pedestal. He pours white mus-
tard over the head of the image, which is empowered by the cakramantra
(143).209 He sets up [mantric] barriers in all dir'ections (digbandha) with
white mustard (144) and donates to the god of gods the image which re-
sembles a disciple (§Lyya) (146). He sets eight vessels (kalasa) from the
east (l50ab). He draws (ullikhet) the two eyes of the image with the netra-
mantra (l63ab) and meditates (dhyiiniidhiviisa) (219b, 22t2d). The siidha-
ka places the image firmly (ni.ykamparrz) (240cd), visuaHzes the mantra in
the heart-lotus of the image (247), offers oblations to the fire (274, 283ab),
and erects the image (281 ab). He brings the image inside a temple with
the help of the assistant priests (326cd) and visualizes the image as a tree
made of mantras (338).
201l 'Ot?1 1.; jhru au,!! nrsi,!!htiya svahii.' See JayiikhyaS
p. (31]. In SiitvaraS l7.4cd-12, the mfilamalltra of NarasiJ1lha is 'of!! k\\'au,?l namal}' and
his twelve-syllabled mantra is 'v,!! namo bhagavate nara.rir!lhiiya'. The AgniP gives many
mantras of Narashpha. The mantras including his s,eed mantras, k:yau,!!, are, for instance,
'Ol?l 4au'!l 0I!'1 nama bhagavafe narasi'!1luiya vai namaf;! II' (25.3cd), 'Orr! k:yau,!! namsil?l/W
ugrariipa jvala jvata prajvala prajllala sviiM II' (6l3a), 'Of)'! namo bhagavate nara-
.ti,!!hliya pradfptasuryakofisahasra.wmatejase vajmnakhadarl1$trayudlulya . .. rak.ya
hu,!! pha! namo namas te II' (63.3b).
209 'O,?l jmb krab phaf hil'!l namaf;! s'viihii: See JayiikhyaS
p. [32]. Gupta [1972: 327, n. 4] gives 'o,!! sahasriira hu,!! pha( for the cakramanrra of
Lak,tmiT 49.82. '
, I
, I
188 From Material to Deity
We can, therefore, assume that the sildhaka actually leads the cere-
mony under the guidance of the preceptor. What is worth noticing is
that the fruit promised to the siidhaka is the superhuman power (siddhi)
(332),210 while in other texts the fruit of this ceremony is generally the
enjoyment (bhukti) and liberatilon (mukti).
Furthermore, the JayiikhyaS mentions other personnel such as the
performer (kartr, 202b, 354b) who seems to be equal to the sacrificer,
artisans (sUpin, 142b,] 64b), ascetics (yatO belonging to the Pfincaratra
sect who meditate on the god (bhagavadbhe"ivin), the Ekant.in, the devot,ed
Vaikhanasas and the Satvatas who are devoted to the god (bhagavanma.
yan).211 AU of recite the mantras of the Ekayana branch (ekiiya-
nfya-sakhotthtin mantran) (265-70), Four kinds of candidates, namely,
guru, slidhaka. putrakaand samayin: (samayajiia),212 also appe.lr in this
text (27]).
There are more passages concerning the qual'ifi,cations of the priests
in the texts than in the Pancaralra texts, Erst in the
the main priest is called guru (48.1d, 3e. 21b, 27b. 271'. 34b, 52d, 84b),
iiciirya (48.2a, 7d, 32c. 57b, 64c, 71 a. 76e, 89a, 89c, 90b), sthiipaka
(48,J6d, 91d), desika (48.58d. 77b), budha (48.30d, 31:d), Iwnnamantra-
vid (48.63b) and mantravid (48,81 b). Assistant priests are named by such
terms as [tvi} (48.2a, 87c)., dvija (in plural, 48.33d, 76d), budha (in plural,
48.4Ib), bahvfca (48.53d), adhvaryu (48.54d), chandoga (48.55d) and
atharva (48.56d). The sacrificer is manifest'ed as YCI}mniina (48,88b, 9Ic).
210 See Rastelli 2000, about the scidhaka's dail:y religiolls riles, his worship of u marllra
in order to master it. namely, to achieve the l1umtrasiddhi, the goals he ce1l1 reach by means
of the mantrasiddhi and the leclmiques he uses. She presents fI gcnenl1 view of the .wldha-
ka, mainly based on the JayakhyaS. JeJytikhyaS 20.363cd concludes that the .I'alll/aka makes
efforts to master a mantra and is eager to worship it: ity elat .1'iidhaka.I'yoktm/1 mmrtrliriidfUl·
II. Tile word 'the one who knows the mcmlm' (mantmjiia) is suiel 10 indicntc
the slidhaka generally as a mantrin. See Brunncr-Lachnux 1998: 128, n. 333.
211 According to the JayukhyaS. there isa difference among the Va
who adhere to the doctrines of bhagavad-dharmll and obey duties 10 be performed during the
five divisions of a day, namely, clbhigamana, upiidii/w, i)yii, sviidhyiiya, and yOKa (paiica-
kiila) (Jayllkhy£4S 22,3-5). The first is an ascetic (yati) who wears 11 recl garment
and holds a st.'lff alone (6-10). The second one is the eklintin who possesses nothing and
stays wilh his good pupil (ll-13ab). The third one is the \laikMnasa who is the lay brahmin
wearing II while gannenl (l3cd-15ab). The fourth one is the .filtvala who lives his life mainly
by performing any sacrifice (kriyii) (I 5cd-16). The fifth one is the.fikhin who has lJ tuft on his
head (likhii) and is engaged in his daily routine (17-19ab). For an examination oflhese terms
including' bhagav£lta. see Dasgupta 1922: 14; Radhakrishnan 1923: 490, n. 2; Raychaudhuri
1920; 498; Bhandarkar 1913: 2-13; Gonda 1977a: 47-49,
212 See also JayakhyaS 15.263cd-64. The candidales and their relalionship with the
initiation ceremony (dfk¥ll) and the ablution ceremony (abh.i;,reka) in the Saivasiddhanta sect
in south India have be,en discussed by Brunner 1975: 413-16.

Consecration of Divine Images in a Temple 189
i i
As regards the qualification and number of tile priests, 48.2-
3a mentions that along with nve or more priests (rtvm, a brahmin from tile
Central Province (madhyadda)213 is selected as the main priest accord-
ing to the injunction in Ilis branch of the Veda (svasiikhotkavidhtinena) or
simply by reciting the MatsyaP 265.1-6 clearly distinguishes the
main priest (iiciirya or sthiipaka) from other assistant priests (miirtipa).
The former needs more qualifications than the latter. The main priest has
no defect in his limbs. He is well versed in the Vedic mantras, and knows
the PuraE;1as as well as the true nature of everything. He is free from de-
ceit and avarice. He is born in a country teeming with spotted anteJop,es.
He has a beautiful figure: his actions are clean and he is not interested
in heretic groups. He is equal to both friends and foes, and is favoured
by Brahmu, and Hara. He has full knowledge of logic (uhtipo.
hartha) and the building sciences (vastu.stistra). He is always free from
any defect. On the other hand, the assistant priests are brahmins hailing
from good families and one of good character. There are thirty-two, six-
teen or eight assistants employed in the ceremony. MatsyaP 267.31-33
forbids performing this ceremony with the help of those who follow bad
customs (vi,ma), are deceitful (dilmbhika), keep a phamc emblem (lingin)
or are heretics (piikhaf){lin).214 The person recommended is a brahmin
who is a virtuous householder and is well versed in the Vedas. The Varii-
haP mentions that this iHstallation ceremony is performed in the religious
atmosphere of worshipping Bhagavat, because the Bhaigavata brahmins
often appear here.
They are 'the followers of my instructions' (mama
183.17b, 19b; 184.lOb, nb, 24b), 'intent on my wor-
ship' (mama karmapariiYQl.'la1.1 , 184.3b, 4b), 'the followers of my path'
(mama 184.13b) and 'my devotees' (mama bhaktiirrti,
BhavifyaP 2.2.18,] -2ab enumerates twenty-five priests: eight hotrs,
eight dviirapiilas, eight yiijakas, and one japaka.
They are well versed
213 Man.uSm 2.21 defines tile Central Province (madhyadda) as follows: himavadvin.
dhyayor madhya!?, yar prag v;l1a.{anad up; I pratyag eva prayagac ca prakfr.
II. Furtllermore the M(JnuSm defines both the brahmal'arla (2.17-20) and the aryiivarra
(2.22). See Kane II: 1Iff.; BaudhDhS; VihDhS 1.8-15; 4.18.34ab on
the of the arylivarta.
214 See also 2.2. I8.1 Oed-IS on the brahmins who do not deserve worship. On
the sec ManuSm 4.30; YiijfiaSm 1.130cd; Bhavi.yyaP 4.78.5ab; 4.147.28cd-29ab;
215 See 179.15d. qd, 21 c; IBO.19b, 38c; 183.6b, 7b, 28b.
216 According to Nt.ri'11h.aP 56.29-30ab, the sacrificer (yaJamana) feeds the sixte,en brah-
mins. The crucial refers to four brahmins reciting their own Vedas (adhyayana), four
I i
190 From Material to Deity
in the sacrifice (yajl1a) and the mantras. They stand at their own places in
the mal}(lala; the preceptor (acc7rya) stands behind the altar (vedi), a brah-
min in front of the fire-pit, a hotl' priest allhe rear of the
(lala and to the left a priest who knows the rituals (vidhijl1a). The pri.ests of
ritual requests (jf1apaka) stand on each of the four sides, two by two, and
those who hold a sword (khaf/gadhiiraka), one by one. The eight dvlira·
pillas stand at each door ( mentions six.-
teen priests (rtvij): an (d'aivavid), an architect (srhapati), a
priest proficient in ritual rules (ka/paka), a prilest chanhng mantras
(viicaka) , a priest who knows the Yajurveda and holds the water vessel
for ceremonial reception in his hand (yajurvedavid-arghabiihu), a divine
hotr priest who knows the Yajurveda (yajurvedaviddevahotr), a priest who
keeps sacrificial materials and knows the Yajurveda (yajurvedaviddeva.
four assistant priests (kala.Mdluzra), each of whom knows
the IJg, Yajur, 5iima and Atharvaveda respectively, fouf SiHvata brahmins
who are called murtidhara, devakarmavid, and
k#tr. Such priests (rtvij) are not crippled (avyanga), not tawny (akapila),
not squint-eyed (akekara), do 110t have a redundant limb (anadhikiiliga),.
are well versed in their own scriptures (sva.flislraparini.y!ha), are gentle
(ilak,p:za) and free from transmigration (apaunarhhava).217
3.98 describes the arrangement of priests in the following
manner. On the auspicious ground iln front of the temple three mounds
(sthmH/tia) arc made. The central one is for the adhivii.w rituaL the right
one for the worship (ijyii) and the left one for Ihefire-offerillg (homa). A
kalpaka priest, facing the east, stands on the western part of the mound for
the adhivo.sa. A Satvata priest, facing the east, is positioned to his light
A priest, facing the east, stays by his ri.ght side. The sacrificer
(yajamana) , facing the east, stands on the lieft side of the kalpaka priest
An arghabahu priest, facing the east, stands to the left of the sacrificer.
A Yajurveda pri,est, facing the south, rests 011 the mound. A Samaveda
priest, facing the west, stands in front of the mound. An informer of
family lineage (var?1§aviidaka) is to his right A viicaku priest stays by the
guarding the image (pa/cma) and other four offering oblations to the IIrc-pit. But these do
not add up to sixteen. only to twelve,
217 The total number of priests is fifteen. If we include the sacriflcer (Ylljmnal1a). the
number adds up to sixte'en. The sacrificer behaves like other pl'jests. The sacrificer receives
the initiation ceremony along with other priests. From lhe day of the inititltion to the
day of prati.Yfhii. and from the day of the prati.y!hii to the seventh day aftcr it. they should
abstain from meat. liquor, salt (k.yara). sex (abrahmacarya), anger, envy. huughti'.ness and
vileness (anaryatva). So it may be possible to include the sacrificer in the group of those
sixteen priests (rtvij).
r__ _
right side of the informer. A singer (gliyana) stands on by the left side of
the vlicaka. Players of musical instruments stand behind him. An Athar-
vaveda priest, facing the north, is to the right of the mound. A hotr priest,
facing the east, stands on the left side of the sacrificial shed (agara) on the
mound for the fire-offering. A priest who chants mantras
and a priest who keeps sacrificial materials stands on his
left side. A Satvata priest who performs worships (ijylikrt slitvataM is
perched on the mound for the worship. A Satvata priest who recites man-
tras and a Satvata priest who keeps sacrificial materials
both facing the north, stand by his right side. The archi-
tect's (sthapati) place is not defined.
Consecration of Divine Images in a Temple 191
, I
I' ,
I .
I !
i !
6.2 Opening the Eyes of the Image
The manner of the opening of the eyes is described in severa] texts. This
is considered the symbol of god's awakening in the world and, hence, the
first act of expansion of his power in the world through the intermediary
of the image.
MatsyaP 264.28d mentions that the object of this ritual
is to impart light to the eyes (netrajyotis prakalpayet).
The name varies according to the texts: uddhara1J.a (MatsyaP
264.29a), netrodghii!a (Garw;laP 48.36b), netre unmflayet (AgniP 58.7d),
dadyar (AgniP 58.8b): nayanonmflana (SatvataS, commentary
p. 512), unmrlayet (AsvGPS 4.4), vimocayet (BodhGSS 2.13) and
(VaikhGS 4.10).
As regards the mantra to be recited, MatsyaP 264.32-33ab prescribes
that the general mantra used for any kind of image is recited by the brah-
mins to impart '01]1 namo bhagavate tubhyarr. .fiviiya paramatmane I
hirw"yarerase visvariipiiya te namaJ:t 11'(264.32). Hardly any texts,
however, mention such a Paura.Qic mantra, but the Vedic mantras are
usually used for this purpose: 'agnir jyotir' (SV 2.] 181) in GaruflaP
48.36a, 'citra'fl devaniim' 1.115.1) to open the eyes and 'agnirjyotir'
(SV2.ll81) to bestow the faculty of sight in AgniP 58.7cd-8ab,
ViirU{la-Saman ('pra mitriiya priiryam1)e' SV 1.255) and ciindra-sliman
in SiitvataS 25.102cd, 'citraytl t .115.1) in A§vGPS 4.4, 'tejo
'si' (TS, etc.) in BodhGSS 2.13 and 10.90) in
VaikhGS 4.10.
2\ RGodIS awakening is compared to thaI of his dynamic power (JaW) manifested at tile
end of the cosmic night, i.e. the momenl of the 'opening of the eyes'. See Colas
1986: 77. n. 34; Schrader 1916: 29ff.; Gonda 1969b.
219 This appears as olle of the pUJificatory texts in 56.14. According to
Nand.apa.,c;lita'scommentary on 56.14. this is the hymn beginning with 'arraha
gor amanvara'
192 From Material to /Jeity
The most important phase is to trace the eyes with a golden stick, after
having invoked (iimal1trya) the god (deveJa) and transferred his presence
into the image (MarsyaP 264.33cd). Ganu!aP 48.35-37ab mentions Ihat
with a golden stick (suvanJasya siikhayli), one applies (aiijayec) to the
eyes a mixture of honey and ghee kept in a ves!-Icl made of bell metal
or copper. The sthiipaka calls the name of the god once. Then follows
the cooling operation (ffralakriyli) of the eyes with' imm?, me gmige'
10.75.5). AgniP 58.9cd-13 describes the process in detail. The preceptor
(deiika) anoints the eyes oHhe image with honey as collyrium while recit-
ing 'madhuviitli' (VS ]3.27), (AV4.2.7 / 10.121.1)
and'imQlTl rna' (VS ] 3.47, 48 / TS, 2). He anoints its eyes with
ghee while reciting 'ghrtavarf' 6.70.1), wipes
its eyes off (udvartya) with masiira Bour with 'aEo devd' (SV 2.1024),
rinses them with hot water (kyalayet) with '.\'Clpla Ie agne' (VSI7.791 TS, etc.), anoints Canulimped) them with iva' (AY 6.115.3),
sprinkles them with the water of the rivers and the sacred pools with 'apo
hi 10.9.1), sprinkles them with water which has jewels dipped
in it while reciting pavamanf verses 9.67.21 s27), covers them with
day collected from the sacred pools with 'samudrm?1 gaccha gaccha'
(= 'samudraf?1 gacha sViihif, 5.49.21 VS 6.21 /1'S; and washes them with hot water with '§W?l no devfr' CAY 1.6.1)
and giiyatrf (= 'tat Javitur ,lJ.V 3.62.] 0).
AsvGPS 4.4 mentions that one opens the eyes equally one after an-
other with a golden stick dipped in honey in a metall pot (taUasapiitre).
BodhGSS 2.13 simply says that one opens the eyes with the edge of a
golden knife (hiralfyena tejasii). VaikhGS 4.10 also says 'One performs
the opening of the eyes with gold (suvanzena).'
SiitvataS 25.100cd-6ab clearl.y distiguishcs the functions of the wor-
shipper and the artisan (.filpin). According to this text, the former draws
(ullikhet) two eyes with a metal (taijasl,?1) stick (.falakarn) empowered
by the netrmnantra while visualizing the highest li.ght (paramwn jyotis),
whereas thelauer makes visible (praka!fkurytid) the eye-lines with the
knife empowered by the same mantra. The former then fiUs each of the
two metal jars with honey and clarified butter (sarpis) and offers them to
the fire with the miilamanrra ending in vau,,:a!. He sprinkles the fIre with
honey and cladfi,cd butter streaming from the two metal jars (amrtaugha),
reciting the hrnmantra at the beginnilng and the end of each offering. The
disc of the moon (SaJibimba) is visualized on the head of the image so
that a pain caused by striking might be pacified (tti(1analtinraye). Jayii-
khyaS 20.161-66 also clearly distinguishes between the funcHons of the
Consecration of Divine Images in a Temple 193
adept and those of the artisan. The adept (siidhaka) draws (ullikhet) the
eyes with a golden stick empowered by the astrarnantra while reciting the
netramantra, whereas the artisan (Jilpin) makes visible (praka!attirrz
nayet) the eyes using a knife empowered by the astramantra.
The opening of the eyes is usually performed before the ablution at
the adhivtisa phase of the ceremony in MatsyaP 264.28cd-34,
AgniP 58.7-13, GarwjaP 48.35-37ab
SatvataS 25.1 OOcd-6c and Jayti-
khyaS 20.161 cd-68ab. VaikhGS 4.10 mentions that after the opening :Jf
the eyes, the image is immersed in a river or a pond for the adhivtisa (nad-
yti'11 tatlike va ... stiyayitvtidhiviisayati), and on the next day the ablution
is performed on it. On the other hand. the opening of the eyes is per-
formed after the ablution in AsvGPS 4,4 and BodhGSS 2.13. It appears,
therefore, that the ritual process as seen in the Pural)a texts follow that of
the VaikhGS.
The most important element in this ritual is to anoint (afijayet) the
eyes with collyrium, whether this ritual is performed before or after
the ablution ritual. This seems v,ery similar to the sprinkling ritual of the
samavartana, the pupil's taking the ceremonial bath after finishing the
Vedic study and returning home from his teacher's house.
Apart from
this word, Sna1la and tiplavana are also used for this ritual, both of which
are dosely connected with ceremonial bathing. AsvGS 3.8.9 says:
After bathing himself with hot and cold (or lukewarm) water and put-
ting on two (new) garments which have not been washed yet, with
'YUVQ1?l pfvasti vasathe' 1.152.]), he should anoint his
eyes afijayfta) with 'asmanas tejo 'si me pahi'.
Such a description of the student bathing himself with water and anointing
his eyes is very similar to the opening of the eyes of the image. We can
certainly find here the Vedic precedent of bathing of the image followed
by the opening of the eyes of the image.
220 See Kane 11: 405-15; Heeslerrnan 1968; Gopal 1959; Gonda 1965a: 617; Matsunami
1973; Tsuchiyarna [2] 2.3.2.
221 VClikhGS 2.13-15 also mentions that after bathing himself with cold and hOI water
with 'apo hi .y!hil' UN 10.9.1 ITS (2.13), he anoints his right eye with salve (ciifijCl-
nenaiijClyitva) witll 'yad iil1janw!llraikakutlam' (AV 4.9.9/ T.4 6.10.2) and his left eye with
'yan me manas' (TS (2,15 [33,1-3]). mn HirGS, the tea.cher makes him
[the student] bathe himself with hot and cold water, with tile three verses, 'iipo hi mayo-
(TS, with the four verses. 'hirw;lyavarf}ii/;l .l'ucayalJ pavakiW (TS 5.6.1.\),
and with the onuvaka beginning with 'p(lvamilnary (TB (1.3.22). He
anoints himself with tmikakuda saying 'yad lifijana'f1 Iraikakudar!1 jiilalf/ himavala
upari I rella vam atije 'hm?1 bhagellu :wha varcasa may; (1.3.31). The
commentary (p. 553) explains that 'you two (viim)' in lilat formula means the two eyes. So
194 From Material to Deity
Besides the opening of the eyes, some texts mention the ritual of
awakening the god on the day of the installation of the ima.ge. The main
purpose of opening the eyes is to impart light to the material eyes, while

that of the awakening is not on'ly to wake up the god after the adhivtisa
night but al.50 to ask him to change his fierc,e figure (agneya) into his mer-
ciful one, accessible to the devotees (saumya).222 This waking up ritual
is not only described in the s,ectarian liturgies like SiitvataS
25.212-20 of the Pincaratra, the Kti!yapajfiana-khalJt;ia of the Vaikhanasa,
etc.,223 but is also highly ,esteemed in the worship of in the PuraQas.
It is widely known as sleeping and waking.
To introduce the ritual of waking up the image, SiitvataS 25.212a
mentions the ritual of waking up the god (prabodhayed) with the fol-
lowing announcement: 'mantratman rupam armiyam agneyam upasa'!1.ha.
ra II (25.212cd) samahayas",a saumyatvalfl sthityarthalfl paramesvara I
namas Ie 'stu paramesvara II (213) madanugrahahetvar-
tharn pfthabhiimi'!1 samasraya /' (2214ab).225 SlimbaP 32.35ab also says
that at dawn on the day of the installa.ti.on, one wakes up (bodhayet) the
god.. 3.110 mentions that on the day theima.ge is to be instaUed,
one should wake up (vibodhaye.t) the venerable god with the sounds of
ketUe-drums and musical instuments (tarya) and recite the
waking mantra.
here also the student 8no,ints his eyes. See also B,alldhSS 17.42 [323, 7-9]. The verse to be
recited here is sliahtly different from that of the Hi.rGS; 'yut! lIff}afUlI7I traikaklldam jawtrI
himavata upari I ttma vam tiii)e mayi parvu.'tWarca,wffl astu', BlllirGS2.22 also mentions
the similar montra. the litter part of which is slightly different; 'yeul tlffjematrltraik"kuda.""
jtilaf71 himallata .upari mayi parvatavarccuam'. See also JaimGS 1.19 [17. 19-20]: MtinGS
1.2. t 3; ApGS 5.12.11. flurlihel'mor·e AgnOS 1.3.5 [22, 20- 23. 1) mendons simply that
he anoints himself with salves (athtilfjanentlnkle) with the verse 'yad iliijancurJ truikakud"trI
jdta11'l h/mavata upari I lena mo'1l varca.vyaf71 me tmu'.
222 See the mantra in the SalVa/aS to be described below.
223 See Goudriaan 196': 193.
224 The rite of god's lIwakening (devol.thdpana, prahodlta.nn as well as his sl,e,eping (vif'
IJ.uprasvapna. Jayanj) is to be found in several Pul'iI"lIs.. See NrlafilQta 702-06;
Har/vamia 40; VarlihaP 209; PadtMP 6..53 (Sayanj), 61. 90.19-21. 124.1-16 (prabodhintJ.
6.53 (devasayani .ektltla,l:illrata); SkandaP 7.1.81 (.fayan()uhIJpanrvrata); Bhavi\vyaP
4.70 (govintla.(llyonotthiinadvtldaslvrata), 4.70.1- II (deva.tayonf eklida,(fvrala), 4.70.50cd-
66 (devotthdpana); Jaiswa.l 1981: De 1961: .503; Kane V: 122-23.
225 This mantra is the same as that of JaylikhyaS 20.324cd-326ab, only replacinl the last
word whh samiJkrama.
226 The mantra is 'devarp viJsudevamqja11'l vibhum I anlidimadhyQpar'
yantafTI mahlibalapariikramam 1I (3.107.2) ... Iyaja vibudhagaf)iirl.rudanlidya nidrtirp hha·
va bhuvanapate 'ghasatrlcayiJpuho me "\Jay.i hltavali hi yas)'a natlla bhaktir ugrD Il€l.tir
atiJayanrtulasya 1/ (I S).'
Consecration of Divine Images in a Temple 195
6.3 The Function of the Arghya
As regards the water to be employed in the pratio$!hli, arghya or argha
is the most important material. Gonda [1980c: 385-86] enumerates the
special guests deserving (arghya) respetcful rec,eption (argha);. namely,
a priest, an acarya, a king, a person related by marriage, a snataka (on
the day of the samiivartana) and a friend.
The host offers to such a
person six gifts: a seat made of grass, water for sipping (iicamanfya),
water for washing the feet (plidya), the the madhuparka
and a cow.2
The arghya in question is the arghya-water offered to such
a person or a god. Strictly speaking, it is not simple water but a material
of worship, respectful offering or oblation to a god or a venerable person.
MatsyaP 267.2 mentions that when offering eight articles
go 'rghaM, viz., curds (dadhi), unhusked rice grains (ak¥ata), tips of kula
grass (kusagra), milk darvli grass, honey (madhu), barley grains
(yava) and mustard seeds (siddhiirthaka) are added to the vessel contain-
ing water, along with fruits (phala).229
227 See the list of the person to be honoured by the madhuparka in Einoo 1996a: 85.
228 See Keith 1925: 363; Einoo 1996a: 83-84.
229 The eiJht articles differ according to the text: yava•. gandha, photo,
tao kusa. siddhlirtha, and tila in AgniP 34.20cd-21; 57.21; apa. kusagra, ghrla,
dadhi, madhu. raktakaravira and raktacal1dal1a in Bhav;¥yaP 1.163.37-38; phato. pu:;pa.
yava, k\ffra, dadhi, dilrvli, ankura andjala in BhavifyaP 4.96.8cd-9ab: dadhi. madhu. ajya,
nfra,ardrak¥cua, darva, lila and klda in SkandaP 4.1.44; raktacandana, kula, diirvli, pUfpa,.
laml. patra and dadhi in NiiradaP 1.113.75cd-76; siddhiirthaka.. lila. durvii. yava. si·
lala1)f!ula, loya. k.Wo and phala in 37.30. BodhGSS 2.13.22 ::; HirGSS 1.7.11 [J 08,
12·13], though lIot mentioning the number eight, enumerates eight articles: iipa. ku·
JtJgra, yava, talJdula. tila and siddhiirrhaka. See also BodhGSS 2.16.26 := HirGSS
1.7.12 [26-27]. In SkandaP 5.3.2I8.:50cd, five kinds of jewels, fruits, flowers and unhusked
rice are the components of the arghya. See Gupta 1972: 188, n. 2 and SP IV: 144-45 on the
eight articles of the arghya.
The number of Ihe arti.c1es constituting the arghya is not fixed Sleight. For instance,
we can fInd smaller number of articles listed in several texts. In the commentary on AivGS
3.11, the water mixed with scent. flowers. etc., is caUed arghya. KiilhGS 24.4 caUs the
water mixed with. the arghya. In BodhGSS 3.10.3, one should offer the arghya
mixed with darviJ grass, unhusked grains and flowers. In BrahmavaivartaP 4.26.66, the
components of thearshya like the water i.n aconch-shell, flowers. darva grass and sandal are
enumerated in the mantra of offerina (jdam arghya'11 pavitm'11 ca sarikhatoyasamanvitam I
ptqpadurvacandanllktal11 SrhyaUi",. bhakravalsala II). PadmaP 6.3S's'S-56ab enumerates
scent, flowers, unhusked rice and PadmaP 7.22.115, sprouts of darva grass and unbroken
grains. SkandaP enumerates sandal, unhusked rice and flowers.
In sClf)'le texts, however, we find more eight articles. SauraP 17 enumerates
nine articles: sandal, rice, barl.ey grains,ftowers, tip's of kusa grass, white mustard. unhusked
grains, 8hee and ashes. SkandaP mentions ni ne articles of the arghya (navango
'rghal) such as panrya,. akfata, darbha, gandha, sarpis. dadhiand matlhu.
196 From Material to Deity
Vi!1)udhP 3.99 describes the manne.r of preparing the arghya, not spe-
cifying the number of articles. In a vessel made of silver
are put such
materials as conch.-shells (salikha), fruits of bi/va tree,lotus (padma),. u/f-
ra roots, darbha grass, roots (mula), darva grass, milk unhusked
rice grains (ak!ata), mustard seeds (siddhiJrlhaka) and threshed grains
(ta1)fiula). Then water from a sacred pla,ce (tirrha) is poured into the silver
vessel while the verse 'ralhe akfefv r!abhasya' (AV 6.38.3) is recited.
Arghya is often used in this ceremony. BrahmaP 29.48
mentions six places where the arghya is offered: the sacrificial fire. the
w.at.er, the intermediat'e sky, a pure ground, an image and a rice baH.
it is ,quite natural to offer the arghya to the image, whether in the
ceremony or just its simple worship (pujiJ).233 According to the GarufiaP,
the preceptor puts fragrant paste (gandha), etc. in the jar of a.rghya, re..
cites a number of mantras on it. From this jar. he sprinkles water on
the sa'crificial shed for its purification (48.25). When the bathing ritual is
over,. the arghya is offered along with fragrant paste and clothing-(46b).234
After the image is installed and bathed with the sa'71plllakalaJa, arghya i.s
offered to the god along with lamps. incense, fragra.nt paste and food.
While bowing down reverentially, he prays for forgiveness to cause tbe
god to leave According to VarahaP 180.4a; 183.2c, 4a;
184.4c" the arghya is the first offering
'6 to be made when the making of
an image is over and the ceremony has just commenced.
Thus, it seems that the number of anicles consti.tlltina the arghya increased in COlln;,e of lime.
See Brunner 2000: 1410-41 on ttJesubstances of the arghya in the tantrlc works,
230 Goblets of, brass, however, are recommended for the arghya WIler. See Gonda
19800: 141 and BddhGSS 4.2 (alhasmai ka'11st va ctlttUUe va), NtJradaP 1.113,7Scd-76 and
SkandaP 5,.1 mention ajil' made of copper (tiJmrqja, Itlmra).
23 I See also BrhaddharmaP2,27 17ab.
232 This is; agnau toye 'nearik,t ca {ucau bhamytJlfI tathaiva co I pralimllytJ'11 tathO
pil')(lylittt deyam a,shy"", proyatnatab II. BrahmaP 28.40 also says thllt tile offering of tile
arg.hya pre,cedes worship of ViSn.u or Siva. See Gonda 1980c: 460; Einoo 1992 about the
argkya offered to the sun, ,
233 The arghya is one of the sixteen kinds of service the famous service
to worship any god. See Tachikawa 1983: 8U:hnemann 1988: Einoo 1996a. In
Va/khGS 4.12, the pratilflliJ precedes the daily worship (nllyilrcana), in wMch the arghya
offering is mentioned.
234 See also Vi.fl')udhP 3.111 (one of ttle ,offell'inlsin the ureal bathing) and SP IV: 144-
m See SiimbaP 32.38c, BI/Uv;,yaP 1.136.46c and AJvGPS4.8.
236 Arghya is offered with the verse; 0'1'1 sarva/okelv api .VQrvam arghyaJ, SQlfIpQjytl.
milnas ca divQllkasiJm api I updgalO grhf)Q 11.1 atghan! eta". pTtlsrda mil.'". t/,vlh" sulokatlil·
tha /I (VarahaP 1845).
: '
\ .. ' .',' '.'
237 cr. SP IV: 222-223.
238 According to AgniP 58.2lcd-22, after the bathing and invocation, ptidya, arghyaka,
madltuparka, tliirvti, unhusked rice grains elC" are offered in due order. In MatsyaP
266.49cd, arghya appears as a part of the invocation mantra; bhagavan man;rapulam ida",.
sarvamarghyapddyam dcamanfym dsana111 brahmalJoabhihitarp "amD namn/;l II. See
also 3.1 In BodhGSS 2. J3. after installing the image on the pedestal. one
invokes the god and worships him with padyo. acamaniya and arghya. See A/vGP$ 4.7
SambaP 32.23d, BhavillyaP I. I36.4d and Gonda. 1980c: 355.
239 cr. SP IV: J98-9'9.
240 cr. SP IV: 150-51.
l)niverlitit Hamburg· Asien-AfrikaelnsUtut
AbteUung fear Kultu·r und Geschlch\e
In'.1iens lUld libel.
D - 20146 Hamburg
In the SatvataS the worshipper holding the arghya and flowers ap-
proaches the image along with the assistant priests and worships it with
the arghya, sprinkling it with white mustard seeds. This takes place at the
beginning of the ceremony (25.45cd-50). Then at the time of preparation
of the forty vessels for bathing, the first three of them are caHed plidya,
arghyaand acamanrya (25.66d-67ab).237 Arghya is offered just after
vocation (25.1 23a_c).238
Each time the chariot stops at the arched doorway, the arghya is
offered to the image along with padya, flowers, etc. (25.137-38; 212-
20ab).239 At the time of sayyadhivasa, the image lying on the couch is
worshipped with padya, arghya, flowers, etc. (25. 14Ocd-41 ).240 On the
day of the installation, he enters the temple with the arghya, flowers and
unhusked grains of rice in his hands (25. 179cd-80ab).
The chapters in SP IV, though dealing with the prati#ha of a linga,
enumerate fOUf kinds of arghya: paranmukha (or viloma), pralJ.ava
and samanya. The first, (special arghya) is not an existen-
tial one and it is offered in meditative worship [IV: 114]. The second.
paralimukha (the arghya of an inverted order) is used for the aHowing a
god to leave (visarjana). After offering the arghya, one allows the god
to leave at the end of worship [IV: 372. n. 58]. The third, praIJava (the
arghya purified by 0"'), is used at the commencement of the ceremony.
The fourth, siimanya (the common arghya) is used when entering a sacri-
ficial shed [IV: 24]. So we may conclude that the arghya is offered at the
time of invoking any god, receiving him, bathing him and aUowing him to

197 Consecration of Divine Images in a Temple
- - - ~ - -
The Installation Ceremony in Tantric Buddhism
1 Introduction
It is not known with certainty when the Buddhists adopted the installation
ceremony in India. Although most scholars are unanimous that
the first images of Buddhas or Bodhisattvas in human t:orm can be dated
around the first century AD, we possess no record of whether this parti-
cular ritual was performed when the images were made. The installation
ceremony is genera.lly performed at the end of the construction process of
a temple or .any other religious building. The date when Indian Buddhists
s,etUed down and built their monasteries with stiipas can be traced back
to a much earlier date than the first Buddhist images. It is also unknown
if the Buddhists of that time performed a particular installation ceremony
for such buildings.
The Brhatsa1?1hitli, compiled by the famous diviner, Varahamihira, in
the sixJh century AD, devotes one chapter to the instaHation ceremony.)
The author divides the ceremony into two parts, i.e. invitation (adhivasa-
na) and instanation and he gives a brief introduction to both
processes. Instead of detailed explanations, Varahamihira instructs the
readers to perform the ceremony according to their own traditions. He
enumerates a series of names of the Slects such as Salva or It
should be noted that the Buddhists (fiikya) are also mentioned in the list,2
. .
and this fact suggests that the Buddhists performed their own installation
I M. Ramakrishna Bhat. Variihamihira's 8rhar Saf?thilti with English Translation, Ex-
haustive Notes and Literary Comments, part 2, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1982, pp. 568-73
(Chapter 60).
2 bhagavatiln maga'fls co. .mvituIJ sabhasmadvijiin
matrr:ram apt mal)flalakramavido viprdn vidur brahmal).al) I
satyan sarvahitasya sii,uamanaso nagnlUi vidur
ye y
'1'l devamupasrilal} svavidhinti lais tasya karyii kriyli II (Brhatsaf?thilii 60.19)
I ,
200 From Material to Deity
ceremony. Further, it can also be inferred lhattheir ceremony might have
consisted of two slages, invitation and illstallation, as the Hindu sects did.
Alltexts dealing with the installation ceremony in Buddhism arc clas-
sified as Tamric literature. Bcntor presents a listing of Buddhist t.cxts deal-
ing with this ceremony: seven Tanlric scriptures ami twenty-nine com-
mentaries or ritual manuals.:' Among lhem. the SllpHui.y!'uaantra-.m1!l"
is the onl'y l.cxl which elaborates the instaUalion ceremony as its
main topic. The other six litles, all belonging to the AnuHarayoga-swge of
the fourfold llll1t.ric .:Iassillcation, include a chapter each olllhc ceremony.
Most of the ritual manuals arc referred to as 'pm/i.,.,lulvidhi·, but some au-
thors supply a particular deity's name to it, e.g. Krilacakra, Sal1wara, and
some texts arc entitled 'Ritual of opening the eyes' (nelrodgllil!avidhi).5
BentoI' mentions foul' other titles, the Kriy{(swr1g.m}1a, the Caltravi·
dhi, the Vajriivalf and the
samuccaya, which contain important. infornmlion about the installation
ceremony. Among these four teXIS, Abh,lyakaragupla's Vajre/valf (VA)
should be treated as the most significant and authentic source for the study
of Tantric Buddhist rituals in ]ndia.
In the following sections, I propose
to describe the oqtline of theinstull<lition ceremony and discuss its charac-
teristics according to the VA.
Abhayakaragupta (eleventh-twelfth century) was a famous abbot of
the Vikramafila and NaIanda monasteries in the Paln period. The VA,
one of his major works,. is a voluminous ritual compendium claborat.ing
the procedure of the construction on the ground and its two suc-
cessive ceremonies, Le. the consecration (abhi,yeka) and the installation.
Abhayakaragupta suppliesinformatiol1 011 the minor rituals, such as burnt
offering (homa), oblatjon (bali), etc., al the beginning and the end of the
At the very beginning of the text AbhaynkaraguptH states that his
work deals with fifty rituals, which are listed in List I. 'fhough he does
not classify or integrate them under particular hem.lings.,. judged from the
contents, the majority of I.he rituals can be divided into three topics: the
construction of mm:u!ala (5-15), the installation (16-19), and the consec-
ration ceremonies (20-44). The rest arc minor rituals on which the text
3 Y. Bcntor. CO!1.rccmtiol'l of Wlef SlIl/m.l· ill IlIdo-17ht,trUl lilli/ric 11IuJdhi.U1I,
Brill's Indological Lihrary, Vol. II, Lciclcn: Brill, 1996. pp. 349-53,
4 TTP, no. 118.
S For cXlIrnplc, Trp, no. 3413.
6 As for t.his t.ext, sec Masnhiflc Mori, 11,(' Vajrill'a/f ()!'Abho)y"#kMO/.:III'/(I, Ph.D. Ihesis
submitted 10 the University of London, 1997.
The Installation Ceremony in Tantric Buddhism 201
provides supplementary information. However, as an exception, the first
chapter (vihiirlidyarghavidhi) discusses the procedure of the preparatory
ritual for making the buildings, images, sacr,ed texts, etc., which are to be
consecrated in the installation ceremony.
Abhayakaragupta explains the method of construction for twenty-
six mWJ,4alas in the vA. They are prepared on the surface of the ground
with five kinds of coloured powder (white, yellow, red, green, and black)
made of ground mineral, etc. This requires a long procedure beginning
with the selection of the place and the arrangement of a surface adequate
for the mandala. In the twelfth ritual (sCitranavidhi) the author elaborates
. . .
the method of drawing the outlines of all twenty-six and in
the following section (raja!,1plUanavidhi), the distribution of the colour
of each section according to the outlines, then the symbols represenling
all the deities inside the malJ¢alas are specified. Both the consecration
and the ceremonies require one of these f11w,ujalas depending
on the occasion.
The Sanskrit manuscripts and the Tibetan translation of the VA are
available,? though they have not been critically edit'ed so far. Therefore,
in this present. paper I have utilized my own edition edited on the basis of
these available materials.
2 The Installation Ceremony in the Vajriivalf
Abhayakaragupta devotes four chapters to the installation ceremony: 'In-
viting the Deity' (devata-adhivasana), 'Installation of an Image and
Others' 'Installation of a Reservoir and Others'
and 'Installation of a Grove and Others' (iiriirn-
lidiprati\lJ!ha). Among them, 'Inviting the Deity' corresponds to the
paratory phase of the instaUation ceremony. The chapter on that instal-
lation of the image and the remaining chapters contain other objects than
those known from the tilles. The chapter on the installation of the imag,e
discusses besides the installation of an image, that of monastery (vihiira),
caitya, sacred texts (pustaka), and rosary (ak\msiltra). The discussion
7 Lokesh Challdra, Vajriivalf: A Scmskrit Manuscript from Nepal Containing the Ritual
and Delineation Sata-pi\aka Series, Indo-Asian Literatures, Vol. 239, New
Delhi: Internatiollal Academy of Indian Culture, 1977; Abhayakaragupta, Vajraval.f-mJma-
TIP; no. 3961. Giller sixteen Sanskrit malluscripts, are k.ept in various
places, e.g. National Archives (Kathmandu). Asiatic Society (Calcutta), Tokyo University
Library, Cambridge University Library, etc.
MThey are included in Mari 1997.
202 From Material to Deity
focuses mainly on the installation of an image, and only those points
which are peculiar 10 the otter types of installation arc cxplailned. Further-
more, a so-called simplified installment method is discussed, and several
ways to abbreviate the inst.allatjoncercmony arc introduced. The chapter
on the installation of the reservoir deals with the installation of such man-
made water facilities as reservoirs, ponds, or wells. The chapter on the
installation of Ihe grove indudes the installation of m!l.ngo groves.
As is the case with other Tantric ceremonies, the t:lccirya officiates at
the ceremony, with his disciples as assi!'ihmts. As there is mention of the
donor who supplies the object of the installation and/or provides financial
backing for the ceremony, we can assume that I.hc donor was present at
such ceremonies.
2.1 Preparation of the Deity and Others
2.1.1 Prep,aration of the and the Alb)r for Ablution
Tile 'Ritual of Installing the Deity' begins in the following manner:
Next, there facing a coloured or a nWl){lala made of cloth or
other materials. both of which have been mtldc visible to the eye, or
a mentally produced Ithe (7c(7rY(I] begins with the offering
(plijii) etc. as h has been stat.ed, and carries out the install<:uion of an
image etc. in the same way Cl!'i the installation of a disciple.
As mentioned above, the VA discusses construction methods
before the installation ritual. Here the to be prepared differs ac-
cording to the object. of the installation. As will be seen later, Abhaya-
karagupta explains the relationship between the t.ypc of and the
object of the installation in the 'Ritual of the Imaallation of an Image and
Others n7th ritual)'.
In the passages quoted above. we have a notable phrase: 'and [the
acarya] carries out also the installation of an image ctc. like the instaHa-
tion of a disdple' (li.;fiyaprati,y!hiim iva api kurylit).
In the VA the expression 'installation of the disciple' does not appear ellse-
Most likely, this refers to the consecration of the
ciple which is explained in the VA from the 20th 1.0 the 44th chapters,
with the wording altered according to the pecuharities of the installation
9 farm viI va l1laJlOmayamat;lflaJe
iva api kuryiil.
10 However, lh.is phrase appc'urs ill the chapler 011 the installation ceremony of an image
and others once more as the words of the'Grent vehicles, Le. teachers' (maJulrlllha), where
Abhayakaragupla explains the necessity of consecration (abhi:,I'eka) of an im'lgc.
The Installation Ceremony in Tantric Buddhism 203
ceremony. In actuality, there are many correspondences between the in-
stallation and consecration ceremonies.
The aCiirya performs the preparation of the vase (kalasiidhiviisana)
and placement (nyiisa) with regard to one of these mW,1(ialas. Among
the fifty rituals of the VA, numbers ten and fourteen explain this, and the
reader is instructed to refer to them by Abhayakaragupt8l.
Next, the iiciirya visualizes the deity that is represented by the im-
age to be installed. This is a meditation specific to Tantric Buddhism.
The iiciirya visualizes the bi]a-mantra (one-syllable mantra) represent-
ing the deity, and from that he visualizes a pledge-being (sarllayasattva)
of the deity. The pledge-being exists in tandem with the wisdom-being
Uiiiinasattva), and through the merging of the two beings the meditation is
completed; the pledge-being is, namely,. visualized, and later on is merged
with the wisdom-being. I I
The iiciirya puts red garments and a garland on the image. then picks
one of flowers from the garltmd and places it on the symbol of the central
deity of the At this point, the sponsor of the ritual (probably the
donor of the object to be installed) is permitted to view the malJ.(iala.
The core of the inviting ritual is the ablution of the object to be in-
stalled. For that purpose, an ablution altar (snana-vedf), which win be the
site of the ablution, is prepared to the east or north-east of the ma1J?ala.
Abhayakaragupta discusses the ablution altar as follows:
liThe ablution altar has] four hWNas to a side, and two hastas in height,
or eight hastas to a side and half that size in height, or twelve hastas
to a side and half that size in height. It is to be made of earth which
has no of having thorns, etc., or made of bricks, etc. If not
avai lable,. a convenient material which comes to hand, or earth from
a suitable place is permissible. In the four directions and four comers
of the altar which has been drawn by powder paste (iilepana),13 etc.,
eight vases (kalala) are placed. [The surface of the altar] should
be cleaned with earth and anointed by five kinds of cow product
(paikagavya) including nectar (amrta). He should cause to make
[the altar] attractive with a canopy, white umbrella, banner. flag, vase
filled with water, flowers, dance, song. music. etc., or else whatever
suitable things come to hand. At an auspicious time according to
\ I As for the TanlricBuddhist meditation using the pledge-being and the wisdom-being.
see F. Lessing lind A. Wayman. Introduction to the Tantric Buddhist Systems. Delhi: Motilal
Banarsidass. 1978. pp. 290-30 I,
12 The Tibetall has 'two hasras' (khru gnyis po).
13 The Tibetall has 'water in ,which grain is dissolved' ('bras brags pa 'j khu ba).
i I
204 From Material to Deity
.. _-
the date, day of the week,. lunar mansion, time (muharta), ,etc., the
acarya bathes and puts on such adornments as necklaces, anklets"
armlets, ,earrings, bra.celets, rings, etc., or such adornments as are
available, a.nd assumes the appearance of Vajrasattva;the aeary", ac-
companied by his consort (vidya), draws in the centre of the altar a
double lotus flower (visvapadma) bounded by a square of a single line
provided with agate to the west by the use of either coloured powde.r
or powder paste etc. Alternatively, [the iiciirya draws a double lotus
flower] located in the centre of a square with a gate to the west, but
with no loralJa. Alternatively, [the dcib:va draws a which
is of the half size of the central square,
of double lines, with four gates, but with no [the iiciirya puts]
a wheel, jewel, lotus, and sword
in the margins of the four direc-
tions from the east. and the symbols of the Four Mothers
in the four
corners, and a double lotus flower having eight petals in the centre.
The above are the three types of itblution divided into sim-
plified,. medium. and complicated ones
In the centre of the on the ablution altar complet.ed in the above
manner, the object to be installed is placed. It is not kept directly on the
ground, but is put on a chair with an eight-petaled lotus drawn on it, or
on a Hon-decorated pedestal covered with cloth on which a moon disc
is drawn. The object of the installation is placed on the facing
14 It is not clear what is exactly meant here. Does this mean the inner circle of a col-
olned mafJflala already made?
15 In sequence, they are the symbols of Vairocana, Ratnasambhuva, Amitlbha, and
16 According to the Acdryakriyiisamuc:caya (Lokesh ChandI'll, KriylJ,mmuccaya. Sata-
pi,.aka Series, Indo-Asian Literatures, Vol. 237, New Delhi: International Academy of
Indian Culture, 1977. f. 289.6)., the symbol.s of the Four Motllers. namely, Lacana. MamakI,
and Tllri are. in sequence, eye, vajra. lotus,llnd water my.
17 Sniinavedi/11 ctlturhastil'11 calUrasril'!l ha.ftadllayocchrillim athavCi
tiitn tadardhocchrayllmathavll dairshyefJQ dvada.rallaslarrl wdardllOcchrayl1tr/1
mrnmayfm j$1akildimayTYfl vii Ia€iabhiive yathdlabdhtil71 ya/Mvasthilabhl1mitr/ vd·
lepanadibhir likhitavedi.klJ'I'l .UhlJpiUJffakalatlJ'fl mrnmr.)"/tilrJ slimrtapaiicagav·
yadilipld111 vitana.fitacchatradhvajapatakllpurl;lakumbh"ku.l'unwl1rryagftavtldUrlidibhir ya·
lhaptair va manoharil/11 ktlrayitvil .fuMe tilhiwiranaksatrclll1u/uirUldau krlasnllnahtiranQpu-
rakeyiirakarfJlibharafJakarikafJtlrigutryaktidyabharafJo yathdprabharafJo val ']ct'Jryo v,ajrasat·
lvamiirti/:l savidy".f tasya vedy" madhye vUvapatlm€llrJ
/ita/11 rajobhir alepan.ddibhir va likhell alMvli nisloraf)apa.fcimadvllracaturcuramadhya,la-
ta", 1 athava garbhamafJfialdrdhamllnaqt catluauaqt caturtlvtJra/'fl tllJipufa'll "istorar;ta"
piIrvddipaf!iklisu cakraratnapadmakhaf/glJIl kO/J>CiUI caturmlltr:ciJmlini matI/lye
kamalalfl celi Satnkfiplamadhytw;;uarabhedfJl I (n - lin
sary aVQgraha is insened in the manuscript).
The Installation Ceremony in Tantric Buddhism 205
east. As the iiciirya stands to the east to perform the ritual, the iiciirya,
the ablution mar:t¢ala on which the object to be installed is placed, and the
housing of the mar:t¢ala are aligned from east to west.
When a small image or sacred text is to beinsta.lled, they can be
easily placed on the ablution mar:tflala, but the transportation of buildings
or large images would be impossible. In such a case, there is no need of
the ablution altar. Instead, the tlcarya visualizes the appropriate pledge-
being on the altar, to whom the ma1Jefiala
is shown. . .
2.1.2 Nfriijana
The nfriijana ceremonyl9 concerning the image, etc., placed on the ablu-
tion ma1Je¢ala is performed in the evening as foHows:
In the evening,20 in front of the image, etc., [the acarya] faces to it
and after offering ptldya (water for washing the feeO, argha (water
for honorable one), etc., or without offering argha, etc., undertakes
the nfrdjana. At that time, [the ticarya] holds with both hands mus-
tard seeds (siddhtirtha) over which the mantra of
0 Vighnantaka hurr', and the syllabk 'hiirr' have been recited
seven times, and revolves each hand twice to the left while reciting,
'0111, 0 the one who burns all transgressions. To Vajrasattva's vajra.
Bum all transgressions, svahii'}l he throws the mustard seeds into
the fire. Then he revolves the hands the same way to the right. He
does the same thing with the water to the left and right. [He does
the same thing] with small white dishes
(dhavalitasariiva) , with
pieces of cow dung together with a darvii blade. some portions of
food (bhaktajat;lt), and a purificant
(sftalikii). However, items be-
ginning with the white dishes are not thrown into the fire. Next, [the
deary'l] touches the image, etc., with both hands. While reciting the
18 This is not the ablution I11CJfJ4ala. but the mar,Jfiala already prepared before the in-
stallation ceremony.
19 According to the the and the Agnipurd.
r,Ja,. the nirajana ceremony is performed to purify the weapons and army. See S. Einoo. 'The
Autumn Goddess Festival: Described in the PUral)8s'. M. Tanaka and M. Tachikawa, eds..
Living with Sakti: Gender, Sexuality and ReUllion in South Asia, Senri Ethnological Studies
50, Osaka: National Museum of Ethnology,. 1999. pp. 49-54.
20 The Tibetan has 'in the moming' (tho ran.gs kyi dus xu).
21 In the Trailokyavijaya Chapter of the Sarvatathiigatatattvasatrlgraha a similar man-
tra (o/?1 sa",apapadahana syaM) appears. See K. Horiuchi, Shoe-Kol'lgochokyo no kenkyu.
Koyasan: The Institute of Esoteric Buddhist Culture. 1983, 467.
22 It is not clear what exaclly is meant
23 It is not clear wha.1 exactly is meant.
206 From Material to Deily
mantra of the main deity of the ma1J4ala, either directly or by r:eftect-
ing the image in a mirror, whichever way is more suitable, he anoints
the heart with perfumed wat'er, ties a flower garland on the head,
fers argha in front of [the image], revolves lamps, and offers sajjara
containing ghee over which [the dcarya] has r,ecited the
mantra of [Amrta]kuf;I,c;Ialin and the syllable hiirr times: The
above is the sequence of the nfriijana ceremony.2S
This ritual can be divided into two parts. In the Rr'st half, mustard seeds,
water, etc., are held in both hands and revolved before the image. In the
second half, the hands are placed on the image, and the process of the first
half may also have the meaning of purifying the hands for that purpos,e.
Then perfumed water is brushed on the image, a flower-garland is tied
on the head, and argha, lights., and incense are offered. <Refllecting the
image ina mirror' refers to the case of a sacred text or painting, when
- -
sprinkling water directly on it would be damaging. Similar statements
appear subsequently a number of times.
2.1.3 Ablution
Following the nfrajana ceremony, fi.ve types of nectar are appli,ed to the
Next, using a bunch of durvtl grass over which th,e mantra of [Amr-
ta]kul)Q8lin has been recited, [the acarya] anoints animag,e, etc.,26
which are suitable for ablution, with the five types of nectar: yogurt,.
cow's miU<, ghee, honey, and sugar placed in a copper container, and
- -
the five kinds of cow product (p,aficagavya): cow's mBk, yogurt,
ghee, cow urine, and cow dung whfle reciting the mantra, 0'" hUl?1:
24 Tib. .1'pOS akar Nyi bdug pa.f. BIfSD has some fragrant. substlnce for sar))ara. bm
the actual name is not provided.
25 PradOfasamaye pralimlidikn'Tl pur:askrtyQ taciabhimukhrbhiJya padyl'irghadiddnapu.
arghadidana'11 vina vii nfrcljayer I falra (J''7l vig}l.nlintakrt Mil,. iti kU1;l(ialimalllre.
I)a hiirnklirerJ.lJ ca pratyekUlrt 1I11ra·
dvayatrJ vtimavarretltl 0/!1 sarvapapadah,m,a'vajrllya lIajrasQttva.rya .wrvaptipal11 dalm svl1·
ha I iti pa!han nirmaifcya ,fkldhar/Mn agnau Iqipet I farM I vtimad€.k..ril,latas
tarhadakena ItarM dhavaUta:iar(ivajs ralM sadarvttilk/lragomayaja(ifbhi.r tatha bhakJaja(lr.
bhi/:t I .fftalikayii ca I ki'7ltu farliviidayo 'gnau fla I lato ha.rrllbhylJ'11 prarimadi.
kam upasprlet I cakreiama.ntrelJ,a prarimll€ler yorhllyogatrl darparJ..lJIJratjhjmbira.rya
va hrdi gandhalepanaf1l puralo 'rghaddna/11 krtviJ dfpa'f/ pari-
bhramya cQ .I'apfajaprasallhrra,I'ajjarasadhiipena dhiip.ayed iti nfriija.
nakramal, I .
26 The Tibeta.n is .rku gZllgs (image); there is no word in the Tibelan here for 'etc,'

The Installation Ceremony in Tantric Buddhism 207
trdrrr Painted Cloth,. sacred texts, statues made from clay,
etc., paintings, etc., may be reflected in a mirror [and the five kinds
of nectar and paficagavya are applied].28
The ablution of the image is carried out with water in addition to various
Next, [theacarya] bathes [the image] with water over which the
mantra of [Amrta]kul)dalin has been recited, and which is fragrant
and pure, he anoints it with the paste of the bark of five types of
milk-wood nyagrodha, udumbara. pippala, and
gandhamulJ,f!a contained in a brass and while r,eeiling either
the mantra, 'o'?l, that which purities the bodies of aU the tathiigatas.,
svdhd,/·9 or the mantra: 0111 halfl triirrz kha'?l khaJ:z, ano.ints with
fragrant sesame oil (laila) contained in a brass utensil, anoints with
amalak#30contained in a brass utensil, and bathes in the same way
[as stated above], anoints with turmeric (haridrii) contained in a brass
utensil and bathes, anoints with sandalwood (Srfkha1)(ia). red sandal-
wood (raktacandana), saffron (kunkuma), granthika fragrance, and
aloe (aguru), or with saffron, aloe, musk (kasturt) , camphor (kar.
para), etc., or whatever is available. [The iicdrya visualizes that]
the tathiigatas and female deities which have been drawn hither by
the light of the bfja syllable in his heart bathe [the deity of an im-
age, etc.] with the water from the vase, after they sing auspicious
songs and play the various musical instruments. [The iiciirya him-
self] bathes it with the waters from the supreme vase
and otht;'rs which have been gathered in a conch shell or some other
container, while reciting from the line, 'just as soon as [all the tathii-
gatas] are born' onwards which will be mentioned later.
He wipes
27 The bfjas symbolize the Five Buddhas in the following order: Vairocana,
Ratnasambhava. Arhitabha. and Amnghasiddhi.
28 Tadanu kU.(lpalijaplatliirvakiircena Uimrabhiijana.fthair mifritadadhidugdhaghrta.
ma.dhukhar)(larupaiQ, panctimnais wdanu paiicagav.
.ntiinayogyarr pralimiidika/?l orr hUrr rrii/?f iIi mantref.la mralQ'ayell parapusta·
kamrnmayiidicitrifapralimiidika'71 W darpw;le pratibimbitalfll
29 Asimilar mantra is included in the (TIP. no. 118, Vol. 5,
30 SkI. amalak.yi (01' amalak$i). Tib. sgyu ru fa. Details are un-
31 'The supreme vase'. which corresponds to the central deity of the is in-
cluded in the vases prepared prior to tile instaUatiOil and cons,ecralion ceremonies.
32 Th,e full text of this verse appears in the water consecration section of the Installation
Ceremony of an Image, etc. It reads as follows:
208 From Muterial to Deity
off the remaining wat.er with a soft cloth, and adorns it with a garment
according to the abi IiIty [of the sponsorl. D
The five types of wood begi.nning with nyagrodha all belong to the fig
family. The five types of nectar and the paiicagavya ar,c kept in cop-
per containers. but the fragranccs used for the ablution arc kept in brass
containers. Diirvii grass is not used. Thc latter portion of the quotation
includes a visualized ablution by the fathilgertas Lind fcrmllc deities, and
is identical with the content of the water consecration carriicd out in the
installlation ceremony. The 'auspicious song' sung by the female deities
which are drawn by the hfjain the heart, and the entire content of the
verse beginning with 'just as soon as [all the wtJu7gatas] arc born' are
given therein. The supreme vase which contains the ablution water is the
vase which was prepared in the 'Ritual of the Preparation of the Vases'
(tenth ritual). A number of vases are prepared for the deities,34
and the supreme vase corresponds 10 the celltnll deity of the mcu.I(lala and
is the most. important of all the vases.
2.1.4 SuppJi,cation for Inviting aind Appro.aching
The iiciirya draws in the accompanied by the Buddhas or
Bodhisattvas with the light emitted by the hija nu.ullra in his heart. The
wisdom-being corresponds to the which was already visual-
ized in the object of the installation. When the lhree types of waler: ptidya,.
iicmnana (rinsing water), and argha, Lire offered and the puja conducted,
the iiciirya places his right knee on ,the ground, ringing the bell with his
left hand and offering incense with his right., and recites the following
verse of supplication to the wisdom-being:
yathii hi jlitamlitrelJa /
tathlihllf!l snapayi,yyami JI.uldlwtll divyem./ wirit.J{i 1/
33 mtlpayilvtl pm1cantiql
k.. pClIlc(Jvalktllakalkair vi·
0l?l sarvateuhtigatakilyavi,fodhal1e .l'vlJhtl / iti man1r£tf!1 0'11 hatTI khat,1
iIi wi 'varmyan klif!lsyabluljanll.\·th(l.l'I"gandhitailerw mrak.,wyilvil vitiik.yya kiit!lSya.\'IMma.
lok,loyd pmlipy(l !atM .mapayitvii kii1rrsya.rthaharidrayii pralipyo .mtipuyitvii .frfkha':lflamk.
tacandanakulikumagranthikagurubhir yatlullabhwfl vu
samCilahhya kumhhai{1 st1{ipy{mlillltlf/1 mmlgcllaHUivid.
traviiditradipurabsaratrJ vijayakala:l{ldfnaJr'/ jalaib .fw1khe 'n)llllm \1(1 mmbhrtai,. ymha hi
pa/han .l'lujpayer / wlJ(lgrwjalmr.' mrtluvw·trt'(lilkr.,\')Iu yarha.
.<akti vaJ'trtidibhir
34 According 10 the explanation in the tenth rhulIl, in the elise of the Guhynsamaja-
mal)."ala with Mai'ijuvajra as lhe main deily, Abhayilkurngupl.1I mentions six patterns of the
number of vases, i.e, 20, 15, 10. 6, 2. or I (TIP; Vol, 80. 88.3).
The Installation Ceremony in Tantric Buddhism 209
o Bhagavan,35 0 such-and-such (amuka), 0 you who bear an unsur-
passed vajra, 0 lord of vidyli, I pay homage to you. For the sake
of pity on your disciples, for the sake of the offering (puja) to you,
and for the sake of increasing the welfare of all beings, for the sake
of the raising of bodhicitta, 0 lord,36 I wish to perform this installa-
tion, a piteous one. 0 Bhagavan, may you grant your favor to me,
your devotee. May Buddhas who give merit to the world of cycle.,
give some consideration to me, Bodhisattvas who reside in the fruit,
and deities of the mantras, deities, guardians of the regions, demons,
who have be,en instructed in the complete bodhi, who delight in the
teachings, sentient beings, and others who have the divine eyes.
such-and-such, who bear the great vajra, wHl conduct the installation
of such-and-such. Then may you approach [the object of the installa-
tion ceremony].38
The words 'such-and-such' appear three times; the first time the name of
the wisdom-being which is invited is inserted, the second and third are the
names of the acarya and of the object of the installation.
After reciting the supplication verse, the aclirya makes offerings and
pays homage to the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas in the air. After that, he
reci tes the mantra, 'O'!1,. 0 vajraj to the coming back agai n, mub' ,39 and re-
35 A similar verse has already appeared in the VA. The eleventh ritual which bears the
Slllne title us the sixteenth ritual of the VA. Preparation of the Deity. contains the verse as
well. In the sixteenth ritual it is used with reference to summoning the deity which is the
object of the installation ceremony, whereas in the eleventh it is used to summon the deity
to the place where the is to be made before drawing the outlines of the
36 The Tibetan translation adds here the Iinc 'thugs rje'l "dag nyid can'. There is no
corresponding word in the Sanskrit text. However. the second half of the first verse in the
eleventh ritual on Preparation of the Deity has '0 the one who has the essence of compassion'
(karulJall1wka) instead of '0 pious one' (dayamaya). It is thought that the Tibetan text was
influenced by this.
37 The Tibetan has 'vajrlHye' (fda rje'i spyan) instead of 'divine eye',
311 Bhagal'unl1 amuka ,wdvajra vidyiiriija nama 'stu te I
karlUm icchiimi Ie niitha prati.yrhiina/?1 dayamaya II
,\(i,fyii",iim anukampiirtharrl YUP11iikal?t pfi.janaya ca I
sattvClnaf71 pU/Jyavrddhyarthmn bodhiciuodayaya ca II
Ian me bhaktasya bhagavan prasadal?l kartum arhasi I
samanviiharantu mat!! buddha II
pha{clsthii bo,ll7i.wuvii§ ca yii§ a1nyu I
lleva/a lokl1palii.f ca II
§tisanabhira/iifl sativa ye canye I
wnuko j hllln malulvajrf prati..I'!hiim Qmukasya tu II
kari\l'yiim; laro yiiym!l siil!rnidhywn kart/1m arhatha II
39 O/?l vajm punar iigamaniiya l1Iufl.
210 From Material to Dl1ity
quests the deities to return whence they came. Then he bathes and anoints
the image again with fragrances, makes offerings, and touches it three
times with the vajra in his right hand whillc reciting the mantra of Amr-
takm:u;ialin. Finally, an oblation (bali) is offered. As the usual ending of
rituals, the returning of the deity and the obliation arc performed, I.hc end
of the ritual here is clear.
At the end of the 'Ritual of Preparation of the De.ity',
gupta adds some supplementary comments. According to these, the pro-
cess of inviting the deity can be eliminated, and in that case the nfriijana
ceremony alone is performed, and the installation ceremony in the nar-
row sense which is explained afterwards is proceeded to. Additi:onailly,
it is stated that the inviting of the deity is performed for the purpose of
the sponsor's accumulation of merit if lhe sponsor has the ability, there-
probably meaning financial ability. The inviting of the deily and
the installation ceremony in the narrow sense arc probably indepcndent
ceremonies in origin, and this is reflected in the fact 'hat in thc entire in-
stallation ceremony the inviting of the deity serves as a preparatory phase.
2.2 Installation of an Image and Others
2.2.1 Merging of the Pledge-Being and the Wisdom-lJeing
In the st.arting section of the seventeenth ritual, Iinstalltdion of an Image
and Others', some of the contents of the previous vidhi are duplicated:
the visualization of the pledge-being and the recitation of the supplication
verse are repeated again. Afterwards, the merging of the pledge-being and
wisdom-being is ex.plained. A general explanation of the vilsualization of
the pledge-being is given as follows.:
in the early moming, [the acclrya] has a pleasing ablution alltar
made in this manner, and in an auspicious time. etc., he, wearing suit-
able personal ornaments, assumes the appearance of Vajradhara ac-
companied by the consort and down, and after having performed
the oblation (bali) and offering (pujii), he visualizes the image which
has been placed, or the monastery, etc., which have been constructed
as having the appearance of the pledge-being. In this case, he, who
knows the visualization procedures of the individual deities as des-
cribed in tantric texts, abhisalnaya, siidhana, etc., visual'izes that the
image of the particular deity concerned has the form of Hs pleclge-
being, either illl proper sequence from emptiness, or simult.aneously
[with emptiness].40
40 Tadanu pralyu.ye sniinavedff{1 uuh,I,rranollClrii/?1 kiirayi(vii .1:ublwmlthiirWdau krwta.

The Installation Ceremony in Tantric Buddhism 211
Abhayakaragupta provides details of the method for visualizing the pledge-
being when the installation involves a building such asa monastery, or a
sacred text,. but aU are visualized according to the same fonnat. In other
words, the deities visualized as the pledge-being are AmiUibha for sac-
red texts and Vairocana for buildings, and their symbols, a r,ed lotus or an
eight-spoked wheel, are born out of emptiness and become the appearance
of the deity, which is visualized as manifesting its form within either the
sacred text or the building.
After that Abhayakaragupta repeats some portions of the ritual of
the preparation (adhiviisana-vidhi) and further explains the moving of the
object of the installation, and the merging of the pledge-being and the
wisdom-being as follows:
Next, after having performed, in accordance with the immediately
preceding vidhi, the ritual acts beginning with the anointing with
the five kinds of nectar, fonowed by anointing with saffron, etc.,
and ablution, ending with the wiping off the remaining water with
a soft cloth,41 then [the .aciirya] causes the image etc. to enter into
the mm:u;lala housing, and places it facing the at a place not
too far away in the north-east comer of the ma1Jflala,. or in another
comer. The immovable monastery, etc., naturally, remains there they
are constructed. He visualizes first that these bfja-mantras located in
the heart, along with the eyes, etc., and the body, etc., are consec-
rated;42 he performs the steps described immediately before
as drawing the appropriate wisdom-being through the rays of light
emanating from the bfja in his heart, etc., repeats aloud the verse be-
ginning with '0 Bhagavan' and ending with' ... may you approach'
three times, and as suitable [he] leads hither in the wisdom-beings
either through the light from his heart, or through the various deities;
[the acarya] causes the wisdom-being to enter into the correspond-
ing pkdge-being and makes them to be of one taste and controllable.
Another method is that [the iicarya] produces a in
thiibharal)o vajradharamiirtir Japrajiia upaviJya balipiijiipurvakatrl pratimiiciikatrl
tarluliva .l'llriipilalrJ vihiiriicJikw!I ca yalhlivoSlhilal!! .wmayasattvariipaf!!
talra tantriibhisamayasiidhaniidi.yu yasya
sya yli pratikrti.l' lar,.,.{unyaliinanlaraf?l yalhllkramaf?l jha/iti va tam iva samayasattvariipiilrJ
bhavayel I
41 See above fOI" the discussion of 'Ablution'.
42 'The eyes, etc.' may mean tile eyes, ears, nose, mouth, head. and heart, and 'tile
body, etc: may mean the body, mouth. and hellrt (kiiyavakcittu). The former consecration is
mentioned in the Sadhanamiilti, no. 88 (Bhanacharyya 1968:175).
43 This refers to the first paragraph of 'Supplication for Inviting and Approaching'.
, I
i I
Iii '.1
Ii ,i
212 From Material to Deity
the heart of the image and causes the to enter into
. . d 44
It an so on.
2.2.2 Wat,er Cons,ecration
The iiciirya performs the nine types of consecration: waler (udtlka), tiara
(muku,ta), vajra, bell (ghWl!a) , (vqjmmima), lictil)ltl, secret
(guhya), praj/la-wisdom (prajl1ajl1ana), and the fourlh consecration
in sequence all the image, etc., to be installed. In the
water consecration, the aciirya visualizes I.hat the tathligatas and
female deities (devT) pour nectar, which has bodhicitta as its csscnc,e, from
a vase on the deity which is to beinstalkd. At the same time, the iiciirya
himself pours waler from the supreme vase, etc., on the image. The fulll
text of the water consecration is as follows:
Next, [the acarya] worships the tat}ulgatas who have been lead to the
ten directions and the female deities beginning with Locana through
the light of the brja in the heart to the spaoc before his eyes, Gmd for
the purpose of consecrating the im(lgc, etc., he makes an entreaty with
the following verse:
'As the consecration of the Buddhas, thut is the source of merit,
was given by one who bears a Vl4]ra for the sake of protecl.ing
the world,. likewise let you give [Ihe consecmUon] to him.'
[The iiciirya visualizes] these tathagutlls are in coitlls wiith their con-
sorts and dissolve into fluid through great affection (mahiir{i8,a), they
enter through [the iiciirya's] own gate of Vairocana, and come out
by the vajra-path, [they] consecrate the image 01' other which has
been inserted into the lotus of goddess
by that lluid by means of the
mouth. I[The tathiigatas] reappear from the 10lUs in forms of arms,
faces, etc.,. and fiJI the ollter space everywhere. IThe tatJu7gatas] at-
tended by their consorts such as Lacana and accompanied by a rain
[of offerings] such as canopi,es, banners, c141ncing, IHUSIc, Nowers, saf-
fron, and others, by means of a while vessel with a curved sprout
44 Tato 'nantaroktavidhinii klllikIlIlUidi.l'amii/ahlwmt:t!.la.
kr1vii I,'w,:,!/a/alrrlre prave;(va dUy an·
ya.l'yiil!l vii !'liilidilre mafl9aliibhimukhQl'{l .l'lhiipay{/va prar{mlidikw!1 lIil(,(l/m!l til vihiiriidi.
karrr .I'vasthrmaSlham eva yalhayogw!1
rab.l'araJ?! svahrdbfjamayukhair y(/lhii,I'V(l/!l jiicillll.l't1uwldyiilltlyalllidika!ll (/llolltamkUlm Will·
,nhiiya bhagavanl1 ityiidilwm Mhallretyanlmrl Irib pa!hitvll yatlulyoRW!l Im1ralmibhir (Ie·
valcibhir vii ji1t1l1ll.l'ClIIVW!' yllll/ii,I'Vattl .l'amaY(/.I'(/f(ve I'retvrdyaikam.l'fkrtya vaHkurytit /
prarimahrdi samayamW;lf/alwrl Oy em·
45 The vajra IOlus may indicale male and female sexual organs respectively,
46 TcJta(r puronabhasy localliididc-
vf.f ca sampiijya pm/imadyabhi,yekiirlho,?l I
buddlrc1/ulmabhi.,I'ekas 114 jagarrrafJaya vajril:uj I
gU.I,1akaro ymha datlas tmha dadadhvam asya hi II
iIi gtifhayijbhyarthayel I IaH ell malulriige'.la druvibhii.
ya .l'vasya vairocl//Iadviire/Ja pravi.fya Vl(jmmargelJa nirgmya taddravair dev/padme mu-
khelUl praveJi/(II!1 prarimiidikllrn abhi,rieya pcwar pac/mat nibs!.
rya bahirambaram ilpurya slhirair loccmiidividyasahitai.f chatrapmtikiinrryagftavadilraku.
lat pra-
timae/ileal!l pac/mad bahir niQSrlam abhi:fic)'wniinarr rupallajrtidibhi,.
yar mangll!GI!, .l'akala,I'Cll/va1mJislhitasya sarviitmakasya varasarvakuliidhipa,fya I
mahii.l'ukha.l'ya tat manga1ar!l bhavatu Ie 'dYll varilbhi,yeke II
iii mmigalagitena sva)'GI1!1 ca Wf tilni vii pragiiya
vijayadikaIQ.tatliil!l jalellaikarra lmikhe sambhiilena pralyekal,n vii yathiikramatp sapallava-
vajrakaragrhf1ena ,mpallawlvajragragalirena bodhieitliimrtariipefJll I
filled with nectar of the essence of bodhicitta, perform the consecra-
tion on the image, etc., which have come out of the lotus, Clind Riipa-
vajra and others glorify the image, etc., by either the auspicious song
(mwigala) [as follows]:
'May this benediction of the great bliss which dwells in the
heart of all types of beings, is formed from all selves (sarvat-
maka), is the leader of all excellent families, and is the father of
all sentient beings, today belong to you in the excellent consec-
or the songs which appear later. [The iicarya] himself sings the aus-
picious song or the songs which appear later. With the water which
has been gathered in one place inside a conch shell from the supreme
vase, etc., or alternatively from each [vase] according to sequence,
which is scooped with a hand bearing a flower bud and a vajra, and
dripped from the poinl of the vajra accompanied with the flower bud,
and which takes on the appearance of the nectar of bodhicitta, [the
iiciirya] consecrates [the image, etc.] while reciting:
'As all the tathtigatas are bathed as SOOI1 as they are born, I will
bathe the pure one with this holy water,'
and the mantra, 'DIp. iib, 0 cOl1s,ecration of all the tathagatas, 0 pledge,
to the auspicious one, hat?l svahii' and the mantra '01?1, 0 vajra-water,
consecrate, hal?l' and with the conviction that the Bhagavan Vajrasat-
tva who takes the form of the main deity ofthe Inm;ujala as the highest
guru orders the consecration and carries out the consecration. This is
the water consecration.
The Installation Ceremony in Tantric Buddhism
214 From Material to Deity
The first half is the consecration in the form of sexual yoga visualized
by the ticiirya. The image placed inside the lotus of the female deities is
consecrated with the fluid issuing from the dissolving tathiigatas. From
the lotus the tathiigatas are recreated in their original. forms, and the con-
secration of lhe deity which has appeared from the lows is again carried
out by the tathiigatas. At that time, the female deities sLlch ,15
jra sing the auspicious song around them. The 'songs which appear later'
which may replace the auspicious song refer to the verses which are found
in the 'Water Consecration' (24th rihmll) which form!-i part of the discip],e
The water consecration has two-layers: consecration by
the tathiigatas within the visualization of the acarya, and the actual con-
secration by the iiciirya himself. The consecration by the lathligataJ.· is
ordered by Vajrasauva who is the central deity of the mafJflalaas well as
the ticiirya himself.
2.2.3 The Remaining Eight Types of Consecration
The tiara consecration consists of placing a tiara consecrated by the Five
Buddhas on the head of the image. AI this point a specific mantra is
recited,48 and theconsecl"ation is performed with the conviction that 'the
iicarya, who is Vajradhara who has the appearance of the main deity of
the ma1J(1ala, places the tiara'. If the image t.o be installed is Heruka, a
cloth (pa!a) is placed on the forehead instead of the tiara.
In the vajra and bell consecrations, these items are given to the im-
age. When the vajra is given, the verse, 'Today you are consecrated
by Buddhas through the consecration of the vajra. Grasp this vajra.,. the
nature of all Buddhas, for the excellent accomplishment' is recited.
the bell consecration, the mantra employed is 'O'!l, () vqjra-lord, 1consec-
yathli hi jiitamatm.w
lathiiJra/fl divyena
O/fl til} ,mmtlya ,{:riye hU,,1 ,rvlihtJ / iti I mrl vajmda.klibhi,\'ii'icll ha'11 /
iti ca pa/l1wl bhagaviill vajra,mttva eva puramagurur nWf)(laladhiptuinuirlir
abhi,I'ineati eeti c1n1h{'idhimuklyclblti.yillCt!(! ity I
47 See TTP. Vol. 80.116.4.
411 One of these three Irlan/ras is recited: 'OI?I 0 \!CJ.jra,consecralc. lui'rl' (OI?I
vajrtibhi,\'ilica hUI?'), 'O/fl, 0 vajrajewel, ibTl' (OI?I vajramtflf1 ClI?'), or '01" ha,!1 In'i1!1 ab',
The text has the bija'o,?,' ill place of 'ill!I' in the second mantra.
49 The Sanskrit text reads as follows:
adyabhi#ktas Ivum asi buddhair
ielllf!l fat sarvabudtlltatvw]1 gr1u.1U vajra'/fl su.tiddhaye 1/
This verse also appears in the Vajra Consecra\iOIl (TIP, Vo!" 80, I 17,1) forming parI at Ihe
disdple consecration.
The Installation Ceremony in Tantric Buddhism 215
rate you, stand, 0 vajra, you are the, pledge' .50 Both are recited with the
conviction that Vajrasattva recites them.
The naJne consecration is a naming by Vajrasattva. The naming is
done with the mantra, '0l!1, 0 Vajrasattva, I consecrate you through the
consecration of the 0111. you are such and such vajra' .51 In
place of 'such and such' a name appropriate to the deity represented in the
image is announced.
The iiciirya consecration is conducted as fonows:
[The acarya] visualizes that the deity of the image, etc., taking the
posture of embracing the wisdom mudrii (female consort) with his
hands bearing a vajra and a vajra-bell, consecrates [the image]ac-
cording to the water consecration previously discussed, and attaches
the mudrii of the leader of the family (kula) on the head [of the each
deity]. If the family is n.ot known, he attaches the mudrii of
or Vajrasattva. [The aciirya] inserts other tathiigatas, bodhisattvas,
female deities ther,ein [in the image] in the form of wisdom-beings,
and empowers by the mantra, 'or?l, 0 vajrii, who has bten installed
well, sviihii' ,52 [The acarya empowers] a monastery or a caitya with
[the mantra], 'Olfl, hL7l?l, bhram, kha,!'l,. become the vajra, stand
steadily, bhru,!1, khw!, ,,. and [empowers] a sacred text with the man-
tras, '0111, 0 vajra, who has been installed weB, svahti' and 'Olfl hU,?1
tvam'. This is the liciirya consecration.
By repeating the water consecration once more, the figure of the leader
of the family appears on the forehead of the image. The employment
of Vajrasattva or when it is not clear to which family the deity
belongs, relates to the fact that when creating a ma1)flala for a deity whose
family is not clear, the of either of these two deities is used.
50 Of!, vajriidh,'patl' Ivelm vajra .wmayas tvam. The same malltra ap-
pears in the bell consecration (TTP. Vol. 80, 117.1) forming part of the disciple
51 0'1
vajm.l'altva tvam abhi"I'iiiciimi °111 amukavajms fvam, The
same mantra appears in the lllime consecration (TIP, Vol. 80, 117.1·2) forming'part of
disci pic consecration,
52 The same mantra appears in the iiciirya consecration (TIP. Vol. 80. 117.1) formi ng
part of the disciple consecration.
53 Pmrimiididevaliir!' vi.
bhllvylinllnlarokrodakiihhi,I'ekavidhiniibhi,)'icya sl'asvakuleJena lirasi J1t/ldrayel / ajiWtaku-
ltlql n
ak.yohhyelJa vajra.wttvena va I aparatathagatabodhi.mtlvadevis latraiva jfiiinasattva.
prave.fya 0/11 svtiha iii I 0/11 hiil11 bhrul11
khwp, vajrfhhava dn1harrl blrrlilr1 ity wleniipi vihlirw!l CaifyWrl eel pustakaJ11tu
orr' .ruprati,f!hitavajre ;wiiha iIi OIr1 hUfl1 I1rt/.! tVa/17 iii mantriibhyii'11/ ity
216 Frotrl Material to Deity
When installing items onher l.hal1 such as monasteries or sacred
texts, mantras specific to them arc recited.
The secret, wisdom, and fourth cOllsecnllions arc done as visualiza-
Next, [the acarya] visualizes thaI Vajrasaltva, who takes the form
of the chief deily of the mW1(Jala, draws the assemblage of tathiiga.
tas, beginning with Vairocana, accolnpanicd by their consorts by the
light of the blja in [his] own heart, enlers lhem through the gate of
Vairoca.na [in the lotus]. experiences the great bliss (mahlisllkha) d.is-
solved into fluid, and places the thi:ng which has been emitted from
both the vajra and lotus, ancl which has a shape of bodhiciua in the
mouth of the deity represented by the image. elc. This is the secret
Next, [the iict1rya.l convinces himself that the deity represented
in the image, etc., and which has completely been in coitus with the
femal!e deity who is led hither by Vajmsallva, is made up of the innate
bliss (sahajiinanda). This is the prqjiitl-wisdom consecration.
Next, [the ilciirya] convinces himself that the dcity represent,ed
by the image, etc., has the nature of the fourth consecration given
by this vCljra·bearer (vajmbh,rt), and is integral with empti-
ness (sanyata) and compassion (karw;!ii). both of which are formed
of great bliss and abandon the defilements ,lccompanied by habit
(savlisaniivarw;w). This is the fourth consccratiOl1.
In the secret consecration, Vajrasattva. who is the liciirya himself,
places bodhicitta which has been generated by sexual yoga in the mouth
of the image. ]n the praji1ii consecration, the consort of Vajrasattva and
the deity of the object of installation engage in sexual union, and the deity
obtains the innate bliss. In the fourth consecratioll, the deity himself at-
tains the non-dual nature of emptiness and compassilon.
2.2.4 Offering (piljii)
The ilciirya makes offerings such as garments, !lowers, Iighl., food, in-
cense for rubbing,. and body adornments to the deity which h,lS been con-
54 Tadal1tJ cakr.e:lamfirtir .wl'id,l'al'(limcall{1diwlhii.
gateuamfihalll pravil,l'a dravihhfi 1(/1!I lIU1hii,Hlkham anubhllya v{(jrapcul.
miibhyam UI,\'{,y!ary1 bodhidmmipwf/ pmtimt1didevlIll1yii IIlllklll' prave,{{ly{ltfti cintayed iIi
tatas tena sahajt1rwndamaya-
tvom adhimunced iti /
tadanu lena vajmbhrtii pralip{u/ilacaturtfwseka,\"vw'fipiil(l pmlimiididevatiil!l pra!li/;Ia.l'Qvii·
mlhimufkeli iii C(l/urthiibhi,yekab I
The Installation Ceremony in Tantric Buddhism 217
secrated. At the same time, he recites the appropriate mantras, in which
the offering made has the word vajra prefixed to it. and is in the feminine
Next, a mantra used when sprinkling water on the offerings is
given: '0111, you who purifies all, hU'?l, pilar ,56 al'.ong with a mantra for
offering fmi't: 'm?l ja,?l sva!la'. Next, property for the sake of the pledge
(samayadravya), and bezoar (rocana) are offered along with the mantra,
'01[1,0 Vajrasattva, ab' ,'57 and a mirror is shown to the image,
2.2.5 Opening the Eyes
The prescription of opening the eyes of the image is given as follows:
Immediately afterwards, or if a !loma (burnt offering) is performed,
after satisfying [the deity} through the homa, according to the differ-
ences of the images, etc., and according to the wishes of the sponsor,
[the clciirya] prays for the wishes of the sponsor, etc., pacification
(.5iinti) to [the acquisition of] Buddha-nature and he applies butler
and honey contained in a small silver oil-vessel (mallikti) to the eyes
of the image with a cleaned stick of gold heavier than one miifaka,
while reciting the mantra, 'OIt1, 0 eye, 0 eye, 0 eye of equality, 0 pur-
iller, sviihii'. He thus opens the eyes of the image. If the object is a
sacred text, [the ticiirya] anoints its reflection in a mirror.
We can observe that the wishes of sponsors who had images made and
donated them are prayed for by the iiciirya while the eyes are being opened.
The method which is adopted when eye lotion cannot be directly put on
the object of the installment is the same as previously noted.
2.2.6 Feeding Milk-Gruel to the Deity
Milk-gruel (ptiyasa) is a dish made from milk, sugar, and rice. If ahoma
is done before the eye-opening, the milk-gruel is made over the IlOrna
Following that, [the aciirya] puts milk, sugar, rice, butter, honey, and
coarse sugar (.farkarii) in a vessel placed on a tripod (yantrika) over
55 Din a!l vajravli.m.te hriIJ/ sl'ahii I ()It/ lib hUI]1 .l'viihii I 01]' fib vajradhiipe
fUJI!! sviihii I OIll vqjradfpc ha'!l O,!I vajrcmivedye Ira", sviihti I ol'!i iib vajragan.
dill! hiJm s\'aha I om .l'arviibllllrallavibhiisane .l'viiha /
56 '011
JIJ ,\'an:a§odhani hii,i, phat. . ,
51 0",
5H 1ildanlln/aml!) vii !loIlUl.I'wllbhave IwmeniipY(lyallii'laIlWrm!I 1'(1 prmimiidY(/lIun'ipafO
diillapal)·{j,l:ayiinilrlipalll.I' ell §r1l1tylldibllddhafl'{lparyalllam artham {/(lnapalyiidiilCinl abhila-
raupyllmallikiisthitaghrwmadlwm / or]'
viJodl/lme SlIlllul / iti pa{hanll cak.Yllr /ulg/lli!ayet I pmti.
pll,\'It//({ulillevllliiyas IIJ dorpQI,Ie /
218 From Materiell to 1J(?ity
the fire in thc pit, with a plate (patrl) 4Uld scoopingladlc, or if unavail-
able, with a leaf of pippalu trcc,. while solemnly rcciling the mantra
of the [acarya's] own main deity, and he makes milk-grucl. If there
is no fireplace for ho,l/w, the milk-gruel lis made] over another fire.
[The acarya] recites the mantra, 'Olr1, 0 sacred food, you who delight
in concentmtion (smlliidhi) and meditation (dhyiifla), sVlilui' over the
milk-gruel. While reciting, he feeds the visualized dcity of the image,
or if a sacred text, etc., the deity reflected in the rnirror, He offers iica-
mana (water for sipping), sandalwood, etc., and betel leaf (tlimbula).
Then he states his pliedgc, 'OJ?l, ha'!1, trlil?1, .59
After this, a procedure for entering the deity into the object of the install-
ation, when that object is a sacred text. or building, is appended.
Next, [the iiciirya] visualizes that, as regards u sacred text. Amitabha
enters with his consort into the written words. and takes the form of
the written words; or las regards a monastery or enilyel,] Vairocana
enters with his consort into t.hc monastery or cclityll, and takes the
form of a monastery which is a basis to all Buddhas, their dharma,
and Bodhisattvas or '<:riivaka.\', elc., or takes the form of a cait.va which
is the foundation of various concentrations. [The (Ieclrya visualizes
that] Vajrasattva, etc., empower them for the sake of the bencflt to the
world while in SQI?1Sara.
Unlike in the case of an image, the eye-opening and the offering of milk-
gruel cannot be done directly in the case of a sacred text or building.
Otherwise, the object of installation and either AnliHibha or Vairocana
are separated and later re-united.
2.2.7 Petition and Refuge
The acarya recites the foilowl ng verses to the del I y of lhe object installed,
petitioning it to remain long in the object
59 Tal!arlu kltr;J¢iignwl k.yfriikhWI(llIll//:I(iulaJ!,Il(lallludlru.<'orkmlilJllib p{ilryii .('111'£'1.1(1 ca
ladahlriive prak\I:I'pya yanlriko{Jari,\'rhir(/h//(ijalll' ,WI!OPWI1 ,\'\'(1dhipamal1lmm
udfrayan payasaln ni,)'padayet I hOlrlakUl:I(iiibhtil'£' II' £l1/yilgmm WI paya,\'(JI!J I Ol!' dil'yiinne
-vva/ul/Iry abhinul1/lI)'a pa!IIa1!I.\' ('a pmfim(llf' [I/I.I'f(lkiidi,yu blrlil'iw·
pratihimhiladevallil!1 ca prillayed iiWmWI(j/!1 camlmladikw!1 /tlmha/m!1 l'r.I(/lJdycll I /(uiallu
01'/1 I1ft,?1 mll?1 IJrf(1 a(l ifi samayal/1lrflvayel I
lIO puslake .l'aprajiiam ami/lib/Will Clk,)'ure,yu pral'/.I'ylik,y(mm7pcll!' savi(ly(/vairocll-
na'?'l III vihtlre cllilye va pmvi.{ya vihiiran4pW!1 sarl'a,wmbwldJwlmlclharmllbodhi.wlll'ahi'i.
vllkiidya.trclyal!l nc7nil,mmadhiIllYWW/!l cuityariipm!1 (.'(1 mlJl
rasattvlj(/ibhir Q{ihi,)'!hilwtl ciruayel!
The Installation Ceremony in Tanrric Buddhism 219
As all the Buddhas have dwelt in Tu!:'ita, as [Sakyamuni dwelt in]
Lady Maya's womb, so may they dwell here in this image. May you,
staying here always, becoming a Lord, receive these offerings and
others in order to increase the bodhicitta for the sake of such and
After that, while reciting the nwntra of a vajra is passed
around the lower, middle, and upper portions of the image visualizing that
the image has become firm. Then verses in praise of the Five Buddhas
beginning with Ak1?obhya are recited.
o a one of great knowledge, of vajra-world (vajra-
dhiitu), 0 one of great wisdom, of the three mwu;lalas, of the three
highest vajras, 0 vajra sound, let the homage be to you.
o Vairocana, 0 one of great purity, 0 vajra of quiescence, 0 one of
great delight, whose nature is light, the highest among the high, a
va)ra teacher, let the homage be to you.
o Ratnaraja, 0 deep one, a I'ajra space, 0 space, 0 one with no stain,
whose nature is pure, one to whom nothing can adhere, 0 vajra body,
kt the homage be to you.
o Vajra Amita-[abha], 0 great king, 0 one with no false discrimina-
tion, 0 space, 0 VQijradhrk, 0 affection, 0 you who have attained the
piiramitas,o vajra words, let the homage be to you.
o Amoghavajra, 0 enlightened, 0 you who fulfill alii wishes, 0 you
who have sprung from a pure self-nature, 0 Vajrasattva, let the homage
be to yOll.62
61, Ymhii hi ,wn'asambuddhcls
miiyddevya YOlhii kuk,l'all /(u/vat ti.,·!I1(lfItv jJulkrlau II
.wtalal!1 /ul!!lo hhatvel imlin /
grhiil.ta amukarthtiya bodhicittavivrddlUlye II
Tile same verses appear in the (TIP. Vol. 5, 112.3.3-4).
62 Ak,l'Obhyavajra mahii)iilino I1wl1tihudha I
trinlw,lf/ala trivcljriigra glla,wvajra namo 'stu Ie II
vairocan{/ mahiHuddha vajralanta mallclmte I
pmkr1i pmbhiisvariign7gra de,f{/V({;ra namo 'stll Ie II
ramaraja sllgcimhhfrya nimwla I
.\'vahJulv(l.\:llddha nirlepa na/no 'stu Ie II
vajrcimila mahc7riija nirvikalp(j kilo vajradhrk I
rliga piiramiriifJriipra hhii,yavajra namo 'stu Ie /I
mlloghavajm sambuddha I
.ruddha.\'vabhiivcl.l'WllbhiUa vajrll.l'attva llan/O 'stu ((1 /I
These verses firsl appcar in Ihc Gllhyo.l'amii.!a-tomra. Chapler 17. See Y. Matsunaga, The
GuhYQ.I'amiija Tantra. A New Critical Edilion, Osaka: Toho Siltippan, 1978, p. 96.
220 From Material to /Jeily
2.2.8 Forgivene.ss and Rcturn
The conclusion of the installation ritual. is as fol.lows. The £iciirya begs
for forgiveness for any insufficiencies in the rituall. and recites the 100-
syllable mantra
three times so that no transgression remains. then makes
the following statement:
o you whose nature is compassion, please forgive me for what was
done insuftkiently due to what was not obtainable, what was not
known,. what was beyond [our] ability, and other [insufficiencies].64
Next, the other deities that accompanied the d,eity of installation when ilt
arrived are urged to return wilth the following verse:
The Buddhas, female deities. their sons (= Bodhisauvas), deities be-
ginni,ng with Brahma. and niigas may forgive insufficiencies in the
procedure. Let they long protect this image from fire. earth.
waier, and wind. May they give pacification, prosperity,. and
sings to the sponsor completely as well as to his sons and other
[relatives],. disciples, and 10 ourselves. Let they, then, may willingly
return to the Buddha field in order t.o come here again.
Finally, an oblation is offered, the sponso.r hims,elf circumambuhltes the
object of the installation ceremony, makes offerings and prostrates, and
then gives at donation to the iictlrya.
2.2.9 Stipula.tions
Abhayakaragupta priescribes the entire procedure of the installation cere-
mony as above, but he further provides some supplementa.l explanations.
First there are some points regarding the deity summoned as the
ject of the installation ceremony. As has already been discuss,ed. while
in the case of an image of the deity,. the deity himself or the leader of the
family to which the deity belongs is invited, in the case of a sacred text,
63 0111 vajra.mt.tva vajra.\·"nvatvcnopali.,:J//l4 drr1ho me bhava
me bhava supO\I'.YO me bhava cmuraklo me bhava .I·(mm.fiddltilrt me prayaceha
sarvakannCWi ell me dllm,n kuru hat,. hll Iw ha lIa hob Magaw,IM .\'unJQulthllgata.
vajra mii me muiic:{1 vajrrbhava mahiisamaya,rallvlI mI.
64 Apraprya etlparijfliinad a.faktya (,'{I daytim.aya I
)'at krla!!l nyunam anyad va tat ,var\lWI'1 Iq'clrltum urha.\'i II
65 K;,I'antum arhanri .I'.umb'lddhli dl'vutyllol: t,,'suU7 api I
bruhmadyii devatii nliga yael vidhinyunaUj{Jikam 1/
rak.yamu ctignihMiviJrimarutal,t pratimlJ'7IJ cira". r
kuryur danapatel) Janti",l .fIla,rti". c:a
tatpurriidtd c:a Ji\rytit,liim asmakat/1 ca lalo mutla /
gacchantu buddhavi"'uyatrr punaI' lIscmlllm atra ell II
The same verses appear in the (TIP. Vol. 5, 123.2.1-3),
The Installation Ceremony in Tantric Buddhism 221
Amitabha. and in the case of a building, Vairocana are invited respect-
ively. If the family is uncertain. or Vajrasattva is substituted.
Other stipulations for the deity of the installation ceremony foUow shortly
On the other hand, some [teachers] say the installation of the image of
SalTlvara or Hevajra, etc., constitutes of by
of the [Guhya]samaja, insertion of the mal)flala of wisdom, .and a
consecration. This is because the [Guhya]samaja is superior. Only
after performing them, it should be clearly visualized that the sover-
eign of the pledge and wisdom mal'Jflalas of the [Guhya]sarnaja has
the appearance of Sarnvara, etc. They say how there can be any con-
tradiction in that the image of them takes their [own] appearance.
The of Ak$obhya and Vajrasattva which can be applied to gen-
eral usage in the installation ceremony of an image are based on the Guh·
Abhayakaragupta thus has emphasized the importance
of the Guhyasamiija-tantra. This fact explains that even if the deity is of
the stage, such as Sarpvara or Hevajra,. the same guhyasa-
is made and the central deity thereof is summoned instead
of Sarpvara, etc., though inakes the form of the substituted deity.
Next, Abhayakaragupta introduces a known as the 'simpli-
fied installation ceremony':
In the case of the simplified installation ceremony, [the aCiirya visu-
alizes that] the deity is empty, then after that he rapidly generates
the appropriate pledge-beings [of the deity]. with empowered eyes,
bodies, etc. He insens its who has been drawn in by
the Ught of the in his own heart therein (=
then the tathiigatas, etc.• drawn in by the light of the bfja-mantra and
[the .acarya] himself consecrate [the deity] with the water in the vase.
He makes offerings and recites its mantra 108 times. Thus the image,
etc., are installed,67
Thec,eremony is constructed with the generation of the pledge-being, its
merging with the wisdom-being,. consecration by water, offerings. and the
66 Anye tu stl/flvarahevajrlidiprtuimaytJ api
prati$!htJ sylid eva niruttaratvlit samiijasya tadanantaram eva tu sama-
sa.f7Ivart'JcUrupa avirbhIJvaniya iti I tatprarimiipi tadrfipaiveti
kva virodha ity lihl.lJ,1
67 tu pratil1'IiJdel, ifinyatanamaraf!l jhafiti tattatsamayasattva'n
calq.uMayadyadhinhitaf11 n#padya tatra tajjiilinasattvaflJ antar-
bhiivya svayaf!l calwla.{ajalair abhificya .rampujy"
lanmantratrl ul!oltaraiataf7ljaped iti pratimadikalfl bhavati I
from Materiel! 10 /)(!ity
recitation of the deity's 108 times. all of which arc parts of the
usual installation.
The third supplemental point concerns the installlalion of an image
or caitya containing relics (larTra) of the Buddha. A sp,ccial dhiiralJ-l is
written on a birch-leaf which is used to wrap the relics and the wrapped
relics are Ihen placed in a cavity madc inside the image, etc.
steps are taken before the general installation ceremony is conducted:
When special reverence is to be paid 10 the relics of the tathiigata,.
while in the process of construction [Iheilciiryll] has a cavity left in
the head or base
of all image, or in the cas,e of a cairya, in the centre.
When [Ihe image is] completed, [the aCllrya] writes the special man-
tra,'Homagc to the Bhagav£in, to SHkyamuni, lathe tathiigata, to the
arhat, to the .'iClmyaksarnJ-mddha, mr1. () mUlli, 0 mUlli. To the great
muni, sVilhii. The existences arise from cause, and the talhiigata has
taught their cause. The cause of the existences censes. This is the
great saying' in a birch-leaf by using saffron and bezoar
(gomcanii). Then he wraps the relics, which have been bathed, in
the leaf, and places it in the cavity reciling the Irwntra, I
, to one
who possesses the mantra and the relics illl the womb, .\'vahif. Then,
reciting the mantra, 'orrl, to aile who possesses the vajra and the
ks in the womb, SVtlhii', he blocks the opening with vli!jra-glu,e (va)-
ralepa)69 and afterwards conducts its installation ceremony [of the
images, etc.] as explained abovc.
Finally, Abhayakamgupta discusses the instal:lalion ceremony for rosary
The licarya, having taken on the appearance of Vajradhara. visual-
izes in his right hand. of which he has promptly visualized his [five]
fiN Tib. rgyah (back), '
69 The Brhal.wrrhirii, Chapter 57, cxplnins the method or producing vajr(l-glue (vajra.
[epa), See M. R. Bhat, 1982, pp. 546·48.
70 YadlJ lU .wtkaravile.,·o ·[Jhimaw.l' ra(/11 ghll/allakfj/a eva pratimii·
ya(l ;\(jrasi plthe vd c:aitya.l'ya garMe kuhrJrllttl kUrayet ni.yult/au hhiir}e kwrrkuttlagorocanli.
bhyarr I namo bhagul'Clle llikyamumlye lClthagatiJytirhme .\:anlyak.\'Qmhut/(Jhiiya I OIr' mIme
mUlle mllhamwwye .I'viil/(l!
ye tlharmii helllprabhavQ helUlrr fe.yO'!l tatha/lalO II)' aV(lllat
eli yo nirodha t!varrlviidf
iti dhiiru'!fvi'<e\\:am en Itkhitva U!rIa snapiladlulruIrl ve.yfayiIVii OTtl Irulfllradhtif!.tgarbhliya
svahii I iIi pel/han kuhare prak\I';pel I tat/anti mil vajradhlltuRarlJhaya .I'l'iiIJii I iti japan
vajralepena kuharadvclrwfl iepayilva pllrvavat wtprali.,'/harn kuryl1d iti I
The nanslalioll of this paragraph is found in Y. BenlOr, 'On the lndill.n Origins of the Tibetan
Practice of Depositing Relics and Dhl/rat,fir in SHlrns IIlldlmages' . .I01mwl Americl11l
Oriental SocielY, Vol. 115. no, 2. 1995, p. 255,
The Installation Ceremony in Tantric Buddhism 223
fingers having tile form of the five-pronged vajra. a sun disc created
from the syllable lib and empowered by the syllable iilJ-; he visual-
izes in his len hand, of which he has promptly visualized his fingers
having the shape of the lotus petals,. a moon disc created from the syl-
lable a and empowered by this [syllable a]; then he visualizes that the
central string of the rosary beads which he holds between both hands
has the nature of Vajrasattva and that the eight strings in the eight
directions have the nature of Padmapal)i,. Maitreya, Gaganagafija,
Samantabhadra, Vajrapal)i,' Mafijusri,
and then he visualizes that the beads (gull) have the
nature of tathiigatas, such as Vairocana, etc., and that the bead on
the upper end has the nature of a stLipa of such dharmas
as strength and fearlessness, etc.;71 then he inserts Vajrasattva and the
other deities (= wisdom-beings) who have be,en drawn hither by the
light of the blja in the heart, into the appropriate [p.ledge-beings],
and empowers it with this mtmtra: '(the meaning of the first half is
unclear) 01?1 I become the superior wisdom made of all Buddhas at
each step. HU1?1., hI11?1, ho, ho, ho, li!J., kha111, sviihli'. [The licarya] con-
secrates it with the water in the vase and makes offerings.
This is
the installation ceremony for rosary.73
Unlike the installation ceremonies examined earlier, not a single deity is
summoned in the installation of the rosary, but a type of ma1:ujala which
has Vajrasauva in the centre with the Eight Great Bodhisattvas is visual-
ized,. and tathagatas and a caitya are also mentioned. The consecration
called for is apparently the water consecration.
There is additionally a simplified installati.on ceremony for rosary:
In the case of the simplified procedure, [the iiciirya] visualizes
Vagvajra to the rosary, then visualizes that Vagvajra merges with a
71 'Strength' (hala) alludes to the Ten Powers of the /whaga/a, and 'fearlessness'
(vai.Mrallyll) to the Foul' Fcarlessnesses of the tathiigata.
n Tib. dbang bskur zlling mchod par hya'o (make offerings while consecrating).
73 Vajradharamiir/ir sal'J'Clkare jha!i/ibhtil'itiiligulfpaiiCClliicil'ajrariipe aMii-
rajmlt .I'IJryam I I'timahas/e jha!iticintitiingll/fpmlmapatrtikiire akiirajal?1
candrmp vibhiivya tayor madhye madhyaSiitraJ?1 vajrer.
gillir vairocantiditathagatasva-
riipii uparigU(lfJ?1 balavailiiradyr1didharmastapasvariipil1r' jlW!iryadhimucya hrdbfjakiruI)a-
kr:uavajrwattviidfn )lli/M.I'llm!! pral'e;fya akkyarukiirCll)aru Qsohi amanta visaru gGl)i a aswn-
khu alikku sihya iraffa visarll I om pade pade mahajiUlnarll sarvabuddham altar!,! Malle hiil!"
hal!l /iLl!?1 110 Iw Iw 1* klwl?l sviihii I iti I kalaJ(ajaleniibhl'.yificet pujayec
eety I
224 From Mel/crhl} to Deity
wisdom-being and takes the form of the m:mry by changing his
pearance,. then he it with the waler in the vase, makes
offerings. then recites the hrdayolnumtml of Vagvajra 108 limcs,?4
The plural deities arc i.tltcrcd to Vagvajra alonc. and Ihc basic format is
the same as the simplified installation ceremony for images and so on.
2.3 Installation of a llescrvoir and Others
Abhayaikaragupta has hitherto i:n the previous chaplers discussed the in-
stallation ceremonies of images, buildings. sacred texts, rosaries, and so
on by focusing on the installation ceremony fori mages and he now ex-
plains the inauguration of <Ii reservoir, 75 etc., ami of a grove in the follow-
ing chapters separately. The reason why he treats them separately is that
the procedure followed is different from that of other structures.
The inauguration of a reservoir. cle., can be divided into four general
stages. The first part is as follows:
If the sponsor has the wherewithal
, lithe c7carya] draws ,I
with Vai'rocana as the central deity 011 the bank of a reservoir; he
unites himself with the central! dcily of the hClhcn t.hrows
bali-oblations in the directions of the reservoir, clc .. and visualizes
that the water has become empty <,<:t7nya). [The iicuryal visualizes
Vajravarul)a as the pledge-bei'ng, who is transformed from Vairocana
who is in coitus with Locana generated from the syllable bhrl7/?1 in
the mal;(lala created from the syllable hhriil!1. IThe Vajruvarul)a] is
whilte and has a human face. but has seven hoods Ilike a cobra], and
holds a noose made of a l1iiga in the left hand; he is in coitus with
his consort whom he embmcesin a blissful manner; he holds in his
right hand a blue water lily. From his navel downwards he has the
74 SatT1k,I'eplil Iv ak\fa.nllre \'figl'ojmlll vibhiil'ya jl1lirlfl,\'lllll'l'/laikrkrtya tadn1papara,
vrtycik.ya.l'iilrtiktiral71 vicinlya kal£llajalemihhi..I"iC)'ll .I'ampriiya wi!-:l'ajmhrdaymr1 .l'll,l'{aJatm!l
japed iry ak,mJiitraprcui,y!lrti I
75 AbhayalcaraglJpta, in the title of Chuptcl' 18. rrovides Ihree Iypes of I'M.)'·
karbJf, vapf. and kiipa. Depending on Ihe Clwpler 58, Kline explains lhlll
these three are named in accordance wilh Ihe siJ',e of the reservoir. Sec. P. V. Kune. Hi.I··
tory of DhllrmaJii.tfra, VoL U. Poona: Bhandllrkar Orient!11 Research Inslitulc (2nd edll.),
1974, p. 893. Also ill the brahmanilclIllmdition we hllve the rituals conc,cmill.!l the reservoir
(tafliiga etc.): see. e.g. Saflkhliyana-Grhya.I'iitrll 5.2.1-9; Ktir'wka-Grhya.H/lra 71.12-13;
Agnivelyagrhyll.rfUra 2.4.3; A.fvaWyatw-GrllyaparUi\I'/a 4.9: 11
1.7.J; Atharl'llvedapari.fi.y!a 39; € 4,4; AMlli-pllrtil.w 64.1·44;
Bhovi..rya-pllrcl/:la 4. 127.1-38; 3.296.9-15; 6.
27.1-12. See also S. Einoo, 'Notes on the Inauguration Ceremony of CI WaleI' Reservoir',
Felicitation Volume to Prof. Dr. Kimura .
The Installation Ceremony in Tantric Buddhism 225
form of a snake. [The ikiirya] makes offerings of padya, iicamana,
and argha to Vairocana (';::: jl1anasattva) who has been drawn in by
the light of the bOa in his own heart then with mantra, '0'?1, 0 vajra,
you are the pledge', he inserts him into [the pkdge-being of VarlU;Ja],
conducts the consecration, and makes offerings of flowers and so on.
Vajravarul)a changes into the water [of the reservoir] which r,eflects
glittering, which is made of the nectar of wisdom and provided with
eight qualities because it is fragrant, delicious, light, pure, clam, cool,
and not causing pain to throat or stomach, which reaches to the lower
world of rasiitahl, and which is the dwelling place of the clan of the
eight nagas. [The iiciirya] surrounds the water by belts of waves.
To summarize the shared points with and differences from the preceding
installation ceremonies, the prepared mw;u)ala has Vairocana as its central
deity, and the ilctirycl unites himself with Vairocana to conduct the cere-
mony. However, the pledge-being summoned is not that of Vairocana as
such, but of Vairocana in the form of Vajravarul)a, The pledge-being is
generated, and the wisdom-being of Vairocana enters and merges into it.
After offering argha and other types of waters the consecration is con-
ducted and the offering follows as before. The entering of VarUl)8 to the
water corresponds to the visualization process conducted after the feed-
ing of milk-gruel in the installation ceremonies of monasteries or sacred
texts, but here eight qualities of excellent water are visualized, and the
dwellings of the eight niigas are provided in the water.
In the second and the third sections, the iiciirya places metal figures
of the eight ntigas around Vanll)u to form a three-dimensional in
the reservoir, etc., and he visualizes this itself.
76 saklisamhhave vairocal1anrlyakw!1 vanayirva tire cakre-
.fayogQWlll bulln ja{a"1 :fiinyfbhala'!l vicintya I bltru'!Ijaca.
krabhriir!lIli.YPcUlfla!ocana,mmiipannavairocanaparil,1iimena svelaf!l
.l'yaJtl salllafT! savyenel1·
dfvaradharlll!' niibher ,wrpdkiiratrl. .l'amayasattvalfl vib{1Gvya Ilasmin svahrdbuara,§-
misamc1nl((wairoc(ltUl1II I 0I!l vajra .l'amayas Ivum ity
uklva pravdyiibhi.yicya .wmpujya larpariJ:llltQlrl pmlibimbayuklQl'{l jliiiniimrta-
mayalll ,\'ugandhisl'(jdulaghvacclJal1lrclu.fftakm:l!hakuk.yyabiidhakalviid a.>'!iirigopetapiinfyam
art/siita/mn a.y!ancjgaku!iivelSaI!1 kallo/amiilika/ayel
'Kal/o/cU/uWka/ayel' in the last sentence is ambiguous for me. I suppose this is denominaHve
derived from 'kallola-/IlcWka'.
77 The ceremony for making or drawing an image of a Iluga and placing it in the pond
can be seen in the nlin-making and rain-ceasing rituals. See M. Moriguchi, 'Seiudan-ho no
tcnkai (The Development of the Altar for Rain Making)'. Chiz.afl Gakuho. Vol. 19. 1971,
pp. 227-55. In the brahmanical tradition the images of water-dwelling creatures such as
226 From Material to Deity
At the bottom of water [the acarya] plac,es figures of the eight nd,gas
which are [visu.alized] promptly to have the a.ppearance of pl,edg.e-
beings and to be not different from the wisdom-beings drawn hither
by the rays of light from the brja in the heart ..In the vicinity of the post
erected in the centre of the reservoir. which is either double the height
of the depth of the water or equa.1 to the depth, and the top of which
has the ima.ge of VaruQ8 possessing the nature of the two beings (=
jnanasattva and samaya,'iattva), Of. if there is no post, in the centre
[of the reservoir], [the acarya posHions] Ananta made of gold in the
east. Padma made of brass in the south, made of copper in the
west, Vasuki made of pure silveri,n the north. Mahapadma cast from
white lead in the nort.h-east, Satlkhapala mnde of lead in the south-
east. Karkkofa made of bronze in lhe south-west. and Kulika made of
iron in the north-west. If there is no post, he places VajravaruQ8 made
of crystal in the centr,e.
Ne.xt, [the acarya] scatters fi,ve kinds of nectar. milk. and
phor (karpura). etc.. to Varul)'1 and other I,ntigas). worships them
with flowers to them, and. if possi'ble, Itheacarya] practices homa
for gaining prosperit)'. On the bank of the rese.rvoir he sits on a
plae,e smeared with cow dung. draws a with paste of white
sandalwood; he visualizes alotlJs located in the which has
been drawn in by the light of the bOa in his own heart, and visualizes
further Vajravaru{18 on its pericarp, Anania on the eastern pet.a.l.
Padma on the southern,. Taksaka on the west,ern, Vasuki on the north-
ern, Mahapadma on the Salikhaplla on the s,outh-
eastern, Karkkota on the and Kulika on the
western, and aU the nligas outside in aU directions.
nilgas, tunles. or fish, and so on are empl'o)'ed In the il1l1ulunnlon ceremonies of the water
reservoir; see. e.l. Matliya-puraQo 58,119; € 39.1,10: .BodhtJ)'wl!Q-Grhya-
.re'l'a,filrra 4.4.2; A,(valllyana.GrhyaparW'1,a 4.9; PtJra,d:ara·GrhyaJe,fapariJlna 404.7-8: As for the names of nOga fnundin the see S. Einoo.
'The Niigapancamias Described in the Purlim:'!lls lind its Treatment In the Dharmllnibandhas'.
Journal of the Japanue Association/or S:outh Mian Smdies, no. 6. p, 23,
18 Taira ca jalatale '.Uau nfJglin gha!.illJnina/iIi hrt1bfjareJ,\(myiJ.nila.
jiiiinaA'ollviihhinnan' .uhapayell kMllaW uccl,rlJya.I'ammiUI·
)Iii vii ,fumf·
pI! madhye I tCllra "Onle 'nant"'" smwar':la/:l I llak#lJt
I pak/me tak,fak,u Icimmmayal;7 I uuare I a.i.riJnt}
mahlipadm{) I "S'UIU I I
vayavye kuUka iiyasab I yanyabhlJllt! Iu matlhye I
19 pailclimrta/'fl karplJrddikarrr ell va1'lJf;Jtidibhyo nik#pya ttln pu,fpficJiMi/:r
A'ampu)ya samhhave pu,f,tyartha", hutvlJ tire g,()Inayaliptli ni,melyo ,ritaRQ/tel/,em,
The Installation Ceremony in Tantric Buddhism 227
At the end of the ceremony oblations to the nagas are given.
'mp. a/J, to Vajravaru.,a, harrz, svlihii' 'orrz ii/J, to Ananta hu'!l, svii-
ha', in this manner while reciting the mantras including the name of
each, [the acarya] worships them with a white ftower. make a ges-
ture of snake-hood (pha'J-abhinaya) with the left hand.
and covers it
with the right hand. Reciting the mantra for the bali-oblations to the
niigas, 'orrz, 0 Ananta, 0 Vasuki. 0 0 Karkkota,. oPadma.
o Mahapadma, 0 SankhapiUa, 0 Kulika, 0 Pala, 0 Devati, 0
devati, a Somasikhi, 0 Mahasikhi, 0 Dal:u;tadhara. 0 Mahadao4adhara,
o ApaIalahulUl:u;ta, 0 Nanda,. 0 Upananda, 0 Sagara, o Mahasagara, 0
Tapta. o Mahatapta, 0 Srikanti. 0 Mahakanti, 0 Ratnakanti, 0 Surupa,
o Mahasurilpa, 0 Bhadrahika. 0 Mahodara, 0 Sili, 0 Mahasili, 0rrz, eat,
come, come, 0 great lord of nligas, 0 aU, bhiir. bhuvalJ,. phu'fl. phu'fl.
svaha'. Reciting the above mantra for bali-oblations to the nligas,
[the acarya] empowers the bali-oblation of milk.
The is usually made at the end of the installation ceremony
as well, but in this case the oblation is specially called naga-bali con-
sisting of milk. After this, a request is made to Varul;1a and the nagas to
abide in the place for a long time and forgiveness is begged with the 100-
syllable mantra. Then the empower,ed milk put on eight dishes is offered
in the directions as the bali-oblation, and it is sprinkled in the periphery,
and the donor 'gratifies the young girls by feeding, etc. Thus the inaugur-
ation ceremony of the water reservoir comes to an end.
2.4 Inauguration of a Grove and Others
The deity visualized inside the grove is here again Vairoeana, and Vai-
roeana's pledge-being and are first merged. This is then
krtva svahrllbijara.fmibhir maQ(lalasthapadmasya vara!ake vajravaru1J:u'1l piirve dale
'nanta", pac/malt. paicinie takfakam lmare vtisukim .QiSal1e mahapadmam ligneye
Ja.rikhaptilarrr nairfrl! karklw!alrt vayavye kulikam 1bahil} sarvanl1gan vic:inrya 1
80 The gesture of snake-hood is explained in the seventh ritual, the 'Ritual on Grasping
Land' (Bhiimiparigraha-vid}li) (TIP. Vol. 80, 86.2).
III 0/11 til]. hiif1'l.rvllha'0'" iil;r anan.Uiya hii".l I eva", svasvanamavi-
darbhyamantrail,. sampiijya vamakaraphQf,Uibhinayena savyakaral'fl I
Of1'l anan.ra vlisuki tak.,'aka karkko!a patima mahiIpadma san.khapala kulika piJladevati ma-
hadevati somaJikhi mahiisikhi da·t;lfladhara mahiida1Jfladhara apalillahuluQfla nandopanan-
da sligara maMsagara lapla mahiilapta maMkanti ratnakami suriipa mahasurupa
bhadrahika mahodara .vili mahiUili 0111 iigaccha iigoccha mahtiniiglldhipali sarva
bhar phul'fl phul'fl sviihii I iti nagabalimantra". purhan balim adhitisrhet I
82 Tata.i cirasrhityartham abhyarthya .(;atak.yara'f'l pa!hiwli kfamayitvd
k.ylrabalj,71 .saravefv Qf!QSV a\fradilqu dlipayer I lac/bahii ca Iqipet I kumarr.< ca iti
228 From Material If) Deity
consecrated with the water of the vase. and .ils visualized as ,changing to
become the trees of the grove,. and offerings of liowers, etc., to the trees
follow. FinaJly, a request is madcto remain long in the loca.tion and the
bali-oblation is made. The instalhltion ceremony for a. grove is simi:lar in
format to the already discussed ,implified instaUation ceremony. The text
reads as foUows:
At the time of the inauguration ceremony for a mango grove. a garden,
etc., [the acarya], who has made bali-oblations in the directions and
has made himsel:f Vairocana, visualizes the central tree to be empty
and furthermore to have the appea.rance of Vairocana. [The acar-
ya] inserts the wisdom-being of Vairocana, to whom the offerings of
argha and so on have been done, [inco the pledge-being], and consec-
rates it with [the water of] the vase. Believing that the tree has thus
transformed to hilm (= Vairocana) and, at that time, that all the other
trees also have transformed fmm. it. [the dcarya] worships the central
tre,e of the grove and the deities who empower it with flowers. etc.,
and the other trees as well with fruits, etc., requests that the che.rished
grove remain long, and makes the bali-oblations in the directions.
This is the ritual ofthe ina.uguration of agrove,etc.83
3 The Information Source of Abhayakaragupta
The 84 (KCPV), ascribed to Kila-
cakrapada (the younger), pmvides information about the installation
mony c)os,e.ly similar to that of the VA. Its original Sanskrit text has been,
lost and only the Tibetan translation is available. In the VA
gupta does not mention this work and he does not clarify anYiinform.ation
source for the instaUation cer'emony. but the contenu of both works are
almost identical and it seems difficult to regard this fact purel
)' as an acci-
If Kilacakrapada reany wrote the KCPVand if it can be dated earBer
than the VA, it is highly possible that Abhayakaragupta knew the KCPV
83 Am.riJramodyllntJ€lipratl\rthllya", €ligbalTn €larva vaimcandtmlJ pra€lltiJna'llrk$Q.". .lUll-
yatiinotltarotp vairocanarupa't!lIkintyu uurajifanasattvavairo(:anamars/1lidipilrv'aka". pra-
veiya kalaieniibhi#cya tatpari"atal1l talp IIrk,af7JtadaiVtlnyd".f Ctl tarQIpl.r tatfMrif,laUJn
a€lhimucya ta"" mukhyavr/C,,"'" ca sampiljy:a phtlltldibhlIJ.
paran upakUflIat;laS)/Qramlide;( cirasthitaye 'fluyt'Jc:ya digbairn dadyil,d ity lJrilmlidipNJlinhil·
84 TIP; no, 2108.
The Installation Ceremony in Tantric Buddhism 229
and consulted it when he wrote the chapters on the installation ceremon-
ies in the VA. Kalacakrapada, active in the eleventh century. contributed
much to the formation of the tradition of the Kiilacakra-tantra in India.
Abhayakaragupta is reported as one of the successors of the tradition of
this tantra.
He also wrote two works on the Kiiiacakra-tantra.
It is stm possible to think that the KCPV is a later work whose author
was not Kalacakrapada, and that the 'author wrote this work by consult-
ing the VA and borrowed the name of Kalacakrapada to give authenticity
to the KCPV. However, the differences between these two works, which
will be shown later, strongly suggest that the VA depends on the KCPV,
and not the KCPVon the VA. A detailed textual comparison, however,
makes it on the other hand also clear that the VA is not a mere copy of
the KCPV. Due to the loss of the original Sanskrit version of the KCPV
a dose investigation is in fact rather d i f f i c u l t ~ however, we can confirm
that the expressions in the same contents in these works sometimes differ
from each other. From that I infer thelt Abhayakaragupta knew the KCPV
but he compiled the VA in his own words adding further information and
modifying some minor points which win be discuss,ed in List 2.
The procedures for the installation ceremonies in both works are in
principle identical but there are some differences between them which I
classify into three categories.
First, the KCPV ranks the deity Kalacakra at the highest level of the
pantheon but Abhayakaragupta does the same for the deity Guhyasamaja
(Vajrasattva or Vajradhara). This fact causes some alternations in the
ritual performances. For example, when the iiciirya performs a yoga prac-
tice of a particular deity at the starting point of a ritual sequence, the VA
refers to Vajrasattva or Vajradhara, whereas the KCPVrefers to Kalacakra
instead. Similarly,. in the invitation stage Abhayakara.gupta begins a verse
with 10 bhagavtin such and such', but Kalacakrapada specifies the deity
as Kalacakra instead of 'such and such' .87 The structure of the ablution
altar is also subject to this difference: while the VA says that the four
lIS As for the tradition of th,e Kalacakra·lantra, see Hakuyu Hadano, •Jirintantora seirw
itsu ni kansuru kihonteki kadui (Fundamental Problems on the Establishment of the Kila-
cakratanlra)', Mikkyo-bunka, Vol. 8, no. 2,. 1949, PI'. 18
37; J.R. Newman, The Outer Wheel
of Time: Vajray4na Buddhist Cosmology in the Kiilacakra-tanlra, Ph.D. thesis submitted
to Wisconsin University, 1987. pp. 70n.; G. Orofino, Sekoddeia: A Critical Edition of the
1ibetan Translations with an Appendix by Raniero Gnoli on the Sanskrit Text. Rome: Istituto
Italiano per iI Medio cd Estremo Oriente, 1994, PI'. 11
86 The KtUacakroddana (TIP. no. 2095) and the Kiilacakriivatilra (TIP, no. 2098).
TIp, Vol. 48, 14.5.8.
230 Frmn Mmerial to Deity
symbols of Vairocana, Ratnasambhavl1, Amitilbha and Amoghasiddhi
should be drawn on the four petals of the lolus in the cast. south, west and
north directions respectively, the KCPV says that the symbols of Amogha-
siddhi and others should be drawn from the eastern direclion.
This defin-
ition reflects the fact that Amoghasiddhi is located on the east,crn petal in
the Kalacakra-mandala.
Second, as shown in Lilst 2, some paragraphs discussing particular
topics in the VA are not found in the KCPV, on the oth'er hand, the con-
tents of the KCPV are completely found in the VA. For instance, the VA
explains the method of the special installation for the image, in which rel-
ics of the tathagatas arc inserted, but the KCPVincllldes no corresponding
paragraph. In the VA AbhL1lyakaragllpla recommends lISilllg the GlIhya.-
samaja-mWlf/ala to perform the installatioll of the i mage of Saq'Wara or
Hevajra. No parallel paragraph can be found in the KCPV. This definition
may be Abhayakaragllpta's own invention to emphasize the significance
of t.he Guhyasamaja trudition.
The third difference is that some addi-
tional methods which arc not shared by KaIacakrupada. For instance,
AbhayakaragupHt mentions three types of the <lblution all.l.lf and Kala-
cakrapada mentions only one type which may correspond 10 the VA's
third type.
Another example is that. when Abhayakaragupta describes
the method of the unilicatiml of the pledge-being (mmaya..wttva) and
the wisdom-being (jfiiinasa!tva), he introduces the second opinion that
'alternatively the performer creates the in the heart of
the image and then proceeds to the insertioll and other [pnjcesses] of the
and others'. This sentence is not inchl(jcd in Ihe KCPV.
In fact, the VA often introduces alternative methods in particular rhuals.
Thus, Abhayakaragupta mentions plunll lllcthod.s, but he sOIncti mes cri-
tidzes improper methods, because in the VA he intended to eliminate
confusion in the ritual procedlires.lJOFrom this we can suppose that
Abhayakaragupta intended to present the standardized prescriptions of
theinstallatilon ceremonies mainly based on the KCPV, but he drew also
upon other sources.
These examples disclose the differences of the standpoints of the two
authors, and they also suggest that Abhuyukaragupta wrote the VA while
consulting the KCPV. But such differences do nol affect the procedure of
K8 TIP, Vol. 48. 14.3.8. (Sec above p. 204.)
Kl) TIP, Vol. 48, 14.3.7-8.
1)1) As for the purpose of writing the VA. see Mori. 1997. pp, to-54.
The Installation Ceremony in Tantric Buddhism 23]
tbe ceremony itself. Even though Abhayakaragupta substitutes
for Guhyasamaja in some stages, or be modifies the design of the ablution
altar, the dciirya performs the installation cefemony in the order identical
to the one in KCPV.
However, we should notice one significant change which affects the
process of the ceremony. In the s,ection on the installation of an image,
Abhayikaragupta defines the nin,e stages of the consecration beginning
with the water consecration. Furthermore,. he inserts a discussion on the
necessity of the consecration of an image. The KCPV has no corres-
ponding paragraphs and Kalacakrapada has the fonowing passage instead:
'[the acarya] performs the water consecration and others according to
the consecration of the disciple" which is explained in an earlier part [of
the text]' .91 KiiJacakIapada's instruction does not include any practical
description of the procedure, although Abhayakaragupta discusses it in
In the VA Abhayakaragupta emphasizes the necessity of the consec-
ration of an image on the basis of the instruction of the 'great teachers'
(mahiiratha: great vehicles), who insist that the instaUation of an image is
to be performed according to the instanation of a disciple. If Abhayakara-
gupta indicates the conse,cration of a disciple by the term 'the of
a disciple', this passage is almost identical to Kalacakrapada's instruction.
Though Abhayakaragupta does not clarify who the 'great teachers' are, it
is possible that Kila.cakrapada is indudedamong them due to the close
contents of the KCPV.
Following this discussion, Abhayakaragupta seems to explain the con-
secration procedure in detail in accordance with Kalacakrapada's instruc-
tions. But we should confirm whether tbe nine kinds of the consecra-
tion in the VA are equal to the 'consecration of a disciple' in
the KCPV. Kilacakrapada's words 'the consecration of a disciple, which
is explained in an 'earlier part [of the text)' are obscure, because there
is no definition oftbe consecration of a disci.ple in the KCPV.
cakrapada's explanation of the consecration of a disciple is discussed in
his commentary (!rkli) on the Sekoddesa ascribed to Nadapada (Na.ropa).
The Sekoddesa is regarded as a basic manual for the consecration system .
91 Tib. chu la sog.r pa 'j dba.ng mams sngon du gsungs pa'i slob rna La dballg bakur ba
ji Ita ba bzhil1 no (TTP, Vol. 48, 1).2.5).
92 In the l<CPV Kilacakrapada shows a similar inconsistency when he mentions the
ablution to an image: the licdrya performs all ablution while reciting 'the verse mentioned
earlier' (sl'lgon gyi brjod pa'i tshigs su bead pa). but there is no corresponding verse in the
, ,
! i
232 From Mllterial/o Deity
in the tradilion of the KillacakrlHal'ltra. Both I.he Sekodde§(l and its com-
mentary by Ku.lacakrapada maintain two consecration groups: the worldly
consecration and the extra-worldly consecration. The first group consists
of seven stages: water, tiara, clolh. vajra and bell, tJct1rya, vajra-name,
and permission, tmd. the second is of four stages: vasc, sccret, wis-
dom, and the fourthyJ Though these part ially included in the
nine consecrations in the vA. the structure of the whole procedure is not
identical to that of the vA.
As stated abovc, the consecration of disciple is one of the main
topics of the VA, which is fully disclIssed in thc chaptcrs fonowilng t.he
installation. Nine kinds of consecration arc included in iI, I.e. nos. 24-28,
30, 35-37 of the flfty rituals. Through thc comparison of the contents of
the ritual procedures in the imslallalion of tIll image, etc., and the consec-
ration of a disciple, we can contiI'm that thcy arc idcntical t.o euch other,
though the objects of the consecration arc. of course, different.
As an importam follower of the tradition of the Klilacaknl-tantra,
Abhayakaragupta must have learned the systcm of the consecration of
this tradition, (md, in fact, in the section on thcconsccraljoll of a di.sciple
in the vA he suggests that his own system partly follows this tradition.
When he explains the installation of an image, he introduces Ihis original
consecration system from thc VA all, the bLlsis of the instruction of the
'great teachers' probably includimg Kalacakrapada.
To sum up, Abhayakaragupta follows thc structure of the installation
ceremony which was fonnul,atcd in the KCPV, but he rnodiHes it in some
minor points. The most signifkmulnodiHcalion is thai AbhayHkaragupta
introduces his own system of the consecration which consists of nine
stages, whereas instructs that II be performed according
to the consecration of a disciple.
4 The Installation Ceremony Prior to the Vajriivalf
I have examined the fact. that the illlstallalioll cerclllonyill the VA has a
dose relationship to that of the KCPV and that, to some degree, the former
depends on the latter. But no othcr tcxts which deal with the
ceremony are directly related to these two works. Moreover, among t.he
93 Toh. no. 1353. Vol. pa, As for the structure of the consccrlllioll ceremony in
tile Kiilacakra-tantra, sec K. Hyper Mikky(j KiUa('okrafwltm (ill Japanese). Osnkll:
Tallo Shuppan, 1'1'.122-45, 1994.
94 I have discussed this in Mori. 1997, PI'. 99-) 02.

The Installation Ceremony in Twuric Buddhism 233
existent manuals availablc in Tibelan vcrsions on the installation cere-
mony listed by Benter, we cannot find any two or more texts which can
be directly relat.ed to each other. Hence, it may be impossible to trace
the formation and the transmission of t.he installation ceremony in Tantric
Buddhism 011 the basis of these. Howevcr, the VA and the KCPV have
much in common as far as the installation ceremony is concerned.
Through t.he investigation of these materials, we notice some com-
mon elements. Many texts share thc same Inantra and verses which are
recited during the cercmony.95 In the materials on the installation cere-
mony of Tantric Buddhism, the most commonly included elements are the
following five processes: (I) preparation of the abltUmon altar, (2) ablution
(snilna) or consecration at the altar, (3) offering of a garment
and flower, etc., (4) opening the eyes, and (5) offering ofa meal. These
five elements are arranged in this order with no exception. Particular man-
tras and verses to be recited arc mentioned in most texts.
Between (l) the preparation of the altar and (2) the ablution at the
altar, the VA and the KCPV mOl1tilOI} the nfriijana, which is regarded to be
a purifying process. VuglSvara's work also includes this procedure,96 but
most materials exclude it. ]n Ihe same way, the VA and the KCPV repeat
the main part of the invitation (adhiviisana) at the beginning of the install-
ation and similar instructions can be found in Sunbrpgarbha's
manual,97 but it is not. comnlOll in other texts.
Apart from the nvc clements listed above, the presentation of a mirror
is also included in many WOl'ks, but sqme texts mention this procedure
only after the offering of a garment hm; been made, etc., and other texts
do so after the opening of the eyesyH If the minor is presented after the.
offering, it implies that the dcity can look at his/her own figure decorated
wit.h the offered items in the mirror; and in the case of opening the eyes,
the deity can confirm that he/she really has had his/her own eyes opened.
Abhayaka.ragupta mentions the presentation of a mirror after the offering
in the installation ceremony, but in the section on the consecration of a
disciple in the VA, he mentions it after the eye openillg.
95 For example. the IIImllm •01'1 cak.YlIl fnk,w(I .1'(J/lUUllraCak,l'Ur "i§odlwne sve'ihii' is
shared by Ihe works by enp, 110, 3952), (TTP, no, 2386) and An:mdagarbha
(TIP, no. 3344) ,md (1TP, no. lIS). And the verse beginning
with 'us soon as all the arc born' is also found in them,
96 Prati,I,!lu/l'idhi (T1'1', no. 3952),
'17 Trp, no. 3410, Vo!. 75, 16H/I,6.
9X Siinli ITlgarhlHl's \Iidhi ClTt>. no, 34 16) and Ammdagarbha's vic/hi (TIP, 110. 3344) can
be classified inlo the Ialler category.
99 In this section. Abhayakaragupta critically introduces an opinion that some texts
234 From Material to Deity
It should also be noted that most materials regarding the installation
ceremony consist of two stages, I.e. the invitation (adhiviisQna) and the in-
staHation The entire ceremony is performed on two sl.Iccessive
days and, as the original meaning of t.hc (ulhivii.mn(t indicates, the deity
descends and enters the object which is to be installed and resides there
for one night These two stages are found even in the text belonging to the
rather earlier material such as the prat(\'!lulvidl1i of Ammdagarbha, 100 who
belongs to the eighth century. This fact excludes the possibility that one
stage was established first then the other stage was added to it at a lat,er
date. We can infer that the strucl1we consisting of the invitatilon and the
installation was established at an early stage and was maintained through
the generations until the time of the KCPV und the VA. This may be in-
ferred by the fact that, as I mentioned before, the Br'wt.\'mrllzitii defines the
invitation and the installation processes which are performed by various
sects including Buddhilsm.
Though the whole ceremony consists of these two stages, it is not
Axed where the invitation ends and the instnUation begins. The first. ele-
ment, preparation of the ablution altar, is induded in the invitation and the
last two elements, opening the eyes and the offering of the meal, are 811-
- -
ways part of the installation. The remaining two elements, the bathing and
the offering, are included either in the invitation or in the installation. WI
It is interesting to note that no text divides these two elements into dif-
ferent stages, i.e. the ablution in the invitation and the offering during the
instal'lation. Due to this fact these elements are closely connected and are
performed successively. In these two elements. the image is anointed by
paiicagavya and other fragrant materials, then water is sprinkled ilS
tion or consecration. After this the llctirya wipes ofF the water on the body
and puts on a garment, then he offers flower, incense, etc. Such a proced-
ure is also found in the puja ceremony etc.), which
is one of the most common and important ceremonies of Hinduism.
The ablution (snana) and t.he consecration (abhi.,\'eka) should have
originally indicated different activities. but in some texts both words are
used as synonyms, or the consecration is performed as a part of the abl:u-
tion. ]n some traditions of the Hindu puja ceremony, the term 'consecra-
describe tile presentation of a mirror twice. It may suggest Ihllt there were two traditions
conceming the presentation of the mirror,
1Il0 TIP; no. 3344.
101 The VA. Siintil11garbha's vidhi (TIP, no. 3410). and Knmll's vidlJi (TTl>, no. 2386)
are classified inlo the former category, and the VIgl.svafll's vidhi (TIP, no. 3952) and
Anandagarbha's vidhi (TIP, !l0. 3344) belong to l.he laUer category.
The In,vtallation Ceremony in Tantric Buddhism 235
tion' is used to indicate the ablution.
As, mentioned above, the KCPV
says that the consecration of an image is performed according to the con-
secration of a disciple. A.nandagarbha's ritual text provides a similar in-
struction, which enjoins the liciirya to perform the ablution of an image
through the consecration.
] The a canon
which elaborates the consecration ceremony only, reads 'bathe the im-
age' and repeats in other words 'perfonn the consecration according to
the ritual manual' .104 The ascribed to reads 'perfoon
the bathing of the cons,ecradon'. 105 These examples strongly.suggest that
the bathing of the image with water is actuaUy done by the method of
At the stage of (or consecration), most texts instruct that the
iiciIrya should rec.ite the verse: 'As soon as all the tathllgatas are born
... ' and the mantra: '0'!1, o all tathiigatas, sprinkle ... '. This verse refers
to the Sakyamuni's birth and his first bathing by the two naga kings,l06
which is ritually repeated at the stage of the instaUation. Inadditi:on,
the mantra imphes the role of the tathiigatas
who perform the cons,ec-
ration for the Bodhisattva at the final stage of his practice. This idea was
commonly known to tbe Mahayana Buddhists I.ike the fonowers of the
Gandhavyaha-siitra and the Daiabhumika-siitra, etc.
? Tantric Buddhists
must have borrowed this idea when they invented the initi.ation of a dis-
The ablution (or cons,ecration) of an image during the installation
ceremony is not merely a purification of the statue,. but a sort of its em-
powennent based upon these traditions. Tantric Buddhists may have
borrowed the structure and elements of the installation ceremony from
Hindus, but they attached their own meanings in order to conform with
the Buddhist context.
1m See G. BUhnemann. P.iijii: A Study in Smana[itual. Vienna: Institut fu( llldologi,e
der UniversiUit Wien, 1988, pp.151-54i. Tsuchiyama's article in this volume discusses the
confusion between consecration (abhi$eka) and ablution (anana).
IOJ Tib. dbang bskur ba'; cho gas khrus gsol bar bya ate (TIP, Vol. 74, 61.41.7).
104 Tib. rho 8a bl.hin tlu mngtm dbang bakur (TIp, Vol. 5, 122.5.1-2).
105 Tib. dballg bskur ba '; khnu g.,wl.re (TIP. Vol. 56, 219.5.4--5).
106 For example. E.H. Johflston, Buddhacarita. or Acts of the Buddha. Delhi: Molilal
Banarsidass, 1984 (1936). p. 2 (Sanskdm t,ext), p'. S (English translation). As for the related
materials includilng this episode. see H. Nakamura, Gorama Buddha 1. Tokyo: Shunjusha,
19'92. pp. 85-107.
107 For exampl"e, TaisllO Tripitaka, no. 279, Vol. 10. pp. lISe, 143b. 206a. 215c-16a.
287a, 296b. 305b. 311 b,. 316a, etc.
236 From Material to Deity
5 Concluding remarks
1have investigated the installation ceremony for Tantric Buddhism mainly
based upon the VA, which was compiled by Abhayilkarngllpla at the be-
ginning of the twelfth century. The .instal'lalion ceremony el'abonHed in it
is an elaborate ritual sequence including the construction of the
It might have been one of the most important ceremonies of the Buddhists
of the time.
Abhayfikaragupta describes the procedure for the installation of an
image, building, rcservoilr, grove, and others, but Inainly focuses upon the
installlation of an image. Some clements of the ceremony (e.g. type of
meditated deily) arc suitably altered depcmHng on the object to
be installed.
It is highly possible that Abhayakaragupla referred to the KCPV of
Kalacakrapada when he compilled the VA. I'Of the most part Abhayakara&
gupta follows the KCPV, but he substitutes the consecration of iUl image
with hi.s odginal method. which is identical to the consecration of a dis
ciple described in the last pari of the VA. It liS supported by the definition,
'perform the bathing as the cOl1secratilon Iof a disciple]', which is included
in the KCPV and some olher works on the installation ceremony.
We must pay altention to the fact that Ahhayakaragupta, who belongs
to the tina.1 phase of .Indian Buddhism, invcnt.ed his own met.hod for the
consecration ceremony of a disciple. It bcgilns with the water consecration
and ends with the fourth cOllsccnHion. ]I is COHlplctcly different from the
consecrations intended by the authors belonging to the earlier period such
as Anandagarbha.
Surveying the installation ceremony explained in the various
ials including the VA and the KCPV, we can reconstruct its fundamental
structure as follows: theilcclryCl prepares the ablution altar and places the
object of the installation on it. He anoints Ihe object with paiicagavya and
other fragrant materials ,md concludes with sprinkling water from a vase
on it. After the ablution (or consecration) the (Jc(IJ)la offers a garment and
llowers, etc. Then he performs UlC ceremonial opening of the eyes of the
deity represented in the object with eyclolion. Finally, he offers <'1 meal to
the deity. According to a variety of texts, the iicclt)la p,crforms other pro-
cesses: nrrlijana, presentation of a mirror, oblation (bali), burnt offering
(homa), worship by the patron, ctc.
These elements arc included also in the installation ceremonies per-
formed by the Hindus and the bathing and the offering are allocated the
central position in the Hindu pl7,jll ceremony. The structure and the method
The Installation Cerem.ony in Tantric Buddhism 237
of the ceremony are not original to the Buddhists. As to the elements
unique to the Buddhists, we can enumerate only the deity invoked.. the
method of meditation, and the mantra and verses recited during the cere-
mony. They aHach Buddhist meanings to the ceremony which is sup,erfi.-
dally identical with the Hindu installation ceremony.
F. Edgerton., Buddhist Hybrit Sanskrit Grammar and Diction-
ory, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1970 (1953).
lltisho Tripitaka
Tibetan the Peking edition, Suzuki Foundation.
238 From Material to Deity
List 1: Fifty Rimalsin the Vajriivali
liliiIi rr
]. Water offering to a monastery and other things (viharadyargha)
2. Characteristics of the water offering and others (arghadidlinaJak.1ar,ta)
3. Purpose of the preliminary worship (piirvasevaniyamaprayojana)
4. Acceptance of th,e disciple
5. Digging the sit.,e (bhiikhanana)
6. Purification of the site (bhiimi!odlJana)
7. Appropriating the site (bhi:imiparigraha)
8. Pegging the obstacles with spikes (vighnakflana)
9. Preparatory rites of VasUindharl (vasundharlidhiviisana)
10. Ptcepara.tion of the vases (kalaJtJdhivd.mlw)
11. Preparati,on of the deities (devatiJ.dhivtisana)
12. Drawing the Jines of the mwzflala (mal)!lalas.iifrafJa)
13. Scattering the colour,ed powders
14. Placement of the V3s,es (kalaianyiisa)
15. Completion of the (ma1J4alalilidhana)
16. Inviting the deity (devatiidhivli,mna)
17. InstaUation of an image and others (protimddipratinha)
18. InstaUation of a feservoir and others
19. Installation of a grov,e and others
20. Preparation of the disciple
2]. Entry of the master (aciiryapraveJa)
22. Entry of the disdple
23. Garland consecration
24. Water consecration
25. Tiara consecration
26. Vajra consecration
27. Bell consecration (gha':l!tJbhi.,eka)
28. Name consecration
29. Bestowing three pl:edges (trisamayadiina)
30. Master conslecration (acliryabhifeka)
31. Giving of mantra (mantra.samarpafJa)
32. Eye lotion (anjana)
33. Mirror cons,ecration
34. Shooting an arrow
35. Secret consecration (guhyabhifeka)
36. PrajM wisdom consecration (prajlfiJjifana.bhifeka)
37. Fourth consecration
38. Consort vow (vidyiivrata)
The Installation Ceremony in Tan/ric Buddhism 239
39. Vajra vow (vajravrata)
40. Giving the vow of conduct (caryiivratadiina)
41. Pronouncement
42. Permission (anujiia)
43. Inspiration (iisvam)
44. Self consecration
45. Rite of burnt offerings (homa)
46. Gathering up the (ma.r:r{lalopaslJr,1hdra)
47. Mental (miiltasamal){iala)
48. (bali)
49. Removing impediments
50. Characteristics and manner of holding the vajra and bell (vajraghal)-
Prom MateriollO J)(Ji.ty
List 2: l'he Content') of the InstnUation Ceremony
in the Vajriivall (VA)
The headings in brackets l l are not i!.Ilcludcd the Kli{ncakmsuprati-
'Yfhiividhi (KCPV) by Kalacakrapflda.
The headings with asterisk '*' .indicates that the VA and the KCPV differ
in some respects.
) 6th Ritual: Prep'urati'on of the Deity Others
Preparation of the
Preparation of the altar for ablution'"
Supplication for inviting and approachirl!g
17th Riltu811: .Installation of un Im'lgc lmd Others
Merging of the pledge-being and the wisdom-being
Water consecration'"
[The remaining eight types of consecration"'!
[Discussion about the nec,cssity of consecratlonl
Opening the eyes
Ingestion of milk-gruel
Petition and refuge
Forgiveness and return
17th Ritual: Sup,plcmental Stipubltions
Relationship between the and the installed object
Simplified installation c,cremony
[Installation of the image, stapa, etc., containing the relics]
[Installation of the I'mage of SUl11vara, Hevajra. etc..1
InstaUation of vidya
Installation of a rosary
18th Ritual: Installation of a Reservoir lind Others
19th Ritual: Installation of a Grove and Others

Li11gaWorship as Prescribed by the Sivapur(1)a
1 Introduction
Many scholars have presented different opinions concerning the origin of
the §iva-liliga. Some scholars connect the liriga-cuh with phallic cults.
Bhandarkar, referring to two passages in the IJgveda, asserted that the
Vedic word .\:i,(:na-deva means evidenlly 'those whose god was lisna,. a
phallus'. He was confident that the RUdra-Siva cult may have borrowed
the element of phallic worship from the indigenous tribes with whom the
Aryans came in contact 1
Other scholars derive the concept of the lillga from the skambha of
the Alharvaveda. Rao says that the non-Aryan phallic emblem seems to
have been identified at a later period with skambha of the Vedas,. where it
is conceived as co-extensive with the universe.
Regardless of whether or not the origin of the lbiga lies in the phallic
emblem, many scholars agree with the idea that the liriga-worship origin-
I See Bhandarkllr 1913: I 14-15. Farquhar [1920: I02] agrees with his view. The opin-
ion of Bhlllldarkar. however, was refuted thoroughly by Siddhantashastree. According to
the laUer, .vi,frla-della ({?V 7.21.5; 10.99.3) means 'the licentious" not 'those whose god is
the phallus', and Rudm is undoubtedly a Vedic god. So he insists there is 11.0 connection
between lil1ga-wOl'ship and the phallus. See Siddhalllashastree 1975: 46. Harting [1922:
ix-xii] agrees with the theory that filiga-worship originaled among the Aryans themselves,
following the faclthat only three of thcjyotir-liriga.l' are situated outside the distinctive Aryan
area. He introduces the history of study of the origin of the li,iga and its relationship to the
RUdra-Siva cult. Be also refers to Muir II: 202; IV: 189ff., 405fl'. regarding these twelve
2 Sec Rao 1914: 56. Gangadharan several scholars who trace the origin
of the U,tga in the hyrnn of the Atharvaveda, sung 111 praise of Skambha (= AV 10.7). StC
Gangadharan 1978: 87-88. Sk.ambha I pillar is the cosmic generative force whence the entire
material world originates. But stl'ictly speaking. Skambha is the cause which gives rise 10
thc agcnt who in tum takes over the crcative process. So Skambha generates Prajapali. See
Srinivasan 1984: 4()·41. She also takes note of the term (. a golden phall1Js'.
4.58.5; TS 4.2.9; MNU 369).
242 From Material to Deity
ated in some non-Aryan tribe and was later adopted by Brahmanism. The
numerous phalli discovered in the Indus Valley seem to that any
tribe which worshipped them as cult objects wasculluraUy different from
the early Vedic Indo-Aryans. Orthodox Hindus at first hesitated to sanc-
tion this phaillic cult, because no dear reference to il is found in tbe early
It is not unlil),the Malliibhlirata Ihal we see clear evidence
of the of SivailU the phallic form. In some the tirlga
is considered as the male organ of Mahadeva and in mher passages, it is
considered as the visi,ble object of wo.rship by the seers, gods, etc."
The purpose of this paper is to give a dear overview of the procedure
and meaning of linga worship as seen in the making refer-
ence to that worship in other PuraQ3s and some scriptures of Ihe Saiva-
siddhanta sect
2 Lingo Worship in the Vidye§vara Sal!JlIitii
2.1 Etymological. Explanation of the Linga
The importance of the siva-liliga
can be s,een in the myth of a blazing
column which appeared during a quarrel betwe,en Brahmaand in
which each c1ailmed his superiority. Changing themsellvesinto a swan
and a boar respecUvely, Brahma and tried in vain toflnd the top
J See Banerjea 1956: 63,455.
.. See Muir 1874: 192, 404fr. See Shandluhr I! 913: 113-14, Banerjea 19:56: 455-
56 and O'Flaherty 1973: 13 L MaMblrllrara W.17gives us an inleresling legend. Bmhml
told Malladcva to create, but Siva SIlW Ihe defects of living creatures and did lapeu in Ihe
waleI' for a long time. After thai. BraJ1ml decided to create 1l1llotl1er progenitor PrlljiiplU.i1
(10.17.. 16), wllo proceeded to give birth 10 many crenlurcs. Siva rose olll of the water and'
saw thaI beings had, in the mean time, been created. He tore oil his liriga Ilnd placed il i: the
ground. Here the linga represents nol only the male org.on of Siva bUI 8..lso polenliial energy
for cosmk cr'ealion.
SRocher analyses each SafJ1hit! of Ind gives lUI II simple .!Illrnmaryand lhe
geographicalloclltion of the compilation of each SIlJll1hhli. See Rocher 1986: 222-28. Tile
name of each Samhim of this Puri"a is a... follows; I. V;elye.{;vara SWFlhitiJ, U. Rudra Saqrhitl1:
Sati-. PiJrVaU-. Ktlmlirn-, Yuddha-khaI)4a,. III. SClfflJr;UJ, IV. Kl),;rudra Sal]'l'
hitii, V. Uma Sm!Jhitti, VI. /(,ailasa Sa",hitl1. VIE. Vl1ymJ.fya SarrrhiUt POJrVs-. Unara-bhigl.
II is very useful 10 refer 10 Dandd:ar 1986; 100-27.
6 The rdalcs the /i,iga with Rudra-S.ivlI c1earl!)!, MNU 271-
75 enumerales various lingo.f in II formula of prayer: iirdhvaya iirdJwaU,igtiya fla-
hira1J.yiiya hira1JyallngiiY€1 (211), SUvarl,l('Jya llumal;t•.uMJrl'.Jalirigtiya
namab. divyiiya di'vyaiirigiiyu (272), bhavtiya bhavali,igiJya
sa.rviiya sarvaliilgi1ya (273), Jivayu Jlvaliflgliya jvailiYCl na-
jvalalingaya nama/} (274). almaya iitmllJin/ldya paramiiya
parama/itigaya (275).
Lil1ga Worship as Prescribed by the SivapuriilJa 243
and the bottom of this column. This blazing column is the indivisible
(ni.ykala) form of the Highest Lord (paramesvara), who wants to smash
their haughtiness.? It is this indivisible form that is the essential feature of
the siva-lifiga.
1 have two forms: the divisible (sakata) and the indivisible
No one else has (those two forms). Therefore no-one else is lord
(anf.rvara) (1.9.30). .
First in the form of a column, 0 two sons, the indivisible Brahma-
hood was expounded, and then in the (embodied) form, the divisible
lordship (was expounded) (31).
Those two (forms) are effected by me alone and not by anyone other
than me. Hence lordship does not belong to anyone, even to both of
you (32).
Here we can obtain the following scheme: Linga ::::: ::::: brahmatva,
the embodied form;;:: sakala= rsatva.
So the superiority of the Linga
to the embodied form is confirmed. In other passages, the Sivapurii1J.Q
describes this superiority more dearly:
7 See 1.5,7; 2.1.7. 9,15; 7.2.341. This is called 'linga-udbhava-murti' , which is found
in other PuraJ:lRS too. Roy takes notice of this legend. and divides its evolution into foul'
groups. The first group which is represented in 1.2.21 ff.• MiirkaQ(ieyaP 43. 17ff. and
BJulgavataP 2.5.18ff.. describes the pmcess of the formation of the universe and the role
played in it by the three attributes, rajas. fama.r and .rama. The second group, represented
in Vii)'uP 55, 2.16 and MatsyaP 60-61, refers to the emergence of the cosmic
phallus. but does not refer to Ii/lga worship. The third group, in LifigaP 1.17-20 and the
SivaP, provides more details about the original story and explains lingo worship. The fourth,
in ViimanaP 6, combines this myth with the story of the 'Pine wood' (diiruvana), giving a
manifest picture orthe linga as the Siva's male organ. See Roy 1967: 123·28, Banerjea 1956:
462-63 and Rao 1914: 105-11. Moreover we may find several passages in SkandaP;;; 3.1.24. 5-32. Se,e also the AjitCigama. chapter 3 (PI'. 15-16).
g See 1.5.10-15, 20-241ab; 1.9.36-41. Concerning the indivisible Siva and the divisi ble
Siva in the sect of Saivasiddhanta, see SP I: ix-x. In the LitigaP. the divisible form is be-
lieved to be for everyone, while the indivisible form is for the )logins as follows:
eva marryanii17l vibhor divya", vapulJ. iuMam I sakala", bhtivanti-yogyu17l yoginiim eva
kalam II (LirigaP 1.741.30). Kramrisch [1984: 7] states that Siva is pres.ent in his great cave
in Elephanta in three ways; imperceptible and transcendental within the linga; in his quint-
essential be.ing, emanating from the liriga in the colossal sculpture; and manifest in the eight
sculptural configurations carved in the grottoes. With the structure of his cave setting the
/i.riga in the inner place called 8arbhagrha, we may find that the liriga is ranked the highest
of his three mal'lifestaions. The Ungais the symbol of transcendental Siva. NomeasulFe can
be applied to this reality (fa/tva) of Siva; it is impart.able Between transcendency
and this world lies the transfiguration of Siva by which he becomes this world. Between both
slates lies an intermediate phase of contact where Siva is ('with and without
parts'). He is indivisible and noumenal. in the process of becoming manifest (sakala). This
/ phase is SadMiva. See Kramrisch 1984: 7-8. We may find these two forms even in the
Vaikhlin9sa sect. See Gonda 1970: 78.
244 From Material to DeilY
A linga and an embodied form are equal to me, but the former is
superior for the worshippers. Henc,e the [biga should be worshipped,
because it is supreme for those who seek salvation (1.10.37).
Moreover we can find several passages indic81.ing Ihe superiority of the
Unga. For instance,
The linga is pri.mary (priidhllnya). while the embodied form (hera) is
secondary Sathe former should be installed. A place"if ill
is not equipped with a lb1ga, would not be a sanctuary (kfetm =Siva
temple), even if the embodied form (is installed) (1.9.46).9'
In addition to the mythological expla,nation of the ori:ginand ilmportance
of the linga, other passa,ges of this Pura,Q,a describe the necesshy of in-
stalling the liriga on a pedestal. Once Siva. assuming a hideous form and
holding his mal,e-orga,n, went to the !Pine wood' (devadtiruvana) where
. many seers were engaged in worshipping Siva incessantly, The reason
why Siva assumed such a form was 10 t.estify their faith in him. Seeing
his perverse acts, they were infuriated and said. 'You act perverted.l!y. You
violate the Vedic path. So let your fall down on the ground:
That organ, on falling down, began to bum everything in the world and
never r,emained steady. Fright.eoed, they rushed to Brahma, who then ad-
vised them to install this linga into the vaginal passage of Pirvatiand
worship it (4.12), 10 The necessity of this act of insertion is clearly des-
cribed in other passages.
Desiring the happiness of different beings, the wise know (they should
perform) the worship of Siva. The pedest.al is pervaded by Ambi and
the iiva-lbiga is thoroughly (pervaded by) the spirit. As if Siva.
mains embracing his goddess Uma in his lap, so also this /inga holds
on to the pedestal forever (]
The meaning of the linga as well as its etymological explanation is given
in several passages. The first is that it means a sign whilch indicates !Siva,
while he is considered as "the one who owns the,sign' (lingin).
9 The litlga should be installed with prat;luva. while the embodied form requires to
be installed with theflve·syllabled mantra (1.10.38-39). In addition to that passage, we
may find other p.lIssages mentioninl the close rcilitionship between the U"gQ and prul,ltwu.
such as 'J:1cciting pral)ava alone, one should worship the greal Unsa' (1,16, I J0) lind 'reciting
prt:ll;lava. one should put flowers on the head of the Urlsa' (6.9.3'). The lingu should be
installed in the sanctum. s.anctorum, while the form is Inll Iilll cd oUlsid,e it for the sake of
festivals ( I.11. 18). .
10 Concerning this le,end' as seen in this Purll)il as well as other Purlr:uls, see Jahn
1915-16 and 191i See also Gonda 1963: 211-13. On'the connections between epis,odes in
the Saiva cycle. see O'Flaherty 19'73: 319·20,
Linga Worship as Prescribed by the Sivapuriil)a 245
Since it is furnished with my characteristic features, it may be the
sign (Linga). Therefore, 0 two sons, both of you should constantly
worship it (1.9.42).
The Linga is thus considered as a sign or an indication. I I The object to be
indicated is Siva. By way of worshipping the linga, Siva win be contented,
when the original function of indication, that is, giving birth, etc., will
come to an end (1.16.106-108).
The second is that the LbigQ is considered as the primordial matter
(prakrti) and Siva, as its owner (liftgin).12 The term *lin signifies absorp-
tion (vUaya, laya. lfyate, lrna).13
The primary matter (avyakta) is called the linga, which thre,e
attributes evolve and into which they absorb themselves. That has no
beginning or no end, and that is the material cause of the universe
Then severa} groups of classification of Linga are described in this PuraQa.
The first group consists of two varieties: the movable (eara) and the fixed
The devotees of Siva should eternally worship the 0 brah-
mins, by merely attaching themselves to the fixed linga, they may be-
II KathaU 6,8 speaks of who is higher than the (avyak.ta), as 'all-
pervading and without any sign (aUnga)' , Svetfi.fvataraU6.9 mentions that Mahesvara (Siva)
has no sign: na ta,fya kakit pati, asti lokena cdilti naiva ca tasya liligam. The same
(1,13) distinguishes clearly three terms: a concrete, material form (murti), the
sign Oinga) and the source (yoni) as follows: vahner yathii yonigatasya manir na drsyate
najva ca I sa bhaya evendhanayonigrhyas tad vobhaya'r! va; dehe II.
See Srinivasan 1984: 39-40,
12 The sam.e view is found in LingaP 1, 17.5cd: pradhiina'!J lingam iikhyiitam lingf ca
parame§vara/:1l1, This means that the object of worship is rIOt the linga, but Siva himself
through it. See SP I: xxix, Mait,.;U 6,10 mentions the Unga as asubtle body comprising pra-
krtl, mahat. ahankiira. manas and a set of ten: priikrtam anna'7t trigu.",abhedapari"alOOtvdn
mahadlidya'!J vifelliflfa"z Ungorn I.
13 Another passage of SivaP 2. 1.1O.38cd mentions as follows: layanal Urigam ity uk-
la"., tatraiva nikhila"zjagalli. We find the same expression in SkandaP1.1 ,6.29-30ab: nasfd
dvaitavibhaga'TJ ca .tarva/?,z Lfnam ca tatklaf,lat I yasmal lfna'r! jagat ,fwva'7t lasmi,?!l tirige
rnahlitmal'lu/:111 (29) luyanlil Ungorn jly evam pravadanti I (30ab). See also AJi-
lligama 3.17cd-18 (p. 16); Kira1J.lJgama, caryaplida 21.2 in Brunnerm998: 89. n. 4; th.e
Kaulajiiii/'lanirt;laya, Chapter 3 quoted by Goudriaan and Gupta 198m: 51.
14 See 1.11.5. Rao divides the liriga broadly into Mo types: cala and acala. The
former is subdivided into six. types, namely. mrnrnaya-, lohaja-. diiruja-, iaUaja-
and The latler, on the other hand, is subdivi,ded into nine types, namely,
svayambhuva-, piirva-, daivata-. lal;lapalya-, asura-, sura-, arla-. manu..ya- and
bc'J1,1a-liriga, See Rao 1914: 75-81.
246 From Material to Deity
come Siva (sthtil;lU) (1.18.159). By worshipping the movable /inga,
they win surely become liberated in a gradual manner (] 60ab)..
Another wording is used for those two varieties, that is, the mobile (jan.-
gama) and the stationary (sthiivara). It is also v,cry interesting that trees,
fences, etc., represent the sthiivaralinga, while worms, insects, etc., rep-
resent the Services (.{usnl.yii) are r'ecommended to the
former, and propWation (tarpalJ,a) to the latter (].1 ].20-2]).
The second group consists of four categories classified a.ccording to
their founders. These categories are: the Unga founded by men
by seers by gods (d'aiva) and by itself (svayamhhii-Uriga).15 The
most effective Un.ga is the fourth which diffuses its merit as far as ]000
dhanus (1 dhanus =: 4 hastas). Then come the third and the second which
diffuse their merit as far as 1000 amlni. Then comes the first which dif-
fuses its merit as far as 100 hasta
The third group consists of six types. The first one is called pra-
IJ,ava, which is further divided into the subtle and the gross
(sthula). The former is indivisible and the latter is divisible into five syl-
lables Worship of two forms is called tapas and it. is
considered to bring forth e,mancipation (1.18.27-29). Moreover, we may
discover the dose relationship between this and the linga. The
single syllable pralJ,ava,. 0171*'· can be understood to be composed as
lows: .0'1?1*'" ::;; a + u + m + bindu + nada.
Those composite sounds are
related one by one with the parts of the liliga.
IS Some Saiva texts say that the special Ungas (.f/oFlal/riga) such liS sllayambhii-, bdtJ,Q-,
gtl1J.ava- and tlr/aka-litiga, Irc exempt from Invocatioll (Gilillhal'la) and dismissal
visarjana), See SP I: 192, fn. 4.
16 An aratni and a hasta are almost of Ihe same size, measuring 24 angulus (fingers).
Strictly speaking, however, the former is a measure from the elbow 10 the:: tip of the Iiule
tinger, while the lauer is that from tIle elbow to the tip of the middle flnger. Se,e Apte, The
Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionnry.
17 That is tfivaya.' SivaP mentions that this is the first oflhe
Veda (truti): Mau prayokravyatrl .fivlJya tu param II (38cd)
vidya sarvasrutWrogatl1 I (39ab). See also SivaP 1.17; 2.3.21;'; 7.2.12-14;
LinguP 1.8:5; SkcmaaP 3.3.1 See Kant: IV: 51,
Goudriaan 1978: 76-77, Rocher 1!991: 177«. The firsl oc,culTcnce of this mantra is seen in
MNU 274. See Alper 1991 :365.
I,ll The analysis of the pratJ,ava and the relationship between Ihis mantra and Siva have
already been studied by Rocher 1991: 177-203. This analysis of the sacred llyllable 0". ...
which is often seen in the Tantricli.terature, has been carried OUI in Ihe Yoga Up-
anishads. See Farq:uhar 1920: 94·9:5. 201. See also Pillai 1911: 126, concerning the dose
relationship between the praIJava or fabdabrahman and the finSa ill the SaivlsidldtlAnta.
Linga Worship as Prescriped by the Sivapuriir;a 247
The syllable 0'7'** was born from my mouth. First it indicated me
(1. 10. I6cd). It is the indicator (viicaka) and I am the object of indic-
ation (viicya). This mantra really consists of me. To recollect that is
ever no other than recoHecting me (17).
The sound a came out from the northern face; the sound u, from
the western; the sound m, from the southern; the sound bindu, from
the eastern face (18), and the sound nada, from the middle face. Thus
it emanated in five-fold form (1.1O.19ab).19
Among those composite sounds, hindu and niida are considered partic-
ularly important. Accordingly,. the scheme of ntida = Siva and bindu =
Sakh, is clearly described. Since Siva and Sakti are considered as a father
and a mother respectively, the unification of both can bring forth the uni-
verse (SivaP 1.16.87-90). On the other hand, from the worship of the
visible liltga, the highest bliss (paramiinanda) is achieved, and then iden-
tification with Siva can be realized (SivaP 1.16..91-95). This idea can be
expressed in the following scheme:
niida (= Siva) +hindu (= Sakai) -7 evolution of the universe
identification with Siva f- the highest bliss f- worship of the linga
The second is called svayambhu-linga.
It is defined as foUows:
When satisfied with the austerities of gods and seers, Siva in the form
of niida, assumes the form of Eli seed under the ground, for the sake of
coming into presence (siinnidhya) (1.18.32).
He pi,erces the ground and manifests himself like a stable sprout.
Since it comes into existence or is bomby itself, the wise know this
(linga) as svayambha (33).
The third is called the bindu- or yantra-linga. On a plate of gold or silver,
or on the ground, or on an altar the devotee draws the
of the linga and the pure After drawing this yantra,21
19 See SkandaF',54. There is another way of analysing this The·
syllable 0'1'1 call be divided into a, U and monly, which are represented by Brahma,
and Rudra respectively. Those sounds a. u and malso represent the cause of cre.ation, of ilIu-
si.on (mohaka) and of bliss (an..ugrahakara). Moreover, a, u and m are represented by a seed
(bfja) , the womb and the sower of seed (bij.in). See Lii/gaP 1.1756-65. See Gonda 1970:
65. See also Gupta 1979: 32-53. Alper 1991: 396 and Padoux 1990: 410 I-II. concerning the
analysis of the internal constituents of 0lll in the Tantric literatures. The rel.ationship between
the internal components. of praf)ava and the mystic mantras of vyiihrti: bhiir,
svaJJ, is indicated in ManuSm 2.76 and Vl',I"f)uSm 55.10. See Gopatha Briihmaf)Q 1.1.16-30
("" Pmf)ava-upan.i.yad).
20 See Rao 1914: 81-82.
21 See SjvaP 6.14.1 SCd-18ab, concerning the picturesque description of this yantra.
From Material to Deity
one performs the rit,e of installation invocation (avaha.na)

The fourth I.Ype is caUed the installed litig" (prati{,!hitalinga), which
is further divided into two types, acco.rdingto thos,e who instan it. One
is the pauru-1aUnga, that is, the liliga installed by the gods and seers, and
another other is the prakrtalinga,. that is the linga which is made by art-
isans (iUpin) and instaUed by brahmins or kings along with the mantras.
The former accords human supremacy and the latter
accords natural suprema.cy (prl.lkrta-aiSvarya) (1.18.39-42).
The fifth is caBed the movable linga (cara.littga). Among the lingas
made of materials, the for,emosl is the one made of mercury (rasalinga),
which is allotted to the brahmins. Then the ..a.lbiga22 is anoUed to
the linga of gold, to vaisya;. the linga made of stone, to, §Qdra.
Moreover, the linga made of cla.y is alloUed to women whose husbands
are living: the crystal linga, to the widows who stin live the active life
(pravrtta);. the linga made of mercury, to the widows who renounce tbe
worldly life (nivrtta) (1.18.47-52).23
Finally, the sixthiis caned the guruUnga. One should esteem one's
precep,tor as the IbiS" and worship him OJ 8..8.6).24
2.2 Who is Authorized to Worship the Lingo?
Who is authorized to worship such a linga? As menti,oned above, severa]
types of linga can be aBotted to the four castes as well as to the women.
22 Baa:aa,an asura devotee of Sivll. established 14 crores of litIS"'v (or while slones) in
various s.pots and these are ca.Hed the blIf;lalitlgas. See Kane II: 716, 737: Banerjea. 1956:
458. 5ivaP 2,S,2,40cd SBYS 1I11\1lhe is foremasillmong objecl.! of worship,. Skat!·
daP describes how one should worship the amons l.itl.gaf. Here
the stones in "the water of Narmada River are recommended, Afler poUshing their bou.oms,
one installs Ihem on pedestals. Then one worships them in the wll)'of JivadrlqiJ. HirGSS
1. 1.14 [6.20] says that one should worship bha.teJa through the li.rlga originating in Narmada
23 In LitlgaP the materials ot lil1gfJ8 and the gods supervising Iho,se lin·
gas are enumerated. and the six main type of linsa,f, nomely. ,IaU,lja·, ram.aj,a·, dM'l.Ija.
, ddruja-, mrnmaya- and lqa1;lika-litigtl If,e further subdivided into forty-four t.ypes. See
MatsyaP 263.25 and AgniP 54.1-5, concerning the materials of thl.": lingus.
24 It is very i.nteresti.ng that each of the five composhes of the corresponds to
those five kinds of litlg" respectively. In this case, this prat;lClva is called dl1vanilinga. The
sound a corresponds to Ihe g"r",ungo; Ihe sound w, 10 the ca.mlirlga; the sound m. 1.0 the
prati.llhitalirlga; tile bindu. to the bindtd/riga; the nllda, to the svayambhilUngu. See Stva'P
25 Ki".l bahaklena srrit,uim apt latihikllro ',ui sarve\flJ'I'I siva·UIl·
garcane dvijdl) II (SivaP 1,21.40).
Linga Worship as Prescribed by the Sivapurli1J.a 249
This means that the worship of lin.ga is open to anyone. Even a five-year
old boy can obtain merit after worshipping any favorite stone. He just
imitates the worship after seeing a great worship of linga performed bya
king.. What is important is the feeling of devotion (bOOkti) to Siva (4. ]7).26
This PuraQ3, however, does not say that the mode of worship is uni-
form for every caste. It differs from caste to caste according to the mantra
which is· recited during the worship.
Brahmins, vaisyas, siidras. or those born of inter-caste mar-
riage (pratilomaja), should constantly worship the linga with great
effort, reciting their respective mantras (1.21.39).
Worship should be performed according to the Vedic path by the
Vedic brahmins (vaidikiinii'?l dvijiinii'!1). This should not be per-
formed according to other ways. Venerable Siva told so (42),.
In this way, the brahmin intent on the Vedic ritual should worship the lin-
ga with the rule prescribed in the Vedas. He is notanowed to perform
it in other ways such as the way of smarta, etc. Its worship, along with
besmearing ash on the body and reciting the mantra, is con-
sidered as the duty of the wise devotees of Siva, just as i.t is the duty for
the followers of other sects like tiintrika to have iirdhvapuf,l{lra-marks on
their foreheads or branding of a discus (cakra) (l.24.27, 48).
2.3 Why and How do They Worship the Liriga?
What is the principal aim of the worship of the linga? It is usuany be-
lieved that the linga, once worshipped, gives us both enjoyment (bhoga)
and emancipation For instance, we can nnd several passages
in this PuraQa, like 'the linga and the embodied form (bera) bring about
pure enjoyment and emancipation' (L5.31cd); 'the only expedient for
enjoyment and emancipation' (L9.20b); 'twelve jyotir!bigas bring about
enjoyment and emancipation' (3.42.57d); 'By seeing and worshipping
26 That is the legend which eulogizes MahiUla·lll1ga, one of tile twelvejyotiribiga.I·:
Somanatha (Gujarat), Mallikarjuna (Andhra), Visvdvara. Kedaresvara (Uttar Pradesh). Ma-
hakala. Onkiresvara (Madhya Pradesh), RAme§vara (Tamil Nadu), Vaidyaniltha (Bihar).
Gbr,.,ehara, Nagan.itha, 8hfmasal'lkara and Tryambaka (Maharashtra). See SivaP
4.1.21-23, 34·44; Kane ]V: 639-40, regarding the twelve jyotirliilgQs. Of course this jyotis
(blazing) is closely related with the myth of Ul'iga-udbhava-miirti See Roy 1967: 125.
27 See 1963: xxxvii-xxxviii for the two kinds of fruit of saiva rituals.
which are enjoyment (bhoga) and emancipation (mukti). Most of the devotees are those:..wtlo
live a mundane life desiring happiness, sons, fonIliIle. ,etc., and they belollg to the first three
stages of the four stages of life (tUrama) and to the category of bubhukiu, the one who seeks
enjoyment. On the other hand. mumulqu. the one who seeks emancipation. belongs to the
last stage, saf/'lJlyQsin, incl.uding the who takes a vow of celibacy at his initiation.
250 From Material to Deity
Siva iln the form of thejyorirliliga, the benevolent god will give all enjoy-
ment and emancipation' (4.28.58); 'the giving dharnUl, artha and
kama' (5.44.75d), etc. Of course we have other passages which mention
either enjoyment or emancip,ltion, but it m.ay be beller to consider thos'e
passages as intending to increase either of them.
The devotional worship of Siva emancipates people from the bondage
of birth. By holding a rosary, he will acquire onc fourth of (merit);
by besmearing ash on his body, half; by repeating the mantra, three
fourths; and by worshippilng with devotion (the ,1ivaU'iga), fuB of
(merit). By worshipping the .(Oiwllil1ga and devotees, one will acquire
emancipation (LI6.116-17),
Then, to what category docs the worship of /iliga belong? With what is
this worship related? First of all, the three kinds of service are enumer-
ated (trislidhana sevii), namely, mental service, service of repetition of
any mantra and physical worship (karmap17jf1). So the worship of liliga
belongs to the third service ( Next are enumeratcd five kinds
of sivadharma, namely, !clpas, kartna, japll, dhy£7l1lJ The first,
tapas, means austerities like clc, The second, karma, means
worship of liriga,etc. The third, japa, means repetition of the name of
Siva. The fourth, dhyiina, means mctHlation upon Siva, The last, ji1ana,
means knowledge as explained by Siva in the Agalua scriptures of Siva.
So, the worship of lifiga belongs to the second ,<:iwu'''arma (
Last of aU, six kinds of means to 'lUain omlliscience (sarvajfiata)
are enumerated. The first is jiiana, which means knowledge authorized
by one's preceptor. The second is jlieya, which means the object of this
knowledge, i.e. pil.(:a, palu and pCI/i.
The third is amt.y!heya, which
means worship of the lb1ga. The fourth is adhikiim. which means the
eligibility to the worship of Siva restricted to his devotees. The fifth is
sadhana, which means the mw1tms of Siva. The sixth is siidhya, which
means unification with Siva.
So worship of the liliga belongs to the third
kind (
211 The Lord (pali) is called and men, his creatures (jWJ,I). afC bound by the
felters (pii.l'a) of the world. They need to be released by the Lord. This is II doctrine
of Saivism. See Farquhar 1920: 102, BancrjclI 1956:452-53, BhllllCh:ll'kar 1913: 124-26 and
SP ]: ix-xx.
29 We may find such exprcssions in the SivaP liS: ,"iilokym/l faiva .w:'in:ipya'!l
eva ca II (L9.26c) .1'iiyujyam iti palkaire kriylidrnal?1 ,'halw?1 molam I (27ah); mukrU
caturvidhli proktli Jriiyalal?1 karhayat/'l.i Wiry I .wl!lstJrakle.(a.1'(JI?lhllrtri /}(mmliiflandadayjnf II
(4.41.2) siiriipyti caiva ,wllokyii SiilT/f1idhyG1 ea tathiJ p{lrii I .rtlyujyii C(J c(1fllrthf.rlJ vralenanena
ya bhavt!t II (3). The DevrbhagavQwP also slales: bhaved ektl Willa
para I (9.38.71cd) stlmipya(/arha /Iirvut;wpradti mukti.{ cmurvhlhu I {nab).
l _
Li/iga Worship as Prescribed by the Sivapurlil:w 251
Now we proceed to the materials used in that worship. This Pural)a
says as follows:
One should worship the sivalifiga with sixteen forms of service (upa-
clira), by means extraneous or inherent, whether concerning primor-
dial nature (priikrta) or cosmic Man (puru-ra) (1.16.109).
In the above verse, 'extraneous means' signifies the visible materials,
while 'inherent materials' are the invisible worship performed in med-
itation. What is common to those two kinds of means is the perform-
ance of sixteen forms of service These are: (1) invoc-
ation (liviihana), (2) offering of a seat (iisana), (3)'offering water for the
respectful reception (arghya), (4) water for washing feet (po.dya), (5)
water for rinsing of the mouth (iicamana). (6) bath preceded by smear-
ing with oil (snlinam abhyaliga-purvakam), (7) offering of Cloth (vastra),
(8) scents (gandha), (9) flowers (pu,Wa), (l0) incense (dhapa), (l ]) lamps
(drpa), (12) offering of food (naivedya), (13) waving of lights (1Jfriijana),
(14) betel leaves (tambala), ("15) obeisance (namaskiira). (16) dismissal
(visarjana) (1.1 I.25cd-28ab),30
At some places this mentions less than sixteen forms of ser-
vice like 'ten forms of service from offering water to offering of food',
or 'performing abhi\\'eka, naivedya, rwmaskiira and in sequence
But the number of forms of service in this Purat:\a is said
to be six.t'een, several times (e.g. 1.16.9; 1.18.37-38; 1.20.42; 4.31.22). For
instance, passages such as 'from invocation to dismissal (sarga)' (1.5.6),
'in order to accomplish different types of fruit, one should worship with
sixteen forms of service' (1. I 6.9), 'the wise should perform worship duly
with sixteen forms of service' (1.20.42) and 'preparing the six.teen forms
of service beginning with invocation in a prescribed rule, he worshipp,ed
the god Siva with pleasure' (4.31.22) are to be found. So we may conclude
that this text adopts the sixteen forms of service.
2.4 Worship of Linga Made of Clay (Parthiva-linga)
The detailed process of the worship can be g,een in the passages which
describe the worship of a lblga made of clay (piirthivalinga).31 First the
30 See Tachikawa 1983: 104-86 and Btihnemann 1988: Mff., concerning the sixteen
forms of service and the relation with the Hymns of recited in each form.
31 We may find the fruits of worshipping an earthen Unga or the bad effects of not
doing so in the following passages; Devfhhiigal'ataP 9.30.110: 9,33.44cd-45ab: 9.34.51;
9.3.5.IScd-16ab; PadmaP; BrahmavaivarraP 2.27. J 12; NiiradaP
27. See Einoo 1989: 384, 427ff. conc,ernlng its worship in Mitl1iHi in northern Bihar.
252 From Material to DeilY
text glorifies this li,l.ga, stressing how it .is splendid and what kind of fruit
can be obtained by ils worship. This linga made of clay is considered
supreme in the age of kali, while the lillga made of precious gems in
the age of krta, the golden Ibig" in the age of IretiJ and the one made of
mercury was supreme during the age of dViJpara (1.19.7).. Just as Siva
is the most excellent of aU deities, Ganga is the greatest of all rivers, the
pralJava of a.ll mantras. the brahmins of all the castes, of all
cities, the vow of 32 of aU the vows (vrata), Siva's Sakti of an
goddesses, so also tbe earthen linga is considered the great,est of aU fingas
(1.19.9-15). As the fruit of its worshilp, a man with desire (sakama) can
obtain any worldly desire, while a man without any desire can
attain the unification with Siva.. If he does not worship it. he will fall into
a terrible heU (1 ,
2.4.1 The Prep.aration for Worship
No,w we proceed to the detailed description of this ritual. First comes the
preparation for worship.
1.. The worshipper performs a ritual bath, sal?ldhyd-worship,33 brahma-
32 SivaP 1,9,14 states: )lallrd I'rate;ul ,rUMrf!$U ,(lvar(Jlrll'l"aICltrl paratrl I ratlill .farvt'lfU
linge.$u pllrthivatrl ucyafe II. There is a close relationship between the Jivarlltri
and the worship of linga. because Ihe former is considered 10 be Ihe day the bla.:ting column
appear,ed in front of Brnhma and (1,9.10). The vow of worshipping Siva on the day of
Jivaratri is the most excellent of the four vows which bring forth emunclplll.ion. i,e, worship
of Siva. repetition of the name of Rudm. fasti·1l1 in II temple of Siva (.{ivlJ/"ya) and death at
Benares (4,38.20), Such passages as 4,9.23-39; 4.38,20-23 (prCl,{cu71.l'd). 38,24 (kdla). 38.26·
45 (vidhiina). 38,46-82 (vidhl1na 2), 39,1-22 (udyllp,ma afler fourl.een-year performance of
the Jivaratri in every month) lind 40.4-9'6 (vrata.kalha), refer to livarlltr;vrata ill the SivaP.
See Kane V: about this vow IS seen mainly in Garu{iaP 1.124, Pbt/maP 6, 158. 8-S1;
6.240; 7.4.12-13 and SkandaP 4.13; 4.67 entitled ,iivarIJlrimlJMtmya. See also .Bha·
vi\fyaP 15. Nrlamata 508-14. SkandaP 1.1.33; 3,3,2.8-15; 6.2:M; 1.1.39 entiOed
7.1.48 entitled 7.2.16,S6-
93ab; 7.2.16, 101-33 elltiHed livarlitr;vidhtJna; 7.3.9,22-51; 7.4.14,25cd-27.
There are several p.assages indicatins the close relatiollship between this vow and the
worship of an earthen lingo, Fol' instance. NtJradaPI, 123.69-70 states:ofltyakmlacatur.
da!yal'f1 ;(jvaratrivratam dvija Il1irjalmfl dil'llnaktatt1 praptij"yet /I (69) .vva·
ya",.Muvat/jkam linsam pllrlMvCltrl va I scmtlhlldyair upacIJraiJ ca ,I'ambub.ilvddi·
bhi!) II (70), .And worship ·of the lord of Siddhas in a phlillicform is also especially recom-
mended ill this vow: ,mtina'71 pra/lIslmrl manvddi,.u larhaiv" ca ItaIM krwyuglidya'tl
maghasya /I sivaratrau va.red ya.f Iu tirige .fiddhdasamjiiite I .marva r\fi/,,'e
tfrthe kim la.l:yiJnyena /I (SkandaP 7.4.1S, 15-16) and tivarlUryd'71 viJe;rel;lQ ,dddh,e.
sQ1?lprapajiralJ,l {SkandaP 7.4, 1.5.28a.b).
Long [1982: 189-217] describes this .rivardtr( in Clllssical literatures and its
aTy performance in Chcl1nai city.
3) After bath comes J,'utrldhya worship. See Ya.iflaSm 1.98, The principal constituents
Litiga Worship as Prescribed by the SivapurliIJa253
and tarpalJa,J5 according to the rule prescribed in the scrip-
ture (sutra). He performs a daily ritual (naityaka), meditates on S.iva,
besmears ash on his body and holds a rosary (1.20.2-3).
are: acamana (sipping water), praQtiyama (controlling his breath). marjana thrice
ling himself with water to the accompaniment of several mantras), aghamar-raQa, offering
of water 10 the sun (arghya), japa of sayatrf and upasthiJna (reciting mantras by way of
worship of the sun in the morning and generally of Varut:\a in the evening). S,ee Kane U:
312-19 and Vidyarr:ulVi 1918. See also Einoo 1993: 223-36 on the evolution of Illis sa'11-
dhya-uptisana rite.. He enumerates all the passages as s,een in the Grhyasiitras and the works
supplementary to the Grhyasiitras, concerning this ritual. .
34 This is one or the five daily observances called mahiiyajfias: bhiita-, pitr-,
deva- and brahma·yajlla. See S8 The brahma·yajna is one's own daily study of
Ihe Vedas. See S8; TA 2.10-13; AivCS See Kane II:
3S This is the rite of satiating by offering water.. ManuSm 2.] 76 mentions that everyday
one has to perform larpal)a of gods, sages and ancestors. The Dharmasindhu notes that ac-
cording to the rollowers of the Taittirlya Ulc.ha and of the Viijasaneyi Sa/1thirli is not
a part of brahmayajiia and so may be performed by them either before brahmayajifa
or even some time after brahmayajffa. See Kane U: 704.
The model of the rite of prescribed in the uuarjana rile. Se,e Oldenberg,
S.B.E. xxix, p. ]20ff. a note to SarikhGS 9.1. This rite is fully explained in Kane II:
69,689-95; IV: 592, n. ]340. This rite appears furthermore in ApSS 1.10.4; SiirikhGS 4.6.6;
4.9..10; A/vGS 3.4, ]-7; 3.5.2]-22; Kii/IIGS 4.20; 8.2; BodhGS 3.3.24; 3.4.8-13; 3.9.9-10;
BharGS 2.13 [45, 15-46, 1]; 2.13 [46, 3·5]; 3.11 [78, 11-12]; HirCS 2.8.19; VaikhGS
[81,11-12); 5.15 [88,1-4]; 9.8 [l27. 3-5];. HirGSS U.5 [3. ]-8]; 1.1.11-12 [5, 24:
6, 8]; AgnGS 1.2.2 [14.16 - 16,20] (as ilsanakalpa in the adhyayana·utsarga); 2.6.3 [96-
98]; AVPS 43 (tarpa'.lavidhl); BaudhDhS 2.5.9. ]-10.4 (nityatarpat,J:avldhj);
34; MBh 9,50,16cd·17; 13,27.36; 13.27.64; 141. App. 4.158]-1603;
67ab; 5.95.25-38 (in the vaifakhasnanavidhj); VariihaP 32 (pjtfr:rtiF1l tarpa'.ltidimtihtitmya);
MatsyaP 102.13-25 (in the lmlinavidhi): GarupaP 1.215
SkamlaP 3.2.4 (yamadharmatarpar;aamiihtitmyavarr;tanam); 113 and 8rahmaP
29.55cd-56 (various. efficacies according to the rnaterilas).
In A.fVGS 3.3.2 and YtijFlaSm 1.41-46. sVtidhyaya is interpreted as a mental tarpaf).a.
ManuS,n 3.282-283 mentions the close relationship of with srdddha: na paltrya-
jiiiyo homo laukike 'gnau vidhiyate I no dariena vina iriiddham iihiUigner 1/
(282) yad ella tarpayaty pit;n ,mlltvll I tenaiva krtsnam tipnotipit,ryajfla-
kriyliphalam 1/ (283). After ,comparinatwo similar formulae in mrCSS and VayuP, tarpaQa
se,ems to have been gradually repla.ced by iraddha, because the term water (sedita) in the
former is replac,ed by a (pil).pa) in the lalte.r. For example, HirGSS 1.1.12 1[6,
mentions; narake.. vu ylUanasu ca ye slhitii/.11 tipytiyanayaitad dfyate salilQ'11
maya II. And VllyuP 110.46 states: yiJtanilsu ca ye sthitil/.l Iteliim ud.
pi"pa'11 dadamy aham Compare also BodhCSS $.4 [392, 8-9] and
VayuP 110.50: H,rGSS 1.1,12 [6, and VayuP 110.51.
36 SivaP 1.24.62 states: Ya.fya giltref" lallife IU tripu'.lprakam I sa caf).(JlIlo
'pi 1/ (62), SivaP 1.25 mentions the origin, miiMtm.
ya, etc.• of rudriiqa as foHows: the origin of the (utpa.tt.i: 1.25.5-7), their col-
ours iJccording lathe castes (11-13), their sizes (14-18, badarrpha-
tomeUra, ca'.lamatra), their forms (21-22), their holes (23), the number of the rudraksa.f
to be worn (24-27). p1aoes in the body where they. are to be worn (28-39), mantras to· be
254 From Material to Deity
2. Places for worshipping the earthen linga are the banks of a river, a
tank, the top' of a mountain, a forest or the t,emple of Siva, all of
which are considered as clean (4-5).
3. White day iSlised for the bra,hmins; red one. for yellow.
for vaisyas and black. forsDdras. 37 He takes away as much clay a,s
necessary to make the linga. puts it in an auspiciolls p,laee. washes' it
with pure water. kneads it slowly and preparesche linga according 10
the Vedic prescription (6_9).38
Next comes the prooes,s of wmship,. There are three modeso,f war;.
ship. The first is worship in accordance with Vedic rites. The second is the
shorter version of the first The last is worship consisting of the muttering
of the names of Siva. instead of reci,ting the Vedi,c mantras.
2.4.2 The First Mode of Worsbl:p
The first mode of worship is stated as belo,w. The round brackets represent
the number of the Vedic hymns.
and the square represent the nlumber of
the sixte,en forms of service stated above.
Group A. Purificati.on of the pla.ce and mat,enal,s to be used in this
1. Sprinkling the materials of worship with water (proklayel). with
iiviiya' (= VS 16.41; TS 4.5.8:.1; MS 2.9.7: 126.5; KS 17.1S).
2. Achieving sanctity of the holy pl.ace (k,etrasiddhi). with 'bhar CISi'
(= VS 13.18; TS; 7.1.12.. 1; MS 2.8.14: 117.15; 3.2.6: 24.15;
KS 16.16; 39.3).
3. Sanctifying water (jalasa11JskiJra), with 'lipo asmiin' (= 10.17.IOa;
AV 6.51.2a;. VS 4..21; TS; KS 2.. 18.; MS 1.2.la: 10.1.; 3.6.2:
used in various plU1S of the body their caloull'!l (44), Ihe rudrdk.,ra.rl'o be Ivoidetl
llind founeen kinds of rudrilk,as (63-81), See also 1.23.1-17 (mdhillmya);
1.25.5-7 (utplltti); Pat/maP 1.59 rutlrilkl,adhllra.
r;lallidhiphalal'orr;lana'7l. tatrarudriJkf,,-ulpattivi'Qyakilkhytlyikd/cQthanam); SkandaP 1.5;
1.13 (.fivabhaktibhasmatr(pul;lflrarudrllk,sadht2rat,1ddl·Jil.ladha,manw.himQvar"aI1Qm); 3,.3.20
(rudrtlk..ramdhdtmy:avart;lQntlm). S'ee De",fbhdgallataP 11.4·7l1il'ld also Hazra 1963: 399-400; .
Kirfel 1949; Padoux 1987: 138; Hikita 1997: 226-27.
37 See Hillebrandt 1897: SO; Gonda I980c: 26-28, 44-48; Hllt,ebeitel 1976: 6,9-74,
283f, The colour of a cow varies accordil'll to the who owns it (DellrbhiJ'BavataP
11.11.7cd-8ab). The colour of Ii .ru,drfJk,,, also ,,&ri,es accordinl to the who holds it
(Devibhagalla.taP 11.4.11; 11.7.9-10).
3R The earthen linga should be made as I single whole (akha"f'a) and no't by joining two
or three pieces (vikha1J:(Ia). All movable liltgal should be a slngl,e whole, while stationary
ones should be made of two pieces
39 .I refer 10 Bloomti:eld 1906 for die Vedi,c mantras recited in this wo,rship.
Linga Worship as Prescribed by the .SivapuralJLl 255
4. Sanctifying the place (philtik4*bandha).40 with 'namas te rudra' (=
VS TS4.5.1.1a; MS2.9.2a: 120.16; 4.12.1: 178.15; KS 17.11a).
5. Purification of tbe place with sarpbhavaya'
(= VS 16.41; VSK 17.6.5; TS; MS 2.9.7: 126.4; K$ 17.15).
6. Sprinkling water over the aggregate of five ingredients (paiiciimrta),41
with the mantras beginning with 'namas·.
Group B. Offering the sixteen forms of service:
7. Installing (pratilfhiipana) the ,eanben linga. with 'namo nrlagrrvaya'
(= VS 16.28; TS; MS 2.9.5: 124.10).
8. Offering a beautiful seat (ilsana). with 'etat Ie rudrilvasam'42 (= VS
3.61; VSK 3.8.6). [*2]
9. Invocation (dviihana), with 'rna no mahantam' (= 8V 1.114.7a; AV
lL2.29a; VS 16.15a; TS4.5.l0.2a}. [lIel]
10. Seating (upave§ana). with ·yii Ie rudra' (:: VS 16.2a, 49a; TS 4.5.1.] a:
10.1a; MS 2.9.2a: 120.18; 2.9.9a: 127.11;. KS 17.11a, 16a)..
11. Ritualistic touching on the various parts of the linga, reciting the man-
tra of Siva (nydsa), with 'yam iofum' (= VS 16.3a; TS 45.1.1a; MS
2.9.2a: 121.1; KS17..l1a).
12. Application of frag.rance (adhivasa), with 'adhyavocat' (= VS 16.5a;
TS; MS 2.9.2a: 121.5.; KS 17.11a).
13. Ritualistic touching on the various parts of the linga, reciting the rel-
evant mantra of the deity (nyasa). with 'asaujfva' (= PlirGS 1.18.3).
14. with tasauyo 'va.sarpati' (= VS 16.7a;
TS; KS ]7.11a; MS 2.9.2a: 121.11).
40 The word phiJ,;kii comes from pha,. known as astramantraand remov,es evUand
sanctifies a limited place. The term is used in black magic (abhiclJra) as follows: abhka·
raprakarar,e br,tjhmal,le yad 14kta'fl yad krura'fl lena vQ$atkarolflr tad etat kriiram aha
kha! pha! jaki I chrndf bhindi handhi kha! I ill kriirlJt;Ji (TA 4.27). It appears also in the
KoulS: y"t patram uhand pha(J(Jhato iti (47.21) in the dfqa for the performance of the
abhiclJra. and pharJ(ihatlll} pipflikiJ iti (116.7) as the mantra used in theadbhulaiantiwhen
ants appear. It appears also in the AVPS; sVdhtikiire IU pha,kiJral) (31.9.. 1c) in the abhiedra in
the form of ko/ihoma with the reverse gliyatrf•. 114 phat/<i1rab (34.1.6) which means
that in the reverse or vi/oma I pratiloma gayat.ri, p.ha, is to be used instead of svlllld; .
. phalkarai (:a villa/ane (3'6.2.Scd) for the and pramardane
,rarvd.furavrnll.(liya Olfl pha,kll'1J karoti (4().2.8) for the pil.rupalavrata. This is also used in
the rite of va.fflcaral,la of women in IJgvidh
41 The five inglledients 8.J1e paya;w, dadhi. ghrla, Iqaudraand See SP I: 200.
fn. 2. Kane [U: 731. fn. 1740] enumerates daclhi. ghr1a. madhuand khal,l.(Ja. See also
BUhnemanl'l 1988: 139ft.
42 The text 1.20.15 gives 'elat terudriiya'for 'etat Ie rudrlivasam' .
43 The text 1.20.18 gives apafarpa':la. which makes no sense. I emended it to avasa,.-
pa1J.a. referrini to the Vedic mantra t.o be recited on thi.s moment.
256 From Material to Deity
IS. Offering the water for washing the feet (piJdya), with 'stu nf·
lagrfvliya' (= VS 16.8a.; TS; KS 17.] ]a). f*4]
16. Offering water for respectful reception (arghya)., with rudragliyatrT
(=:: tat vidmahe, mahlldevaya dhimahi, tall no praco-
dayat =:: MS II 9.7-8; KS 17.11 a-c: TA 10.1.5).44 [*3]
17. Offering water for cleansing the mouth (licamana). with 'tryamba.
kam' (= .{?V 7.59. 12a; VS 3.60a.; TS; MS ],10.40:144.12;
1.10.20: 160.11; KS 9.78; 36.14). [*5]
18. Ablution with milk (payas) , with prthivyam' (= VS 18.36a;
TS4.7.12.2a; MS2,12.la: 144.14; KS 18.13a.; 31.140); ablution with
yogurt (dadhi), with 'dadhikrtiw:w' (= 4.39,6a; AV 20.137.30; SV
1.358a; VS 23.32a; VSK 35,57a.; TS l,.5.11.411.; MS 1.5.1a.: 66.6; 1.5.6:
74.8; 3.13.1: 168.9; 4.11.1: 162.1 ;KS 6.9a: 7.4; KSA 4.8); ablu-
tion with ghee (ghrta), with 'ghrtQ'11 (= VS 6.19;
TS L3.JO.2; MS 1.2.l7: 27.4; KS 3.7); ablution wit:h honey and
sugar cane juice, with !madhu vlita' (= 1.92.6a; VS 13.27a;
TS; MS 2.7.168: 99.18; KS 39.3a); 'madhu naktam'
(= lJV 1.90.7a; VS 13.28a; T5 4.2.93a; MS 2.7.16a: 99.20; KS 393a)
and 'maduman no' (= 1.90.8a; VS 13.29a; TS MS 2.] 7.
16a: 100.]: KS 39.30). Thils is called a,blution of pancamrta. which
may be performed with the of offering water for washing the
feet alternatively.
19. Tying of the wailstband (ka!ibandllana). with I rna nas toke' (= 8V
].114.88; VS 16.16a;. TS; 4.5.l0.3a; MS 4.12.6a: 197.15;,
KS 23.12a).
20. Offering an upper garment (uttarfya), with 'namo (= VS
16.36; T5; M52.9.7: 125.1]; KS 17.14).
21. Offering clothes (vastra), with the fOUf hymns beginning with 'ycl Ie
hetir' (= VS 16.113.; VSK 17.1.] Oa; TS 4..5.I.4a; MS 2.9.2a: 122.7; KS
17.11a), [*7]
22. Offering scents (gatldha). with (= VSI6.28; TS; MS 2.9.5: 124.8; KS 17.13). [*8]
23. Offering unhusked grains (akr·ata).46 with 'namas tak-1abhyol (= VS
16.27; TS4.5,.4.2;MS2.9.5: 124.6;KS 17.13).
44 This rudragaylltrT appears in AVPS40,2.5 (in the plUupwavnlta). The nlt/ragllyatrr
appears also, for in LitigaP 2.27.254 "" PadmaP ;.112.88 (tat vicimahe.
mahtl,Jeviiya dhfmahi, Ian 110 pracoctaylll),
45 The text 1.20.21 gives 'ghtwP1l ghrta)'t:7vli', which can not be found in Bloomfield
1906. I adopted the 'ghrtal1lSllrtapllvlI',
46 Gonda transl'ates thils Slll1skrillerm at,ratQ into 'lJohusked gmlns' (Gonda 1972a: 24,
fn. 66) or 'unhusked barley-com.s' (Gonda 1980c: 113). Cnland translates it into 'unhusked
Linga as Prescribed by the SivapuriilJ,a 257
24. Offering flowers with 'namaJ; piiryiiya' (= VS 16.42;. TS; MS 2.9.8: 126.9: KS 17J5). [*9]
25. Offering bilva leaves (bilvapatra), with 'namalJparlJ,iiya' (= VS 16.46;
TS; MS 2.9.8: KS 17.15)..
26. Offering incense (dhr1pa), with kapardine ca' (= VS 16.29;
TS [*]0]
27. Offering lamps (drpa), with 'nama iisave' (= VS 16.31; TS 4:5.5.2;
MS 2.9.5: 124.14; KS 17.14). [*11]
28. Offering food (naivedya), with 'namo (= VS 16.32; TS; KS 17.14). [*12]
29. Offering water for rinsing mouth (iicamana), with 'rryambaka'11, (=
RV 7.59.12a; VS 3.60a; TS; MS 1.10.4a: 144.12; 1.10.20:
]60.11; KS 9.7a; 36.14).
30. Offering fruits (phala), with' imti rudriiya' (=.(?V 1.] 14.1a; VS 16.48a;
MS 2.9.9a: 127.9; KS 17.16a).
31. Dedicating aU the rest of the offering (sakalalp) to Siva, with 'namo
vrajytiya' (= VS 16.44).
32. Offering eleven unhusked grains (ak.yata) to eleven Rudras, with 'rna
no mahantam' (= 1.114.7a; AV 11.2.29a; VS 16.15a; TS4.5.10.2a)
and 'rna nas toke' (= {{V 1.) 14.8a; VS 16. 16a; TS 3.4.1 ) .2a; 4.5..10.3a;
MS4.12.6a: 197.15; KS23..12a).
33. Giving honorariums of sacrifice with the three hymns be-
ginning with 'hira1Jyagarbhal)' (= 10..121. la; AV4.2.7a; VS 13.4a;
23.1a; 25.10a; VSK 29.33a; TS 4..1.8.3a; 2.8.2a;.; MS 2.7.l5a:
96.13; 2.13.23a: 168.5; 3.12.16a: 16S.1; KS 16.1Sa; 20.S;40.1a; KSA
34. Performing ablution (abhifeka), with 'devasya tva' (= VS 11.28; TS; MS.2.7.2: 76.12; KS 16.3).47
pounded ba.rley· (VaikhGS 2.13) or 'unhusked pounded rice'(VaikhGS 3.19; 3.21). Olden-
berg translates il into 'friedgrai.ns' (StirikhGS 1.22.13; 4.4.10). He also t1'allSlales
tu into 'flour of fried barley' (SankhGS 4.5.3; 4.15.3). Oldenberi also translates a!qata into
'fried barley' 4.4.13) and akfatasaktu into 'flour of fried barley' (AJvGS 2.1.2). In
lite commentary of Nariyat:18 on AivGS 2.1.2. is equated with 'barley' (yava). In the
comm,entary on ManOS 2.1.5-6, the is as grains' (anavahatiin
yavan). BodhGSS 1.10.8 defines tile akfata as follows: akfataiabdena vrfhimiirds ta",f1ulii
ucyante. DevibhdgavataP 11.l7.40cd-4lab states that the is ·not to be used in the
worship of nak\vatair areayed na tulasya gQ/Jdvaram 1/ (40cd) di1rvtlbhir
ntircayed d.urgti'!l kelakai, na mahe/vamm I (4hb).
47 It is very difficull to specify the panicular hymn by 'devasy" tvd'only, becaus,e there
are so many mantras beginning with it in Bloomfield 1906. .
258 From Material to Deity
35. The rite of waving lights (nTrtijana),4H with' nama iMave' (:: VS 16.31 ;
TS4.5.5.2;MS2.9.5: 124.. 14; KS 17.14). ["'13]
36. Offering ahandful of Rowers with 'ima rudrtiyo.'
I.] 14.1a.; VSI6.48a: MS 2.9.9a: 127.9: KS 17.16a).
37. Performing circumambulation from left to right with
'ma no mahiintam' (= .(?V 1.114.7a; AV 11.2.29a; VS 16.15a; TS
38. The rite of prostration of the eight parts of the body49 (sii-11aligo.'l1 pro.-
':Iamet). with 'mil nas toke' (= .(lV L114.8a; VSI6..l6a; TS 3.4.1 1.28;; MS4.12.6a:J97.15; KS23J2a). [*15]
39. Showing five mudras;50 the fivamudrci
with te' (= VS 3.57;
TS, 2; 3.L9.4; MS 1.10.4: 144.4; 1010.20: 160.5; KS9.7;
36.14),52 the abhayamudrii
with (;;;; VS 36.22a), thejiia-
namudrii with 'tryumba/,.llp' (= 8V VS 3.60a; TS;
MS I.IO.4a: 144.12; 1.10.20: 160.11; KS 9.7a; 36.14), the mahii-
with 'namah senlJbhyah' (= VS 16.26: TS 4.. 5.4.2; MS 2.9.4:
124.1.; KS 17.13) and the dhenumudrii
with' nama gobhyaJ;' .
4iR Thl18 is the rUe of wa.vinglights before hors,es, elePhants, banners, Ilrmies, etc. See
Kane UI: 230·31, Gonda 1960: 316, Kapadia 1963: 33-43. Takahashi 1981: 442-45 and
Patya11993: 327-33. AVPS 17.ISb statell this rile as one of the annual duties of a king
(rajakarma slil7lvauarcyam) and BrhalS 44.2 s.a)'s this is II propitiatory rile (lan/i). Pllt)lal
[19'93: 332] concludes that this was essentially a 'rile of wllving of lamps' either before the
object to be purified or before an idol of a deity and it provided overall prosperity to the
perform.er 8.nd warded off all ill dfecls on him.
49 The eight parts are the hands. breast. knees Bnd feel.
50 The term 'mlll/rd' is so called, because it gives (Ira) delight. (mild) and also pUiS
10 flight (/dravay) evil bei,ng.s. Se,e Kane II: 320; V: 112.3 and Gonda 1972a. Sllf\lalaS
10.S2cd stales the function of s,ealing the resulls or worship as the lhird etymology: teM
mudra samllkhyl1UJ kr1a.\')IlJpi ca" mudru{Jtlt II. See also the Mrsendra, p. 5,4. See Hikita
1997: 220-22 and Alper 1991: 408-09 on the studies of this mudrlJ.
511 VilIJuDhP describes this mudrlJ E1li follows: wlmaftlll\flUII
IITa", dak#fJ.al1l prall/ped budhal, II (6Scd) karQjlJ pmha10 yojylJ J;va.vamjilittJ I
52 J specify the mantra a.s'efQ Ie rudra among many hymns beginning whh
'elra Ie' , because if is associated witll Siva. . .
53 HirGSS 1.5.9 [57. states this ml4drli belonging to (Sambhu): pralimllf!l
kiirayec chambhol) VllrtlillibhayaptJtJikam N.
See also HirGSS 1.5.10 [60. 19). Hir(;SS 1.5. J I (60. 24-25] stales Ihis mlAcJrll belonging
to ancestors (pilaraJ,). Kane [V: 112S) 811)'8 Ihill is one of ten mue/rd,I' of linga, yon;,
Irisala, a/(\ramliUi. abhrli. i.e. "bhayu. mrga. QsiklJ. kh.",vtJ.r1ga, kapOlei and damaru.
54 Se,e SP I: plate I. no. 7 concerning the description of litis mahdmuclrll. See Vi\ff)uDhP
3.33.4900-51 abo
55 See SP E: plate I, no. Sconcerni.ng the p.i,cture find descri.ptiol'l of this dhenumuilril.
PadmoP 6.85.27-28 mendons this mudrlJ in the rile of pavilrllmpalJ,a: llvlJhanamudmyll va;
Unga Worship as Prescribed by the SivapUrlilJa 259
40. Repetition (japa) of the .fivamantra (= iivliya' = VS 16.41;
TS; MS 2.9.7: 126.5; KS 17.15) and the satarudriyamantra
(= VS 16; TS 4.5).
41'. Reading out the almanac (paiicangapdtha).S6
42. Sending forth Siva ritually (visarjana), with 'devii giituvido, (= AV
7.97.7; VS 2.21: 8.21; VSK2.5.4; 9.3.7: TS 4.44.3;;
MS 1.1.13: 9.5; 1.3.38: 44.17; 4.1.14: 20.10; KS 1.12; 4.12) [*16]
(SivaP 1.20.11-37).
Only the SalJlhiUls of the Vedas (except numbers 13 and 16) are enu-
merated. The main aim is to specify what kind of Veda or ilikhii is used in
this worship. First we can easily recognize the VS (= Vlijasaneyi San,thita
in the MlJdhyayt1dina-ilikhii of the White Yajurveda),. the 15 (= 1aittirrya
Saqthitli), theMS (= MaitrliyafJJ Sa'11hitil) and the KS (= Klifhaka Sa'?lhitii
of Kalha·iakhli). Among them, the VS occurs most frequently, except in
number 16 which mentions the rudra-gliyatrfthat is not attested in the VS.
These frequently quoted verses in the VS are known as the Satarud-
riya,57 Chapter 16 of the Vdjasaneyi San,1hitli. This is considered to be
closely connected with the preceding chapters which contain the formulas
of agnicayana, the piling of the great fireplace, becaus,e Agni, namely, the
fireplace, has on completion become Rudra. The Satarudriya litany was
not only transmitted by the followers of the White Yajurveda., but itis also
found in the Black Yajurveda handed down in fOUf versions of Taittiriya
iastroktavidhina I avah.ya tatra stll1tnidhikara1;lll1Tl smrtam J(27) SQtrmidhf-
karalJ.alfludraya sarrmidhrkara':!am 1raklyiJmudraya .fmpraqya dhenllmudraya amrtrkrrya I
'" 1nama.fktiramudraya deva", abhimantrayfta I. See Kane V: 1127.
S6 The translation of pQllctillga as an almanac seems slightly doubtful. I would like to
point out the possibility of translating it inlo 'some mantra concerning Rudra'. because the
states: rudriidhytiyatrT ca paiiciiriga".l .raudra iti abhidhryate 1(2.2.20. 176al:l) and
paFicarigarudrasya pU$padcmta r#r gdyatrr chan,lo vedtiham etad bijaf71 ,frrJ ca Ie iti saklir
namcu Ie iti paramarudro,devara paramastutau viniyosa/;l II (
HirGSS 1.2.11 [14. 22·16. 8] has the followina to say: alhata" paiiciingar.udrii,:u'JI7l mahti-
nyiisa·pii.rvakatrl japahomarcantibhilekav;,/hi".l vyakhylisylima/;l. Hence the term pancariga
here seems to Indicate Rudramantra consistinl of five components..
57 The LirigaP also mentlolls the holy hymn rudrildhyiiya beginning with 'namas Ie'
(VS 16.1 I TS, Le. the Satarudriya (1.30, 3ab), makes mention of Siva.'s wrath (VS
16.• ITS (1.96.80) and gives the mantra 'hirafJ.yabahur bhaga\.1i1n hira1J.yapatir
Uvara'" (VS 16.171 TS4.5.2.1) (2.18.31). As Gonda [1980a: 78f.] stat'es. the Satarudriya
was supposed 10 be purificatory III several Dharma texIs. This is enumerated as one of
the purifica.tory verses: erani japtani punami janlun jatismaratvam tabOOte yad'icchela I
(VilsDhS 28.11-15). See also Vi$lJ,uSm 56.21. Rudra hymn appears as a purificatory text.
See VasDhS 22.9: BaudhDhS 3.10.10; 4.3.8: 86.12; GautDhSI9.12; YiijiiaSm
3.304, In MBh 7.55.71b, it was regarded &.sapotent sacred text of superhuman origin (tad
brahma .ialarudriyam).
260 Material to Deily
(=TS4.5), Ka!ha.f (;;::; KS 17.11-16),. Kap#lha/akarha.s (= KapS 27.1-6) and
Maitrayam:tiyas (= US 2.9.2-9).511 '
In numbers 8, 3J and 39, we can notice only the VS. In particular, the
mantra of No.3] is really worth noting. This mantra,'n.umo vrajytiy;a'
can be seen only in the VS, while in MS 2.9.8: 126.8, the variant readin.g
is 'namo grhyiiya ca go.r,hydya ca', and in TS and KSI7.15
corresponding passage reads 'namo go,yfJzyiiyaca grhyliya ca'. Moreover,
the mantra of No. 5 is also worth attention. Only the VS mantra reads
satnbhavaya', while others read saI?1bhm'e: So it may be
bener to conclude that the Vedic mantra used in this worship is based on
the VS. The c1os,erelationship between the Epic or Pauram:tic Saivism and
the Satarudriya litany or the White Yajurveda of the Vajasaneyi.n school
(= VSI6), was already indicated by Banerjea 1956: 447. And No. 13 gives
us the mantra as seen only in the Pliraskaragrhyasutra which belongs to
the White Yajurveda.
Moreover Witzel points out that the Vajasaneyin
texts have long since been prevalent in the northern India, from Punjab
to Bengal and from the Himal'.ayas to Vindhya and into GujaraL On the
other hand, the Satarudriya texts lIsed in the Pura':1as follow the south
Indian Taiuiriya or other Vedic schools. The Nepalese Paddhati agrees
with the north Indian Vajasaneyin school. In Kashmir, it has always been
the school of the Black Yajurveda, and never the Taiuiriya s.chool,.
that was studied and has supplied the pri.esls (Witzel'. 1987: 34,47, (n. 37),
So we might say that this worship of the Ultga made of clay w8scompiled
in the north India.
2.4.3 The Second Mode of Worship
Next comes the second mode of worship, whilch is a shorter version of the
worshipi:n accordance with the Vedic rites.
l. Bringing clay fOf a liliga (m,rdlJhara.lJ:a), with •sadyojlJtam, (= Ttf
2. Sprinkling it with water with I vlimadevdya, (= TA
3. Making a finga, (= 'aghorebhyo 'tha' :::::: TA 10.45.1).
4. Invocation (iihvtina)., with 'tat (;; TAl 0.46.1).
58 See Gonda 1980a: 75-76.
59 Renou 1947-49: HOwl Ii.
60 Rocher [1986: 22.3], however, refuses t,o, locate SUl'J1hita containing the passage
of this worship, in a specific arca of Indill. .
Linga Worship as Prescribed by the Sivapuriir;r.a 261
5. Fixing the lbiga to the pedestal, with lUana' (= TA 10.47.1).61
6. Worshipping it with the five-syllabled mantra (= siviiya'),
any other mantra given by the prec,eptor, or the mantra below:
bhavaya bhavaniHiiya mahlidevaya dhrmahi I
ugrtiya ugraniisiiya sarvtiya safimauline /I (1.20.43) (SivaP 1.20.39-
2.4.4 Worship Reciting the Names of Siva Alone
Last comes the worship reciting the names of Siva alone. It is also caned
common worship (siidhtiraf}atii) (1.20.45). The square brackets indicate
each stage of the sixteen forms of service.
One brings over clay for a Linga (mrddharar;r.a) with Hara (='0111 ha-
raya namab'), kneads (sarrgha!{a) it with Mahesvara and instans (prati-
with Sambhu. These are preparatory stages. Then the worship it-
self begins. One invokes (dhviina) with Siilapaf,li [* 1], performs ablution
(mapana) with Pinakadhrk [*6], worships (pujana) with Siva, craves the
61 These make up the Siva's five faces: sadyojiita, viima€leva, aghora,.
W'ina. Siva is said t.o manifest himself in the form of the 'five brahmas' and worshipped with
a Famous series of five mantras. Their origin is wrapped in darkness. Their oldest occurrence
is considered as probably the third century Be from MNU 277-85 illlhe tenth book of the TA.
The lirst is seen as sadyojdtam prapadyami (Ttf 10.43.1). It is seen as a part ora collection
of formulas in AVPS 20.6.1. The second is seen as vamadevaya (TA 10.44.1). It is
historically related to the r# who is credited with the authorship of the fourth ma,,(iala of
the 'Jgveda. The third is seen as aghorebhyo 'tho (TAl 0.45.1). This god is seen
in the beginning of the Satarndliya litany. The fourth is seen as tat puru,faya vidmohe (TA
10.46.1). II is considered to owe its existence to a reinterpretation of a §aivaite variant of the
sayatrio The fiflhis seen as sarvavidyljnam sarvabhiilaniif7i brahmadhipat;r
brah/tIQ'.Io 'dhipatir brahmd .f/va me a.flU sada /ivom (TA 10.47.1). See Gonda 19'65a: 143.
These five are used as brahmamantm. See SP I: xxxiii-xxxvi;. tile Rau.rava. k.riyapada.
Chap. 2 (pp. 25·26) and (Vol. 2, p. 8. rn. 1); the Mrgendr:a pp. Goudliaan and Gupt.a
1981: 35; Rocher 1991: 191-92 and Bhandarkar 1913: 1241, rn. I. See also Colas 1994: 519.
fn. I. .
Each of these paikabrahmans seen in rA 10043-47 has a name of its" own: Sadyojata.•
Vimadeva, Aghora., and I§ina. 3.48.1-8 enumerates these pancab.rah-
mans in the same sequence as that of the TA and also assillls to each brahman a head or
face and an element. To Sadyoji.ta is assianed Mahadeva(east) and earth (Mum/); to Virna.
deva, Bhairava (S01lIh) and fiJe; to_Aghora, Nandin (wes.t) and wi.nd (vdyu): to
Uma (north) and water (apas); to Hina, SadiiSiva and ether (aka/a). Sadasivll is invisible
above other heads. See Kramrisch 1984: 5-6. LirigaP 1.17.89cd-90 states that jgana (= Siva)
has t§ina for his crown, Tatpuru$8 for his fa.ce, Aghora for his heart, Vimadeva for his sex
orillins, Sadyojiita for his feet
In the domain, these live tOUllly different objects. Lak;rmrJ' 19.30-33
and AMrS 16.83-85 state these live are (= Satya), ha ('" Vasudeva). sa (=
(= Pradyumna) and sa (= Aniruddha). See Hikita 1997: 62·63.
262 From Material to Deity
forbearance (k.yamasva) with and dismisses (visarjana) rituaUy
with Mahadeva [* 16].
The above eight names are those of S.iva, and one mutters them in-
stead of the Vedic mantra,') as mentioned above. Like the IIrsl stage, those
mantras are muttered in the dative case, accomp,lllicd by prw:Ia\'a in the
first and namas in the end. This kind of worship includes :.lIsa the nyiisa
along with the aliga-nyiisa, meditation on Silva with the six-synabJed
mantra (== °'11 namab liviiya), repetition (jap(l) of the five-syllabled
mantra (= livt7ya),62 recitation of the Vedic hynms including the
Satarudriya hymn, offering a handful of flowers and unhusked grains,
a request (priirthayet),6J prostration with one's eight parts of the body
tOllchi.ng on the ground, the circumambulation from Ileft 10 right, the
eulogy to Siva (stuti), the full-throated sound (gcl/arava), reverential sal'u-
lalion (prm.1amer) [* IS] and giving leave (vUiiapti) (1.20.45-63).
3 The Process of Linga Worship as in
Other Salrzhitiis of the
In th,e in the Rudrascutlhitii of the Siva]>, the worship of the
liliga is also described in two chapters: Chapter II (= A) and Chapter J3
(= B). The process of worship, however, is slighlly different from the
worship of the earthen lil1ga as mentioncd above. So I shall sketch .its
scheme briefly. I have put an asterisk on thc number of ritual acts which
appear only in A and two asterisks on those which appear only in B.
1. Daily Worship
(I) He gets up early ill the morning during the bmhnwmuhiirUl. Be
meditates on his preceptor, Siva, holy places (tfrthll), Hari, Brah-
rna, etc. Then he recites hymns (stotra) (2.1.ll.16-18ab /2.].1 J.
62 Alper [I! 991; 365] says thaI the tivcesyllnblcd mantra (puPIc(7k,yammantra) IIrst alp-
p,eared in MNU 274. Sec Rocher 1991: 179ff.; Goudriaall 1978: 76-77: Kline IV: 51. See
LitigaP 1.85; SivaP 1.17 2.3.21; 7.2.12-14. Sce nlso SkmuitlP 3,3..1; AgnW .304. 1-
4; SauraP 65; SivaP 1.17; concerning ils grcalllcss.
53 Tile mlll1lmis as follows: flivaka.\· tVlJ(;('jlfo 'iraqI .wda mnill I krpli.
nidlra iti jnti/wl !Jmsida me /I U;i!mP I.. 2(56) ym!i vii jl1tillii) japopujti.
dika/?/ maya I lad w·w J:aplw/m?/ krpayti (ava II (57) a/UI1!1 pt'ipf mahiin udY(1
pavlmcd ca bhavtin Inclhlin I iti vijfUiya l(aul''[fa yad icchcl.\'; ttlllu1 krlru II (58) pl/rei-
.l'iddhiinlair r#blrir vividlwir {/p; //1(/ jl1ii/O '.1'; mahiidevlI ku/o 'hal!/ IWII!I .\'{/(/li,{iva II
(59) yWhii /(jIM IlIadfyo '.\'f11i,wnl(jbhiivair maheJl'l/Nl II (60). We may lind a similar PllS-
sage in 1.20.56cd=; 1.20.56a-c=4,38.78u-c; 1.20.57
= = 4.39.21; 1.20.57ab = 4.38.78ab.
LiligG Worship as Prescribed by the SivapuriilJa 263
2-5ab). In B (13.3-4), on this occasion; he recites the following
prayer; devesa hrdayesaya I uttio¥!ha tvam
umiisvamin brahma1)fle maligala1fl kuru 1/ (3) janami dharmarr
na ca me pravrttir jiinamy adharmarrt na ca me nivrtti/:t- / tvaya
mahiideva hrdi sthitena yathii. niyukto 'smi tatha karomi II (4).
(2) He eases himself (malotsarga) (] ] .18cd-23/ 13.5cd-6ab)'/brushes
his teeth (] 1.24-27 I 13.6cd-8), and performs the daily ablution
(3) He performs the sQI?1dhya worship (l1.29), while in B (B.]7-
22ab) he makes mark on his forehead.
2. Preliminary Rite
(1) He enters the chamber of worship (pt7.jiigiira) (11.30)*.
(2) He pronounces the due intention of this worship (sQtrlka1pa) (13.
(3) He worships GaneSa, the guardians of the door (dviirapala) and
the guardians of the quarters (dikpala) (11.32a-c I ] 3.28-31). B
states that Ganesa is considered remover of any obstacle (vighna-
hliraka) and that he always guards the door (sada dViiri
(4) He prepares the pedestaI (pf!ha) or the figure of a lotus with eight
petals, on which the linga is installed (11.32d-33)*.
(5) The materials to prepare a linga and the different ways of its in-
stallation in his own house (svagrha) and in a temple (siviilaya)
are described (13.32-38)**. .
(6) He p,erforms dehasuddhi by performing controlled breathing
(prar:tiiyiima) thrice, meditating on Tryambaka and burning his
sins (] 1.34-361 13,41ab). In B (13.42)** after the mulamantra,
he shows five hand-gestures (mudra) before worship.
(7) Then comes l1yiisa of the miilamantra as weB as of the wiga-
mantras along with 0111 (11.37)*. In B (l3.4lcd)**, he turns the
miilamantra around (avarta) his body ten times.
(8) He prepares nine vessels for arghya, piidya, acamana, etc. (11.
(9) Worship of Nandfsa (11.43)*.
(10) After making obeisance (namaskara) to his preceptor, he takes on
his yogic posture (iisana) of padma, bhadm, uttana or paryanka
3. Worship of the Liliga
(]) He purifies the Linga (li,igafuddhi) with various 1?1amras begin-
ning with 0f!1 and ending in namas (11.44)*. Or he washes it with
the water from the vessel of arghya (l3.46ab)**.
264 From Material to Deity
(2) Preparation of seat (lisana) in the form of a svastika or a lo-
tus with 0'11 is performed as follows: he, at first, visualizes the
eight petals (= eight siddhis) and the perilcarp (= the moon), and
funher visualizes the sun under the moon, the fire under the sun,
Dharma, etc., under the nre, Avya.kta, etc., in the four quart,ers of
the moon and three anrilbutes (guf)alraya) at. the end of the moon
(l ]
(3) He invokes the supreme Lord with IsadyojlitQlrt pravakiyiimi' (it
may be Isadyojata1?1 prapadyami' TAIO.43.1) (11.49cd)*, while
in B(l3.47-53ab)**, the following Paura.,ic mantra is recited;
kaUasasikharastha'11 ca plirvatfpatim uttamam 1/ (47cd)
yathoktarupilJa/T1 sa/T1bhwrt nirgUlJalfl I
palicavaktralfl dasabhujarrz trinetratrt vNabhadhvajam II (48)
karpuragauratrt divydnga'11 candramaulilla'12 kapardinatrt I
ca gajacarmambararn !ubham 1/ (49)
vas.ukyiidiparfttinga·rrr piniikiidyayudhtinvitam I
siddho.yo co. yasytlgre nr1yantiha nirantaram II (50)
jo.yajo.yeti !abdaiS co. sevitam /
tejasii dubsahenaiva devasevitam II 1)
!aral')ya'f1 sarvasattvanti'71 prasannamukhapaltkajam I
vedaU!astrair yathlJ gita'11 ;radti II (52)
bhaktavatsalam linandan,J sivam livlihayamy aham I (53ab)..
(4) He offers the seat (asana) with the vamade\Jamantra CTA ]0.44.1)
(1 I ] 353cd). [*2]
(5) He performs the rite of sti'rmidhya. with the rudragiiyatri and the
rite ofnirodha with the aghoramantra (TA 10045.1) (11.50cd)*.
(6) He offers the water of padya, ac.:amanfya and arghyu with 'iSti-
nal,z sarvavidyiiniim' (T1\ 10.47.1) (l1.5 n·, while in B
55ab)**, h,e pronounces the names
ending in the dative case.
[*4] [*5] [*3].
(7) Ablution of the linga is performed with scented water, paiicagav.
yo. empowered by the mantras ina vessel, and pancdmrta with
0lfl. He does to it with allspici:ous materials reciting 0I'!l,
bathes it with the water empowered by the mantras in vessels by
means of kusa grass, wipes it off with a white cloth and sml,ears it
with sandal (J 1.52-56)*. In B (13.5.5cd-59)**, he bathes it with
pancamrta,. etc., reciting the Vedic mantras or lhe names in the
64 For the eight names of Siva, see note 78.
Linga Worship as Prescribed by the Sivapuriir:ra 265
dative case, performs ablution with water (viiru1J.af?1 sniinan,t),65
anoints it with fragrant sandal, pours the continuous flow of fra-
grant water to it while reciting the Vedic mantras, the six limb-
mantras or simply the names elieven times, and wipes
it off with doth after some time. [*6]
(8) He offers garments (vastra) along with iicamana; sesame, wheat,
etc. 1*71 In A (l1.56cd)*, he offers only beauti-
ful grains
(9) He offers variousftowers cd-65ab) [*9]. A men-
tions the Vedic manti-as to be recited for offering flowers and
doing water ablution. These are rudra, nrlarudra, White rajur.
veda, hotlira,66 atharvaSfr-1a,67 santi, rniiru1J.a. arur,ta, Siimaveda,
devavratasdman (SV 2.488ff.), rathal1ltara-saman,
and five-syllabled mantra.
(10) He worships the imperishable Lord on the top of the linga (11.67-
6S Kane [II: 658, fn. 1556] mentions two kinds of the chief one (mukhya) and
the s,econdllry one The former is bathing with water and it is further sub-
divided into six: fllIya, lIaimitrika, kdmya. and kriyiimiina. Kane
[II: 667] also enumerates seven kinds of bathing: \l(jrU1;w, manrra.mano, Mouma, agneya,
vaycwya, liivya and mancl.m. V"ikhGS 1.2 [2, 6-7] enumerates five: abhi.Jeka, divya, viiyav·
ya, agntlya and gurvanujiUi. It also enumerates four in llilother passage (1..5 [6, 18-7,4]):
divya, vayuvya, tignt!ya and mantrasnii,w. HirGSS 1.1.6 [3. 9-14] enumerates seven: varu·
agneya. vayavYl/, brllhma, kiipil". mlina.m and divya. SauraPI8.40cd-42
five: wiru'.la, agneya, vayavyo, divya lind milnosQ. The varu{to-snana is sa.id to il)dicate the
mantra.l'nana and the last type of bathilllJ, ',lanaSQ.JI1Una is considered the best of these five.
66 Se,e carur-, J1Cl1ka·, .mpta· and in Hillebrandt 189'7: 165-66 and
Rolland 1970.
67 See Kane IV: 46, fn: 107 and HirGSS 1.3.8 [27. 12-13).
68 The Vedic mrt)l.u.ifjaya hymn is round in 7.59.12 (rryambakal?1 yajamahe ... ).
This is anaddilion 10 the original text of the there is no patlapii{htJ for it. See Witzel
1987: 5, fn. 2. This hymn (SivaP, also called mrtlJsan.!iivanfmamra
(Siva?, (SivaP, mrta.ifvanr vidyu (SivaP2.5.15.47)
or mrtasaPTljTvul1i viciyli (Siva? 2..5..50.41) is quoted several times in the 5ivaP. This hymn
is: fry£lmhaka.", yajclmahe traiiokYCll11 pitaral1l prabllum I p.itara1f1 rrigu':lQsya
maheJvartlln II (SivaP tritartva.l'yatrivahm!.l' fa tricihiibhfitasya
sy" tribliho.{ ca tritihCibhlitasyCl II (23) lrideva.\'ya mahiidevas
dhanat!l I saMJahhiitf\fU .mrvatra trigUl,lf\VU krtau yatht'1 /I (24) tathanyeifu cleve\\'u
ell galJe.yu co I pu..fpe 1/ (25) prl.Y!i'{ ell prakrter
yusmat vai I cap; suvrata II (26) pi·
ttimaha.vylip; mlln;nri", ClI mahiimrme I indriya.Jya ca lieviintilTl '"smad vai II
(27) ta", deva,!t rudral11 karmar:lt:1 va I ca )'ogena dhyiinen.a co pra.
jiJpate II (28) mrtyupiiJlid bhavaJ, I .\:vaYQl1! bal1dhamoksakaro
yt/smtid urvi1rukam. iva II (29). Se,e Rocher 1991: There is a rite
known as "'ff)'IIi!;aytJ. See Gonda 1980c: 474 and Kane V: 814.
From Material/() /Jeity
(11) He offers incense (dhupa), la.mps (dlpa). cooked food (naived-
ya), betel. leaves (tambala), waving of lights ('1irtijana), obeis-
ance (namaskam) and various prayers (stQva) (II.70cd-71)*. In
B (13.65cd-76ab)**. he offers s,cenled powder. oil, incens,e and
lamps. He wipes off the face wilh a cloth (mukl1a
marjana) and
offers arghya wilth' riipa'7'l dehi yaso dehl bhoga'11 ca ia""ka-
ra /I (67cd) den; grhrtvtirgha1p namo'stu
Ie I (68ab)', followed by offering cook'ed food, iicamana,. betel
leaves and w8vi.ng of lamps (ariitrika).69 He rnedita.tes on Siva,
repeat.s the mantra taught by his preceptor (nlantra-japa) along
with various hymns (.ftotra). and performs circumambulation rite
(pradak.#"ii) and obeisance. 1* 10·*15]
( ]2) With a handful of flowers. he asks for (pra"thayet) the success
of worship as follows; 'ajllantid yadi va jlldntij japapujadika'T1
maya. I krtarrz tad aslu saphalal'r1 krpaya lava farrtkara II (74)' .70
Then he throws them onto theli,iga (1
(13) Then follow the rites of svastyayantl,71 liffrvtlda.
wiping off
(mtlrjana), obeisance, forgiveness (kr.tll'lti offer-
ing of acamano, repethion of and obeisance
again (II .75cd-77ab)*.
(J4) He asks for success of the worship a.gain as follows; 'sive bhaktiS
five bhaktU five bhaktir bhave bhQllf I anyatha nast;
tvam eva mama II (78)' (l ] .77cd-79ab)*.
69 In the lale Vedic texts we also gct reference 10 IherhLulll ceremonyclilled ilrrJm'ka.
'rite or ceremony of lights, ill which WElVillg of lamps is done al nilglu before deity's imnic
or symbol.' See Patya11993: 327. Se,e ,WPoS7.l.13; ISb.S.3.
70 This mamra (11.74) is reciled again in B (13. 77ed·7811b). hut the lIIantra in B is
8ugmemed by other mantra as follows: '1dI!aka.l· tvutlgcUaprllf)(ltllucitto 'Ila""acid mr{1a /I
(78cd) iii vOnliyagaurila bIIatanalha me I bhumu,,, .1·khaliluvlldlinrJrf1 Mum;r eva"
valamhanam 1/ (79) IVayi ja.ltJparll€lhtJna,,1 tvam eva ,{aralJu'11 prtlbho I (80Hb).' See SjvaP
4.38.79, 39.21. See I1lso (n. 62.
71 See Gonda 198Oc: 262-63 Ind Gonda .1989: 177·86.
12 See Gonda 1980c: 264 and Gonda 1989: 1-148. The as follows:
1.l.24 (hrtihmafJlJn annella pu"ylllla'1' rddh;m ity o'11kllrapilrvat]l tri.r If'ir
ekaikllma.ti.,o vlicayiMJ); 1.8.6-8 (tW1Q'11 ,fa'7,.rk,tya vllcayitva);
2.2.13; 2.5.54; 2.5.69; 3.11.5 Urivrtllnnena .\·QrflPl7jylJ,(i\w vlicayitlllJ); 3.5.20
(anna'71 sa'1lskrtya hrOllmalJan .\·{ltrlp·iJjylltfilo vlkayillla /iva". ,fiIJtlI!1 lId.f/ll ill); 3.6.7
(annall1 ,I:Q/'!I.rkrtya brOhmal}i1n .fa'7lpiiiYrJ.ri,o v(JcayilwJ ,(jvll'71 .fivam ill BodhG-
PbhS 1.4.13 mentions the definite mantra liS follows: '.Ifantir ,wu I plmir a.fluI tUllir aslu I
rdtlhir a;Uu I QvjgJznam emu I ilyu;l:am tWU I arogyam. I karmlJ5tu ity iifi,ml7l
tam iiJiisfe II' (in the pUrJyaha ritual). PadmaP 6.2IS.22ab stales a differenlt usage for this
mantra from namaskilra;guriin pratinamaskllro vrJc:yo Cl.fTr laghun prali I.
73 10.190. See €lahamarf01J.am hymn in Gonda I980c; 125-26.
Linga Worship as Prescribed by the SivapuriirJa 267
(15) He makes guttural sound (galaniida), offers obeisance to Siva as
well as his attendants and carries on his daily routine (ll.79cd-
(6) After obei.sanee, he dismisses (visarjayet) the Lord into his own
heart, reciting' svasthiina'!1 gaccha devesa pariviirayuto prabho II
(8Ied) pujakllie punar niUha tvaya gantavyam iidariit I (82ab)'
(13.81 ed-83)**.
Though both A and B are contained in the same Sarphita and des-
cribe the same process of the linga-worship, there is a slight difference
between them. Ais inclined to use the Vedic mantras, indifferent to the
special Veda or schools (slikhii), whereas B prefers to recite the PauraQic
mantras. Worship in A ends with guttural sound, while B ends with the
dismissal of Siva into one's heart. The description of A is very similar
to that as seen in the LbigaP, which will be discussed later. A seems to
have adopted the systematic process of the linga-worship, which has many
common features in several PuraQas. Hence, we may conclude that A has
later elements than the worship of an earthen linga, though both of them
contain many Vedic mantras. Furthermore, the use of the long PauraQic
mantras as seen in B may indicate that the worship of A was modified into
the Paurar:aic method of B.
4 Worship of the Litiga in Other Texts
Is the worship peculiar to the SivaP? Can we find a sim-
ilar worship in other texts such as other PuraQ3s, some sectarian texts,
etc.? In order to solve this question, I discuss three texts which describe
the Unga worship.
4.1 Case A
First comes the (= BodhGSS) 2.17,14 which
contains the procedure of worship of Mahadeva (= Siva). The square
brackets indicate the number of the sixteen forms of service.
1. Now I shall explain the method of daily worship (paricarya) of
Mahadeva. After taking a bath and becoming purified. he should
smear cow-dung ona pure and even spot. He should prepare an image'
of the god, and worship it with unhusked grains and flowers as much
as he. can obtain. He should then invoke (dvdhayet) Mahideva with
74 I refer to Harting's translation. See Harting 1922.
268 From Mater;,11 to Deity
flowers and water, muttering '0171,. rinvoke the P.erson
and 'May the Venerable Mahadeva come here.' I'" I]
2. After muttering to a vessel the hymn of the Yajurveda, namely, 'yo
rudro agnuu' (TS, he should c1ieunse it He should pour WI-
ter (into the vessel) through the pavitrtl grass, and then mutter (to the
water) the same mantra as above along with Ihe pavitta. He should
turn it towards the sun, with 'nf?1' tHI he loses his breath.
3. From the water, he should offer some for washi,ng feet (padya), with
'padyam' (KauJS 90.8; HirGS 1.12.18). [
4. After taking away the remnants of offerIng (Illrmlilya) with vytihrti,"s I
he should offer water for respectful re,ception (argf1ya) [*3] and water
for rinsing the mouth (acamanfya). ("'5] Then he performs ablution
(abhi#iicati)., [*6] with three verses beginning with 'apo hi mayo.
(TS 4.1.5Ja.;, with four verses beginning
with (1'5 5.6.1. Ia), with the amt·
yaka begilnning (1'8 a), and with
the mantras like 'brahmajajilorulI!I' (TS}, 'kad rudrtlya' (TA
1OJ7.1 a), I tvaritarudra, (TA 18),76 'viJm.adevYQl71' ," 'apo vii
idam' (TA ]0.22.J).
5. Then, with vyahrti, he sprinkles the image with wa.tcr from left to
right, pll,aces the pavitra at the he'el (of the.image), and satiates it with
water, reciting eight (names in the formula), '( satiate god Bhava.'7K
7S This is a Vedic formuhl,'bhur See Kri,'ek 1982: 393-96 lind Gonda
1980c: 226.
76 See Harting 1922: 36. fn. 2.
77 Harling gives'll(lmadevr (l'S 4.2.11 a) for 'VlJlI1adell)'lml' Ilnd inlcrpchllcslhc manIt"
plll'itra' (TS l. 2,1.1) between 'l'l1madevr nnd '(lIJ() \ltl idtlm'llrhlrling 1922:10].
1M That is'bhuvmn deva"" rarp£lyiimi'. These eithl nnmes lire: 8h8\111. Sana,
Pasupati, Rudra, Vgra, Bhima lind Mahinta. SiVllP 4.38..53cd-.54 JII!lo enumemles ei.ght
names: Bhllva, Sarva, Rudl'.a, UBl'a, Maluu, Bhima, l.illgtlP 2.13 gi\lcseighl
names (a.rtamiirti) together with Ihei.r wives, sons lind clements in the mfllerilll world: Snrva
(Vikesi, Angaraka. Pftllivl). Shays (Vml, SUknl, dravy" ... "rava), (Sviihil,
kha= vahni), 19ana (Siva, ptll
";la), Bhiml1l hen DH. SIl.rgl, vY(Jfllan) ,
Rudra (Suvarcala. Sanaigcaro, ,rurya), MahAdcvlI (Rohi"r. Budha, mam:Ullnd .wnla), Ugra
(DTk$ft. Sal'!1tlina. yajamanu). MaUyaP 265.39-42 mel1tionlll eighl names: Snrva (prtMIIl).
Pasupali (agni). Ugra. (yajamiJna), Rudrl (jalll) , (vayI4) , MIIMdeva
(cantlra) lind Bhima (llkiU€I). 49:5-11) stales: Rudrll (Suvarcali,
siirya) , Bhava (Uma, Sukra. j,da), SlIrVlI (VikegI. Lol1illlilga. tTl a111'), Iglnll (Svadhit, Mana.
java, vahnO, Pagupa.ti (Svaha, Skllnda. vlIyu). Bhima (Dig8S., .aka.fa). Ugra
SalTllana, MallUdevll (Rohi.r:-i. Blldha, .I'o.ma), KtlrmaPI.IO,22-31 gives
the same ei.ght names as the Marka':lr'eyaP Svadh.ll, the wife of 19lna in lhe former
with Siva in the lalter. See Miller 1984: 223·24 and Joshi 1984: 53··54.
In the Grhya literature, lhese namcsappear with lhci.r wives (pat/II) and sons (.\:uta) in
Li,lga Worship as Prescribed by the Sivap.urlit:ta 269
6. He should offer a garment (vaslra)[*7] and a sacred thread (yajiio-
pavfta), with 'orr namo bhagavate rudraya tryambakaya'.
7. He should offer flowers, with the eight (names in the formula), 'bha-
vaya deviiya [*9]
8. He should offer scent (gandha) [*8], flowers [*9], incense (dhiipa)
[* 10] and lamps (dipa) [*11], with 'tvaritarudra' (TA 10.16-18).
9. He should offer clarified butter (havis), with 'devasya rver (TS;
7.1J 1.1). [*12)
10. He should pour image) with water with 'tryamba-
kam' (TS}.
11. Muttering 'amrtopastaraQam asi' (TA 10.32.1 )as an introductory
formula (pratipada'1t krtvd), he should give as offering (havir) any
sweet substance which is not prohibited (aviruddha'?1.), bulbs, roots
and fruits.
12. Having sat down with eyes closed for a moment, he should remove
(udviisya) the offering food (nivedya), with 'I remove the offering
food' and mutter'amrtopidhanam as;' (TA 10.35.1) as an introduct-
ory formula, and offer the water for rinsing the mouth (acamana)
with 'tryambakam' (TS
n. After worshipping (Siva) with aU kinds of materials (upakaraQa)
reciting (with the eight names in the formula), 'bhavaya devaya
etc.! he should offer scents, et,c., with 'amufmai nama
'mufmai nama1;l' (HirGS 2.20.5).
14. Then (the worshipper) lauds him with the, hymns derived from. the
and Atharvaveda in praise of Rudra, and with the
hymns of praise attlibuted to sages stotraiS cal. After paying
il1la8ava. 'an ox fit for a spit as an offering to Rudra' described in the Grhyasutras of the
Taittirrya school. See Arbman 1922: ]04. BodhGS 2.7.18 mentions an offering to eight
names first as follows; ". piIrvardhe jll/wti bhavliya tlf'vaya .vvaltd .\!arviiya devaya .vviiha
Ut1niiya t!eviIya svllhO pa.{llpatclyf! deviiya svahii rlldrilya devtlya ,fviiht'l ug.riiya devdya
ha bhfmaya devliya ,\'vtihii mallate devdya svlihd iti I. Then comes eight offerings to their
wives (2.7.19) and then to their sons (2.7.20). See also BhiirGS 2.8-9; ApMP 2.18.14-21:
HirGS 2.3.7; AsnGS 2.5.7 [87. in the .l'lilagava and AgnGS 2.6.3 (87, 2·5] in the tar-
par,ra and VaikhGS 4.9 [62, 6-7] in the iMvayuji. Il i.s worth noting that the VaikhGS, the
late"t GrhyasiHra of the Tainirlya school, does not describe the .l'ulagava. a
of the ani mill sacrifice. S8 and KB6.1.9 mention eight names with their own
elements: Rudra (agni), Sarva (tipa), Pdupati Ugra Mani (vidyut): Bhava
Mahadeva (cane/ra). (iiditya). See Harting 1922: ix. Gonda concludes
thai Saivahe speculiltion, ulilizing elements of an ancient cosmogonical myth and guided by
the influential Simkhya theory of the evolution of the world and the cosmic prooesses, had
r'emodelled the ancient idea of god's eight aspects distributed over whole universe into a
system of his eightfold manifestation, presence and activity [Gonda 1970: 41].
270 From Malerial 10 Deiry
obeisance to him, I'" 15] (the worshipper) gives him leave (visarjayati)
with 'praytitu bhaguv(ln I'" 16]
]5. In places where a (permanent) liriga is insl.all'ed in-
vocation and ritual dismissal! (wlv(lwrla) arc omined. Everyday he
'hail' (sw:lstyaymra) to those. Thus spoke Venerable Bodhi-
These passages indicate the gradual' process of worship of Mahadeva.
The most charaderistic feature here is that the text closely indicates the
sixteen forms of service, though Ihe "wntra;\' rcci!tcd arc different from
those of the SivaP. As his weB known that Baudhaywla belongs to the
school of TaiuirTya,79 il may be said that the Vcdilc nlantras recited here
are mainly based on the Taiuirlya S,u11hiUi and the TaiHirIya Aril':1yaka.
Mli,zSS 11.7.1-3 describes the ritual for muuering of prayers to Rudra,
whkh is not sc,en in the BodhGS<S. [I 980a: 77") states that this
ritual is a non-Vedic one. ManSS 1/.7.1' Ilrst descdbes the daiJy (nitya)
murmuring. Here one takes a Rud'ra-bath and then places (nya.ret) the
god onto the various parts of onc's body with varilolls mantra.'i, mainly
from the Satarudriya hymns. For instance. one recites l f1.wna?l .farrrbhave'
(MS 2.9.7:126.4), 'ye asmill mahaty (MS·2.9.9a: 128.9), 'namo
nflakapardiiya' (MS 2.9.2a: ]21.14)., ;fruWya ca .rrutasenliya ca'
(MS 2.9.6: 1] 2.5), etc. This text also gives hr(ll!l. Itr"!l , ;'ri:irr, hrai,'fI and
hraW?l as five bfjamcmtras.
ManSS 11.7.2 describes the murmuring for a special
intentilon and
MiinSSII.7.3 does the murmuring prayers intended for expiation. On this
expiatory rite, worship of fire is performed along with murmuring prayers.
In the ManSS. we can find several elements unseen in the BodllGSS such
as use of the bTja mantras and the firc-oblation rite. On the contrary,
the sixteen forms of service in the BodhGSS are not found iIIl the Mti1'lSS
except invocation (iivahana) and dismissal (vi.SClrjana).
4.2 Case B
Next the scheme of worship of Siva as seen in the SonudambJmpaddhati
(SP) will be described.8() The Agamas or the sacred scriptures of the
Saiva sect, consist of categories: yoga-, and caryli-
piMa. The first means doctrines and theology; the second with
knowledge concerning the subtIle body; the fourth prescribes daily
viours. The thi!rd treats rituals: daily acts (11ityalwrman}, occasional acts
79 Sec RClilou 1947-49: 310-.1 L
IlO I refer 10 Brunner's valuable work. the edition Ilnd Prcnch Iranshlliol1 of the SP.
Lillga Worship tiS Prescribed by the Sivapuriil.1a 271
(naimittikakarman) and acts to acquire desired fruits (kamyakarman). The
lil,tga worsh'ip to the daily acts of the kriyli-ptida,81
These daily acts consist of three ritual acts: sW?ldhi or sarr1dhya, wor-
ship of Siva and special rit.cs of puri,fication and nutrition. The name of
sartldhi seems to be similar to the Vedic rite of the same name,82 but there
are two differences between them, The first difference is that the Saiv-
ite rites can be accomplished by the initiated four castes, while the Vedic
ones can be done by the three upper castes. The second one is that the
former is obligatory whil« the latter is arbitrary. Worship of Siva must be
performed several times in a day, from eight to three times, namely, each
time after the !'i{l1!ldhyli. Now we proceed to the description of the scheme
of this worship.
I. Preparatory Rites (Section 3, SP I: 90-229)
(l) Worship of entrances. as a part of worship of Siva (fivapl1jiiliga-
dvarapiija) , This is the worship of the guardians of entrances
(dvarapiilas). They are Gal)apati, SarasvatT, Nan-
din, Ganga, Mahah'ila and Yamuna (1).
(2) Process of eliminatilng obstacles (vighnoccii!anakrama). This is
done with'm?1 hal'!l haW?1 Jiviiya namaIJ' while casting down di-
vine glances (divyadr.y{iniptlta) wilh the astramantm and three
stamps of one's right heel tribhir ghtitair) (2-3).
(3) An adept enters the sanctuary (sivadhiimapravesa) (4).
(4) Process of acquiring water for bathing Siva
I.wkrama), With the rep,etition of the astmmantra along with the
act of glancing he purifies a big vessd
Having obtained permission from Siva, he, in silence, goes to the
Ganga. He fills the vessel with filtered water, with giiyatrf
hrdaya (:::::: hrn)-mantra (5-7).
(5) Purification of the physical elements of his body (bhutaiuddhi).
This is the first of five kinds of regular purification: purification
of the physical elements of one's body, of the place, of the mater-
ials, of the mantras and of the liliga, The first one is performed
81 See SP J: vi-vii.
82 It is not dear whether this rite is Vedic or Hindu, because the performer of the rite
is a brahmaciirinin the Grhyasutra, while the performer is a householder (gr1w.srha) in the
See Einoo 1992: 59-67.
H3 Though this giiylltrf, called .wlv.;trf too, seems to be similar 10 the Vedic formula
3.62.10), it is not in reality the same. It is arranged on that model for the Saiva sect, and
is called .\Iiv.agtiyatrr. This formula is as follows: OfJl IWlmahe.fiiY(l vidmClhe vtigviluchihtiva
(/hfmahi I ran pracodayill I. Sec SP I: 58. fn. 4 (= LingaP 2.27.265). See ilio
U,igaP 2.48.5. See also Kane II: 300-04 and Gonda 1975a: I-52 for its Vedic formula.
272 From Maraialro Deity
in the following sequence: flrsl he gives refuge to his self Ufva·
then purifies his sublle hody (xJ7k.,I'lnmle!Ja.(uddhi) and
his gross body through the mCl.llod of purifying nn elclncnt by
another (pamspara,fodhmwl'lipii then he re-
places his sc.lf into his heart from his dVlJda.(-iint(/A place where
it look refuge. and lastly he imbues his body with the mm1tras
(6) Purification of the pluce (sthiimt.<-/Illdhi) hy means of showing
several hand-gestures (mm/fii) such as tt7Jatmya" , chotikli-.
and mahii-nwdrii. and rccHing some mantrw:, This is also called
the aim of which is to remove obstacles from the
place and transform it into nectar (32-34ab),
(7) Inner worship (anlaryliga, autaryajww or Thisils
the mental worship consisting of the inner worship of Sadasiva,
menial sacrifice in his interior lire (.(i wig1'1 i) (antw"(lgnikt7rya.
antarhoma or havana) and lllcditation of lsvara (..mmiidhi). The
first .is done in his heart. the second in his navel and the third
in the middle of his forehead. known as ,1 dol (hindu) (34cd-36).
(8) PreparaHoll of the arghytl water for Siva (.(:iviirghyakarclI:ta) (37-
(9) Purification of the matcdals (dmvyaJuddlli) (39cd-4 Ja).
(10) Worshi.p of his s,clf (iilmapl(itl) (41 b-42).
(II) PuriJication of .the mantra,'! andlhe IhigC/. The fonner can be
realiz.ed by pronouncing them untill niillll. the seventh ktllt7 of the
The latter consists of removing used offerings
(nirmlilya), offering them to and bathing the U,iga and its
pedestal with water (43-46).
2. Process of Worship
(1) Worship of Ganesa. Kamala and the IIincl.Igc of his preceptor
(2) Worship of the s,cat of Siva. This crmsisis of flve scals: ananta-
sana, st'J?llul.HUUl, yogtisanll. padllul.\'lIua ami vimalli,\'(ma from
the bottom of the base sl.onc (47-56).
X4 This is Lhe plnc,c twelve finger high ahovc the llperlurc in the of one's hClld. It
is considcred to be the suprcme centre where Siva reigns. Sec SP I': 106, I'n. 6.
SS This is the ritual of reciting the a,\'lmmarJlm i,nlo the directiolls llround. Its reciullion
is accompanied wilh II hand-gesture. Ililracmllut!rii, Sec Sfl I: 22. n,4, Concerning the
manlra Lo be rekled. I-lirGSS 11,2.11 r1'.5,23J mcnHons. hllar hlll/vub SIlVor (;/11 iti dighwulha
iIi. See also PadnlaP 7.11.80-82ab.
!l6 See SP [I: plale 6] for the recitation of the /mlslJdalllflll1m.
Lhigu Worship as Prescribed by the SivapuriiIJa 273
(3) Meditation on the body of his knowledge (vidyiidehadhyana).
The adept in,.,talls Siva known as Sadasiva on the seat He gives
the body (ml1rti, vidylideha) with the appropriate mantras to Siva,
who is originally pure knowledge (57-61 a).
(4) Invocation of Siva (,{iv(lvahana).[* 1] He invokes Siva with hrn
(= "rdaya) I1wnfra and .{ivc7hanamudrii, installs (sthiipya) him
with stlulpanamudrli, approaches him with salWlidhiinamudrii,
confines (nimdhayet) him with removes ob-
stacles with astramalltra and encircles (the
place) wilh hrmnantra and namomudrii
(5) The rite of of Siva with his six limb-mantras (70cd-
(6) He offers water for washing feet (piidya) [*4] to both the lotus-
like feel of Siva, water for rinsing mouth (ticamana) [*5] to his
mouth, waleI' for respectful reception (arghya) [*3] on his head
along with flowers, darvii grass and unhusked grains
(7) Ablution [*6]. First he anoints (abhyafijana), rubs
(udvartmw) and cleanses (nirmiiljana) with oil of mustard, bar-
ley flour, etc. Then he bathes Siva with drops of arghya water
from the vessels and with par1ciimrta. After rubbing
=udvartana) with barley f1our, he bathes him with cold water
and fragrant water. Lastly he cleanses (vinlwjana =: unmiirjana
I Sal?1/TIi7rjana) him with pllfe cloth and gives the arghya water
(8) He offers scent (gnndha) [*8], flowers [*9], ornaments
(lihharW1a ;:; clothing (vastra) [*7], incense (dlu1pa)
1* 10] while ringing a bell (ghw),fii) and waving lights (iiriitrika /
nfriijana) [*13]. Last he offers water for rinsing his mouth (iica-
mana) (82cd-85ub).
(9) Worship of Siva's limbs for enjoyment (bhogtiligapiijii). Having
obtained the permission from Siva, he pulls out the Hmbs from
Siva's body and places them around him, each limb occupying
H7 Tile SP defines invocation nol i.n its literal meaning bUI as attracting Siva's full atten- .
lion to the worsl1i.pper: ,\'l/daral!1 ,\'wrlmukhilJh{ivo lIy (/l'iihamltn ihocyate /1 (SP I: 3.66cd).
N1! The ritual aels described in 4, 5 and 6 arc called the ten sacraments (j:wr1skiira):
(jvc7hcma, ,\"thc"ipCUlu, sm,nnidlu/'Ia, /limdhulla, akll(l!hana, stllu[huT/luclra (amr7fkarw,UI),
piir/ya, ,/camana, argh)'/1 and pll.ypadtiIlG. See SP I: 198, fn. 4. The sixth act, saudhamudrii
corresponds to in 5.
274 From Material to Deity
the respective petal of the imaginary lotus which i,s the
formed seat (padmasana) and opens at the bottom of the /biga.
The places which these occupy are caUed •pla.ces for
(bhogasthiina) and thesle are al!so called 'circles'
cause they surround Siva. These limbs are contrasted with 'the
limbs for absorption' (layiiltga). which signify hilS limbs remain-
ing in their original places of the body of Sadasiva (layasthiina)
(10) He offers to Sambhu and his attendants (parivara) incense (dhu·
pal [*10]. lamps (dipa) [*11 l. etc.• and offers food (naivedya)
[* J2], drinki.ng water (toya). water for rinsing his mouth (aca-
manryaka) [*5], some powder to wash his hands (karodvartana),
betel leaves (tambala) [* ]4], perfume to sc,ent his breath (mukha-
vasa) and a mirror (90cd-91).
(II) He repeats Siva's root-mal1tra (ma/amantra) a hundred and eight
times. The act of repeaHng itself is offered to Siva. Then its
are also repeated and offered to Si:va (92-1 00).
(12) He performs circumambulation Dnd prostrates
fore him with the eight parts of the body (pra1)amam
[*16] (101).
3. Annexed Worship
The above-mentioned worship is preceded by worship of the sun
(siiryapujii) (Section 2) and followed by worship of the fire (agni.
puja) (Section 4) and worship of (Section 5). The worship of
the sun and thefi.re s,eems to be borrowed from the Vedic ritua.ls. The
objects of the worship are, however. not Sjjrya or Agnil but Siva in a
form of Surya or Agni. This is the major distinction from the Vedic
119 The reason why the worship of the sun precedes the linga worship is thaI the sun
represents the divisible (.ra/wla) form while Siva himself represenls the indivisible (n;1kala)
Form. and. hence. il is very reasonable that first having worshipped the embodied god. then
one worships the god himselF: suryarlipa;.r tu iil/ueva ea I (leha.rtha'1l
pilrvam ariidhya pa.fclJd deva'71 yajed 1/ (the A/1,.(umal/tigamaquoted In SP I: 69),.
Brunner stales thai this worship WllS nOlalways recogniz.ed lUI obiligatory in daily rites in
this sect from the fact thaI many Alam.a lexls do nOI mention this -worship. It may have
been lately introduced in the litlgu worship which orialnll'!l)' did not "'eed ill. See SP I: 68,
Fn. I. This worship of the sun (.furya-upa..wtMna)clln be seen iill a proc,css of the rhe Ienown
as sCl'1ldhyii-uptlJOfjQ, or 'worship performed at the juncture (of da.y and night)'. Blnoo
[1989: 398-400] repons that one recites 8V 1.50.10: 1.50.1; 1.115.1: 7.65. I6 in this worship
performed 111 MilhiUi. See also Einoo 1993: 223·36, Kline U: 318, Vidyllrl,ava 1918. about
this Vedic worship of tbe sun. LitlgaP 2.22 also describes worship of the before the
worship of Siva.
l _

Linga Worship as Prescribed by the SivapuriilJ.a 275
The worship of the fire proceeds as follows. First an adept enters the
abode of fire (agniniketana I agnisadana I agnyagara) (4.1_2),90 per-
forms the sacramental rites (sa'rlskiira) to the (kulJfla) (3-7),
and invokes the goddess of Word (Va.gisvarl) and the god of Word
(8). After setting fire in the he unifies the fire of
stomach (audarya), the tire of bindu (bainda) and the ordinary fire
(bhautam). With the seed-mantra of fire (hru'1l), he puts1conscious-
ness of Fire' (agnicaitanya) into the fire. He imagines that the fire
is the seed of Siva and it is projected in the womb of Vagi"Svan by
Vagisvara (9-15). Then he p,erforms the sacramental rites beginning
with garbhildhlina to the newborn fire (16-26),91 to the offering ladle
(sruc) and the drawing ladle (sruva) (27-30ab), and to cl.arified but-
ter (lijya) (30cd-41ab). He pours the butter onto the face of the fire
(agner vaktrabhighlira) (4Icd-42), names that fire (niima.karalJ-a) as
Sivagni (43), dismisses (visarjana) Vagi§variand Vagisvara (44), in-
vokes Siva in the heart-lotus of the fire (45-46). puts a limited quant-
ity of materials into the fire along with an ,offering of a full ladle
(pur1)lihuti) and dismisses Siva staying in the fire (58-59).
Then follow the interior and exterior bali-rite (60). Then he transfers
all the merits obtained in the worship to Siva
(70cd-72ab), offers the
last arghya for dismissal (arghyarp paranmukham),93 begs his pardon
andconects all the mantras now on the bhogasthdnaand
absorbs them into the linga. (72cd-74ab).
The main purpose of worshipping is to extinguish the faults
caused by omission or excess during the worship of Siva. It is per-
formed by offering remnants of the substances offered to Siva.
90 011 big occasiMs. temples are furnished with a special room reserved for this
ship, while a half sized 'hut (ardha-mol)papa) where I permanent fire-pit is dug on the
ground. is used for the dan)' ritual. See Sill: 230" fn. 4.
91 AsnGS 3.9.3 [169.1-10) the sacramental rites for the newborn fire. JaylikhyaS
IS. 108·1Oab, 131-49111>, a text of paftcaratra. enumerates len sacramental rites to the fire:
garbhanyli,wa, pwruavana, vaktrakalpanli, simanta. vaktranirylisa. ni,f.krama,jlitaktirma. nli-
madheya, bhogo beginning with amt:0l'rtMana and ending In dara. and adhikiJra. GaruPaP
1.48.74cd mentions the sacraments from garbhiilihii/l.a to godtina. See also AgniP 48; BIuJ.
vi,f.vaP 1.136; DeviP 126.1Scd-19: Dev'CbhdgavataPI2.7.112-1Sab; 56.36-40.
92 On this occasion, he bhagavan pu,:,yaphalam' (4.71 al:l).
93 This is also called 'water for respectful dl!lmlssal' (visarjanarllhya). It is the last
arghya in response to the welcome arghya (darJanlirshya or svugatdrghya) which is offered
first. See SP I: 88, fn.2; 274, fn. 2.
94 On this occasion, he recites 'leltya.ro\,-yunl1aplirt:ul/i .fragvUepanam I ntr.
mlilyabhojanatrl lubhyatp prcuiatla17l tu .fiviijiiayall (5.7) SQrvam etal krlyakiJ"r1af1l maya
cQl;tfJa laviljiiaya J nyilniJdhikaf!'l krtaf!'l moM' paripurr:aal1l ladaglll tne /I (8),' See SP I:
276 From Mmeriallo Delty
A comparison between the ritual ot' the Sf and that of the BodilGSS.
reveals several conspicuous differene,es between these two texts. The first
is the mantra. In the BodhGSS. the Vedic mant"u are mainly used. On
the contrary, in the Sf. the special mantms are created with iii t.ypical forM
mulation: OIl'. a seed (blja)I' name in the dative case and terminal. All
the mantras used here have such a scheme. Then the malUra,r are divided
into three categories.
The first consists of the root-mamra (malamamra:)
or !ivamantra. namely, 'OIr1 namab sivdya'. In the form of prasada. this
mantra has haltl?l as the seed-mantra. The second consists of eleven
Sll111hildmantras which are composed of five brah,ual'11amras and the six
anga-mantras. The five brahmamantras are: Orr! h0'11 r,Uinamt"lrdhne
(= T!anamantra), hef!1 namaQ (; tatpurufa-
mantra), 0111 ltu,?"aghorahrdayiJya (= aghoramantra), On,1 hin,1
viimadevaguhydya (= w:7madevamanfra), and mll hal?1 sad'y;ojdta.
miirtaye (;;::: sadyoji1ta.I'l.antra). Their pl'Oper names are adopted
from TA 10.43-47 and modified in the Saivite way.96 The six limb-mantras
are: 0".1 hiil?l hrdayiiya 0"1 11;'11 lira.\'t! namaf,1. 0'71 hal'rr fikhayai
Olp hai'?1 kavacaya 0'?1 haU1?1 l1€trebhyo namalJ,. and Vip
halJ. astraya nama/;l.. The is sometimes replaced by pha! as
the terminal of the asrramantra. The third category ils made up of other
mantras such as iisana- Elnd marti-mantras. a group of kalamantra,'J', etc.
These mantras cannot be seen anywhere in the BodhGSS.
The next difference is that. a.lthough the BodhGSS and th,c SP shiue the
sixteen forms of service as the nucleus of worship, the latter gives much
attention to the purificat.ion rite ofthe pla.ce, the lbtga, tbe worshipper. the
materials, elc. In particular, the rit,es of and sakalikaral,la are
emphasized in the SP, because in this s,ect there is a principle that nobody
without becoming divinity himself can worship any god (Sivrbhiiya siva'll
yajet / ruUivas !ivam arcayet).97 The BodhGSS does not mention such a
The thilrd differenc,e is thai in the SP. the worship of Agni. Cao4a.
etc., is attached to the worship of Siva as an appendix. In the BodhGSS,
is l.hought to be the only rec,civcl' of the remnant oflhe offerings 10 8
U,iga (liliganirmiilya). The only person 10 louch them is Ihe onkiuting priesl who has to
remove them from the Iblga and gi ve thCI111I to the fierce ,od who Lilone is capable of
standing their impact. See Brunner 1998: 98, n, 36. Einoo [1989: 436.1 reports the worship
of CaJ:l<lI§v8.rlli at the end of MuhlidevapOjA. performed in MithUli 111 modern lhnes,
95 See SP I: xxx-xxxv.
96 See note 61.
97 See SP I: 130. fn. 3,
L _
Linga Worship as Prescribed by the Sivapural;l.a 277
the worship ends with the dismissal (visarjana), which is, on the contrary,
performed at the end of the worship of Agni in the SP. Particularly the
aim of worshipping CaQc;la is to remove the faults committed consciously
or unconsciously during the worship. So we may assume that the SP
excessively emphasizes purification and removal of the faults.
A very similar process of worship as that of the SP is found in Rau-
rava 3:130-165 (nityapujtividhi).. The PauraQic texts also describe the
same kind of worship as the SP. For instance, SkandaP des-
cribes a similar worship of Siva. The kind of worship described there
includes offering to the fire (tenaiva vahnau juhuyan mantrabhli-
vile II 1.1.7..53cd) and emphasizes the use of the mantras prescribed in
the Agama texts (llgamoktena mantr:eQa; iigamoktena vidhinii; mantrair ]talBo refers to C8QQ8,
though it does not clearly state that one should worship him pm- Garu(1aP 1.23J-29 also
mentions an abridged form of this worship.. It uses many seed-mantras
but no Vedic mantras.
This kind of similarity between the Saivite texts and the PauraQ.ic
ones has a.lready been indicated by Helene Brunner on the basis of the
suggestion given by Alexis Sanderson in SP IV: lix, fn. 81. The SP and
the AgniP give us the same process of Siva's worship. First SP 1.3.1
103 corresponds to AgniP 74.1-83, but the latter gives us a somewhat
abridged form. The Ag'llP sometimes omits the mantras of the SP, but
prayers to be recited in the end are fUlly listed in both texts. These are:
'yat kil?lcit karma devesa sada I tan me $lvapadaslhasya
Jarrlkara /I' (SP 1.3.97:= AgniP74.80cd-81 ab) and 4Jivo
diita sivo bhoktii ,fivaQ sarvam idat?1 jagat I sivo yajali sarvatra yaQ sivaQ
so 'ham eva tu II' (SP 13.98 := AgniP 74. 81cd-82ab). There are two
mantras which appear in the AgniP, but not in the SP. The tirstis recited as
invocation mantra '01?1 ha'?1 haw?" Jivaya namall (AgniP 74.55ab) and the
second nyasamantra consisting of the following: 'hawl1 sivilya namaQ' to
the heart (mula); 4
hiil11 hutr1 hflp hOITI' to the head (Jiras);'hra'?1' to
the tuft (Jikhti); 'hailrz' or the varmanmanfra and 'has' or the astramantra
to Siva attended by his followers (AgniP 74.74).
Next, SP 1.4.1-60 (concerning worship of fire) corresponds to AgniP
75.1-66, except the portion relating to the fire-offering of Lilavati. Both
of them are almost the same except the group of se'ed-mamras which ar,e
in the AgniP. SP 1.5.1-1 I (concerning worship of CaQc;la)
responds to AgniP 76.6-14. SP 1.6.] -3 (concerning worship of KapiJa)
278 From Material 10 Deity
corresponds to A.gniP 77.1 Hence,.it is evident that the SP and the
AgniPare clos,ely related although it is uncertain which is the original
text. If we consider thatlhe AgniP is a typical enc)'clopaedk PuraIJ8
raining the passages of Pancaratra SalJ1hiU\ (the Agn;P" Chapters 21-70),98
it might be safe to assume that the AgniP adopted this mode of w.orship
from the SP. The fact that both texts are not completely identical indicates
that the former .adopted the manuscripts other than the basic rn,anuscript
of the SP used by Helene Brunner-Lachaux. or some paddhati containing
the same mode of worshi!p as that of the SP. But she came to the contrary
conclusion that the compilation of the Agl1iP was cert.ainly older than the
multiplication of the manuscripts of the SP in south India, be,caus,e the lat-
ter do not have the trace of accildents such as omissions. addi.tions, etc.
As Brunne f mentions, the SP was compiled in the eleventh ,century
AD as is evident from its colophon. lOll On the other hand, H is difficult
to fix the date of th,e AgniP. Many scholars dale that it is c. AD 900,
but Gyani, allows aperi,od of gl'Owt.h from .AD 700 or 800 to AD 1000 or
1100.l'In If the section in question of the AgniP was late.r, it is
possible that the AgniP adopted this mode of worship (rom the SP.
4.3 Case C
As stated above, other PUr8t:l8S also describe the Jiltga worship. Some of
the texts seem to display the common aspect of this worship,. Here some
Tantric elements as seen in the SP and the Vedic mantras are combined
in an elaborate manner. The passage concerning the worship in LirigaP
).27 is its typical ex.ample. Furthermore. Ihis passage contains, the similar
elements as that of the SivaP stated above as A (2.11).
I. Preparatory Rites
(]) An adept, after taking a bath,I1I2 enters the place of worship
(pujiisthana) L27.2.ab).
(2) Rites of priilJiiyama and meditation on Siva SivaP 2.11.
(3) The rite of bhiitasuddhi (4 =SivaP 2.11..36).
!.1M See Rocher 1986: 135.
1)9 See SP JV: Ix.
lOll See SP I. xli·xlii.
101 See Rocher 1986:1'36-37.
102 According to trn,ecomment.al)' (rrkd). ill refers 10 the threefold balh: aRneyo-
and miintra-;mii,ul.. See LinguPI.2S.9.
Linga Worship as Prescribed by the Sivapuriit:la '279
(4) Performance of the rite of nydsa with the root-mantra. He imbues
all his body with five brahmamantras accompanied by Dip in due
order. This Jiviiya' is considered superior.
All the Vedas ("handas) stay in this mantra in a subtle form. So
the great brahman remains here in a subtle form (5-7).. (5 = 5ivaP
(5) Sprinkling the place of worship with scented sandal water and
consecration of the materials of worship with washing water
lana), sprinkling water etc. This ,time he recites 0'"
(6) Preparation of vessel. arghya vessel, padya vessel and
iicamanrya vessel. He pours water and puts different materials
into each vessel after observing (avalokya) them. The rite of
nyiisa is done to these vessels with the five-sy))abled mantra
(= tbe root-mantra), the rudragllyatrf or simply O'f!t. tbe essence
of Veda (9cd-17). (1 Ocd-14ab =SivaP 2.1 f.39A2.)
(7) Sprinkling the materials with water from the vessel.
with om or five Yajus beginlling with 'lSllna' (TA 10.47.1 )1113
(8) Worship of Nandin on the right side of the Lord as well as his
consort Suyasa
(9) Offering handfuls of ftowers to the five heads of the Lord with
five mantras in the sanctum sanctorum (antarbhavana). Worship
of Siva. Skanda. Vinayaka and goddesses. Purification of the
l.inga (lb;ga.stlddhi) (23ab::: SivaP 2.11.43cd.)
2. Worship of the Liltga
(l) Aft,er repeat.ing the mantra,104, he assumes the posture of lotus
seat (padmasana) with orrz (24-29ab := SivaP 2.. 11,44cd-49ab).
(2) Invocation [* 1], installation. establishment, confinement and wor-
ship of the supreme Lord. with the five brahmamantras. Offering
of padya [*4] and acamanrya [*5] (29cd-31 ::: SivaP 2.ll.49cd-
103 The commentary mentions that this I11Q.n."a begins with sOlvQ\lidya.lla.m' and
ends in 'rutiro nama ',I:tu'.
1114 According to the commentary, the matltra begins with '0'TI nidhol2apatoye' and ends
In'par"maliri8t1ya .
280 From Material to Deity
(3) Ablution. He bathes Rudra with scented sandal water, palka-
gavya empowered by 0I?1 in a vessel, and pwkiimrta. He sp.rinkles
him with holy water and wipes him off with a whit,e cloth. Then
he sprinkles him with water from a vessel made of gold. silver,
copper or clay. The vessel may be a lotus cup or a cup made of
paUUa leaves. In such a vessel are put various herbs such as kula,
apiimiirga,. camphor, jasmine, etc. The waler was empowered by
sadyojatamantra, etc. The mantras to be recited on this ablution
are; pavamana, viimTyakll (::;:;: viima.\'I7kUI beginning with 'asya va·
ma.tya palitasya I.164.]a.; AV 9.9. Ia), ;!lrfrudriidhyilya
(:::: iatarudriya), nrlarudra. Jrr.n1kta (lJgvedakhila.6.2), rajanfsak-
ta (:::: ratr;sukta, 10.127), C:Clmaka.\'t7kra (VSI8.1-27), Itotlira,
.atharvasiras, santi, bhlirut:lfla, jye{f!hasiiman (PB
21.2.3;. GobhGS 3.2.54), devavratwu'iman (SV 2,488ff.).,
sCikta ]0.90), tvaritarudra (TA rudra. ka/,;, ka-
pardin, silman beginning with Iii vo rajanam' (SV 1.169a), brha-
ccandra, (,{lV I.] 54), skanda. sata-re, five
brahmamal'ltras,. sutra (= mantra), and pral;zava.
Then ablution with water in order to efface any kind of fault ["'6]
(32-46ab). (32-36 = SivaP
(4) Offering of clothes (vastra) r
7], sa,cred tlue"d Uivopavfla), ilea-
manfya water, scent (gQ11dha) [.8], Dowers [
9], incense (dhupa)
[*10], lamps (dfpa) [If< 11]1, cooked rice [* 12], scented water, liea·
manfya water once again, a crown, an umbreUa and ornaments.
Last offering is perfume to scent the breath of Siva (mukhavlisa),
etc. (46cd-48).
(5) Worship of the imperishable Lord on the top· of the linga. He
shines like a crystal in the .fiv,Ilirlg.a (49-52ab =SivaP 2.)
(6) Obeisance with prayers (stotra). circumambulation rite, offering
of arghya water,. scattering flowers at his Fe,et, prostration to him.
Last he superimposes (iiropya) Siva to his atman (52cd-53). (53
:::: SivaP 2.11.72.)
3. Internal Worship (Abhyantal'iircana)
Meditation is done in the following sequence: in his heart-lotus, there
are three circles (bimba) of the fire (agneya), the sun (saura) and the
moon (amrta). Above the moon, there are three attributes
ya), and abov,e them
three litmQllS (litmatraya) .. Above them stands
Liliga Worship as Prescribed by the SivapUrii1)a ' 281
. the indivisible Lord now with his divisible form (sakdla)..
The half of his body is taken over by his consort (LiJigaP 1.28.1-2).
The process of this mode of worship in the LiJigaP is similar to that
in the SP, because the former emphasizes purification of the worshipper
himself. But there are two differences between the two texts: the first is
that the LiligaP uses the mantras of the four Vedas equally more than the
root-mantra and its whi.le the SP scarcely uses the Vedic
mantras and uses the root-malUra and its limb-mantras with greater fre-
quency; the second is that the LiflgaP not refer to the worship of fire,
whHe the SP considers that worship as indispensable.
5 'Conclusion
As mentioned above, we can find similar passages between the SP and the
AgniP, and between the SivaP and the LingaP. This means that there must·
have existed some typical mode of worship of a finga, which was common
to the PuraQic and Tantric literatures. Although there is a difference in the
usage of mantras, there must be a common structur,e in worshipping a
Furthermore the mode of worshipping an earthen liliga in the Vidyes.
vara Sa'11hitii of the SivaP appears to be compiled earlier than the system-
atic worship of a lbiga described in the Rudra SaJ11hiti1 of the same PuraQa.
The Satarudriya Iita.ny is preferred here marie to any other Vedic or Tanlric
'mantras as seen in Case A, Band C. If we focus on the school (siikhil) of
this litany, it is possibl:e to say that the Hta·ny in the SivaP belongs to MiJdh-
yaJrrdhla.viikhiJ of the Vlijasaneyi Sarrrhitli of the White Yajurveda, While
incorporating a slight difference of the mafltras. If so, we may also con-
'elude that the Vidye:rva'ra Salphitti containing this mode of would
have been compiled in the northern part of India according to Witzel's
Last, I would like to say that the worship of Siva does not always
mquire any physicallinga even in thePuraQas or the Saiva-tantrism. The
'SivaP (7.2.36,44cd-45ab) says as follows:
If one can not obtain any linga to be installed, one should \Vorship
venerable Siva in the place of Siva, in water, in fire, in the sun or· in
the air (vyomni).
282 From Material to Deity
This kind of descri.ptionappears in so many texts regardless of whether
. -
they eulogize Siva or or they belong to the PUralJRS or other esoteric
works; liDS that we can safelycondude that this is a pan-Indian religious
I(IS In the eulogy 0" Silva,SP 103 says: sa,nddh.i"d
japclil;& I nljamQrtau Bumr mOrtall pu.wla.ke saWe 'ncd' /I ( 102) drrlJdau .rtha':l,me IIdpi linge
'py atyamamlmamam I yajana.'7l bahudhtl.{amblwr yalhtJdmam utilih"am /I (103). Mrs-
endm 3.57cd-58ab says: .'ilryen,I,mM"fJaie vyomll; ,urall tUtpiJdl4ko.tu co /I (57cd) j"le
lejasi mart/hn; .we .,rraddhlJllan I
On the other hand. see HaZII'8 1958: 230. fn. 284 on the eulolY of Vil''''u, Hazrs q:U01CS
Nara.ti".haP 62.S-6. See also Kal1e .II: 715. fl1. 1706. ,
Furthermore the PadmaP says: hrrJi J'uryt jaIl vlllha 'pi CQ J.rama-
bhyarcya harilfl yan/I na'rllollacllla;\rt;loval11 padalll 1/ (3.31.115), ',,,,au va
surye 'p.r" IIrd/'p' CD I The Vi;rl;luDhP says: arc:lIhhllve lalM \ledyd'7! sIna/e
lalhiJ I naclrtrn 'Ina kama/e ke.fav:a". pfijaye" /I (2.90.9). The Brahma·
vailiar/uP says: ttJlagrtJme manII" pratimlJylJ'7ljale .rthale I va gurau v'pre
praia.flam arcana'7! II (L26.80) .furvefu .tastlJ pQjd t'" JlJlagrllme ca lalJraaa I (8Iab),
The A/vGP! says: tOn apsu "dgl'lau vlJ sQrye vlJ svuh"laye lIa 1Ii1 pralimllSu va
)'ajet ,.. (2.10 =p.. 159). The s.a)'s: opav Qgnau hrduye .rilrye ,rthaf;l,me prut/milsu
ca I samY
8 arcana", munibhib s1IIr1am /I (3.150). The ""nOS says:
.rlhut;lf/lle yaPSU hrr/idrpte ca pfivake Iturlla/va pra/jmllyf1". vlJ har'mlJvallya piljayet I
hrdayabhyanlarepo.dmalfl mancua dn.tayed hudnab /I (2.4.10 ... p. 71). See Pac!oluI198;6:
Note: Cross references in thi.s book are indicated by the contributer's name
followed by the chapter number i.n bracket, with pas,e number or s'ection
number, e.g. Einoo[l] (po 13) or Mori [6] 2.3.
ABORt : Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute fPoona)
ALS : The Adyar Library Series (Adyar)
Ass : Sanskrit Series (Poona)
BEFEO: Bulletin de l'Eeole Franfatse (Paris)
BI : Bibliotheca Indica (Calcutta)
DRT .: Disputationes Trajectinae I The Ha.gue)
GOS : Gaekwad's Oriental Series (Barodil) .
HOS : Harvard Oriental Series (Cambridge, Mas.s.. )
III : Journal (The Hagu.e I Dortrecht)
lA : Journal Asiatique (Paris)
JAOS : Journal o/the American Oriental Society (Baltimore)
JJASAS : Journal of the Japanese Association for South Asian Studies
: The Kashi Sanskrit Series (Benares)
: The Kashmir Series of Texts apd (Srinagar)
: Publications de I'Institut d'Indologie(Pondichery)
: The Sacred Books of the East (Oxford)
: Studien lour Indologie und Iranistik (Reinbck)
: Trivandrum Sanskrit Series (Trivandrum)
: Wiener ZeitschriftfUrdie Kunde SUdasiens (Wien)
: Zeitschrift der Deutschen MorgenUindisc.he.n GeseUschaft
AB: Das Aitareya Briihmar;ta, mit AuszUgen aUI dem Commentare von
284 From Milterial to Deily
und anderen Bl!ilagell, edited by Th. Aufrccht (Bonn:
Adolph Marcus, ]879),
Aciiryakr;ytisamuccaya: Kriyii.\'al1Utccaya, edited by Lokesh Chandra,
Vol. 237 of Series (New Delhi: InlerlHlIiollal Academy
of Indian Culture, 1977).
AdB: 'Adbhuta in $B 5. S(!e also Weber ]1859,
AgnGS: Agnive.{yagrhyasiitra, edited by L.A. R.avi no. CXLIV",.
. in TSS (Triva.ndrum: University of Travancore, 19.40).
AgniP: The (Delhi: Nag Publishers. 1.985).
AhirS: Ahirbudhnya-sa'?1hitli of the Pliikariitragama, edited by M.D.
Ramanujacharya and revilsed by Vi Krishnamacharya, Vol. 4 of
ALS, 2nd revd. cdn. 1966 (Madras: The Adyar Library and
Research Centre, 19] 6).
Ajita: Ajitligama, edited by N.R. Bhatt, no. 24 jln PtFI (Pondkhery:·
Institut Fraiwais d'lndologie.,.1964).
ApDhS: The Apastambadharma,rn7tra, with the Ujjvalti commenwry olSrr
Har-adatta MiSra. and 'lOre." by Srr A. tmd PalUlit A. \
Riimanlitha Sastrf. edited with Hindi translallioll, exphmatory notes. .
critical introduction & index by Chandra PalJQeya, no. 93 in
KSS (Benares, 1932). t'" ,
Apasta.mba',y aphorism.'! on the sacred law of the Hindus, edited .
in the original Sanskrit, with critical not.es. vari,ant reading
Hiral)yakdi-DharmasLUras, an aliphahetical index of s.i:itras, and'
together with extracts from Haradatta'scbmmentary,
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