Lecture 15A.

1

Lecture 15A.1

Offshore Structures: General Introduction
OBJECTIVE/SCOPE To identify the basic vocabulary, to introduce the major concepts for offshore platform structures, and to explain where the basic structural requirements for design are generated. PREREQUISITES None. SUMMARY The lecture starts with a presentation of the importance of offshore hydro-carbon exploitation, the basic steps in the development process (from seismic exploration to platform removal) and the introduction of the major structural concepts (jacket-based, GBS-based, TLP, floating). The major codes are identified. For the fixed platform concepts (jacket and GBS), the different execution phases are briefly explained: design, fabrication and installation. Special attention is given to some principles of topside design. A basic introduction to cost aspects is presented. Finally terms are introduced through a glossary.

Condition Conventional Average Middle East Non-Opec Offshore North Sea Deepwater

CAPEX $/B/D

OPEX $/B

4000 - 8000 500 - 3000 3000 - 12000

5 1 8

10000 - 25000 15000 - 35000

5 - 10 10 - 15

World oil production in 1988 was 63 million barrel/day. These figures clearly indicate the challenge for the offshore designer: a growing contribution is required from offshore exploitation, a very capital intensive activity. Figure 1 shows the distribution of the oil and gas fields in the North Sea, a major contribution to the world offshore hydrocarbons. It also indicates the onshore fields in England, the Netherlands and Germany.

1. INTRODUCTION Offshore platforms are constructed to produce the hydrocarbons oil and gas. The contribution of offshore oil production in the year 1988 to the world energy consumption was 9% and is estimated to be 24% in 2000. The investment (CAPEX) required at present to produce one barrel of oil per day ($/B/D) and the production costs (OPEX) per barrel are depicted in the table below.

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Lecture 15A.1

Lecture 15A.1

2. OFFSHORE PLATFORMS 2.1 Introduction of Basic Types The overwhelming majority of platforms are piled-jacket with deck structures, all built in steel (see Slides 1 and 2).

Slide 1: Jacket based platform - Southern sector North Sea

Slide 2: Jacket based platform - Northern sector North Sea

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Lecture 15A.1

Lecture 15A.1

A second major type is the gravity concrete structure (see Figure 2), which is employed in the North Sea in the Norwegian and British sectors.

2.3 Construction The environment as well as financial aspects require that a high degree of prefabrication must be performed onshore. It is necessary to design to limit offshore work to a minimum. The overall cost of a man-hour offshore is approximately five times that of an onshore man-hour. The cost of construction equipment required to handle loads, and the cost for logistics are also a magnitude higher offshore. These factors combined with the size and weight of the items, require that a designer must carefully consider all construction activities between shop fabrication and offshore installation. 2.4 Codes Structural design has to comply with specific offshore structural codes. The worldwide leading structural code is the API-RP2A [1]. The recently issued Lloyds rules [2] and the DnV rules [3] are also important. Specific government requirements have to be complied with, e.g. in the rules of Department of Energy (DoE), Norwegian Petroleum Direktorate (NPD). For the detail design of the topside structure the AISC-code [4] is frequently used, and the AWS-code [5] is used for welding. In the UK the Piper alpha diaster has led to a completely new approach to regulation offshore. The responsibility for regulatory control has been moved to the Health and Safety Executive

A third type is the floating production unit. 2.2 Environment

(HSE) and the operator has to produce a formal safety assessment (TSA) himself instead of complying with detailed regulations. 2.5 Certification and Warranty Survey

The offshore environment can be characterized by: Government authorities require that recognized bodies appraise the aspects of structural • • • • • • water depth at location soil, at seabottom and in-depth wind speed, air temperature waves, tide and storm surge, current ice (fixed, floes, icebergs) earthquakes (if necessary) The major certification bodies are: • • • • • Det norske Veritas (DnV) Lloyds Register of Shipping (LRS) American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) Bureau Veritas (BV) Germanischer Lloyd (GL) integrity and issue a certificate to that purpose.

The topside structure also must be kept clear of the wave crest. The clearance (airgap) usually is taken at approximately 1,50 m, but should be increased if reservoir depletion will create significant subsidence.

Their requirements are available to the designer [2, 3, 6, 7, 8].

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The results are studied and the economics and risks of different development plans are evaluated. taking 2 . JACKETS AND PILE FOUNDATION First the jacket is installed. tankers. Slide 3 shows a jack-up drilling unit with a cantilever rig. etc. 3. The wells are then drilled by a jack-up drilling unit standing close by with a cantilever rig extending over the jacket. allowing production to start soon after deck installation. Consequently production starts between one and two years after platform installation. For further wells. Factors involved in the evaluation may include number of wells required. the jack-up drilling unit will be called once again and will reach over the well area of the production deck. The wells are drilled from a drilling rig on the permanent platform (see Slide 2).3 months/well providing the off loading system (pipelines. keeping it stable above the waves. prior to production: • • • • engineering and design fabrication and installation of the production facility drilling of production wells.Lecture 15A. the tower-like braced tubular structures.120 m. generally perform two functions: • • They provide the substructure for the production facility (topside). and pipeline or tanker off-loading. linked by a bridge to the production platform (see Slide 1). As soon as exploitation is decided and approved. The drilling and construction interaction is described below for two typical fixed platform concepts.1 Insurance companies covering transport and installation require the structures to be reviewed by warranty surveyors before acceptance.1 Introduction The different requirements of an offshore platform and the typical phases of an offshore development are summarized in [9]. In this case the platform has to be installed exactly above the pre-drilled wells. for deeper water floating rigs are used.1 Lecture 15A. The warranty surveyors apply standards.). OFFSHORE DEVELOPMENT OF AN OIL/GAS FIELD 3. 3. number of such facilities. there are four main technical activities. on a confidential basis. fixed or floated production facilities. Drilling starts after the platform is built and completely installed. After several initial phases which include seismic field surveying.1 Introduction Jackets. They support laterally and protect the 26-30 inch well conductors and the pipeline riser.3 Jacket and Gravity Based Platform for Deep Water Page 7 of 32 Page 8 of 32 . Slide 3 : Cantilevered drilling rig: Self-elevating (jack-up) exploration drilling platform. Design and construction of the topside are progressed parallel to the drilling. Jack-up drilling rigs are used for this purpose for water depths up to 100 .2 Jacket Based Platform for Shallow Water 4. In recent years pre-drilled wells have been used to allow an earlier start of the production. one or more exploration wells are drilled. if available. As an alternative to this concept the wells are often accommodated in a separate wellhead platform. 3.) 4. The installation methods for the jacket and the piles have a profound impact on the design. (In this instance it is engaged in exploratory drilling and is therefore working in isolation.

Typically approximately 5% of the jacket weight is applied as anodes.1 Lecture 15A. In contrast inclined piles enlarge the foundation at the bottom. 5. thus providing a stiffer structure. This arrangement results in reduced structural weight and easier pile driving. There are basically three types of pile/jacket arrangement (see Figure 3): 4. with diameters up to 2m. oil and non-transportable components in the raw product. diameter and penetration of the piles depend on the environmental loads and the soil conditions at the location. The piles are driven approximately 40 .2.1 Concepts There are four structural concepts in practice. Pile-through-leg concept. where the pile is installed in the corner legs of the jacket.1 Introduction The major functions on the deck of an offshore platform are: • • • well control support for well work-over equipment separation of gas. They result from the lifting capacity of crane vessels and the load-out capacity at the yards: • • • • the single integrated deck (up to approx 100 MN) the split deck in two four-leg units the integrated deck with living quarter module the modularized topside consisting of module support frame (MSF) carrying a series of modules. TOPSIDES 5. Lateral load resistance of the pile is required for restraint of the horizontal forces. There are basically two structural types of topside.80 m.Lecture 15A. A sacrificial anode (approximate 3 kN each) consists of a zinc/aluminium bar cast about a steel tube and welded on to the structures. Skirt piles through pile sleeves at the jacket-base. Page 9 of 32 Page 10 of 32 . the integrated and modularized topside which are positioned either on a jacket or on a concrete gravity substructure.2 Jacket-based Topsides 5. water. and in some cases 120 m deep into the seabed. arrangement.4 Corrosion Protection The most usual form of corrosion protection of the bare underwater part of the jacket as well as the upper part of the piles in soil is by cathodic protection using sacrificial anodes. These forces lead to significant bending of the pile near to the seabed. The steelwork in the splash zone is usually protected by a sacrificial wall thickness of 12 mm to the members. Skirt piles can be grouped in clusters around each of the jacket legs.1 4. all other guides are deleted.2 Pile Foundation The jacket foundation is provided by open-ended tubular steel piles. e. parafines/waxes and sand • • • support for pumps/compressors required to transport the product ashore power generation accommodation for operating and maintenance staff. where the pile is installed in guides attached to the jacket leg.3 Pile Bearing Resistance Axial load resistance is required for bearing as well as for tension.g. 5. Number. 4. The pile accumulates both skin friction as well as end bearing resistance. Vertical skirt piles are directly installed in the pile sleeve at the jacket base.

down to the top of the piles (situated at approximately +4 m to +6 m L. (Low Astronomic Tide). Page 11 of 32 Page 12 of 32 .2.3 Structural Design for Modularized Jacket-based Topsides A major modularized topside weighs 200 to 400 MN. In this case the MSF is a heavy tubular structure (Figure 4). the support structure consists of trusses or portal frames with deletion of diagonals.2.A.T. The moderate vertical load and shear per column allows the topside to be supported by vertical columns (deck legs) only. 5.Lecture 15A. Slide 4 : Integrated topside during load out 5.2 Structural Design for Integrated Topsides For the smaller decks. with lateral bracing down to the top of jacket. up to approximately 100 MN weight.1 Slide 4 shows an integrated deck (though excluding the living quarters and helideck) being moved from its assembly building.1 Lecture 15A.

A documented construction strategy should be available during all phases of the design and the actual design development should be monitored against the construction strategy. 7. The floors are steel plate (6. thus eliminating fatigue in the deck [10]. stiffened plate walls (so called stressed skin or deck house type). The jacket is loaded-out and seafastened aboard a barge. This requirement can interfere seriously with truss arrangements. heavy base frame (with wind bracings in the walls). 3. In living quarter modules (5-25 MN) all sleeping rooms require windows and several doors must be provided in the outer walls.2 Construction of Jackets and Topsides 7. EQUIPMENT AND LIVING QUARTER MODULES Equipment modules (20-75 MN) have the form of rectangular boxes with one or two intermediate floors. offshore installation. • • • conventional trusses in the walls.1 Lift Installed Jackets The jacket is built in the vertical (smaller jackets) or horizontal position (bigger jackets) on a quay of a fabrication site.15 m (see Figure 5). This connection introduces wave-induced fatigue in the deck structure. A recent development.1 Lecture 15A. 6. At the offshore location the barge is moored alongside an offshore crane vessel. is to provide a flexible connection between the deck and concrete column. commissioning.1 5. 8 or 10 mm thick) for roof and lower floor. weight. sea transport. 8. The substructure of the deck is rigidly connected to the concrete column and acts as a beam supporting the deck modules. 5. Construction is illustrated below by four examples. CONSTRUCTION 7. 6. Floors are flat or stiffened plate. Three types of structural concepts. 2.Lecture 15A.2. Page 13 of 32 Page 14 of 32 .1 Introduction The design of offshore structures has to consider various requirements of construction relating to: 1. 7. foreseen for the Norwegian Troll platform. load-out. can be distinguished: The backbone of the structure is a system of heavy box-girders with a height of approximately 10 m and a width of approximately 12 . and grating for intermediate floors. 7. 4. fabrication. hook-up.3 Structural Design for Modularized Gravity-based Topsides The topsides to be supported by a gravity-based substructure (see Figure 2) are in a weight range of 200 MN up to 500 MN. module installation. all avoiding interior columns.

It immerses deeply into the water and assumes a floating position afterwards (see Figure 6). the piles are installed into the sleeves and. Slide 5 : Jacket being loaded onto barge by skidding At the offshore location the jacket is slid off the barge. upended from the horizontal. Fixing the piles to the jacket completes the installation.Lecture 15A. Page 15 of 32 Page 16 of 32 . To reduce forces and moments in the jacket. Two parallel heavy vertical trusses in the jacket structure are required. and carefully set down onto the seabed. the jacket is put on skids sliding on a straight track of steel beams.1 The jacket is lifted off the barge. 7. and pulled onto the barge (Slide 5). For load-out to the transport barge. driven into the seabed.1 Lecture 15A. rocker arms are attached to the stern of the barge.2 Launch Installed Jackets The jacket is built in horizontal position.2. After setting down the jacket. capable of taking the support reactions during launching.

3 Topsides for a Gravity-Based Structure (GBS) The topside is assembled above the sea on a temporary support near a yard. Page 17 of 32 Page 18 of 32 . Slide 6 : Installation of 60MN K12-BP topside by floating crane For the modularized topside. Table 1 (page 16) lists some of the major offshore crane vessels. Figure 7 provides information on a typical big. The barge is positioned between the columns and the GBS is then deballasted to mate with and to take over the deck from the barge. a Norwegian fjord. It is then taken by a barge of such dimensions as to fit between the columns of the temporary support and between the columns of the GBS.Lecture 15A.g.1 Lecture 15A. immediately followed by the modules. i. Weather windows. the topside may be installed in one lift.1 The next phase is to upright the jacket by means of controlled flooding of the buoyancy tanks and then set down onto the seabed. The GBS is brought in a deep floating condition in a sheltered site.4 Jacket Topsides For topsides up to approximately 120 MN. 7.e. 7.1 Crane Vessel Lifting of heavy loads offshore requires use of specialized crane vessels. e. Self-upending jackets obtain a vertical position after the launch on their own. Piling and pile/jacket fixing completes the installation. first the MSF will be installed. 7.2. The floating GBS with deck is then towed to the offshore site and set down onto the seabed. Slide 6 shows a 60 MN topside being installed by floating cranes. 7.2. periods of suitable weather conditions.3. are required for these operations. dual crane vessel.3 Offshore Lifting Lifting of heavy loads from barges (Slide 6) is one of the very important and spectacular construction activities requiring a focus on the problem when concepts are developed.

The heaviest sling available now has a diameter of approximately 350 mm. Rated lifting capacity in metric tonnes. Slings and Shackles For lifting. and a safe working load (SWL) of 16 MN.c.1 Lecture 15A.Lecture 15A. 3.1 7. Shackles are available up to 10 MN SWL to connect the padeyes installed at the module's columns. So when the sling load exceeds 10 MN. (see Figure 8). connecting more than one shackle to the same column is not very attractive. M7000 Semisub Semisub Rev Rev Rev. Heerema Odin Operator Name Thor Table 1 Major Offshore Crane Vessels Mode Monohull Type Fix Rev Monohull Fix Rev Hermod Semisub Fix Rev Balder Semisub Fix Rev DB50 Monohull Fix Rev DB100 Semisub Fix Rev DB101 Semisub Fix Rev DB102 Micoperi ETPM Notes: 1. 1. steel wire ropes in a four-sling arrangement are used which directly rest in the fourpoint hook of the crane vessel. 2. When the crane vessels are provided with two cranes. Rev = Load capability with fully revolving crane.2 Sling-arrangement. Due to the space required. Fix = Load capability with crane fixed. these cranes are situated at the vessels stern or bow at approximately 60 m distance c. padears become an option. Lifting capacity (Tonnes) 2720 1820 2720 2450 4536 + 3628 = 8164 3630 + 2720 = 6350 3630 + 2720 = 6350 3000 + 2000 = 5000 4000 3800 1820 1450 3360 2450 6000 + 6000 = 12000 7000 + 7000 = 14000 1600 McDermott DLB1601 Monohull Page 19 of 32 Page 20 of 32 . a breaking load of approximately 48 MN.3.t.

4 Sea Transport and Sea Fastening Transportation is performed aboard a flat-top barge or.Lecture 15A. Each skid is provided with a hydraulic jack to control the reaction.5.5.5 Load-out 7. 7.5.1 Lecture 15A. Page 21 of 32 Page 22 of 32 . • • • skidding platform trailers shearlegs. if possible. The system consists of a series of steel beams.2 Skidding Skidding is a method feasible for items of any weight.3 Platform Trailers Specialized trailer units (see Figure 10) can be combined to act as one unit for loads up to 60 . on the deck of the crane vessel. The wheels are individually suspended and integrated jacks allow adjustment up to 300 mm. 7. The sea fastening concept is determined by the positions of the framing in the module as well as of the "hard points" in the barge. on which a group of skids with each approximately 6 MN load capacity is arranged. 7.1 Introduction For load-out three basic methods are applied: The module requires fixing to the barge (see Figure 9) to withstand barge motions in rough seas.75 MN. acting as track.1 7.

e. Provision for removal should be considered in the design phase. flare-stacks. The units can drive in all directions and negotiate curves. thus allowing deck and deckleg to be installed in one lift offshore. crane-pedestals. slender jacket members.12 MN) can be loaded out on the decklegs pre-positioned on the barge. e.1 7. 7.2 In-place Phase Three types of analysis are performed: • • • • Survival state.g. with one member deleted. Smaller decks (up to 10 . Assessments at damaged structures. Fatigue assessment.4 Shearlegs Load-out by shearlegs is attractive for small jackets built on the quay. 8. Operational state. All these analyses are performed on the complete and intact structure. conductors.6 Platform Removal In recent years platform removal has become common. The mode of removal depends strongly on the regulations of the local authorities. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 8. compressor foundations. under full operation.5. under wave/current/wind attack with 50 or 100 years recurrence period. Many elements can exhibit local dynamic behaviour.g. under wave/current/wind attack with 1 or 5 years recurrence period. Dynamic analysis is performed for the system behaviour under wave-attack if the natural period exceeds 3 seconds.3 Construction Phase The major phases of construction when structural integrity may be endangered are: • • Load-out Sea transport Page 23 of 32 Page 24 of 32 . The load capacity over the projected ground area varies from approximately 55 to 85 kN/sq. Accidental.1 Lecture 15A. 8. 8. and assessments of collision situations are occasionally performed.Lecture 15A.1 Introduction The majority of structural analyses are based on the linear theory of elasticity for total system behaviour.m.

tied to the seabed by vertical prestressed tethers.1 Lecture 15A.900 m deep water. It consists of a semi-submersible pontoon.Lecture 15A. An option for deeper locations is to use subsea wells with flowlines to a nearby (approximately maximum 10 km) fixed platform at a smaller water depth. In the Gulf of Mexico and offshore California several fixed platforms in water depths of 250 - Cost estimates are usually prepared in a deterministic approach. avoiding jacket attachments dangerous to divers. royalties.2 Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) The major elements in the CAPEX for an offshore platform are: • • • • • project management and design material and equipment procurement fabrication transport and installation hook-up and commissioning. depth. one third on the drilling of wells and one third on the pipelines. The first TLP was Hutton in the North Sea and recently TLP-Jolliet was installed at a 530 m deep location in the Gulf of Mexico. The CAPEX of an installed offshore platform topside amounts to approximately 20 ECU/kg. Recently cost-estimating using a probabilistic approach has been developed and adopted in major offshore projects. basic provisions for scaffolding. operational expenditure (OPEX).e. 350 m are in operation (Cerveza. The tension leg platform (TLP) seems to be the most promising deepwater production unit (Figure 11). Fixed platforms have recently been installed in water of 410 m. "Bullwinkle" developed by Shell Oil for a Gulf of Mexico location. The jacket weighed nearly 500 MN. selection of material. The amount to be spent on IMR over the project life can add up to approximately half the original investment. COST ASPECTS 9.1 • • Upending of jackets Lifting. accessibility. Exxon has a guyed tower platform (Lena) in operation in 300 m deep water. constructor of offshore platforms. etc. IMR is the area in which the structural engineer makes a contribution by effort in design. 10. The development of the Troll field situated in approximately 305 m deep water is planned for 1993. 9. 9. Page 25 of 32 Page 26 of 32 . Subsea wells are now feasible for 300 . In a typical offshore field development. Norwegian Snorre and Heidrun fields have been developed with TLPs as well. Cognac). Alternatively subsea wells may be used with flexible risers to a floating production unit. tax. i.1 Introduction The economic feasibility of an offshore project depends on many aspects: capital expenditure (CAPEX). the designer and 9. one third of the CAPEX is spent on the platform. The deepest wells have been developed off Brasil in moderate weather conditions. maintenance and repair (IMR). improved corrosion protection.3 Operational Expenditure (OPEX) In the North Sea approximately 20 percent of OPEX are required for offshore inspection. DEEP WATER DEVELOPMENTS Deep water introduces a wide range of extra difficulties for the operator. The maximum depth of water at platform sites in the North Sea is approximately 220 m at present.

transport. welded to the main structure. receiving the pin of the shackle. Gravity based structure. SHACKLES Connecting element (bow + pin) between slings and padeyes.1 Lecture 15A. TLP. After drilling it protects the well casing. SPREADER Tubular frame. the different execution phases are briefly explained: design. stable through its weight. standing in the water and pile founded.S. SUMPS Vertical pipes from topside down to 5-10 m below water level for intake or discharge. PADEARS (TRUNNIONS) Thick-walled tubular stubs. For the fixed platform concepts (jacket and GBS). used in lifting operation. 11. for offshore lifting. Finally terms are introduced within a glossary. PADEYES Thick-walled plate with hole. after installation offshore. directly receiving slings and transversely welded to the main structure. to guide conductors prior to jacket installation. the basic steps in the development process (from seismic exploration to platform removal) and the introduction of the major structural concepts (jacket-based. G. JACKET Tubular sub-structure under a topside. floating). HOOK-UP Connecting components or systems. • • The major codes are identified. sitting flatly on the sea bottom. Page 27 of 32 Page 28 of 32 . GBS-based. Special attention is given to the principles of topside design. • • A basic introduction to cost aspects is presented. GLOSSARY OF TERMS AIR GAP Clearance between the top of maximum wave and underside of the topside. SUBSEA TEMPLATE Structure at seabottom. CAISSONS See SUMPS CONDUCTORS The tubular protecting and guiding the drill string from the topside down to 40 to 100m under the sea bottom. fabrication and installation. LOAD-OUT The operation of bringing the object (module.B. deck) from the quay onto the transportation barge. SLINGS Cables with spliced eyed at both ends. PIPELINE RISER The piping section which rises from the sea bed to topside level. CONCLUDING SUMMARY SEA-FASTENING The structure to keep the object rigidly connected to the barge during • The lecture starts with the presentation of the importance of offshore hydro-carbon exploitation. the upper end resting in the crane hook.Lecture 15A.1 12. jacket.

Lloyds Register of Shipping.II pp. with all auxiliaries. Regulations of a major certifying authority. mainly for the British offshore sector. BS 6235: Code of practice for fixed offshore structures. defined on basis of operational limits for the offshore marine operation. fabrication and erection of structural steel for buildings. Widely used structural code for topsides. American Welding Society 1990. prior to set down on the sea bottom. Petex Publ.Lecture 15A. [7] ABS: Rules for building and classing offshore installations. positioned above the waves. The structural offshore code. [3] DnV: Rules for the classification of fixed offshore installations. 1985. ADDITIONAL READING 1. WEATHER WINDOW Det norske Veritas June 1985. WELLHEAD AREA Area in topside where the wellheads are positioned including the valves mounted on its top.1-90: Structural Welding Code . Austin U. Det Norske Veritas 1989. Paris 1975. Department of Energy 1990. 14. American Petroleum Institute 18th ed. governs the majority of platforms.Steel. Regulations of a major certifying authority. U.K. [8] BV: Rules and regulations for the construction and classification of offshore platforms. The structural offshore welding code. London (UK) 1988.A 2nd ed. Regulations of a major certifying authority. the compact offshore process plant. A period of calm weather. American Bureau of Shipping 1983. ASME/OMAE-conference The Hague 1989 Vol. Regulations of a major certifying authority.1 TOPSIDE Topside. Important code. Presents interesting new concept in GBS design. American Institute of Steel Construction 1989. DoE Offshore installations: Guidance on design and construction. [2] LRS Code for offshore platforms.S. designing and constructing fixed offshore platforms. 753-760. British Standards Institution 1982. Important set of rules. Fundamental information about offshore oil and gas operations. [5] AWS D1. 13. 1989.1 Lecture 15A. [9] ANON: A primer of offshore operations. [6] DnV/Marine Operations: Standard for insurance warranty surveys in marine operations. 2. Part 1 Structures. [4] AISC: Specification for the design. UP ENDING Bringing the jacket in vertical position. [10] AGJ Berkelder et al: Flexible deck joints. Page 29 of 32 Page 30 of 32 . Bureau Veritas. REFERENCES [1] API-RP2A: Recommended practice for planning.

Graff: Introduction to offshore structures. Gulf Publishing Company. W. 9.1 Governmental regulations for British offshore sector only.J. Houston 1981. Important theoretical and practical book.I. Fundamental publication on structural behaviour. D. UEG Offshore Research Publ. U. Delft University Press 1981. Johnston: Field development options. 1987. Good presentation on offshore CAPEX assessment. Good presentation on development options. 7.142.Strength and Safety for Structural design. Doody et al: Important considerations for successful fabrication of offshore structures.R. Oil & Gas Journal. 3. 11. Good general introduction to offshore structures. 8. UEG: Design of tubular joints (3 volumes).33 1985.1 Lecture 15A. Edition Technip.Lecture 15A. pp 132 . J. Springer Verlag. 5. ARSEM: Design guides for offshore structures welded tubular joints. New York 1986. platforms. OTC paper 5348. D. Theoretical publication on tubular design including practical design formulae. Gerwick: Construction of offshore structures. Claum et al: Offshore Structures: Vol 1: Conceptual Design and Hydrimechanics. Houston 1986. 10. Wardenier: Hollow section joints. B. John Wiley & Sons. pp 531-539. Up to date presentation of offshore design and construction. T. G.A. 6. London 1992.C. May 5 1986. Page 31 of 32 Page 32 of 32 . pp 79-93. Valuable paper on fabrication aspects. Paris (France). Houston 1986. Vol 2 . I. Important theoretical and practical book. Karsan et al: An economic study on parameters influencing the cost of fixed 4. OTC paper 5301.

wave.installation loads. From the design wind velocity V(m/s). 5. tides. are determined in special studies on the basis of available data. temperature.2 Lecture 15A. To present briefly the loads generated by environmental factors. typically 10m above mean water level. 4. but in offshore engineering they are treated as environmental loads. 2.. current. Environmental loads including earthquakes. the mean recurrence interval for the corresponding design event must be 100 years. and the loads arising in the various stages of construction and installation. It is approximately equal to 1/13 for gusts and 1/8 for sustained winds in the open ocean.3. required data. whilst the other loadings are treated in Lecture 15A.Lecture 15A. etc. the distance from land and the averaging time interval. Construction . especially waves. marine growth and tide generated loads.(1) where: 1. sea bed movement. can be found in the regulations and codes of practice listed in [1] . the British Standards Institution and the British Department of Energy. PREREQUISITES A basic knowledge of structural analysis for static and dynamic loadings.1 Wind Loads Wind loads act on the portion of a platform above the water level. An important parameter pertaining to wind data is the time interval over which wind speeds are averaged. For averaging intervals less than one minute. waves. 3. current. INTRODUCTION The loads for which an offshore structure must be designed can be classified into the following categories: In civil engineering. Operating (live) loads. waves and earthquake are discussed in more detail together with their idealizations for the various types of analyses. temperature. Det Norske Veritas. as well as on any equipment. Frequent references are made to the codes of practice recommended by the American Petroleum Institute. derrick. housing. 1/n is 1/13 to 1/7. The loads include: wind. earthquakes. ice.3. 2. Lecture 15A. The wind velocity profile may be taken from API-RP2A [2]: Vh/VH = (h/H)1/n …………………. Permanent (dead) loads. simplifying assumptions. earthquake.. earthquakes are normally regarded as accidental loads (see Eurocode 8 [1]). ENVIRONMENTAL LOADS Environmental loads are those caused by environmental phenomena such as wind. VH is the wind velocity at reference height H. the static wind force Fw(N) acting perpendicular to an exposed area A(m2) can be computed as follows: Fw = (1/2) ρ V2 Cs A ……………………(2) Page 1 of 16 Page 2 of 16 . and marine growth. Loads due to wind. while according to the British rules it should be 50 years or greater. located on the deck. Details of design criteria. 2. defining design load values. Their characteristic parameters. sea bed movement. Vh is the wind velocity at height h. SUMMARY The categories of load for which a pile supported steel offshore platform must be designed are introduced and then the different types of environmental loads are presented. According to US and Norwegian regulations (or codes of practice). 1.2 Loads (I): Introduction and Environmental Loads OBJECTIVE/SCOPE To introduce the types of loads for which a fixed steel offshore structure must be designed. This lecture deals with environmental loads.[8]. as well as to the relevant regulations of the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. the design of offshore structures is dominated by environmental loads.2 and 15A. etc. wind speeds are classified as gusts. Accidental loads. depending on the sea state. Whilst the design of buildings onshore is usually influenced mainly by the permanent and operating loads. ice and snow. For averaging intervals of one minute or longer they are classified as sustained wind speeds. This practice is followed in the two lectures dealing with loads.

In particular. they serve to calculate the particle velocities and accelerations and the dynamic pressure as functions of the surface elevation of the waves. When. Different wave theories of varying complexity. 1-minute sustained wind speeds combined with extreme waves. however. though interrelated problems. from the fluid motion. Cs = 0. 3-second gusts.2 Lecture 15A. developed on the basis of simplifying assumptions.225 Kg/m3) Cs is the shape coefficient (Cs = 1. For the second case it gives values of extreme wind speeds to be used without regard to waves. API-RP2A [2] distinguishes between global and local wind load effects. is chosen. the maximum wave with a return period of 100 years. With statistical methods. For the first case it gives guideline values of mean 1-hour average wind speeds to be combined with extreme waves and current. in the judgment of the designer. Two different analysis concepts are used: • The design wave concept. the most probable maximum force during the lifetime of the structure is calculated using linear wave theory. b. Appropriate wave spectra are defined to perform the analysis in the frequency domain and to generate random waves. then this object (or structure) could be wind sensitive.2 where: ρ is the wind density (ρ ≈ 1. The statistical approach has to be chosen to analyze the fatigue strength and the dynamic behavior of the structure. using appropriate coefficients.e. the Stokes fifth-order theory. The first is the sea state computed using an idealization of the wave surface profile and the wave kinematics given by an appropriate wave theory. Wind loads are generally taken as static. Determination of these forces requires the solution of two separate. are appropriate for different ranges of the wave parameters. The forces on the structure are caused by the motion of the water due to the waves which are generated by the action of the wind on the surface of the sea.2. i. they can be described by a two-dimensional flow field. The waves are assumed to be long-crested.1 Wave theories Wave theories describe the kinematics of waves of water on the basis of potential theory. This is the case of extreme storm waves acting on shallow water structures. As an example.0 for total projected area of platform). if dynamic analyses for extreme wave loadings are required for deepwater structures. the graph shown in Figure 2 may be consulted. The second is the computation of the wave forces on individual members and on the total structure. Shielding and solidity effects can be accounted for. the solitary wave theory. 2. i. period (T) and water depth (d) as shown in Figure 1. • Statistical analysis on the basis of a wave scatter diagram for the location of the structure.5 for beams and sides of buildings.5 for cylindrical sections and Cs = 1. Table 1 presents results of the linear wave theory for finite Page 3 of 16 Page 4 of 16 . For the selection of the most appropriate theory. API-RP2A requires the dynamic effects of the wind to be taken into account in this case and the flow induced cyclic wind loads due to vortex shedding must be investigated. Dean's stream function theory and the numerical theory by Chappelear. the cnoidal theory. Among the most common theories are: the linear Airy theory.e. the DNV [4] and DOE-OG [7] rules recommend the most unfavorable of the following two loadings: a. This static analysis is appropriate when the dominant wave periods are well above the period of the structure. For combination with wave loads. where a regular wave of given height and period is defined and the forces due to this wave are calculated using a high-order wave theory. and are characterized by the parameters: wave height (H). Usually the 100-year wave.Lecture 15A. 2. the ratio of height to the least horizontal dimension of the wind exposed object (or structure) is greater than 5.2 Wave Loads The wave loading of an offshore structure is usually the most important of all environmental loadings for which the structure must be designed. No dynamic behavior of the structure is considered.

e. As an additional parameter the spectral width can be taken into account. Page 5 of 16 Page 6 of 16 .2. It is formulated as a function of the wave frequency f using the parameters: significant wave height Hs (i.2 depth and deep water conditions. the mean of the highest third of all waves present in a wave train) and mean wave period (zero-upcrossing period) To.e. Note the strong influence of the water depth on the wave kinematics.Lecture 15A.g. see [9]. The best means to describe a random sea state is using the wave energy density spectrum S(f). The irregular appearance results from the linear superposition of an infinite number of regular waves with varying frequency (Figure 5). 2. Corresponding particle paths are illustrated in Figures 3 and 4. but as irregular sea states. Results from highorder wave theories can be found in the literature.2 Wave Statistics In reality waves do not occur as regular waves. usually called the wave spectrum for simplicity.2 Lecture 15A.

. a wave scatter diagram for the location of the structure is needed. |v| are water particle velocity normal to the cylinder...(3) Structures exposed to waves experience substantial forces much higher than wind loadings. • Slender. ). i. influence the wave field by diffraction and reflection. PiersonMoskowitz (Figure 6). The response of the structure. Morison's equation may be applied when D/L the member diameter and L is the wave length. e.D (f... F is the wave force per unit length on a circular cylinder (N) v. motions.σ) can then be defined as: maximum forces and motions have to be calculated by statistical methods or a time-domain analysis... Two different cases can be distinguished: • Large volume bodies.. (4) Where. calculated with the selected wave theory at the cylinder axis (m/s2) ρ is the water density (kg/m3) D is the member diameter.. 2.. It can be obtained from measurements over a long period or be deduced from weather observations in the region (the so-called hindcast method).Lecture 15A.. The forces result from the dynamic pressure and the water particle motions.... CM are drag and inertia coefficients.. hydrodynamically transparent structures have no significant influence on the wave field. The scatter diagram contains the joint probability of occurrence of pairs of significant wave height and mean wave period. The steel jackets of offshore structures can usually be regarded as hydrodynamically transparent.....3 Wave forces on structural members S (f.2..e. where σ is the angle of the wave approach direction (Figure 6). which expresses the wave force as the sum of an inertia force proportional to the particle acceleration and a non-linear drag force proportional to the square of the particle velocity: 0. A directional wave spectrum S (f.σ ) ……………….. The forces on these bodies have to be determined by costly numerical calculations based on diffraction theory. calculated with the selected wave theory at the cylinder axis (m/s) are water particle acceleration normal to the cylinder. The wave forces on the submerged members can therefore be calculated by Morison's equation.…. For fatigue analysis the total number and amplitude of load cycles during the life-time of the structure can be derived in this way.2. is calculated by multiplication of the wave energy spectrum with the square of a linear transfer function.. The forces can be calculated in a straight-forward manner with Morison's equation... respectively....g.σ ) = S(f). From the resulting response spectrum the significant and the maximum expected response in a given time interval can be easily deduced... forces...2 Wave directionality can be introduced by means of a directional spreading function D(f. the CD. yielding finally the desired response spectrum. For structures with substantial dynamic response to the wave excitation.2 Lecture 15A... For every pair of parameters the wave spectrum is calculated by a standard formula. termed hydrodynamic compact structures.. For long-term statistics.... where D is . including marine growth (m) Page 7 of 16 Page 8 of 16 . As a rule..

Lecture 15A.2

Lecture 15A.2

In this form the equation is valid for fixed tubular cylinders. For the analysis of the motion response of a structure it has to be modified to account for the motion of the cylinder [10]. The values of CD and CM depend on the wave theory used, surface roughness and the flow parameters. According to API-RP2A, CD ≈ 0,6 to 1,2 and CM ≈ 1,3 to 2,0. Additional information can be found in the DNV rules [4]. The total wave force on each member is obtained by numerical integration over the length of the member. The fluid velocities and accelerations at the integration points are found by direct application of the selected wave theory. According to Morison's equation the drag force is non-linear. This non-linear formulation is used in the design wave concept. However, for the determination of a transfer function needed for frequency domain calculations, the drag force has to be linearized in a suitable way [9]. Thus, frequency domain solutions are appropriate for fatigue life calculations, for which the forces due to the operational level waves are dominated by the linear inertia term. The nonlinear formulation and hence time domain solutions are required for dynamic analyses of deepwater structures under extreme, storm waves, for which the drag portion of the force is the dominant part [10]. In addition to the forces given by Morison's equation, the lift forces FD and the slamming forces FS, typically neglected in global response computations, can be important for local member design. For a member section of unit length, these forces can be estimated as follows: FL = (1/2) ρ CL Dv2 ................................. (5)

square of the velocity, this addition can greatly increase the forces on a platform. For slender members, cyclic loads induced by vortex shedding may also be important and should be examined.

2.4 Earthquake Loads Offshore structures in seismic regions are typically designed for two levels of earthquake intensity: the strength level and the ductility level earthquake. For the strength level earthquake, defined as having a "reasonable likelihood of not being exceeded during the platform's life" (mean recurrence interval ~ 200 - 500 years), the structure is designed to respond elastically. For the ductility level earthquake, defined as close to the "maximum credible earthquake" at the site, the structure is designed for inelastic response and to have adequate reserve strength to avoid collapse.

FS = (1/2) ρ Cs Dv2 ................................. (6) where CL, CS are the lift and slamming coefficients respectively, and the rest of the symbols are as defined in Morison's equation. Lift forces are perpendicular to the member axis and the fluid velocity v and are related to the vortex shedding frequency. Slamming forces acting on the underside of horizontal members near the mean water level are impulsive and nearly vertical. Lift forces can be estimated by taking CL ≈ 1,3 CD. For tubular members Cs ≈ π. 2.3 Current Loads There are tidal, circulation and storm generated currents. Figure 7 shows a wind and tidal current profile typical of the Gulf of Mexico. When insufficient field measurements are available, current velocities may be obtained from various sources, e.g. Appendix A of DNV [4]. In platform design, the effects of current superimposed on waves are taken into account by adding the corresponding fluid velocities vectorially. Since the drag force varies with the

For strength level design, the seismic loading may be specified either by sets of accelerograms (Figure 8) or by means of design response spectra (Figure 9). Use of design spectra has a number of advantages over time history solutions (base acceleration input). For this reason design response spectra are the preferable approach for strength level designs. If the design spectral intensity, characteristic of the seismic hazard at the site, is denoted by amax, then API-RP2A recommends using amax for the two principal horizontal directions and 0,5amax for the vertical direction. The DNV rules, on the other hand, recommend amax and 0,7 amax for the two horizontal directions (two different combinations) and 0,5 amax for the vertical. The value of amax and often the spectral shapes are determined by site specific seismological studies.

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Lecture 15A.2

Lecture 15A.2

which are usually the result of a site specific seismotectonic study. More detail of the analysis of earthquakes is given in the Lectures 17: Seismic Design. 2.5 Ice and Snow Loads Ice is a primary problem for marine structures in the arctic and sub-arctic zones. Ice formation and expansion can generate large pressures that give rise to horizontal as well as vertical forces. In addition, large blocks of ice driven by current, winds and waves with speeds that can approach 0,5 to 1,0 m/s, may hit the structure and produce impact loads. As a first approximation, statically applied, horizontal ice forces may be estimated as follows: Fi = CifcA ......................................... (7) Where, A is the exposed area of structure, fc is the compressive strength of ice, Ci is the coefficient accounting for shape, rate of load application and other factors, with usual values between 0,3 and 0,7. Generally, detailed studies based on field measurements, laboratory tests and analytical work are required to develop reliable design ice forces for a given geographical location. In addition to these forces, ice formation and snow accumulations increase gravity and wind loads, the latter by increasing areas exposed to the action of wind. More detailed information on snow loads may be found in Eurocode 1 [8]. 2.6 Loads due to Temperature Variations Offshore structures can be subjected to temperature gradients which produce thermal stresses. To take account of such stresses, extreme values of sea and air temperatures which are likely to occur during the life of the structure must be estimated. Relevant data for the North Sea are given in BS6235 [6]. In addition to the environmental sources, human Designs for ductility level earthquakes will normally require inelastic analyses for which the seismic input must be specified by sets of 3-component accelerograms, real or artificial, representative of the extreme ground motions that could shake the platform site. The characteristics of such motions, however, may still be prescribed by means of design spectra, factors can also generate thermal loads, e.g. through accidental release of cryogenic material, which must be taken into account in design as accidental loads. The temperature of the oil and gas produced must also be considered.

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Lecture 15A.2

Lecture 15A.2

2.7 Marine Growth Marine growth is accumulated on submerged members. Its main effect is to increase the wave forces on the members by increasing not only exposed areas and volumes, but also the drag coefficient due to higher surface roughness. In addition, it increases the unit mass of the member, resulting in higher gravity loads and in lower member frequencies. Depending upon geographic location, the thickness of marine growth can reach 0,3m or more. It is accounted for in design through appropriate increases in the diameters and masses of the submerged members. 2.8 Tides

2.9 Sea Floor Movements Movement of the sea floor can occur as a result of active geologic processes, storm wave pressures, earthquakes, pressure reduction in the producing reservoir, etc. The loads generated by such movements affect, not only the design of the piles, but the jacket as well. Such forces are determined by special geotechnical studies and investigations. 3. CONCLUDING SUMMARY • • Environmental loads form a major category of loads which control many aspects of platform design. The main environmental loads are due to wind, waves, current, earthquakes, ice and snow, temperature variations, marine growth, tides and seafloor movements. • • • • Widely accepted rules of practice, listed as [1] - [13], provide guideline values for most environmental loads. For major structures, specification of environmental design loads requires specific studies. Some environmental loads can be highly uncertain. The definition of certain environmental loads depends upon the type of analysis used in the design. 4. REFERENCES [1] Eurocode 8: "Structures in Seismic Regions - Design", CEN (in preparation). [2] API-RP2A, "Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms", American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C., 18th ed., 1989. [3] OCS, "Requirements for Verifying the Structural Integrity of OCS Platforms"., United States Geologic Survey, National Centre, Reston, Virginia, 1980. [4] DNV, "Rules for the Design, Construction and Inspection of Offshore Structures", Det Norske Veritas, Oslo, 1977 (with corrections 1982). [5] NPD, "Regulation for Structural Design of Load-bearing Structures Intended for Exploitation of Petroleum Resources", Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, 1985. [6] BS6235, "Code of Practice for Fixed Offshore Structures", British Standards Institution, London, 1982. [7] DOE-OG, "Offshore Installation: Guidance on Design and Construction", U.K., Dept. of Energy, London 1985.

Tides affect the wave and current loads indirectly, i.e. through the variation of the level of the sea surface. The tides are classified as: (a) astronomical tides - caused essentially from the gravitational pull of the moon and the sun and (b) storm surges - caused by the combined action of wind and barometric pressure differentials during a storm. The combined effect of the two types of tide is called the storm tide. Tide dependent water levels and the associated definitions, as used in platform design, are shown in Figure 10. The astronomical tide range depends on the geographic location and the phase of the moon. Its maximum, the spring tide, occurs at new moon. The range varies from centimeters to several meters and may be obtained from special maps. Storm surges depend upon the return period considered and their range is on the order of 1,0 to 3,0m. When designing a platform, extreme storm waves are superimposed on the still water level (see Figure 10), while for design considerations such as levels for boat landing places, barge fenders, upper limits of marine growth, etc., the daily variations of the astronomical tide are used.

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[11] Hsu.2 [8] Eurocode 1: "Basis of Design and Actions on Structures".5 Wave number k = Water particle displacements horizontal ξ vertical ζ -ζa ekz sin θ ζa ekz cos θ ko = kd tanh kd = Circular frequency ω = ω= ω= Group velocity cgr = cgr = cgr = Wave celerity c = co = c= Wave length L = Lo = L= ζa cos θ Particle trajectories Circular orbits Elliptical orbits Dynamic pressure pdyn = Water particle velocities ζa ω ekz cos θ horizontal u = Where ζ a = vertical w = Water particle accelerations ζa ω ekz sin θ ζa ω2 ekz sin θ horizontal u' = vertical w' = -ζa ω2 ekz cos θ Page 15 of 16 Page 16 of 16 . S.Structure Interaction".179-185. John Wiley.5 Finite water depth d/L < 0. Vol 1 . Gulf Publishing Co.. [9] Clauss. Jr.Lecture 15A. "Introduction to Offshore Structures".C. [13] Gerwick. "Applied Offshore Structural Engineering". 1986. Structures. pp. Houston.. 1981. New York. [10] Anagnostopoulos. W. 4. "Dynamic Response of Offshore Structures to Extreme Waves including Fluid . B. Springer. Houston.J. CEN (in preparation). Gulf Publishing Co.A..Conceptual Design and Hydromechanics"...2 Lecture 15A. London 1992.. 1982. H. G. Engr. "Construction of Offshore Structures". [12] Graff. 1981.T.ω t Relative water depth d/L Velocity potential θ Surface elevation z ζa cos θ ρ gζa ekz cos θ Deep water d/L ≥ 0. Vol. T. et al: "Offshore Structures. Table 1 Results of Linear Airy Theory [11] Phase θ = kx .

For example. launching and upending) and accidental loads. 1. as required (or suggested) by applicable regulations (or codes of practice) are given. heavy and emergency landing. The impact load in the first case is to be taken as 1.5 times the maximum take-off weight. b. helicopter landing. etc). a horizontal load applied at the points of impact and taken equal to half the maximum take-off weight must be considered. In addition.Lecture 15A. The categories of loads described herein are the following: 1. Accidental loads The major categories of environmental loads are not included. Forces generated during operations are often dynamic or impulsive in nature and must be treated as such.5.5 KN/m2 c. operating loads include the following: a. and the load combinations for which a fixed offshore structure must be designed. Operating (live) loads 3. living quarters. For vessel mooring. furniture. transportation. These categories include permanent (dead) loads. Fabrication and installation loads 4. except environmental.2.3 Loads (II): Other Loads OBJECTIVE/SCOPE To present and briefly describe all loads.87KN/m3. e. liquids. 2. the different load combinations for all types of loads. operating (live) loads. Permanent (dead) loads 2. drilling equipment. The data need to be critically evaluated by the designer. as well as forces generated during operation of equipment.g. b.g. the following values are recommended in BS6235 [1]: a. OPERATING (LIVE) LOADS Operating loads arise from the operations on the platform and include the weight of all nonpermanent equipment or material. not to be taken less than 6. loads generated during fabrication and installation (due to lifts.3 Lecture 15A. PERMANENT (DEAD) LOADS Permanent loads include the following: a.2 KN/m2 b. crane The various categories of loads. storage areas: γH KN/m2 where. The necessary data for computation of all operating loads are provided by the operator and the equipment manufacturers. Weights of equipment. In addition. c. γ is the specific weight of stored materials. except environmental loads. These forces include buoyancy and hydrostatic pressures. More specifically. Hydrostatic forces on the various members below the waterline. if necessary. loadout. Weight of the structure in air. may normally be treated as harmonic forces. working areas: 8. They are dealt with in Lecture 15A. for which a pile-supported steel offshore platform must be designed are presented. PREREQUISITES A basic knowledge of structural analysis for static and dynamic loadings. Forces generated during operations. consumable supplies. The weight of all non-permanent equipment (e. drilling. attachments or associated structures which are permanently mounted on the platform. production). facilities (e. design Page 1 of 13 Page 2 of 13 . vessel mooring. heliport. life support systems. etc. H is the storage height (m). including the weight of grout and ballast. In the absence of such data. according to the BS6235 rules.g. while in the second case this factor becomes 2. SUMMARY Sealed tubular members must be designed for the worst condition when flooded or nonflooded. two types of helicopter landing should be considered. Loads from rotating machinery. An example of detailed live load specification is given in Table 1 where the values in the first and second columns are for design of the portions of the structure directly affected by the loads and the reduced values in the last column are for the structure as a whole. crew quarters and passageways: 3. operations. including environmental. drilling. etc. etc.

then. API-RP2A.2 Loadout Forces These are forces generated when the jacket is loaded from the fabrication yard onto the barge.5 and 1.1 Lifting Forces Lifting forces are functions of the weight of the structural component being lifted. unless the lifting arrangement is different from that to be used for installation.0 and 1. For loadout at sheltered locations. a number of static loading conditions must be considered. If. lifting forces need not be computed. applied perpendicular to the padeye at the centre of the pin hole. (as shown in Figure 2). from movement of the barge due to tidal fluctuations. and from possible support settlements. If loadout is done by skidding the structure onto the barge. however. the angle between each sling and the vertical axis and the conditions under which the lift is performed (Figure 1). According to the DNV rules [2]. on the other hand [3]. because lifting in the open sea creates a more severe loading condition which requires higher dynamic load factors. while the BS6235 rules [1] recommend a minimum recurrence interval of 10 years for the design environmental loads associated with transportation of the structure to the offshore site. If the loadout is carried out by direct lift. According to BS6235. The first is for designing the padeyes as well as all members and their end connections framing the joint where the padeye is attached. 3. 3. while the second is for all other members transmitting lifting forces. the corresponding minimum load factors for the two groups of structural components become. launching and upending. for lifts made offshore API-RP2A recommends two minimum values of dynamic load factors: 2. In particular. all loading Page 3 of 13 Page 4 of 13 .3 Lecture 15A. Moreover.3 forces are computed for the largest ship likely to approach at operational speeds. All members and connections of a lifted component must be designed for the forces resulting from static equilibrium of the lifted weight and the sling tensions. During fabrication. 3.Lecture 15A. API-RP2A recommends that in order to compensate for any side movements. transportation to the site. lifting eyes and the connections to the supporting structural members should be designed for the combined action of the static sling load and a horizontal force equal to 5% this load. FABRICATION AND INSTALLATION LOADS These loads are temporary and arise during fabrication and installation of the platform or its components. Since movement of the jacket is slow. leaves this design return period up to the owner. respectively. marine traffic or change of draft. the minimum impact to be considered is of a vessel of 2500 tonnes at 0. then dynamic load factors should be applied to the static lifting forces. Such loading conditions arise from the different positions of the jacket during the loadout phases. the number and location of lifting eyes used for the lift. 1. erection lifts of various structural components generate lifting forces. with the jacket supported on its side. the return period for computing design environmental conditions for installation as well as fabrication should normally be three times the duration of the corresponding phase. according to APIRP2A. while in the installation phase forces are generated during platform loadout. as well as during lifts related to installation.5 m/s. All these design forces are applied as static loads if the lifts are performed in the fabrication yard. the lifting derrick or the structure to be lifted is on a floating vessel.35.15.

. taking into account characteristics of the tow such as size... structure................ Accessibility of safe havens 4.... sensitivity and cost..25 steel on steel with lubrication....... 0.. deck) are transported offshore on barges or self-floating.. the following: 1............. 0.........3 Transportation Forces These forces are generated when platform components (jacket... Appropriate return period for determining design wind....0......3 conditions can be taken as static.... winds and currents) that are encountered during transportation.... according to API-RP2A [3].... Exposure time and reliability of predicted "weather windows" 3................ geometry and support 5......10 teflon on teflon..15 steel on teflon..08 conditions of the structure (by barge or by buoyancy) and also on the environmental conditions (waves....... Page 5 of 13 Page 6 of 13 .......... 0................... Seasonal weather system 3............ The types of motion that a floating structure may experience are shown schematically in Figure 3... Typical values of friction coefficients for calculation of skidding forces are the following: • • • • steel on steel without lubrication..... wave and current conditions..............................3 Lecture 15A. They depend upon the weight..........Lecture 15A. it is important to plan the operation carefully by considering....... In order to minimize the associated risks and secure safe transport from the fabrication yard to the platform site....... Previous experience along the tow route 2.................

Jacket rotates and slides simultaneously 4. Inertial loads may be computed from a rigid body analysis of the tow by combining roll and pitch with heave motions. its weight is supported on the two legs that are part of the launch trusses. For open sea conditions. perpendicular and at 45 to the tow axis. As the jacket slides. Heave acceleration: 0. Special computer programs are available to compute the transportation loads in the structure-barge system and the resulting stresses for any specified environmental condition. towing analyses must be based on the results of model basin tests or appropriate analytical methods and must consider wind and wave directions parallel. Jacket detaches completely and comes to its floating equilibrium position 5. Jacket rotates on the rocker arms 3. magnitude of the sea state and experience make such assumptions reasonable. Page 7 of 13 Page 8 of 13 .4 Launching and Upending Forces These forces are generated during the launch of a jacket from the barge into the sea and during the subsequent upending into its proper vertical position to rest on the seabed. The support length keeps decreasing and reaches a minimum. waves and currents expected during the operation.amplitude pitch: 10° 3. the barge must be ballasted to an appropriate draft and trim angle and subsequently the jacket must be pulled towards the stern by a winch. Jacket is upended by a combination of controlled flooding and simultaneous lifting by a derrick barge. which also consider the action of wind. The loads. waves and currents. i. when rotation starts. induced during each of these stages and the force required to set the jacket into motion can be evaluated by appropriate analyses. the structure and supporting barge. the following may be considered as typical design values: 1. Single . the relative stiffness of jacket and barge may need to be taken into account together with the wave slamming forces that could result during a heavy roll motion of the tow (Figure 4) when structural analyses are carried out for designing the tie-down braces and the jacket members affected by the induced loads. Moreover.3 Transportation forces are generated by the motion of the tow. During stages (d) and (e).e. Sliding of the jacket starts as soon as the downward force (gravity component and winch pull) exceeds the friction force. equal to the length of the rocker beams. static as well as dynamic. Period of roll or pitch: 10 second 4. According to API-RP2A [3].3 Lecture 15A. the loads can be calculated directly. stability against capsizing is a primary design consideration because of the high centre of gravity of the jacket. when the size of the tow. 3. Single . To start the launch. It is generally at this instant that the most severe launching forces develop as reactions to the weight of the jacket. There are five stages in a launch-upending operation: 1. If the structure is self-floating.Lecture 15A.amplitude roll: 20° 2.2 g When transporting a large jacket by barge. A schematic view of these operations can be seen in Figure 5. They are determined from the design winds. Jacket slides along the skid beams 2.

which may occur as a result of accident or exceptional circumstances. the 1. Buoyancy calculations are required for every stage of the operation to ensure fully controlled.except earthquakes . The so-called characteristic values of the loads used in the above combinations and limit states are summarized in Table 2. are usually followed for specifying such loads. Fatigue limit state All load factors are to be taken as 1. Deformation (e. if applicable. whether limit state or allowable stress design is employed.0. 6. impact resistant covers. 2. For well controlled dead and live loads during fabrication and installation.e. an accidental load can be disregarded if its annual probability of occurrence is less than 10-4. which the NPD rules also require [4]. 5.e. would require cessation of platform operations. are to be imposed as a separate environmental load. D and E stand for Permanent (dead). All load factors are to be taken as 1. for structures that are unmanned during storm conditions and which are not used for storage of oil and gas.0. For example. According to the NPD regulations [4]. BS6235 [1] or the DOE-OG rules [5]. i. appropriate for combining with extreme conditions. Ultimate limit state According to the DNV rules [2]. ACCIDENTAL LOADS The DNV rules [2] permit allowable stress design but recommend the semi-probabilistic limit state design method.3 E where P. ill-defined with respect to intensity and frequency. CONCLUDING SUMMARY • • In addition to environmental loads. temperature.3 P + 1. Examples of accidental loads are loads due to collision with vessels. Dead loads plus operating environmental loads plus maximum live loads. but not in API-RP2A [3]. fire or explosion. and Extreme : 1. 3. According to the DNV and the NPD rules for limit state design. with the exception of earthquake loads. environmental loads. 4. not to be combined with waves. Dead loads plus extreme (design) environmental loads plus maximum live loads. and unintended flooding of buoyancy tanks. c. Operating environmental conditions are defined as representative of severe but not necessarily limiting conditions that.0 P + 1. For this limit state the following two loading combinations must be used: Page 9 of 13 Page 10 of 13 . the load factor 1. Furthermore. This number is meant as an order of magnitude estimate and is extremely difficult to compute.2.3 load factor for environmental loads . API-RP2A is very specific in recommending not to apply limit state methods. Earthquake loads. Dead loads plus extreme (design) environmental loads plus minimum live loads. appropriate to normal operations of the platform.15.7 E.0 D + 1. Moreover. should be combined in a manner consistent with their joint probability of occurrence during the loading condition considered.Lecture 15A. taken from the NPD rules.3 may be reduced to 1. four limit states must be checked: 1. dropped objects. appropriate for combining with extreme conditions. differential settlement) and Environmental loads respectively. Computer programs are available to perform the stress analyses required for launching and upending and also to portray the whole operation graphically.0. Earthquakes are treated as an environmental load in offshore structure design. BS6235 permits both methods but the design equations it gives are for the allowable stress method [1].0 L + 1. Accidental loads are also specified as a separate category in the NPD regulations [4]. fabrication and installation loads as well as accidental loads.g.may be reduced to 1. appropriate to normal operations of the platform.. listed in the references.3 variable hydrostatic forces arise which have to be considered at all members affected. Progressive Collapse limit state All load factors are to be taken as 1. stable motion. i. Widely accepted rules of practice. accidental loads are loads. d. Special measures are normally taken to reduce the risk from accidental loads. wind.0 D + 0.3 L + 1.. The load combinations recommended for use with allowable stress procedures are: a. Serviceability limit state Ordinary: 1.3 Lecture 15A. 4. Operating (live). b. an offshore structure must be designed for dead and live loads. if exceeded. etc. L. Dead loads plus operating environmental loads plus minimum live loads. protection of wellheads or other critical equipment from a dropped object can be provided by specially designed. LOAD COMBINATIONS The load combinations used for designing fixed offshore structures depend upon the design method used.

1981. Reston.. United States Geologic Survey. OCS. D.. 1985. National Centre.C.5 7. Virginia. Det Norske Veritas (DNV). transportation and installation loads depend upon the methods and sequences used for the corresponding phases. London. [3] API-RP2A.K. New York.5 5 0 1 0 Module roofing Emergency exits STORAGE [4] "Regulation for Structural Design of Load-bearing Structures Intended for Exploitation of Petroleum Resources".5 3 2. 1986. W. 1981. Gulf Publishing Co.heavy Storage floors . Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms". Table 1 Minimum design live load specification Loads to be taken into account (kN/m2) For portions of the structure For the structure as a whole Zone considered Flooring and joists Other components (3) Process zone (around wells and largescale machines) Drilling zone Catwalks and walking platforms (except emergency exits) Stairways (except emergency exits) 5 (1) 5 (1) 2. Houston. Graff.3 • • • • The type and magnitude of fabrication.5 1 4 2 5 3 1. [2] "Rules for the Design. 5 (1) 5 (1) 2. London 1985.. Washington. 3. 1982.3 Lecture 15A. British Standards Institution. H. U. "Offshore Installation: Guidance on Design and Construction". 8. "Applied Offshore Structural Engineering". (3) This column gives the loads to be taken into account for the structure's overall calculation. Construction and Inspection of Offshore Structures". APIRP2A is based on allowable stress design and recommends against limit state design. while DNV and NPD recommend limit state design. They will typically require special protective measures. 1980. with a minimum value of 5 kN. Department of Energy.Lecture 15A. These values are the input for the computer runs. Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD).3m surface. [5] DOE-OG. Load combinations and load factors depend upon the design method to be used. 1989. 4. Accidental loads are not well defined with respect to intensity and probability of occurrence. "Introduction to Offshore Structures". 1977 (with corrections 1982). "Code of Practice for Fixed Offshore Structures". "Construction of Offshore Structures". Gulf Publishing Co. ADDITIONAL READING 1.. Point loads are assumed as being applied to a 0.light Delivery zone Non-attributed area 18 9 10 6 12 6 10 4 8 (2) 4 (2) 5 3 (1) Accumulated with a point load equal to the weight of the heaviest part likely to be removed. 18th ed. American Petroleum Institute. (2) Applied on the entirety of the flooring surface (including traffic).G. Page 11 of 13 Page 12 of 13 . "Recommended Practice for Planning. Storage floors .C. Dynamic and impact effects are normally taken into account by means of appropriate dynamic load factors. Houston. 2. Hsu. "Requirements for Verifying the Structural Integrity of OCS Platforms". REFERENCES [1] BS6235. Oslo.. Gerwick. John Wiley.3m × 0. B.. BSI favours allowable stress design..T. Jr..

Lecture 15A.3 Table 2 Characteristic Loads according to NPD [4] LIMIT STATES FOR TEMPORARY PHASES LOAD TYPE Service ability Fatigue Ultimate Abnormal effects DEAD LIVE DEFORM ATION Depen dent on ENVIRON operati MENTAL onal require ments Expect ed load history Value dependent on measures taken Dependent on operational requirements Expect ed load history Annual exceedance probability 10 -2 LIMIT STATES FOR NORMAL OPERATIONS Progressive Collapse Serviceability Damage condition EXPECTED VALUE SPECIFIED VALUE EXPECTED EXTREME VALUE Fatigue Ultimate Abnormal effects Progressive Collapse Damage condition Annual exceedanc e probability 10-4 Annual Annual exceedance probability 10-2 ACCIDEN TAL Dependent on NOT APPLICABLE operational requirements NOT APPLICABLE exceedanc e probability 10-4 NOT APPLICABLE Page 13 of 13 .

Lecture 15A.4

Lecture 15A.4

Analysis I
OBJECTIVE/SCOPE To present the main analysis procedures for offshore structures. PREREQUISITES Lecture 15A.1: Offshore Structures: General Introduction

2. ANALYTICAL MODEL The analytical models used in offshore engineering are in some respects similar to those adopted for other types of steel structures. Only the salient features of offshore models are presented here. The same model is used throughout the analysis process with only minor adjustments being made to suit the specific conditions, e.g. at supports in particular, relating to each analysis. 2.1 Stick Models

Lecture 15A.2: Loads I: Introduction and Environmental Loads Stick models (beam elements assembled in frames) are used extensively for tubular Lecture 15A.3: Loads II: Other Loads RELATED LECTURES Lecture 15A.5: Analysis II SUMMARY Analytical models used in offshore engineering are briefly described. Acceptance criteria for the verification of offshore structures are presented. Simple rules for preliminary member sizing are given and procedures for static in-place and dynamic analysis are described. 1. ANALYTICAL MODEL 2.2 Plate Models The analysis of an offshore structure is an extensive task, embracing consideration of the different stages, i.e. execution, installation, and in-service stages, during its life. Many disciplines, e.g. structural, geotechnical, naval architecture, metallurgy are involved. This lecture and Lecture 15A.5 are purposely limited to presenting an overview of available analysis procedures and providing benchmarks for the reader to appreciate the validity of his assumptions and results. They primarily address jackets, which are more unusual structures compared to decks and modules, and which more closely resemble onshore petro-chemical plants. 3.1 Code Checks The verification of an element consists of comparing its characteristic resistance(s) to a design force or stress. It includes: 3. ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA Integrated decks and hulls of floating platforms involving large bulkheads are described by plate elements. The characteristics assumed for the plate elements depend on the principal state of stress which they are subjected to. Membrane stresses are taken when the element is subjected merely to axial load and shear. Plate stresses are adopted when bending and lateral pressure are to be taken into account. 2.1.2 Members In addition to its geometrical and material properties, each member is characterized by hydrodynamic coefficients, e.g. relating to drag, inertia, and marine growth, to allow wave forces to be automatically generated. structures (jackets, bridges, flare booms) and lattice trusses (modules, decks). 2.1.1 Joints Each member is normally rigidly fixed at its ends to other elements in the model. If more accuracy is required, particularly for the assessment of natural vibration modes, local flexibility of the connections may be represented by a joint stiffness matrix.

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Lecture 15A.4 • • a strength check, where the characteristic resistance is related to the yield strength of the element, a stability check for elements in compression where the characteristic resistance relates to the buckling limit of the element.

Lecture 15A.4 Partial factors are applied to the loads and to the characteristic resistance of the element, reflecting the amount of confidence placed in the design value of each parameter and the degree of risk accepted under a limit state, i.e: • Ultimate Limit State (ULS):

An element (member or plate) is checked at typical sections (at least both ends and midspan) against resistance and buckling. This verification also includes the effect of water pressure for deepwater structures. Tubular joints are checked against punching under various load patterns. These checks may indicate the need for local reinforcement of the chord using overthickness or internal ringstiffeners. Elements should also be verified against fatigue, corrosion, temperature or durability wherever relevant. 3.2 Allowable Stress Method This method is presently specified by American codes (API, AISC). The loads remain unfactored and a unique coefficient is applied to the characteristic resistance to obtain an allowable stress as follows: corresponds to an ultimate event considering the structural resistance with appropriate reserve. • Fatigue Limit State (FLS):

relates to the possibility of failure under cyclic loading. • Progressive Collapse Limit State (PLS):

reflects the ability of the structure to resist collapse under accidental or abnormal conditions. • Service Limit State (SLS):

corresponds to criteria for normal use or durability (often specified by the plant operator). 3.3.1 Load factors Norwegian Authorities (2, 4) specify the following sets of load factors:

Condition

Axial

Strong axis bending

Weak axis bending 0,75 1,00 ULS (normal) ULS (extreme) FLS PLS (accidental) PLS (post-damage) SLS Limit State P 1,3 1,0 0,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 L 1,3 1,0 0,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 D 1,0 1,0 0,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 Load Categories E 0,7 1,3 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 A 0,0 0,0 0,0 1,0 0,0 0,0

Normal Extreme

0,60 0,80

0,66 0,88

"Normal" and "Extreme" respectively represent the most severe conditions: • • under which the plant is to operate without shut-down. the platform is to endure over its lifetime.

3.3 Limit State Method This method is enforced by European and Norwegian Authorities and has now been adopted by API as it offers a more uniform reliability.

where the respective load categories are:

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Lecture 15A.4 P are permanent loads (structural weight, dry equipments, ballast, hydrostatic pressure). L are live loads (storage, personnel, liquids). D are deformations (out-of-level supports, subsidence). E are environmental loads (wave, current, wind, earthquake). A are accidental loads (dropped object, ship impact, blast, fire). 3.3.2 Material factors The material partial factors for steel is normally taken equal to 1,15 for ULS and 1,00 for PLS and SLS design. 3.3.3 Classification of Design Conditions Guidance for classifying typical conditions into typical limit states is given in the following table:

Lecture 15A.4

In-Place (extreme)

P+L

wind & 100 year wave

actual

ULS SLS

In-Place (exceptional) Earthquake Rare Earthquake Explosion Fire Dropped Object Boat Collision Damaged Structure

P+L

wind & 10000 year wave

actual

PLS

P+L P+L

10-2 quake 10-4 quake

ULS PLS

P+L P+L P+L

blast fire drill collar

PLS PLS PLS

Condition P/L Construction Load-Out P P E

Loadings D A

Design Criterion ULS,SLS

P+L

boat impact

PLS

P + reduced L

reduced wave & wind

PLS

reduced wind

support disp

ULS 4. PRELIMINARY MEMBER SIZING

Transport

P

transport wind and wave

ULS The analysis of a structure is an iterative process which requires progressive adjustment of the member sizes with respect to the forces they transmit, until a safe and economical design flooded compart PLS is achieved. It is therefore of the utmost importance to start the main analysis from a model which is close

Tow-out (accidental) Launch Lifting In-Place (normal)

P

P P P+L wind, wave & snow actual

ULS ULS ULS,SLS

to the final optimized one. The simple rules given below provide an easy way of selecting realistic sizes for the main elements of offshore structures in moderate water depth (up to 80m) where dynamic effects are negligible.

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calculate the moment caused by wind loads on topsides and derive the appropriate thickness.4 Deck Framing • • • select a spacing between stiffeners (typically 500 to 800mm). calculate the maximum moment in the pile and derive its wall thickness. assuming an equivalent soil subgrade modulus and full fixity at the base of the jacket. conductors. 5.1.1.4 5.1 Jacket Pile Sizes • • • • • calculate the vertical resultant (dead weight. They are represented by an equivalent load-dependent secant stiffness matrix.3. foundations are often analysed separately from the structural model. 4. coefficients are determined by an iterative process where the forces and displacements at the common boundaries of structural and foundation models are equated. 5. caissons.2 and 15A. They are therefore analysed separately and their reactions applied as loads at the interfaces • • • select the diameter in order to obtain a span/diameter ratio between 30 and 40. with the main structure.3 Foundation Model Since their behaviour is non-linear. select a pile diameter in accordance with the expected leg diameter and the capacity of pile driving equipment. to size the main elements of the structure. 5. which are described in more detail in Lectures 15A.2 Appurtenances The contribution of appurtenances (risers.2 Loadings This Section is a reminder of the main types of loads.3 Jacket Bracings Lecture 15A. calculate the axial force in the brace from the overall shear and the local bending caused by the wave assuming partial or total end restraint. 4.Lecture 15A.1 Main Model The main model should account for eccentricities and local reinforcements at the joints. the overall shear and the overturning moment (environmental forces) at the mudline. This matrix may need to be adjusted to the mean reaction corresponding to each loading condition. etc.1 Structural Model 5.1. This analysis is always carried at the very early stage of the project. derive the plate thickness from formulae accounting for local plastification under the wheel footprint of the design forklift truck. determine the effective length from the degree of fixity of the leg into the deck (depending upon the height of the cellar deck). buoyancy). determine by straight beam formulae the sizes of the main girders under "blanket" live loads and/or the respective weight of the heaviest equipments. and subjected to pseudo-static loads. 4. J-tubes. 5. assuming that the jacket behaves as a rigid body. often from a simplified model. derive the maximum axial and shear force at the top of the pile. Page 7 of 14 Page 8 of 14 . Typical models for North Sea jackets may feature over 800 nodes and 4000 members. STATIC IN-PLACE ANALYSIS The static in-place analysis is the basic and generally the simplest of all analyses. The structure is modelled as it stands during its operational life. derive the penetration from the shaft friction and tip bearing diagrams. derive the thickness such that the diameter/thickness ratio lies between 20 and 70 and eliminate any hydrostatic buckle tendency by imposing D/t<170/3 H (H is the depth of member below the free surface). live loads.2 Deck Leg Sizes • • • adapt the diameter of the leg to that of the pile. boat-fenders.) to the overall stiffness of the structure is normally neglected.4 4.

Lecture 15A. liquids trapped in legs or tanks. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS A dynamic analysis is normally mandatory for every offshore structure. fluids. 6.2 Equations of Motion The governing dynamic equations of multi-degrees-of-freedom systems can be expressed in the matrix form: MX'' + CX' + KX = P(t) Where. 6. 5.1 Dynamic Model The dynamic model of the structure is derived from the main static model. M is the mass matrix C is the damping matrix K is the stiffness matrix X. 5. this may occur for instance when positioning the drilling rig. The basic loads relevant to a given condition are multiplied by the appropriate load factors and combined to produce the most severe effect in each individual element of the structure. system can be condensed to a few freedoms while still retaining its basic energy distribution.3 Loading Combinations The static in-place analysis is performed under different conditions where the loads are approximated by their pseudo-static equivalent.4 5.2.1 Mass The mass matrix represents the distribution of masses over the structure. P(t) is the time dependent force vector. the added mass of water (mass of water displaced by the member and determined from potential flow theory) and the mass of marine growth. in the most general case it may depend on the displacements of the structure also (i. X'' are the displacement.1 Gravity Loads Gravity loads consist of: • • dead weight of structure and equipments.4 6. masses are lumped at the member ends. X'. the Some simplifications may however take place: • • • local joint reinforcements and eccentricities may be disregarded. current and wind loads assumed to act simultaneously in the same direction. the appurtenances. In general eight wave incidences are selected. As a further simplification to larger models involving considerable degrees-of-freedom. but can be restricted to the main modes in the case of stiff structures.2.2 Environmental Loads Environmental loads consist of wave. Damping is the most difficult to estimate among all parameters governing the dynamic response of a structure. The mass matrix consequently becomes diagonal but local modes of vibration of single members are ignored (these modes may be important for certain members subjected to an earthquake). live loads (equipments.e. personnel). the foundation model may be derived from cyclic soil behaviour. The selection of lumping points may significantly affect the ensuing solution. 6. Lecture 15A. live loads must be positioned to produce the most severe configuration (compression or tension). for each the position of the crest relative to the platform must be established such that the maximum overturning moment and/or shear are produced at the mudline. Masses include that of the structure itself.2 Damping Page 9 of 14 Page 10 of 14 . Masses are generally lumped at discrete points of the model. Depending on the area of structure under scrutiny.2. relative motion of the structure with respect to the wave velocity in Morison equation). 6.2. velocity and acceleration vectors (function of time).

as the transient part of the response vanishes rapidly under the effect of damping. it must be corrected by the static contribution of the higher modes (mode-acceleration method) for wave loadings.Lecture 15A. The loading function is developed in Fourier series up to an order η: All other types of non-viscous damping should preferably be expressed as an equivalent viscous damping matrix. Hydrodynamic Damping Damping provided by the water surrounding the structure is commonly added to the former. Structural Damping Structural damping is associated with the loss of energy by internal friction in the material.1 Frequency Domain Analysis Such analysis is most appropriate for evaluating the steady-state response of a system subjected to cyclic loadings. This consists in solving the eigenvalue problem: KX = λ MX Page 11 of 14 Page 12 of 14 . Representation of Damping Viscous damping represents the most common and simple form of damping. 6. 6. being roughly proportional to the strain energy involved in each.4.4 It may consist of structural and hydrodynamic damping.4 Modal Superposition Method A convenient technique consists of uncoupling the equations through the normal modes of the system. non-linear forces are linearized beforehand (drag).4 For rigid structures having a fundamental vibration period well below the range of wave periods (typically less than 3 s).5% structural.3 Stiffness The stiffness matrix is in all aspects similar to the one used in static analyses. This method is only applicable if: • • each mass.3 Free Vibration Mode Shapes and Frequencies The first step in a dynamic analysis consists of determining the principal natural vibration mode shapes and frequencies of the undamped.5% hydrodynamic) proportional damping: defined as a linear combination of stiffness and mass matrices. ζ = 1. and can be re-used for as many subsequent response calculations as needed at later stages. multi-degree-of-freedom structure up to a given order (30th to 50th). 6. It may have one of the following representations: • • modal damping: a specific damping ratio ζ expressing the percentage to critical associated with each mode (typically ζ = 0. It increases with the order of the mode. Therefore: • • the simple superposition method (mode-displacement) is applied to a truncated number of lowest modes for predicting earthquake response. It may however prove time-consuming when a large number of modes are required to represent the response accurately. but may alternatively be accounted as part of the forcing function when vibrations are close to resonance (vortex-shedding in particular). stiffness and damping matrix is time-independent. 6. Lecture 15A.2. The total response is obtained by summing the responses of the individual single-degree-offreedom oscillators associated to each normal mode of the structure. This method offers the advantage that the eigen modes provide substantial insight into the problem. the dynamic behavior is simply accounted for by multiplying the time-dependent loads by a dynamic amplification factor (DAF): DAF = where β = TN/T is the ratio of the period of the structure to the wave period.

such as: H = [-M the elements of which represent: Hj. A dynamic analysis is normally mandatory for every offshore structure. Usually. Several methods are available. p(t) = The plot of the amplitudes pj versus the circular frequencies ωj is called the amplitude power spectra of the loading. Unconditionally stable methods are always to be preferred (for instance Newmark-beta with β = 1/4 or Wilsonω2 + i x C ω + K] theta with θ = 1. Page 13 of 14 Page 14 of 14 .4. The same model is used throughout the analysis process. CONCLUDING SUMMARY • The analysis of offshore structures is an extensive task. The relationship between response and force vectors is expressed by the transfer matrix H. load) are simultaneously dependent on the time and structural response as well. The dynamic equilibrium at an instant τ is governed by the same type of equations. the tendency for uncontrolled divergence of amplitude to occur with increasing time steps).4 • responses involving many vibration modes to be determined over a short time interval. 6. damping.4 Lecture 15A.Lecture 15A.4).2 Time Domain Analysis The response of the i-th mode may alternatively be determined by resorting to Duhamel's integral: Xj(t) = The overall response is then obtained by summing at each time step the individual responses over all significant modes.e. All available integration techniques are characterized by their stability (i.5 Direct Integration Methods Direct step-by-step integration of the equations of motion is the most general method and is applicable to: • non-linear problems involving special forms of damping and response-dependent loadings. • • • The verification of an element consists of comparing its characteristic resistance(s) to a design force or stress. significant values of pj only occur within a narrow range of frequencies and the analysis can be restricted to it. Simple rules are available for preliminary member sizing. where all matrices (mass. Static in-plane analysis is always carried out at the early stage of a project to size the main elements of the structure. 7. 6. The analytical models used in offshore engineering are in some respects similar to those used for other types of steel structures. stiffness.k = The spectral density of response in freedom j versus force is then: • The fast Fourier transform (FFT) is the most efficient algorithm associated with this kind of analysis.

abnormal and accident conditions. different phases to determine the stress range for a given wave at each joint.3 Joint Stress Model Nominal joint stresses are calculated for eight points around the circumference of the brace. it offers computational efficiency. • • different incidences (typically eight). formulated by S-N curves: log Ni = log α + mlog ∆σi The number of cycles to failure Ni corresponds to a stress range.4 Fatigue Damage Model The fatigue failure of joints in offshore structures primarily depends on the stress ranges and their number of occurrences.2: Loads I: Introduction and Environmental Loads Lecture 15A. load-out and transportation. over the operational life of the 1. hydrodynamic loading. but may also overlook important local response modes.2 Hydrodynamic Loading Model A very large number of computer runs may be necessary to evaluate the stress range at the joints. PREREQUISITES Lecture 15A. The maximum local (hot spot) stress is obtained by multiplying the former by a stress concentration factor (SCF) given by parametric formulae which are functions of the joint geometry and the load pattern (balanced/unbalanced). Local analysis for specific parts of the structure which are better treated by dedicated models outside of the global analysis are identified. mainly welding residual stresses.3: Loads II: Other Loads RELATED LECTURES Lecture 15A. wind (flare booms. SUMMARY Methods of fatigue analysis are described including the fatigue model (structural.5 Analysis II OBJECTIVE/SCOPE To present the analysis procedures for offshore structures relating to fatigue. particularly near the waterline where direct wave action causes high out-of-plane bending (see Section 5. floating structures).1 Structural Model The in-place model is used for the fatigue analysis. Quasi-static analysis is often chosen. The wave is repeatedly generated for: • different blocks of wave heights (typically from 2 to 28m in steps of 2m).1.2).Lecture 15A. installation and local design. 1. each associated with a characteristic wave and zero-upcrossing period. structures under rotating equipments. The cumulative damage caused by ni cycles of stress ∆σi.1. 1.1. Abnormal and accidental conditions are considered relating to earthquake.acceleration method may overcome this problem. 1. it permits all local stresses to be comprehensively represented. FATIGUE ANALYSIS A fatigue analysis is performed for those structures sensitive to the action of cyclic loadings such as: • • • wave (jackets. and joint stress models) and the methods of fatigue damage assessment. Modal analysis may be used instead.1 Fatigue Model platform (30 to 50 years) is obtained by the Palmgren-Miner rule: Page 1 of 16 Page 2 of 16 . The effect of the constant stresses. The mode . Analyses required for load-out and transportation and for installation are outlined.4: Analysis I 1.5 Lecture 15A. impact and progressive collapse.1. 1. is implicitly accounted for in this formulation. The dynamic effects are accounted for by factoring the loads by the relevant DAF. stair towers).1: Offshore Structures: General Introduction Lecture 15A.

1. The response has normally a narrow-banded spectrum and can be described by a Rayleigh distribution.Lecture 15A.2 Deterministic Analysis This analysis consists of time-domain analysis of the structure. The main advantage of this representation is that non-linear effects (drag. 1.5 Closed Form Expression The damage may alternatively be expressed in closed form: linearized) and stationary.5 Lecture 15A. 0. The ratio should normally not exceed: • • • 1. in which the joint occurrence of wave D= The limit of this ratio depends on the position of the joint with respect to the splash zone (typically +/-4m on either side of the mean sea level). Page 3 of 16 Page 4 of 16 . 1.0 above. the directionality function derived from the mean direction and associated spreading function. depending on the position of the joint in the structure. m are coefficients of the selected S-N curve.3 Spectral Analysis Waves of a given height are not characterized by a unique frequency.3 below the splash zone.5 This problem is overcome by using a scatter diagram.1. If this range corresponds to a peak in the structural response. Wave directionality may also be accounted for. each with different period and incidence: D= where α. height and period is quantified. ∆σ is the stress range exceeded once in N cycles.4. the fatigue life predicted by the deterministic method can be seriously distorted. The main feature of such analysis is the introduction of coherence functions accounting for the spanwise correlation of forces. high order wave theories) are handled explicitly.1 Wind Gusts The fatigue damage caused by the fluctuating part of wind (gusts) on slender structures like flare booms and bridges is usually predicted by spectral methods.θ) is the directional wave energy spectrum. N is the total number of cycles. Eventually the most thorough representation of a sea state consists of: • • the frequency spectrum constructed from the significant wave heights and mean zerocrossing periods.1 within. but rather by a range of frequencies. The significant stress range is readily obtained for each sea state as: σsig = where S(ω. Transfer functions TF are determined from time-domain analyses involving various wave heights. 1.4 Wind Fatigue A minimum of four regular waves described in terms of height and associated period are considered for each heading angle. The zero-upcrossing frequency of stress cycles is then approximated by: Tz = where mn is the nth order moment of the response. This approach requires that the physical process be approximately linear (or properly 1. k is a long-term distribution parameter. 0.

Modal spectral response analysis is normally used. Typically all events with a probability level less than the 10-4 threshold are disregarded. favouring X-bracings instead of K-bracings. 2.2. 2. It consists of a superposition of maximum This type of analysis addresses conditions which may considerably affect the integrity of the structure.2 Impact The analysis of impact loads on structures is carried out locally using simple plastic models [2]. or a tube (jacket leg.1.1.4. 2. improving the post-buckling behaviour of bracings.1 Dropped Object/Boat Impact When a wellhead protection cover is hit by a drill collar. 2.2. the behaviour of structures in such events has so far been only predicted by simple models based on: • equivalent static overpressure and plastic deformation of plates for blast analysis.5 1. the soil mass in the direct vicinity of the structure) shall accurately represent load-deflection behaviour.4. fender) is crushed by a supply boat. it can be accomplished using time-domain techniques presented in Section 6 of Lecture 15A.Lecture 15A.2 Blast and Fire Owing to the current lack of definitive guidance regarding explosions and fire.1. 2.2 Ductility Requirements The seismic forces in a structure are highly dependent on its dynamic characteristics. Direct time integration can be used instead for specific accelerograms adapted to the site. ABNORMAL AND ACCIDENTAL CONDITIONS Lecture 15A. The whole energy must be absorbed within acceptable deformations. This spectrum is the result of time-histories of a SDOF system for different natural periods of vibration and damping. • modal damping (in general taken as 5% and 7% of critical for ULS and PLS analyses respectively). global deformation along plastic hinges with possible appearance of membrane forces. Design recommendations are given by API to determine an efficient geometry.4. As a general rule the lateral foundation behaviour is essentially controlled by horizontal ground motions of shallow soil layers. which can be determined by models such as those suggested in [1].1 Earthquake Analysis 2. Within a specific range of fluid velocities. eddies are shed at a frequency close to the resonant frequency of the member. Page 6 of 16 Page 5 of 16 .3 Analysis Method Earthquake analyses can be carried out according to the general methods presented in Lecture 15A. However their distinctive feature is that they represent essentially a base motion problem and that the seismic loads are therefore dependent on the dynamic characteristics of the structure.1 Model Particular attention shall be paid to: • foundations: the near field (i. avoiding abrupt changes in stiffness. The recommendations call for: • • • • providing sufficient redundancy and symmetry in the structure. 2.5 2. two load/deformation mechanisms occur simultaneously: • • local punch-through (cover) or denting (tube). Should a more sophisticated analysis be required. mode response and forms a response spectrum curve characteristic of the input motion. but only have a limited risk of occurrence.e.2 Vortex Shedding Vortex induced failure occurs for tubes subjected to a uniform or oscillating flow of fluid. This phenomenon involves forced displacements.

by buoyancy (long barges may be spanning over a whole trough or be half-cantilevered). For jacket transport. Dry-transported decks and modules may be simply represented by their mass and moments of inertia. Since such a configuration is only temporary (mobilization period prior to repairs) and that operations will also be restricted around the damaged area. In this analysis. 3. As the barge passes over a wave trough or a crest. buoyancy tanks) which contribute significantly to the righting moment. LOAD OUT & TRANSPORTATION 3.2 Structural Model 3. Their residual strength may be represented by forces applied at the boundary nodes with the intact structure. The purpose of such analysis is to ensure that the spare resistance of the remaining structure is sufficient to allow the loads to redistribute. The model therefore represents the jacket and the barge as two structures coupled together by the seafastening members. Lecture 15A.1.5 As the reaction on each trailer can be kept constant. In the aftermath of recent mishaps however. or by using trailers underneath it. with members having the equivalent properties of the The barge may be floating and is continuously deballasted as the package progresses onto it.2. from the barge just after it has left the quay.2 Transportation The analysis should also investigate the possibility of high local reactions being the result of settlement of the skidway or errors in the ballasting procedure. Some elements of the structure (legs. more accurate analyses may become mandatory. analysis of load-out by trailers only requires a single step to determine the optimal distribution of trailers.1.Lecture 15A.3 Progressive Collapse The model consists of the rigid-body assembly of the barge and the structure.1 Skidding The most severe configuration during skidding occurs when the part of the structure is cantilevering out: • • from the quayside before it touches the barge. the damaged elements are removed from the model. 3. bulkheads) may partially or completely loose their strength as a result of accidental damage. as well as sharp corners which introduce heavy viscous damping.2 Load-Out by Trailers Page 7 of 16 Page 8 of 16 . 3. local reinforcements may be omitted. or grounded on the bottom of the harbour. bracings.1 Load-Out The jacket model is a simplified version of the in-place model. from which eccentricities and The load-out procedure consists in moving the jacket or module from its construction site to the transportation barge by skidding.5 • the reduction of material strength and elastic modulus under temperature increase.1 Naval Architectural Model 2.2. reduced live and environmental loads are generally accepted. a portion only of the barge is supported 3. based on a better understanding of the pressure-time histories and the effective resistance and response of structures to explosions and fire. and also the partition and intensity of buoyancy and slamming forces. 3. particular care shall be taken in the representation of overhanging parts (legs. The barge is modelled as a plane grid. longitudinal and transversal bulkheads. This analysis shall provide the linear and angular accelerations and displacements of the structure to be entered in the structural model as inertia forces. Barges are in general characterised by a low length/beam ratio and a high beam/draught ratio.

the jacket is analysed at least for each main leg node being at the vertical of the rocker arm pivot. For single lifts the slings converge towards the hook joint. which is the sole vertical support in the model and shall be located exactly on the vertical through the centre of gracity (CoG) of the model.5 4. INSTALLATION 4. The rocker arm is also represented as a vertical beam hinged approximately at midspan. inertia. buoyancy and ballast forces.2 Structural Model The structural model is in all aspects identical to the one used for the transportation analysis. The piles are checked during driving for the dynamic stresses caused by the impact wave of the hammer blow.1.2 Design Factors Different factors are applied to the basic sling forces to account for specific effects during lifting operations. vertical reactions and friction forces between jacket and barge. the jacket/barge rigid body system is repositioned to equilibrate the internal and external forces produced by: • • • jacket weight. soft horizontal springs at the padeyes. otherwise they are inactivated and the analysis restarted for that step. All interface members must remain in compression.1 Model The model used for the lift analysis of a structure consists of the in-place model plus the representation of the rigging arrangement (slings.6. The stability of the jacket as a whole (overturning tendency) is investigated.5 4. Hydrodynamic actions are added for underwater driving. For heavier dual-crane lifts.6. The mathematical instability of the model with respect to horizontal forces is avoided by using 4. 4.5 Piling At each time step.3 Docking Docking of a jacket onto a pre-installed template requires guides to be analysed for local impact.1. . Page 9 of 16 Page 10 of 16 4. Interface loads obtained by the rigid body analysis are input at boundary conditions on the launch legs. 4.2 Upending No dedicated structural analysis is required for this phase. accounting for first and second order moments arising from the pile batter.4 Unpiled Stability The condition where the jacket may for a while stand unpiled on the seafloor is analysed for the design installation wave. buoyancy and drag forces.1 Launching 4.Lecture 15A. with possibly a finer representation of the launch legs.1 Naval Architectural Model Lecture 15A.1. the CoG shall be contained in the vertical plane defined by the Once the tilting phase has begun. two hook joints. together with the A three dimensional analysis is carried out to evaluate the global forces acting on the jacket at various time steps during the launch sequence. spreader frames). 4. The maximum cantilevered (stick-up) length of pile must be established for the self-weight of the pile and hammer combined. see Section 5. which is essentially a naval architecture problem. barge weight. The maximum reaction on the rocker arm is normally obtained when the jacket just starts rotating about the rocker hinge. The same requirement applied for bumpers to aid the installation of modules. resistance of the mudmats against soil pressure.6 Lifting 4. sleeves) shall also be checked. A local analysis of the lugs is performed for crane-assisted upendings. Elements in the vicinity of the piles (guides. 4. The force and elongation in these springs should always remain small.

5 is often selected.2/3 repartition). 1.3 Consequence Factors Forces in elements checked under lift conditions are multiplied by a factor reflecting the consequence a failure of that specific element would have on the integrity of the overall structure: • • 1.6.00 for other elements. internal pressure and temperature.6.4. Particular attention is paid to the 1. or determined arbitrarily (typically 1/3 . 4. 5. 4.30 1.05 typically). bottle legs nodes with diaphragms) are analysed by finite-elements models. lifting points (padeyes) and their attachment to the structure. 5.15 for all members transferring the load to the lifting points.5 4.6.2 Dynamic Amplification Factor (DAF) This factor accounts for global dynamic effects normally experienced during lifting operations. The main verifications address: • • the shear stresses in the concrete. Caissons & J-Tubes Static In-Place and Fatigue Risers.Lecture 15A.6.3 Straightened Nodes Typical straightened nodes (ring-stiffened nodes.2. from which parametric envelope formulae are drawn and applied to all nodes representative of the same class. 5. 5.2 Members within the Splash Zone Horizontal members (conductor guide frames in particular) located within the splash zone (+/5m on either side of the mean-sea-level approximately) shall be analysed for fatigue caused by repeated wave slamming.4 Appurtenances 5.20 1.1 Skew Load Factor (SKL) This factor represents the effect of fabrication tolerances and lack-of-fit of the slings on the load repartition in a statically undetermined rigging arrangement (4 slings or more). It shall normally be based on 5 respectively depending on whether cranes are on different vessels or not.3 Tilt Effect Factor (TEF) This factor accounts for additional sling loading caused by the rotation of the lifted object about a horizontal axis and by the longitudinal deviation of the hooks from their theoretical position in the case of a multi-hook lift. caissons and J-tubes are verified either by structural or piping programs for the action of environmental forces.15 1.15 1.10 1. The list of analyses below is not exhaustive and more information can be found in [1-24] which provide a complete design procedure in each particular case. the fatigue damage in the shear plates and the attachment welds to the main jacket accumulated during pile driving and throughout the life of the platform. A slamming coefficient Cs=3. LOCAL ANALYSES AND DESIGN Local analyses address specific parts of the structure which are better treated by dedicated models outside the global analysis.2.10 1.2. Skew factors may either be directly computed by applying to a pair of opposite slings a temperature difference such that their elongation/shortening corresponds to the mismatch. 4.05 outside of the pile and the inner sleeve.30 for spreader frames.6. DnV [24] recommends minimum values as follows: Lecture 15A. and 3 tilt Page 11 of 16 Page 12 of 16 .2. 5.4 Yaw Effect Factor (YEF) This factor accounts for the rotation of the lifted object about a vertical axis (equal to 1.1 Risers.05 4.1 Pile/Sleeve Connections Underwater pile/sleeve connection is usually achieved by grouting the annulus between the Lifted Weight W (tonnes) DAF offshore DAF inshore up to 100 t 100 t to 1000t 1000 t to 2500t more than 2500 t 1.5 • 1.

CONCLUDING SUMMARY • With the trend to ever deeper and more slender offshore structures in yet harsher environments. these being provided by the horizontal framing of the jacket (typically 20 to 25 m span). June 1985. [8] McClelland B.5 bends not always satisfactorily represented by structural programs and the location of the touch-down point now known a-priori. Regulation for Structural Design of Loadbearing Structures Intended for Exploitation of Petroleum Resources.Lecture 15A. [5] DnV. Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms/18th edition. reduced material characteristics due to high temperature in the vicinity of the tip during operation. ⋅ verify the validity of the data resulting from a complex analysis against a simplified model.M. 1986.G. Also the portion of compression force in the conductor caused by the hanging casings is regarded as an internal force (similar to prestressing) which therefore does not induce any buckling tendency.D. Plastic theories are applicable for designing the plate and stiffeners. May 1981. A fatigue analysis is also performed to assess the fatigue damage to the clamps and the attachments to the jacket. local excitation of diagonals by wind vortex-shedding. see [23]. Planning and Design of Fixed Offshore Platforms/Van Nostrand Reinhold.6 Flare Booms Analyses of flare booms particularly consider: • • • • variable positions during installation (horizontal pick-up from the barge. Pull-In J-tubes are empty ducts continuously guiding a post-installed riser pulled inside.A. September 1989.. 7. & Griffin O. Rules for the Classification of Fixed Offshore Structures.. Recommended Practice for Planning. April 1984. while the main framing is analysed elastically. Page 13 of 16 Page 14 of 16 . & Reifel M. [6] NPD. lift upright). REFERENCES [1] Skop R. 5.5 Helidecks The helideck is normally designed to resist an impact load equal to 2. [2] De Oliveira J. December1989.5 times the take-off weight of the heaviest helicopter factored by a DAF of 1. dynamic response under gusty winds. 5. October1984 and Veiledning om Utforming. May 1973. which can also be used to assess the influence of a particular parameter.5 6. more elaborate theories are necessary to analyse complex situations. • To retain enough control of the process of analysis.. see [22]. 5.4. They are verified by empirical plastic models against the forces generated during pull-in by the friction of the cable and the deformation of the pull head. [4] DnV. [7] DoE. the following recommendations are given: ⋅ check the interfaces between the different analyses and ensure the consistency of the input/output. Lecture 15A. An Heuristic Model for Determining Flow-Induced Vibrations of Offshore Structures/OTC paper 1843.2 Conductors Conductors are analysed in-place as beam columns on discrete simple supports. ⋅ make full use of "good engineering judgement" to criticise the unexpected results of an analysis. Standard for Insurance Warranty Surveys in Marine Operations. The Behaviour of Steel Offshore Structures under Accidental Collisions/OTC paper 4136. The installation sequence of the different casings must be considered to assess the distribution of stresses in the different tubes forming the overall composite section. Beregning og Dimensjonering av Stalkonstruksjoner i Petroleumsvirksomheten. Offshore Installations: Guidance on Design and Construction/London. [3] API-RP2A.30. There is a risk for the Engineer having increasingly to rely on the sole results of computer analyses at the expense of sound design practice. September1989.

.R. Dynamics of Marine Structures/ CIRIA Report UR8 (2nd edition). 1984. [10] Hallam M. September 1983. [15] Davenport A.. 1975. Fatigue Analysis of Steel Offshore Structures/ICE Vol. [22] Walker A. Jacket Launching Simulation by Differentiation of Constraints/ Applied Ocean Research. & Wootton L. November 1976.W. 1978. [17] Anagnostopoulos S.23. pp. of the Structural Div.60. Lecture 15A.K. & Mangiavacchi A. [24] DnV . [13] Newland D. & Penzien J.F..G. Dynamics of Offshore Structures/Wiley Interscience.5 [23] Stahl B. 1984. October 1982.G. [12] Clough R.G.Rules for the Classification of Steel Ships. Development of Unified Design Criteria for Heavy Lift Operations Offshore/OTC paper 4192.3. [14] Zienkiewicz O.4 No.. & Bentson J. Random Vibrations and Spectral Analysis/Longman Scientific (2nd edition). New York. Heaf N. [21] Bunce J.C. 108.. & Baur M.. May1983. [19] Kaplan P. November 1983. October 1978. [11] Wilson J. & Wyatt T. 263-270. Jiang C... No ST10. Node Flexibility and its Effect on Jacket Structures/CIRIA Report UR22. Numerical Methods in Offshore Engineering/Wiley Interscience. Wave and Earthquake Response of Offshore Structures: Evaluation of Modal Solutions/ASCE J.. Lewis R.A. Dynamics of Structures/McGraw-Hill...J.P. A Design Basis for the J-Tube Method of Riser Installation/J. 1962.Lecture 15A. [16] Williams A. The Response of Slender Line-Like Structures to a Gusty Wind/ICE Vol.W. of Naval Architects.E. of Energy Resources Technology. Vol. & Davies P.. Design Methodology for Offshore Platform Conductors/J.E. of Petroleum Technology..A....C. vol. [18] Chianis J. May 1982.5 [9] UEG. London.W. 1982. [20] Hambro L. Hydrodynamic Analysis of Barge-Platform Systems in Waves/Royal Inst. A Critical Review of Transportation Analysis Procedures/OTC paper 4617. Page 15 of 16 Page 16 of 16 .W. & Stagg K. 1984. & Rhinne J. April 1982.W. January 1989.

12: Connections in Offshore Deck Structures Granular soils are non-plastic soils with negligible cohesion between particles.3 Cohesive Soils In this lecture piled foundations for offshore structures are presented. SUMMARY 1. cohesive soils.4 Multi-Layered Strata 1.05mm) offering a high permeability. 1. In this section theoretical aspects of the design of piles are presented. cohesion). The lecture starts with the classification of soil. silts : characterized by particle sizes between 0.05 and 0. they may exhibit some cohesion. DESIGN Steel offshore platforms are usually founded on piles.5: Requirements and Verifications of Seismic Resistant Structures • A general knowledge of design in offshore structures and an understanding of offshore installation are also required. they are generally over-consolidated.2 Granular Soils Lecture 15A.6: Shear Connection Lectures 12. soils can be classified within "ideal" categories: • • granular soils.02mm.1 Classification of Soils The stratigraphy of the sea bed results from a complex geological process during which various materials were deposited.2: Limit State Design Philosophy and Partial Safety Factors Lectures 10. Soil texture consists of small mineral or organic particles basically characterized by their grain size and mutual interaction (friction. their permeability is low. They include: Lecture 17.6 Lecture 15A. Clays are plastic soils with particle sizes less than 0.4: Fatigue Behaviour of Hollow Section Joints Since the least significant of either of these parameters is often neglected. The different kinds of piles and hammers are described. driven deep into the soil (Figure 1). For design purposes the influence of these factors on soil behaviour is expressed in terms of two fundamental parameters: • • friction angle. PREREQUISITES Lecture 1B. The properties of a specific soil depend mainly on the following factors: • density. 1. The main steps in the design of piles are then explained. transport and installation. The piles have to transfer the loads acting on the jacket into the sea bed. undrained shear strength Cu.6 Foundations OBJECTIVE\SCOPE • • • to classify different types of piles to understand main design methods to cover various methods of installation • • water content. each having constant properties throughout. . the soil is divided into several layers. The number of layers depends on the precision required of the analysis.002mm which tend to stick together.2. The three main execution phases are briefly discussed: fabrication.Lecture 15A. analysis purposes. INTRODUCTION The nature and characteristics of the soil surrounding a pile generally vary with the depth. Checking of the pile itself is described in detail in the Worked Example. remoulded and pressed together. Page 1 of 25 Page 2 of 25 2. over consolidation ratio. • sands : characterized by large to medium particle sizes (1mm to 0. For 1.

with or without the area of plug if relevant. 2. Lateral friction is integrated along the whole penetration of the pile. overturning moment on the jacket.6 2. resulting in: • • vertical compression or pullout force.1 Gravity loads Gravity loads (platform dead load and live loads) are distributed as axial compression forces on the piles depending upon their respective eccentricity. The bearing pressure: • for clays: is equal to 9 Cu. Page 3 of 25 Page 4 of 25 . are basically horizontal.2 Static Axial Pile Resistance The overall resistance of the pile against axial force is the sum of shaft friction and end bearing.1.e. 2. and lateral shear force plus bending.2 Environmental loads Environmental loads due to waves. etc.Lecture 15A.1.1. 2.3 Load combinations The basic gravity and environmental loads multiplied by relevant load factors are combined in order to produce the most severe effect(s) at mudline. current.1 Design Loads These loads are those transferred from the jacket to the foundation.2. i. wind. 2.1 Lateral friction along the shaft (shaft friction) Skin friction is mobilized along the shaft of the tubular pile (and possibly also along the inner wall when the soil plug is not removed). equilibrated by axial tension/ compression in symmetrically disposed piles (upstream/downstream).2. They are calculated at the mudline. 2.2 End bearing End bearing is the resultant of bearing pressure over the gross end area of the pile. Their resultant at mudline consists of: • • shear distributed as horizontal forces on the piles. earthquake. for clays: is calculated by the "alpha" or "lambda" method and is a constant equal to the shear strength Cu at great depth. The unit shaft friction: • • for sands: is proportional to the overburden pressure. 2.6 Lecture 15A.

elastic/plastic behaviour for medium deflections. 2.2 Wave equation This method of analysing the driving process consists of representing the ensemble of pile/soil/hammer as a one-dimensional assembly of masses.3 Lateral Pile Resistance The shear at the mudline caused by environmental loads is resisted by lateral bearing of the pile on the soil.3. 2.4 Pile Driving Piles installed by driving are forced into the soil by a ram hitting the top. the secant stiffness of the soil springs being updated at each step.2. No bearing resistance can be mobilized against pull-out: the friction available must be equated to the pull out force multiplied by the appropriate factor of safety.6 2. 2. constant resistance for large deflections or loss of resistance when the soil skeleton deteriorates (clay under cyclic load in particular). For large deformations. the cushion is represented by a weightless spring (see Figure 3). 2.3 Pile penetration The pile penetration shall be sufficient to generate enough friction and bearing resistance against the maximum design compression multiplied by the appropriate factor of safety.4. The general shape of the curves for increasing displacement features: • • • elastic (linear) behaviour for small deflections.4. The fourth order differential equation which expresses the pile deformation is integrated by successive iterations.1 P-y curves P-y curves represent the lateral soil resistance versus deflection. springs and dashpots: • • • • • the pile is modelled as a discrete assembly of masses and elastic springs. the hammer is modelled as a mass falling with an initial velocity. Lecture 15A. This action may generate large deformations and high bending moments in the part of the pile directly below the mudline. The energy is progressively lost by plastic friction on the sides and bearing at the tip of the pile. the second order contribution of the axial compression to the bending moment (P-Delta effect) shall be taken into account. The impact is transmitted along the pile in the form of a wave.2 Lateral pile analysis For analysis purposes. the pile cap is represented by a mass of infinite rigidity.1 Empirical formulae A considerable number of empirical formulae exist to predict pile driveability.2 of API-RP2A [1].6 • for sands: is proportional to the overburden pressure as explained in Section 6. The shape of these curves varies with the depth and the type of soil at the considered elevation. Page 5 of 25 Page 6 of 25 . the soil is modelled as lumped non-linear springs distributed along the pile. 2.Lecture 15A. the soil is idealized as a massless medium characterized by elastic-perfectly-plastic springs and linear dashpots. Each formula is 2. generally limited to a particular type of soil and hammer. which reflects on the pile tip.3. particularly in soft soils.4.

mostly caused by the inaccuracies in the soil model.Lecture 15A. the following alternatives may be chosen when driving proves impractical: • • • insert piles. 3. drilled and grouted piles. The plastic displacement of the tip relative to the soil is the set achieved by the blow.6 The energy of the ram hitting the top of the pile generates a stress wave in the pile. Curves can be drawn to represent the number of blows per unit length required to drive the pile at different penetrations. which dissipates progressively by friction between the pile and the soil and by reflection at the extremities of the pile. The wave equation. though representing the most rigorous assessment to date of the driving process. belled piles. DIFFERENT KINDS OF PILES Driven piles are the most popular and cost-efficient type of foundation for offshore structures. still suffers a lack of accuracy. Page 7 of 25 Page 8 of 25 . As shown in Figure 2.6 Lecture 15A.

The pile is then lowered down. slightly extending the effective pile diameter but not increasing the friction significantly.2 Insert Piles The main pile. After placing and driving the first long segment. The insert pile is welded to the main pile at the top of the jacket and the annular space between the tubes is grouted. This type of pile is used: • • • • • in a preplanned situation: performance is good although material and installation costs are higher than for normal driven piles. as an emergency procedure: when scheduled piles cannot be driven to the required penetration.1 Driven Piles Piles are usually made up in segments. Commonly used steel grade is X52 or X60. at the pile tip (driving shoe) to resist local bearing stresses while driving. are used to decrease the bearing stress under a pile.e. difficulties often noted for the setting-in of all the required volume of grouting. serves here as a casing through which a rig drills a slightly Insert piles are smaller diameter piles driven through the main pile from which the soil plug has been previously drilled out. A heavy reinforcement cage is lowered inside the bell which is subsequently filled with concrete made using fine aggregate (maximum size 10mm). Wall thickness may vary. A thicker wall is sometimes required: • • in sections from mudline down to a specified depth within which bending stresses are especially high. extension segments called add-ons are set on piece by piece as driving proceeds until the overall design length is achieved. An oversized hole is initially drilled to the proposed pile penetration depth. They are therefore not subjected to skin friction over the length of the main pile and can reach substantial additional penetration. Design uncertainty results because: • • hard soil formation softens when exposed to the water or mud used during drilling and exhibits lower skin friction resistance. FABRICATION AND INSTALLATION 4. 3. it resembles that for drilling a conductor well. resulting therefore in one of the following drawbacks. This procedure is the only means of installing piles with tension resistance in hard soils or soft rocks.6 Lecture 15A. sometimes centred in the hole by spacers and the annular space between the pile shaft and the surrounding soil is grouted.cylinders of rolled plate with a longitudinal seam. Longitudinal seams of two adjacent segments are rotated 90° apart at least. normally driven. Page 9 of 25 Page 10 of 25 .5m long or more. While belled piles. Single cans are typically 1. In recent years one-piece piles have been widely used in the North Sea since the offshore work is considerably reduced.3 Drilled and Grouted Piles 3. reduced friction area and end bearing pressure. a thicker wall section of the main pile will be within the jacket height instead of below the mudline.1 Fabrication The piles are usually made up of "cans" . on land.Lecture 15A. offshore belled piles provide a large bearing area to increase tip uplift resistance. the concern is the leakage of grout or the impossibility to fill with the calculated volume of grout. oversized hole ahead. Bevelling is mandatory should the wall thickness difference exceed 3mm between adjacent cans. 3. i.4 Belled Piles Uniform wall thickness is however preferable thus avoiding construction and installation problems. in case of calcareous sand. A belling tool (underreamer) then enlarges the socket to a conical bell with a base diameter a few times that of the main pile. Maximum deviation from straightness is specified (0.6 3. The outside surface of grouted piles should be free of mill scale and varnished.1% in length). external grouting just crushes the sand. 4.

6 4. monel or copper-nickel sheeting are provided.2 Transportation 4. They are double acting. 4. They are generally single acting with rates of up to 40 blows/minute. steel piles are protected underwater by sacrificial anodes or by impressed current. Menck hydraulic hammers are widely used. the hammer with attached driving head rides the pile rather than being supported by leads. Pile plate should be thick enough to prevent any deformation caused by stacking.2 Self floating mode This method is attractive where long segments of pile are to be lifted and set in guides far below the sea surface (skirt piles for example). During driving. the ram up and down. numerical modelling of driving for each particular site (see Pile Driving: Section 2.4. 4. Padeyes are generally used (welded in the fabrication yard. Several piles are driven immediately after the jacket has touched down. extending the full height of the jacket. and in turn. (82KNm to 1725KNm per blow). their design should take into Page 11 of 25 Page 12 of 25 . 4.1 Barge transportation Pile segments are choked and fastened to the barge to prevent them from falling overboard under severe seastates. In the splash zone additional thickness to allow for corrosion (3mm for example) and epoxy or rubberized coating.4 Selection of hammer size Selection of hammer size is based on: • • experience of similar situations (see Quality Control: Section 4. Piles can then be driven using any type of hammer (or a combination of types).6).3 Transport within the jacket The piles are pre-set inside the main legs or in the guides/sleeves.3. running vertical or parallel to the legs (typical batter 1/12 to 1/6). The ends of the piles are sealed by steel closure plates or rubber diaphragms which should be able to resist wave slamming during the tow. Properties of some hammers used offshore are shown in Table 1. Lecture 15A.3.4 Installation 4. Energies of current hammers range from 60 000 to 1 250 000 ft lb/blow. They are lighter to handle and less energy consuming than steam hammers.2.3.2. Hammers are illustrated in Figure 3.4) Typical values of pile sizes. 4. wall thicknesses. or encased in sleeves protruding at the bottom of the jacket.3 Hammers Piles are positioned: • • either inside the jacket legs.3.Lecture 15A. but their effective energy is limited. generating additional weight and possibly buoyancy (if closed).2 Diesel hammers Diesel hammers are much used at offshore terminals. 4.3 Hydraulic hammers Hydraulic hammers are dedicated to underwater driving (skirt piles terminating far below the sea surface). 4. They are held in place by shims which prevent them from escaping from their guides during launch and uprighting of the jacket. providing initial stability against the action of waves and current. Hydraulic fluid under high pressure is used to force a piston or set of pistons. They utilize a solid steel ram and a flexible steel pile cap to limit impact forces. and hammer energies for steam hammers are shown in Table 3.1 Pile handling and positioning Figure 4 shows the different ways of providing lifting points for positioning pile sections. 4.1 Steam hammers Steam hammers are widely used for offshore installation of jackets. The hammer line from the crane boom is slackened so as to prevent transmission of impact and vibration into the boom. A selection of large offshore pile driving hammers driving on heavy piles is also shown in Table 2.2. 4.6 In certain instances.

4.6 account the changes in load direction during lifting). • or by mechanical connectors (as shown in Figure 4): .lug type (hydraulic method).pile wall thickness: 3 hours for 1in. rotation of the crane to position add-on. segments held temporarily by internal or external stabbing guides as shown in Figure 4. thick (25. . (76. 4.number and qualification of the welders. . .breech block (twisting method). 16 hours for 3in.Lecture 15A. Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) or flux-cored.4. Lecture 15A. Welding time depends upon: . installing and lowering of the pile add-on. Padeyes are then carefully cut before lowering the next pile section.2mm) (typical). 4.2 Pile connections Different solutions for connecting pile segments back-to-back are used: • either by welding. thick.4mm).environmental conditions.6 Sketch E shows the different steps for the positioning of pile sections: • • • pile or add-on lifted from the barge deck.3 Hammer placement Figure 5 shows the different steps of this routine operation: Page 13 of 25 Page 14 of 25 .

alignment of the pile cap. • • • • lifting from the barge deck.5 Pile-to-Jacket Connections 4. 4.1 Welded shims The shims are inserted at the top of the pile within the annulus between the pile and jacket leg (see Figure 6) and welded afterwards.4 Driving Some penetration under the self weight of the pile is normal. lowering leads after hammer positioning.5.4.. Each add-on should be designed to prevent bending or buckling failure during installation and in-place conditions.6 Lecture 15A. particular measures are taken to avoid an uncontrolled run. Piles are then driven or drilled until pile refusal. Page 15 of 25 Page 16 of 25 . very helpful in rough weather). For soft soil conditions.6 4. A widely accepted rate for defining refusal is 300 blows/feet (980 blows/meters).Lecture 15A.. Pile refusal is defined as the minimum rate of penetration beyond which further advancement of the pile is no longer achievable because of the time required and the possible damage to the pile or to the hammer. positioning over pile by booming out or in (the bell of the hammer acts as a stabling guide.

4. Page 17 of 25 Page 18 of 25 . Forces are transmitted by shear through the grout.6 4.5. non-shrinking grout must fill completely the annulus between the pile and leg (or sleeve). The expansive. Lecture 15A. Figure 8 shows the two types of packers commonly used.6 This type of connection is most popular for subsea templates.2 Mechanical locking system This metal-to-metal connection is achieved by a hydraulic swaging tool lowered inside the pile and expanding it into machined grooves provided in the sleeves at two or three elevations as shown on Figure 7.Lecture 15A.3 Grouting This hybrid connection is the most commonly used for connecting piles to the main structure (in the mudline area). It offers immediate strength and the possibility to re-enter the connection should swaging prove incomplete.5.

as shown in Figure 9. measured lengths of add-ons and cut-offs.unexpected behaviour of the pile and/or hammer. blowcount throughout driving with identification of hammer used and energy. attached to the base of the sleeve to protect them during pile entry and driving.5in. electrical resistance gauges. . provide a record of pile installation for reference to subsequent driving of nearby piles and future modifications to the platform. The installation report shall mention: • • • • • pile identification (diameter and thickness). . record of incidents and abnormalities: . strips or weld beads disposed on the surface of the sleeve and pile in contact with the grout). radioactive tracers.1mm) about 4in. Packers are often damaged during piling and are therefore: • • installed in a double set.pile damage if any. e. Thorough filling should be checked by suitable devices. 4. • elevations of soil plug and internal water surface after driving. it is improved by shear connectors (shear keys.interruptions of driving (with set-up time and blowcount subsequently required to break the pile loose). (38. Lecture 15A.6mm) maximum (to avoid destruction of the tensile strength of the grout by internal microcracking). (101. self penetration of pile (under its own weight and under static weight of the hammer). well-logging devices or overflow pipes checked by divers.6 • information about the pile/structure connection: .record of interruptions and delays. Page 19 of 25 Page 20 of 25 . Packers are used to confine the grout and prevent it from escaping at the base of the sleeve.g.overall volume of grout and quality.6 Bonding should be excellent.equipment and procedure employed.Lecture 15A. . The width of the annulus between pile and sleeve should be maintained constant by use of centralizers and be limited to: • • 1. minimum.6 Quality Control Quality control shall: • • confirm the adequacy of the foundation with respect to the design. .

10. Ben C. Construction of Offshore Structures.. Foundation analysis and design. Bowles. J.7 Contingency Plan Contingency documents should provide back-up solutions in case "unforeseen" events occur such as: Lecture 15A. MacGraw Hill Book Company (4th edition 1988). Planning and design of fixed offshore platforms. T. Menck MRBS 12500 Menck MHU 1700 IHC S-300 IHC S-800 IHC S-1600 IHC S-2000 IHC S-2300 Page 21 of 25 Page 22 of 25 . D. HBM 3000 HBM 3000 A HBM 3000 P Menck MHU 900 Menck MRBS 8000 Vulcan 4250 HBM 4000 Vulcan 6300 6. 9.. P. Graff. D. 18th ed. 6. 4. Gulf Publishing Company (1981). B. Washington. REFERENCES [1] API-RP2A. if any (metric tons) Energy • • • impossibility to get the required pile penetration. and Reifel.Technip ARGEMA (1988). Dawson. Pile foundation analysis and design. Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms".6 4. 2. Capacité patante des pieux . G. Technip (1976) 7. H. ADDITIONAL READING 1.6 TABLE 1 Properties of some hammers used offshore Expected Net Energy (ft-lb x 1000) On Anvil 673 542 796 800 651 715 901 1157 1697 1384 1230 - Rated Striking Hammer Blows per Minute Weight including Offshore Cage. John Wiley and Sons (1980).... Pieux dans les formatines carbonates . Reconnaissance des sols en mer pour l'implantation des ouvrages Pétroliens.Technip ARGEMA (1988). Poulos. the multiplicity of solutions and the different kind of piles and hammers. grout pipe blockage. 1989. 7.. H. M. J. 5.. Bowles. mechanical breakdown of the hammer.. J. MacGraw Hill Book Company (1983). 8. Gerwick. E. John Wiley and Sons (1986). American Petroleum Institute. Introduction to offshore structures.. W. Prentice Hall Inc (1983).. CONCLUDING SUMMARY This lecture has described: • • • the difficult aspects of foundations in a variety of soils. E. and Davis. E. "Recommended Practice for Planning. the complexity of the process from design to installation. Vulcan 3250 Type (ft-lb x 1000) 750 1034 1100 1120 868 1000 1700 1800 1582 220 580 1160 1449 1566 KNm On Pile Single-acting steam Hydraulic underwater Hydraulic underwater Slender hydraulic underwater Slender hydraulic underwater Single-acting steam Single-acting steam Hydraulic underwater Single-acting steam Single-acting steam Slender hydraulic underwater Slender hydraulic underwater Slender hydraulic underwater Slender hydraulic underwater Slender hydraulic underwater Slender hydraulic underwater 60 50-60 40-70 40-70 48-65 38 53 40-70 37 38 32-65 40 40 30 - 300 175 190 170 135 280 337 222 380 385 235 30 80 160 260 - 1040 1430 1520 1550 1200 1380 2350 2490 2190 300 800 1600 2000 2300 600 542 796 800 618 629 800 1157 1440 1147 1169 - 5. Von Mostrand Reinhold Company (1982).C. H. Offshore Structural Engineering. 3. Le Tirant. Analytical and computer methods in Foundation Engineering.Lecture 15A. McClelland.

.05 11.480 189.130 7.500 7.96 59 59 59 50 52.01 176.07 22.000 90.064 6.400 6 42 MH 120 58. Stroke (m) Std.582. Air/Steam Hammers Rated Make Model Energy (ft-lbs) Ram Weight (kips) Max.000 725.6 172 88 27.500 4 3@ 4 46 MRBU MHU 1700 MHU 2@ 12500 8800 8000 7000 Menck 5000 (MRBS) 4600 3000 1800 850 499.37 154 69 59 59 49 154.000 60 40 20 36 36 36 38.000 3000A 800.4 853 600 564 583 171 150 142 156 53.91 33.000 170. Pilecap Weight (kips) Typical Hammer Weight (w/leads) (kips) (kips) (kips) (kips) (psi) 205 152 139 55 30.1 33 490 414 40-70 17.65 150 3 60 Note 1: With the heavier hammers in the range given. Hydraulic Hammers Rated Energy Make Model (ft-lb) Rated Operating Pressure (psi) Steam Consumption (lbs ht) Air Consumption (lbs ht) Hose Rated ST/F BPM .62 85.000 40 900 45 500 72.0 1.000 85 65 30 30 20 72 60 60 36 36 57.944 5.950 3 45 44 MH 80 42 MH 96 542.700 4 1.000 5 3.58 194.563 1.0 16.6 TABLE 2 Large pile driving hammers Lecture 15A.400 30.000 120.800 26.5 13.000 Ram Weight Standard Pilecap Weight Hammer Weight Typical Operating Pressure Rated Rated Oil Flow BPM (gal.885 275.060 3.000 69.960 632..8 9.220 954.9 11.23 59 66.32 103.7 12.0 12.000 60.5 1. Page 23 of 25 Page 24 of 25 .700 15.711 4 1.940 10.0 9.5 59.000 119.0 6.860 30.98 92.230.0 6..530 9.000 60.000 325.000 1500 290.0 19.750 867.14 335 150 20.000 1.000 150.000 195 Menck MH 165 105. min) A.58 18. the wall thicknesses must be near the upper range of those listed in order to prevent overstress (yielding) in the pile under hard driving..000 1.000 900 650.340 101.900 14.910 32.000 141.850 93.9 1.0 6.Lecture 15A.070 325.5 313 205 125 64 142 142 142 142 19.830 6 8 8 4@ 4 40 36 MH 36 38 35 MH 145 87.41 66.7 312 262 92 86 74 180 160 160 150 120 8.195 3 59 54 31.7 12.6 C.3 84 77 415 617 386 3400 3400 3100 3550 3190 2755 2320 2830 2465 845 845 580 98 103 102 103 75 75 50-80 32-65 48-65 38 42 42 44 48 48 6.840 12.14 38. 3000 HMB 2@ 6850 5650 Conmaco 5300 300 200 510.000 4000 1.200.470 110.900 6 6.5 132 207 110 22.9 59 51 46 40 27 24 OS-60 MKT OS-40 OS-20 18.471 3 1.000 760.500 16.

1.000 50.000 180.700 126 .000.400 2.1.1¼ 17.000 Hammer Energy (kN-m) 70 .500.000 50.6 Note 2: With diesel hammers.1.000 180.1.000 .000.400 Page 25 of 25 .120 126 .500 1.700 3. the effective hammer energy is from one-half to two-thirds the values generally listed by the manufacturers and the above table must be adjusted accordingly.100 2.1. wall thickness and hammer energies Pile Outer Diameter (in.2½ 1½ .000 .Lecture 15A.000.000 .252 84 .000 .400 252 .000 300.7/8 ¾ 7/8 .500.000 90.000 .168 70 .1¾ 17 .1¾ 1¼ .120.400 420 .000 .000 60.168 70 .000 .800 2. TABLE 3 Typical values of pile sizes.700.200 1. Diesel hammers would normally only be used on 36-in. or less diameter piles.000 120.120.000 Wall Thickness (in. Note 3: Hydraulic hammers have a more sustained blow.000.980 252 .2 1¼ .1.2 1½ .000 .) 24 30 36 42 48 60 72 84 96 108 120 (mm) 600 750 900 1.) 5/8 .000 .180.050 1.000 90.1 1 .400 420 .2½ (mm) 15-21 19 21-25 25-32 28-44 28-44 32-50 32-50 32-50 37-62 37-62 (ft-lb) 50.700 168 .1.300.1.000 .000 .000 300.2 1¼ . and hence the above table can be modified to fit the stress wave pattern.

K and KT joints and discusses the significance of gaps. receiving the other components. 1. These are: 1. Static strength considerations 2. It describes design methods for static and fatigue strength.7 Tubular Joints in Offshore Structures OBJECTIVE/SCOPE To present methods for the design of large tubular joints typically found on offshore structures. but they can never be larger. Y. are basically similar to those used for onshore structures. multiplanar joints and the details of joint arrangements.8 : Fabrication Lecture 15A. even where simple assessment of fatigue behaviour shows this will not be a problem. overlaps. Refer to the corresponding lectures for appropriate design guidance. The other tubulars are welded to it. Connections of I-shape sections or boxed beams whether rolled or built up.1: Offshore Structures: General Introduction RELATED LECTURES Lecture 15A.Lecture 15A. It presents the classifications for T. These are used extensively offshore.12: Connections in Offshore Deck Structures SUMMARY The lecture defines the principle terms and ratios used in tubular joint design. Two main calculations need to be performed in order to adequately design a tubular joint. INTRODUCTION The main structure of topside consists of either an integrated deck or a module support frame and modules. particularly for jacket structures. Commonly tubular lattice frames are present. PREREQUISITES Lecture 15A. 2. X. without piercing through the chord at the intersection.7 Lecture 15A. This lecture refers to the design of tubular joints. Fatigue behaviour considerations The question of fatigue behaviour always has to be addressed. It is necessarily a through member. The joint designer must therefore always be "fatigue minded". N. DEFINITIONS The following definitions are universally acknowledged [1]: (refer to Figure 1 for clarification): The CHORD is the main member. presenting some detailed information on stress concentration factors. however a significant amount of rolled and built up sections are also used. Page 1 of 23 Page 2 of 23 . Other tubulars belonging to the joint assembly may be as large as the chord.

7 The CAN is the section of the chord reinforced with an increased wall thickness. The BRACES are the structural members which are welded to the chord.Lecture 15A.2 Geometrical ratios α= β= γ= τ= ζ= Can slenderness ratio Brace to chord diameter ratio (always ≤ 1) Chord slenderness ratio Brace to chord thickness ratio Relative gap These are non-dimensional variables for use in parametrical equations. The following classification is used. 3. or stiffeners. Different positions have to be identified along the brace . see Figure 2.7 2. Positive when opposite to the brace side. a subscript identifies the brace) g is the theoretical gap between weld toes e is the eccentricity. Lecture 15A. which also contains the brace axis.chord intersection line: • • CROWN position is located where the brace to chord intersection crosses the plane containing the brace and chord. Negative when on the brace side θ is the angle between brace and chord axis. according to the joint geometry. They physically terminate on the chord skin. 2.1 Geometrical definitions Refer to Figure 1 L is the length of the chord can D is the chord outside diameter T is the chord wall thickness d is the brace outside diameter t is the brace wall thickness (where there are several braces. The STUB is the extremity of the brace. CLASSIFICATION Load paths within a joint are very different. Page 3 of 23 Page 4 of 23 . SADDLE position is located where the brace to chord intersection crosses the plane perpendicular to the plane containing the brace and chord. locally reinforced with an increased wall thickness.

0. The ideal load pattern of these joints is reached when axial forces are balanced in the braces.7 10 30 0.7 3. the axial force acting in the brace is reacted by bending in the chord. may lead to two slightly different braces. Engineering judgement must therefore be used to classify a joint. net force into chord member is low. 3.1 Geometrical Limits and Typical Ranges Parameter Typical range min Limitations max 0.e. The load pattern for these joints is more complex. In a T joint. The important point to note is the balance of forces in the braces. If the axial force in one brace is far higher than the one in the other brace.1 T and Y Joints These are joints made up of a single brace. Angles may be slightly different as well. perpendicular to the chord (T joint) or inclined to it (Y joints). net force into chord member is low.4 . the geometrical ratios given in Section 2. For example a geometrical K joint may be classified as. a Y joint when the force in one brace is reacted predominantly by the chord. In fact.2 have limitations. It must always be remembered that this classification is based on load pattern as well as the geometry.20 X joints include two coaxial braces on either side of the chord. (1) Physical limitation θ 40° .6 How to classify a joint This classification deals only with braces located in one plane. 3. the axial force is reacted by bending and axial force in the chord. i.3 .0.2 1 (2) 30° (3) 90° (1) (2) Brace shall be less or equal to chord thickness (see punching shear) (3) Angle limitation to get a correct workmanship of welds.2 X Joints Lecture 15A.7 Table 3.1 shows these limits and their typical ranges. rather than by the second brace. 3.5 Limitations For a joint to be able to be fabricated and to be effective. Axial forces are balanced in the braces. Page 5 of 23 Page 6 of 23 .90° 0. the joint may be classified as a Y (or a T) joint rather than an X joint. 3. i.e.2 1 12 .8 0. One of them may be perpendicular to the chord (N joint) or both inclined (K joint).3 N and K Joints These joints include two braces. which can be very different on each side of the chord.4 KT Joints These joints include three braces.Lecture 15A. other considerations such as brace length. which in an ideal X joint have the same diameter and thickness. In a Y joint. • • a K joint when forces are balanced within braces. 3. Ideally axial forces should be balanced within the braces. Table 3.

secondary moments have to be introduced in the structural analysis by introducing extra nodes. whichever is the greatest. The following practice. Thickness transitions are smoothed to a 1 in 4 slope. Eccentricity and offset are to be kept within a quarter of the chord diameter. Page 7 of 23 Page 8 of 23 . The theoretical gap is the shortest distance between the outer surfaces of two braces. from the nearest point of a brace-chord connection. whichever is the greater.Lecture 15A. 2. most designers use a 70 or 75mm theoretical gap. between actual weld toes. To achieve this. by tapering the thicker wall.7 4. 4. The actual gap shall not be less than 50mm.1 Definitions The GAP is the distance along the chord between the weld toes of the braces (Figure 3).3 Multiplanar Joints The same definitions and limitations apply to multiplanar joints. 5. from the nearest point of the brace-chord connection. 4. This is important because the gap is a highly stressed zone. 5. This limitation is set to avoid two welds clashing. Lecture 15A. 3. A brace OVERLAPS another brace when one brace is welded to the other brace. JOINT ARRANGEMENT As a rule.2 Limitations The minimum gap allowed is 50mm. see Figure 4. The overlapping brace is always the thinner brace. The overlapped brace is always completely welded to the chord.7 4. welds in a joint have to be kept away from zones of high stress concentration. measured on the line where they cross the chord outer surface. The brace circumferential welds are to be located at either 600mm or a brace diameter. should be followed: 1. GAP AND OVERLAP 4. When higher values can not be avoided. The real gap is the one measured at the corresponding location. The chord circumferential welds are to be located at either 300mm or a quarter of the chord diameter.

1 Acting punching shear The acting punching shear is the shear stress developed in the chord by the brace load. 6. Nevertheless. their presence must never be forgotten and in some specific cases. STATIC STRENGTH 6. The acting punching stress vp is written as: vp = τ f sin θ where f is the nominal axial. in-plane bending or out-of-plane bending stress in the brace (punching shear for each kept separate).7 Lecture 15A. The axial load.Lecture 15A.1 Loads taken into account The loads considered in a joint static strength design are the axial force.7 6. in-plane and out-of-plane bending moments are normally the dimensioning criterion for tubular joints. The other components (transverse shear and brace torsion moment) are usually neglected since unlike the preceding loads.2 Punching shear 6. the in-plane bending moment and the out-of-plane bending moment for each brace.2. their effects must be assessed. these loads do not induce bending in the chord wall. see Figure 5. Page 9 of 23 Page 10 of 23 .

Qf = 1 . • Interaction formulae are given for combined loading.2 Allowable punching shear Allowable punching shear values in the chord wall are determined from test results carried out on full scale or on reduced scale models. Tests are performed on experimental rigs such as the one shown in Figure 6.2. in-plane bending. and out of plane bending) is calculated and compared to the allowable punching shear stress for the appropriate load and geometry. in-plane bending and out of plane bending stresses in the chord Page 11 of 23 Page 12 of 23 . fOPB are the nominal axial. The following method is presented in API RP2A [2]: A.7 6. B. When the joint includes several braces.2. Punching shear for each load component (axial force.7 6. combining the three punching shear ratio calculated for each component. Principle • • This method applies to a single brace without overlap. for a non-stiffened joint. see Table 6. Allowable punching shear stress The allowable punching shear stress for each load component is: Vpa = Qq Qf where: Fyc is the yield strength of the chord member Qq is to account for the effects of type of loading and geometry. as defined above. Statistical treatments of results allow formulae to be defined for the allowable punching shear stress. They are performed for a single load-case (axial force. in-plane bending.3 The API method Several offshore design regulations are based on the punching shear concept [1. Qf is a factor to account for the nominal longitudinal stress in the chord The ultimate static strength obtained through these tests can then be expressed in terms of punching shear.Lecture 15A. Lecture 15A. fIPB.1.λ γ fAX. each brace connection is checked independently.2]. or out-of-plane bending).

These formulae cannot be used for overlapping joints.8 .4 .4 g/D for γ > 20 but Qg must be ≥ 1.6 for β > 0. Loading Combination For combined loadings involving more than one load component.0 for β ≤ 0.0.2 were specifically established for nonoverlapping joints with no internal reinforcement.7 Value for λ and Qq are given in Table 6.1 Values of Qq for allowable punching shear stress from APIRP2A Load component Stress in brace Acting punching shear Axial load fax Vpx = τ fax sin θ In-plane bending fby Vp = τ fby sin θ Out of plane bending fbz Vp = τ fbz sin θ Lecture 15A. [2] allows the static shear strength of the overlapping weld section to be added to Qg = 1.Lecture 15A. Qg = 1. see Figure 7.6 the punching shear capacity of the brace-chord connection.7 C. Page 13 of 23 Page 14 of 23 . The static strength of an overlapping joint is higher than a similar joint without an overlap.045 0. part of the load is transferred directly from one brace to the other through the overlapping section.021 λ The parametric formulae discussed in Section 6.3 Overlapping joints 0. API RP2A.030 0.1 for γ ≤ 20 In an overlapping joint. without that part of the load transferring through the chord. the following equations shall be satisfied: K joints where: IPB refers to in-plane bending component OPB refers to out-of-plane bending component T & Y Joints AX refers to axial force component Tension Compression Qq w/o diaphragm X and ax where: arc sin term is in radians.0 Qβ = QB = 1.1 Table 6. w diaphragm 6.

Lecture 15A. The most usual reinforcement consists of ring stiffening inside the chord. The allowable axial load component perpendicular to the chord. P⊥ (in Newtons) should be taken to be: P⊥ = (vpa T l1) + (2vwa tw l2) where: vpa is the allowable punching shear stress (MPa) for axial stress. This may involve finite element analysis. stresses are not uniform along the connecting surface of a brace and chord. 6. vwa is the allowable shear stress for weld between braces (MPa).7 Some joints may require more complex stiffening. tw is the lesser of the weld throat thickness or the thickness t of the inner brace (mm). see Figure 7.2 Ring Stiffening Ring stiffening consists of ring plates welded in the chord can prior to welding the braces to it. This is the case for large diameter chords which would otherwise require an un-economic chord wall thickness. measured perpendicular to the chord (mm).1 Definition Large chord wall thickness may be reduced by stiffening the chord. There are very many different stiffening solutions for a large diameter chord. Therefore there are no parametric formulae available for these designs.4 Reinforced joints 6.7 Lecture 15A. l1 is the circumference for that portion of the brace which contacts the chord (mm).4. 6. Specific analyses must therefore be carried out for an accurate solution. Figure 8 shows an example of the stress distribution in a joint with local discontinuities at and in the vicinity of the brace chord intersection. 7. the best known being published by Roark [3]. see Figure 7. The punching shear capacity of the chord still may be taken into account when calculating the forces acting on the stiffeners.4. l2 is the projected chord length (one side) of the overlapping weld. Page 15 of 23 Page 16 of 23 . STRESS CONCENTRATION As in any mechanical body presenting discontinuities. Ring stiffeners can be justified through parametric formulae available in various publications.

7.751 γ0.75 SCF = fHS/fNOM SCFBRACE = 1.3 give.86 β(-0.55 τexp(-1.462 γ1.75 0.8 √γ SCFCHORD = 0.36 {(g1+g2)/D}0.666 τ1.033 θ 7.3 ≤ β ≤ 0.57 θ vp being the punching shear.543 β0.56 β(-0.126 sin0.3.889 β0.033 θ This approximate formula can be used for rapidly assessing SCF.94 β0.23 τ0. non overlapping joints.123 τ0.55 ≤ β ≤ 0.60 τ0.827 τ0.672 β-0.448 sin θ ) In-plane bending (bending moment applied to one brace only) SCFCHORD = 1. the most commonly used and acknowledged formulae.21 θ 7.35β 3) α0.2 Kellog equation SCFBRACE = 0. as an example.852 τ0.55 ≤ β ≤ 0.04) sin0.36 {(g1+g2)/D}0.2β3 α0.104 β(-0.3.3 ≤ β ≤ 0.059) (g/D)0.808 τ1.5 θ 7.35 sin0.1 τ0.301 γ0.06 sin0.057 sin1.38 β(-0.981 γ0. In using any set of formulae.Lecture 15A.068 β0.3.702 γ0.54 τ1.68 β-0.787 sin1.3 Parametric formulae 7.159 sin2.38) sin0.543 β(-0. Sections 7. In-plane bending fHS/vp = 1.267 θ Page 17 of 23 Page 18 of 23 .2 Kuang equations for K joints [4] SCF parametric formulae have been determined based on a large number of finite element analyses and cross-checked with either full scale or model tests.822 γ0. for preliminary analyses.694 θ SCFBRACE = 3.441) (g/D)0.5 θ 0° < θ ≥ 45° SCFBRACE = 13. A large number of parametric formulae have been published [4].126 sin2.1 to 7.521 θ SCFBRACE = 0.557 θ 0.9 θ SCFBRACE = 2.024 γ1.067 sin1.68 β-0.889 β(-0. The only alternatives to these formulae are to perform model tests (full size or at reduced scale) or finite element analyses.157 τ0.281) sin2.796 γ0. care should be taken in classifying the situation and ascertaining any limitations that apply.1 Kuang equations for T/Y joints [4] Axial load SCFCHORD = 1.852 τ0.801 sin2. SCFBRACE = 1.396 {(g1+g2)/D}0.058 Exp(1.014 τ0.557 θ SCFCHORD = 0.12 sin θ 0° < θ ≤ 90° SCFBRACE = 6.92 γ0. They are based on many man years of work by numerous research teams.55 0.83 γ0.89 γ0. No parametric formulae are presently available for stiffened joints.06 γ0.3.3 Kuang equations for KT joints [4] Balanced axial load Outer braces only loaded SCFCHORD = 1.12 sin1.3.619) sin1.522 γ0.1 τ0.014 τ0.506 γ0.7 7.55 0.1 Stress concentration factor The stress concentration factor (SCF) is defined as the ratio of the highest stress in the connection (or hot spot stress fHS) to the nominal brace stress fNOM: Lecture 15A.88 θ 45° ≤ θ ≥ 90° SCFBRACE = 4.7 Out-of-plane bending SCFCHORD = 1.8 γ0. The only ones published to date concern non-stiffened.38 τ0.94 θ Balanced axial load SCFCHORD = 1.333 exp(-1.35 β-0.

Calculation of nominal stress ranges in the brace and the chords 2.7 In-plane bending .5-6 6-8 8-10 Average number per year 3 100 000 410 000 730 000 5 000 800 20 8.as for K joint Validity range The above equation for T/Y. The highest wave of the block is normally chosen. For each block one representative wave is chosen. 8.8 0.5 4. whose action is supposed to represent the action of the whole block. Different wave directions need to be considered with a minimum of three "blocks" per wave direction.8 unless stated otherwise 6. Page 19 of 23 Page 20 of 23 .667 ≤ α ≤ 40 unless stated otherwise 0° ≤ σ ≤ 90° unless stated otherwise.2.1 Nominal stress range Nominal stress ranges in braces and chords are calculated by a global stress analyses. for which just one stress range will be 8.2 Nominal stress ranges Nominal stress ranges can be calculated by following the steps below: 1. The nominal stress range for the joint component is defined as the difference between the highest and the lowest stress obtained for a full wave cycle. Wave heights are grouped in "blocks". K and KT joints are generally valid for joint parameters within the following limits: 8. Four to twelve phase angles per wave are usually considered. Nominal stresses for each joint component are then calculated for different phase angles of the chosen wave. FATIGUE ANALYSIS A fatigue analysis of a joint consists of the following steps: 1.3 ≤ β ≤ 0. 3.5 1. for one complete cycle (360°).20 ≤ τ ≤ 0. 2.5-3 3-4.Lecture 15A.1 Wave histogram A wave histogram has to be obtained for each direction around the platform. A simple form of a wave histogram is as follows: Wave height (metres) 0-1. Lecture 15A.333 ≤ γ ≤ 33.1.7 8.3 0. Calculation of joint fatigue lives using S-N curves for tubular members at joints. 8. Calculation of hot-spot stress range 3.2 Hot spot stress ranges Hot spot stress ranges are then evaluated for each chosen joint location by applying parametric formulae [4] (or by applying the SCF calculated from a detailed analysis). calculated.

For each of these locations the stress response for each sea state should be computed. D. and entering the graph. Lecture 15A.4 Cumulative Fatigue Damage Ratio The stress responses should be combined into the long term stress distribution. geometric ratios and joint classifications are now standardised for tubular joints. Determination of fatigue strength is based on nominal stress range multiplied by appropriate SCF. stress components (axial.7 8. Page 21 of 23 Page 22 of 23 . four to eight locations are usually chosen around the intersection line. The X and X1 curves should be used with hot spot stress ranges based on suitable stress concentration factors. Where a chord and brace intersect. a safety factor of 2. with the allowance of overlapping joints.0. 9. i. The permissible number of cycles is obtained from the S-N curve by taking the hot spot stress range. the X′ curve is applicable. Stress concentration factors (SCF) are defined for most commonly occurring joints. The presence of gaps and overlaps significantly influence joint behaviour. as the SCF formulae apply individually for each load component. It should be noted that Curve X presumes welds which merge smoothly with the adjoining base metal. Determination of static strength is generally based on the concept of punching shear.Lecture 15A. use of a larger safety factor should be considered. giving adequate consideration to both global and local stress effects.2]. Special analysis are required for reinforced joints. For weld without such profile control. in plane bending and out of plane bending) have to be distinct throughout the calculations.3 S-N Curves S-N curves to be used for offshore structures are given by statutory regulations [1. In general the design fatigue life of each joint and member should be at least twice the intended service life of the structure. APIRP2A uses the curves shown in Figure 9. which should then be used to calculate the cumulative fatigue damage ratio. n is the number of cycles applied at a given stress range N is the number of cycles to cause failure for the given stress range (obtained from appropriate S-N curve). For critical elements whose sole failure would be catastrophic.e.7 When using parametric formulae. 8. CONCLUDING SUMMARY • • • • • • Terminology. given by: D= Where.

1989. [3] Young. REFERENCES [1] Offshore Installations: Guidance on Design. Volumes 1 to 5. Fourth Edition. Page 23 of 23 . [2] Recommended Practice for Planning. Roark's Formulae for Stress and Strain. Lloyds Register of Shipping-Offshore Division. Construction and Certification. 1990. McGraw-Hill.7 10.Lecture 15A. Sixth Edition. HMSO. Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms. API RP2A Nineteenth Edition. Warren C. [4] Stress Concentration Factors for Simple Tubular Joints.

Such jackets may be lifted or skidded onto the barge.2 Construction Philosophy The design of a jacket. the more general aspects of design . in the same attitude as the final installation.3: Principles of Welding Lectures 3.8 Lecture 15A. welding. jackets approaching this order of magnitude are now candidates for lifting into position.e. where the height is of the same order as the plan dimensions. 1. beams. PREREQUISITES Lecture 15A. construction tolerance. clamps. erection is usually carried out vertically. 1. is determined primarily by the offshore installation equipment available and the intended water depth. launched or self-floating jacket.4: Welding Processes RELATED LECTURES Lectures 15: Structural Systems: Offshore SUMMARY The construction philosophy and definition of the construction phases of the fabrication of offshore structures are described. However the emphasis is on the transportation and lifting of heavy assemblies.the size and transportability of components. including construction practices and equipment. stress relieving on such items as welded tubulars. i. a lifted. To indicate the calculations normally involved.000 tonnes.1: General Fabrication of Steel Structures Lectures 3. The overall execution plan and the contractor's organisation for its implementation are introduced and constructability i. In general the preference is to lift the jacket in place. To discuss the various stages of operation from material selection. girders. cones. Fabrication The processes normally carried out in a fabrication shop to produce relatively small units. i. For jackets destined for shallow water. The size of such jackets has being increasing as offshore lifting capacity has grown. The fabrication of nodes and reinforced tubulars. pressing.1 Construction Phases Jacket construction involves the following work phases: Procurement The technical and commercial activities required to supply material and specialised products to enable the execution of construction activities. Erection The processes required to install assembled and shop fabricated items together in their final configuration. welding access considerations. etc. through erection. nodes. supports. With modern lifting capacity now up to 14. including the fabrication procedure for a typical node is described together with jacket assembly and erection and the procedures for "big lift". rolling. Assembly The processes normally performed outside the fabrication shop but at ground level in order to assemble groups of shop fabricated items into an (assembled) unit for subsequent erection in accordance with a construction sequence.2: Erection Lectures 3. Page 1 of 22 Page 2 of 22 .e.1: Offshore Structures: General Introduction Lectures 3.Lecture 15A. fitting.8 Fabrication OBJECTIVE To describe the general methods of jacket fabrication. is discussed. Thus fabrication includes processes such as cutting.e. These processes include fitting and welding. INTRODUCTION 1.

Accordingly the engineering which supports procurement and shop fabrication is voluminous but repetitive. Quality control. procurement through assembly and erection. An offshore jacket goes through a series of very distinct stages as it moves from fabrication to load-out. They are crucial tools for controlling the project execution and providing verifiable evidence of the fabricator's competence. material take-offs.000 tonnes. has freedom of choice with regard to the exact method of execution adopted. less risky phases of the project.000 hours. These processes range from those which are largely repetitive early in execution to one-off activities in the latter phases. while being limited by design specification requirements.8 Jackets destined for deeper water are usually erected on their side. to operations which are almost totally manual in very variable conditions. When designing larger components consideration must be given to their subdivision into elements which will not distort when fabricated and which can be relatively easily assembled without welding/dimensional problems. Very large jackets. A general method of execution is envisaged at the jacket design stage. nodes are categorised as either complex or simple from the execution viewpoint based on the number of separate fitting-welding-NDT Page 4 of 22 . scaffolding. e. Providing adequate facilities and equipment for assembly.9: Installation. This method of construction usually involves additional flotation tanks and extensive pipework and valving to enable the legs to be flooded for ballasting the jacket into the vertical position on site.8 assurance process. The requirements for documentation. Quality management is a vital and integral component of all aspects of offshore fabrication. e. ensuring that processes which are weather sensitive are completed during shop fabrication. Some of the principles which reduce the time and cost of construction are: • • • Subdivision into as large components and modules as it is possible to fabricate and assemble. in all phases the contractor is required to demonstrate that the methods which he adopts are compatible with the specification requirements and do not affect the integrity of the structure. This method of construction is currently applicable for jackets up to 25. i. the stable conditions in repetitive processes of the early operations are more conducive to the maintenance of high quality. offshore activities.g. e.e. hold point. including such items as synchrolifts. protective coating. and specific studies for limited series of activities. Since the shape of the jacket. rather than finding problems after they occur. However. there is considerable interfacing of engineering requirements in these phases. Avoidance of procedures that are overly sensitive to weather conditions.g. e. e.g.g. the objectives of achieving quality requirements and efficiency are of fundamental importance. and heavy-lift cranes. Avoidance of excessively tight tolerances. cutting plans. In addition. Concurrent fabrication of major components in the most favourable location and under the most favourable conditions applicable to each component. as a general principle. It is clear therefore that. as much work as possible should be undertaken in the earlier more productive. • • Simplification of configurations and standardisation of details. The most effective quality scheme is one which prevents the introduction of defective materials and workmanship into a structure. steel production. yard erection. audits. 'construction engineering'. Essentially it involves ensuring that what is produced is what is needed. higher quality. A third basic consideration is that risk increases with each progressive stage. Each phase of execution has its own specific engineering requirements which are determined by the processes executed during that phase. For instance.g.Lecture 15A. have been constructed as self-floaters in a graving dock and towed offshore subsequent to flooding the dock. etc. entails the work required during each phase of execution to ensure that the design requirements are fulfilled. 2. automatic welding.000/150. Planning the flow of components to their assembly site. offshore transportation and installation (which are construction activities executed under contractor responsibility). Such jackets are loaded by skidding out onto a barge. ENGINEERING OF EXECUTION Engineering of execution. It is applicable to this lecture and also to Lecture 15A. Selection of structural systems that utilise skills and trades on a relatively continuous and uniform basis. In considering the construction philosophy and contract strategy. the contractor. The assembly and erection phases are supported by a mix of repetitive engineering. grades and sizes. its form and properties require quite specific methods of load-out. Thus decreasing efficiency occurs as progress through these operations advances. These stages range from operations which are almost totally automatic under very controlled conditions. In the earlier phases. The volume of contractor construction engineering on a large jacket is typically 130. The typical organisation of a contractor's technical documents is shown in Table 2. These general trends during construction are shown in Table 1. reviews and corrective actions are part of the quality Page 3 of 22 Lecture 15A. shop drawings. A general note on Quality Assurance for Offshore Construction is included in Appendix 1. Historically most large jackets have been barge launched. inspection and testing should be performed during all phases of construction to ensure that specified requirements are being met. in excess of this.

and achieving the required weld profile. The number of fittingwelding-NDT cycles depends on the existence of ring stiffeners and the number and disposition of stubs. Figure 2. For larger jackets. both in the laboratory and as a result of in-service inspection. the nodes tend to be fabricated separately under highly controlled shop conditions. 3. Lecture 15A. showing tubular members framing into or overlapping another member with access from one side only.Lecture 15A. This adds an extra cycle to the fabrication of the node. However it also implies increasingly sophisticated and stringent fabrication and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) requirements. However. Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms. Where this is not possible. care should be taken to define them at an early stage on critical nodes. see API RP2A. Typical welding details from API RP2A [1]. The minimum separation between the weld toes of adjacent simple stubs is typically specified as 50mm. This process reduces the probability of brittle failure. etc. with additional requirements dictated by the specific design. Recent experience. For instance.1-2 [1].8 Page 5 of 22 Page 6 of 22 . FABRICATION 3. a lot of emphasis is placed on designing stubs which can be welded from both sides. Node stubs can be classified as simple or overlapping. Welds which are critical for fatigue endurance may be required to be ground to a smooth curve. In particular greater attention has been focused on the importance of complete joint penetration groove welds. [1] and AISC Specification for the Design. are shown in Figure 1. Thus ring stiffeners are best avoided. They are usually based on one or more of the well known codes. client standards.8 (non-destructive testing) cycles required during fabrication and the possibility of automatic welding between the node can and the tubular during sub-assembly.3. statutory rules. elimination of "notch effects" at the root and especially the cap of node welds.150mm is a more practical distance.1 Fabrication Processes The specifications for fabrication of offshore jackets are determined by the designer. However this distance is too small to allow simultaneous welding of adjacent stubs . in the weld details for the Bouri jacket. Fabrication and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings [2]. Alternatively cast steel nodes may be used in order to eliminate critical welding details. Overlapping stubs add at least one complete cycle to node fabrication and should therefore be avoided where possible. Fig. Two recognised codes which are used extensively for establishing general requirements are the API RP2A Recommended Practice for Planning. it is almost essential that ring stiffeners be installed prior to fitting/welding of stubs. 4. has prompted increasingly greater attention to the welding aspects of fabrication. most stubs are accessible from both sides. For reasons relating to weld distortion and to allow automatic welding.

magnetic particle inspection (MPI) and ultrasonic test (UT) inspection. The weld acceptance criteria. This requirement is introduced because of tearing or punching effects likely to be sustained by these elements during their design life and indeed during fabrication. Welds are typically subject to 100% visual. ductility or notch toughness should be completely removed prior to repair. Finally. etc. The location and orientation of circumferential and longitudinal welds during construction is based on minimising interferences and ensuring the minimum distance between circumferential welds.g. Bearing these requirements in mind. sub-assemblies are executed so that at least one of the two edges which will mate during subsequent assembly/erection has a cut-off allowance. Where welds are found to be defective. Corners should be rounded to minimise stress concentrations. The contractor must work within tolerances which preserve dimensional compatibility and observe weight control requirements at each phase of construction. Welds of insufficient strength. Alternatively they can be cut to exact dimensions during subassembly where the as-built dimension has already been determined. This is frequently a requirement for thicker walled North Sea jackets. e. mudmats.2 Node Fabrication The primary structure nodes are frequently geometrically complex.Lecture 15A. machining or welding as required. On a complex jacket the designer may specify the node cans. The designer may also "thicken" or reinforce the cans to withstand local stresses. All temporary plates and fittings should be subjected to the same requirements for weld testing as the member to which they are being affixed. node fabrication tolerances are tight. detailing steel grades.8 order to minimise the risk of defect propagation. stub angle within 1 minute. 3. Temporary cut-outs should be of sufficient size to allow sound replacement. commences with profiling of stubs and terminates with UT inspection of the finished node after PWHT. welding consumables. joint design. especially from the points of view of welding and dimensional control.8 Lecture 15A. and maximum depth (t/20 or 0. imply an exceptionally high quality of welding. or the whole node including stubs and ring stiffeners. Accordingly their fabrication presents particular problems. where planned avoidance of weld interference is critical. There is also an overriding necessity to ensure that such attachments are located at a safe distance from main structural welds in node welds contain minimal levels of residual stress due to fabrication. assuming that the can (with or without ring stiffeners) has already been fabricated. Page 7 of 22 Page 8 of 22 . all braces within 12mm of the design dimension. launch runners.g.25mm). API RP2A [1] provides specific tolerances for final fabrication. This is not unduly conservative . In addition all welders should be qualified for the type of work assigned to them and certified accordingly. typical working points within 6mm of theoretical. maximum weld undercut length (t/2 or 10mm). in an effort to ensure that Welding procedures are required. In general. thermal stress relieving or post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) of the heavier more restrained welds may be prescribed. The typical fabrication process for a conventional node. they should be rectified by grinding. Special attention is required on items such as pile sleeve shear plates. e. in material with specified through-thickness properties.the "Alexander Kielland" capsized due to a fatigue crack initiated at the attachment of a sonar device to a principal structural member. etc. This procedure provides flexibility in that the sub-assemblies can be sent to the field with the cut-off allowance in place and cut to fit on location.

The principal reason for requiring such accurate dimensional control of nodes and tubulars during fabrication is not because of the structural consequences of out-of-tolerance but rather because the parts may not fit together in the yard. beams etc. MPI and UT finished welds. Perform MPI test on ground roots. The emphasis is on performing the maximum number of welds in the shop. Visually inspect finished welds. Grind weld beads at base metal to remove undercut. see Lecture 3.8 The intermediate stages can be performed in several different ways. Verify dimensional control and weld preparations around stub. Weld according to predetermined sequence to limit deformation. However the majority of fabricators tend to fit the stubs to a can placed on horizontal rollers. tends to be exaggerated. etc. Toegrind profiles if required. • • • Repeat previous steps for successive stubs. many aspects where the attention to dimensional control is justified even if the overall design might occasionally benefit if the designer did not always require that everything fitted so tightly.1 Jacket Assembly of Shop fabricated sub-assemblies and loose items are incorporated into assemblies which constitute the major lifts of the erection sequence. • • Assemble one or two adjacent stubs in the same plane on the can.8 • Constructability: certain sub-assemblies may have specific construction difficulties associated with them. Perform final dimensional control of node. for example piles/pile sleeves. buoyancy tank/supports. some of which depend on the specific geometry of the node and many of which depend on fabricator preference. 3. after 3 or 4 passes. Welding Sequence: sub-assemblies should not imply a difficult welding sequence causing distortion or induced stresses during sub-assembly welding or the subsequent assembly or erection. short. This ensures the highest weld quality since many node and tubular welds can be double-sided and/or automatic when performed in the fabrication shop. blast or grind welds and perform NDT re-test on all welds. etc. However. the principal factors to be borne in mind are the following: • • Size/Weight/Dimensions: transportability. tubulars. onto the can. it is clear that attention must be paid to the dimensions which have structural significance. the most successful systems simply involve the inclusion on the shop drawings of several additional "checking" measurements and the correct marking of the node can and stub generators and offsets. e. maintaining that it enables more stubs to be fitted simultaneously. It is one of the most vexing incongruities of the tubular steel jacket concept that the theoretical tolerances on node stub eccentricity are generous from the structural viewpoint while the actual tolerances are very tight because of considerations regarding the fitting together of components during subsequent phases of construction. conductor guides. large diameter infillings are difficult to erect vertically and are best included in sub-assemblies. back-grind and clean weld roots from opposite side. The sequential steps in the fabrication of a typical node are as follows: • Trace generators. Touch up bevels and trace generators onto the stubs. etc. Some fabricators prefer to orient the can upright. The dimensional control of node fabrication. are also important. When defining sub-assemblies. UT the cleaned areas to ensure that the steel is free from laminations.g. 4. etc. in particular. eccentricities at node joints. the straightness of elements.e. the assemblies are typically of four types: • • Jacket levels incorporating conductor guide frames Top frames 3. However. JACKET ASSEMBLY AND ERECTION 4. Allow welds to cool. if possible. Thus for a large jacket. Complete weld body. as emphasised in the code and specifications. Finally dimensional control of items which are intended for "mating" or "removal" offshore. working points. The welding processes used are usually shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) or flux cored arc welding (FCAW). Particular care is required where shrinkage strains in the throughthickness direction may lead to lamellar tearing in highly restrained joints. nodes. that of dimensional control. e. ovality of tubulars. these are largely governed by considerations Page 9 of 22 Page 10 of 22 . involves potentially intricate calculations in the shop. launch runners.4 Dimensional Control Of all the areas of quality control (QC) which require attention.4 Welding Processes.Lecture 15A. There are therefore. Deposit weld bead for cap profiling. i. If the weld is double-sided. It is also clear that on a jacket the global alignment/verticality of items such as pile sleeves.3 Jacket Sub-assemblies Sub-assembly can be considered as an intermediate stage between standard shop fabrication. jacket top/MSF base. When all stubs have been fitted and welded out perform post weld heat treatment (PWHT) as required.g. Lecture 15A. is vital to the efficiency of offshore installation. Cut any required off-cuts on cans or stubs. Cut and profile the stubs. Tack-weld in position. and assembly or erection. Trace node locations onto the can surface and grind or blast areas.

the time consuming exercise of referring measurements to an external bench mark can be avoided. risers. Lecture 15A. Include maximum quantity of secondary items such as anodes. anodes. Align critical areas such as conductor guides. Elastic deflections are also a source of difficulty in maintaining tolerances in the location of nodes. risers. • Minimise the use of temporary items which require subsequent removal. and pre-install such aids where they are necessary. Installation of appurtenances (e.e. reference drawings. Such large dimensions mean that the thermal changes can be significant. Sub-assemble.3e. etc. such as jacket legs. resulting in several centimetres distortion. Dimensional control of assembly main structure.g. erection guides.4 Jacket Erection In this phase assembled. Overall NDT. • Sub-assemble principal structural elements of jacket such as jacket legs. Because of the difficulty associated with thermal distortion. launch runners. field welds. the practice of 'using the sun' to fit elements which are not dimensionally intolerance is common in the field. bents or partial bents Pile sleeve clusters. the sub-assemblies. pile sleeves. rows. However. This procedure in itself tends to induce residual stresses in the structure. it is normal to "correct" all measurements to a standard temperature. Assembly layout drawings are usually prepared showing central co-ordinates for each assembly. loose items. Preweld inspection. together with loose items. J-tubes. supports. Normally the assembly is tacked in position to theoretical dimensions using allowable positive tolerances to compensate for weld shrinkage.Lecture 15A. and where possible pre-test. sub-assembled and fabricated structures.e.g. are incorporated into the final structure according to the sequence outlined in Figure 3a . The assembly and erection phases are based on the following objectives: • • Maximise on-the-ground assembly (as opposed to erection) and maximise access around the jacket during execution. orientation and attitude. caissons. e. Minimise erection joints in principal structural elements.g. such as scaffolding. Removal of temporary assembly supports and staging. 4. Perhaps the most fundamental rule in fitting is the avoidance of "force-fitting" of members prior to welding or to force stresses into unwelded members through the welding sequence since such conditions cannot have been foreseen by the designer. Provided cross checks are adequate. Blasting and painting or touch up. launch runners. Page 11 of 22 Page 12 of 22 . lifting. overall dimensions. Foundation displacements under the skid beams and temporary erection skids must be carefully calculated and monitored. The central co-ordinates are then used as local bench marks with the object of defining the assembly. walkways. levels. Infilling of secondary structure and position tacking. The overall assembly sequence and programme requires that each assembly be completed prior to lifting.8 • • Jacket rows i. Preparation for transport/lift/erection. systems such as grouting. risers) prior to erection. • • • Test (e. places severe demands on field layout and survey and on temporary support and adjustment bracing. appurtenances and temporary attachments which comprise. temporary attachments. caissons. ballasting. lifting aids.8 Dimensional control of the assembly both prior to and after welding. hydrotest) if required. levels. Temperature differences may be as great as 30°C between dawn and afternoon and as much as 15°C between various parts of the structure. dimensional control. grouting and ballasting) and scaffolding. It is normal to determine the exact location. of each assembly in the field in anticipation of its lifting procedure. 20° C. J-tubes. Coat or paint required areas (top of jacket. rows. etc. i. walkways. can be by means of a series of self-checking measurements on the structure itself. aids. face-up or face-down. An outline sequence of events which apply to all types of assembly is as follows: • • • • • Preparation of assembly support and staging Rough setting of assembly main structure and position tacking. Dimensional control of assembly and secondary structure. weight. The assembly of a jacket frame often having a spread at the base of 50m or more. Weldout of structure subject to continuous inspection and according to approved sequence.

Lecture 15A.8 Page 13 of 22 Page 14 of 22 .8 Lecture 15A.

The calculations should show that global and local stresses are within allowable limits according to API/AISC codes. Transport assembly to lift location. These cases are then analysed to determine the maximum stresses and displacements.e. Weldout at least sufficient to allow crane release. Jackets destined for deeper water are usually erected on their side. a different procedure known as "toast rack" was used. firm and level foundations for the cranes and experienced. An outline sequence for the erection of all major components would be: • Technical appraisal of lift methods. • • Preparation of fixing system and wind bracing (usually done by means of guy wires and turnbuckles). Page 15 of 22 Page 16 of 22 . In this latter case. erected in place and tied in to complete the jacket. As a general principle. well rehearsed operators.8 Lecture 15A. rigging accessories. Crane release. adequate temporary pads and braces must be provided under the columns to distribute the loads for skidding. The structural analysis for lift/transport identifies the worst cases from the point of view of structural response. etc. etc.8 analysed for a number of load cases which correspond (approximately) to the support conditions of the assembly at its presumed critical attitudes. the locations of the cranes. as much of the execution as possible should be undertaken in the early phases of fabrication. Removal of rigging and temporary attachments. the preference is to lift the jacket in place. a structural analysis computer programme is used for this purpose. In general. CONCLUDING SUMMARY • • • • • The design of a jacket is determined primarily by the offshore installation equipment available and the intended water depth. The assembly is • Jacket structural completion is followed by a short phase during which all the jacket systems. For the Magnus platform and Bouri DP3. Calculations for crane configuration. Coordinating such a rigging and lifting operation requires thoroughly developed threedimensional layouts. both permanent and those required during installation. For jackets destined for shallow water erection is usually carried out vertically. For the Bullwinkle jacket. Such jackets may be lifted onto the barge or skidded out. The structural analysis associated with the erection procedure for a given assembly usually involves a computer model with all relevant structural characteristics. The specifications for fabrication of offshore jackets are determined by the designer and are usually based on one or more of the well known codes. 5. which was 300m long. sections of the jacket were fabricated in Japan. Jacket frames are typically laid out flat and then rolled using multiple crawler cranes. if possible. in the same attitude as the final installation. The analysis will indicate where bending stresses are high and/or crane.Lecture 15A. Frequently. Twenty four cranes were involved in the two major side frame lifts during the erection of platform Cerveza. bogies. Preparation of cranes for lift. Here the jacket horizontal levels were fabricated. one of the world's largest. i. transported by barge to Texas and assembled using jacking towers which rolled up the sections to heights as great as 140m. saddles. Preparation for rigging.e. The load-out operations are covered in Lecture 15A. Each phase of execution has its own engineering requirements which are determined by the processes executed during that phase. when the panel is being transported and when it is in horizontal and vertical attitudes. are completed and rendered functional. Thus modifications can be made to redistribute structural stresses and loads at "supports" to optimise both and ensure that neither the cranes nor the structure can be overloaded during erection.9: Installation. bogie or support loads inadmissible. i. Roll-up into position with scaffolding and staging in position.

Recommended Practice for Planning. ADDITIONAL READING [1] Det Norkse Veritas Marine Operations Recommended Practice RP5 . Assembled. Because the standards deal with the quality system. From the time the plate is manufactured until it is located in the final structure. They apply in any situation where management wish to adopt a clearly defined policy and an orderly approach to providing a quality product. 6. Consider the documentation which is expected to flow from one location to another in respect to a single node. and are not product standards. and crane. sub-assembled and fabricated structures. Standard for Quality Systems Management. API code refers to this specification for calculations of basic allowable stresses of all jacket members. Rules for the Design. [2] AWS Structural Welding Code AWS D1. Page 17 of 22 Page 18 of 22 . Based on Lloyd's experience from certification of over 500 platforms world-wide. shows that there are a very considerable number of offshore activities in many different locations within a very short period of time. Rules and Regulations for the Classification of Fixed Offshore Installations. ISO 9000/EN 29000. Construction and Inspection of Offshore Structures. [3] Det Norske Veritas.1-88. REFERENCES [1] API RP2A.Lifting (June 1985). they are applicable to many sectors of industry including offshore construction. Rules for construction and installation of steel jackets as required by DNV. latest edition.Lecture 15A. together with loose items. latest edition. bogie and support loads.8 APPENDIX 1 Quality Assurance and Quality Control It is becoming increasingly common for operators to specify that the quality of construction for offshore structures be controlled by a recognised quality system management standard. All jacket welding and weld procedure qualifications are required by the API code to be undertaken in accordance with this code. [2] AISC Specification for the Design. are incorporated into the final structure in a sequence which takes account of structural analyses of bending stresses. Engineering design principles and practices that have evolved during the development of offshore oil resources. [4] Lloyd's Register of Shipping. is recognised as the accepted standard in such situations. The overall programme for a jacket construction. These standards set down the requirements that a soundly based quality management system must fulfil if it is to assist in properly defining and controlling product quality. a dossier must be compiled. This documentation could commence with copies of certificates from the steel plate manufacturer and progress through several welding. All aspects of a company's activities are covered in the standards including:- Design Contract Review Documentation Control Management Responsibility Purchasing Corrective Action Quality Records Management Review/Audits QA Management Complexity Product Traceability Process Control Inspection/Testing Calibration of Equipment Control of Non-Conformances Handling/Storage/Delivery Training Etc. The evaluation of the performance of such a range of activities and at a number of centres is a major QA/QC undertaking. Lecture 15A. 1977. 7. Principles and good practice for offshore heavy lifts. NDT. 1989. It is difficult to fully appreciate the scope of documentation on a jacket construction project. Fabrication and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings.8 • • Shop fabricated sub-assemblies and hose items are incorporated into assemblies which constitute the major lifts of the erection sequence. Designing and Construction of Fixed Offshore Installations.

a fabrication subcontractor will still be required to develop procedure and specifications for the following typical functions/activities: subcontract organisation. Even if the number of specific procedures required from each subcontractor is minimised. In the widest sense. as contained in the Data Dossier. risers. grout lines. Typically hundreds of procedures/specifications must be developed by jacket subcontractors.g. culminating in the issue of a Release Note at the node fabrication shop.). These are divided into Management Procedures (e. fabrication method/sequence. etc. Much more could be done to structure such documentation in such a way that it would really be of help throughout the platform life. steel.g. Jacket Assembly and Erection Procedure. In actual practice it has proven to be very difficult to make all materials really traceable. It is normally performed by one of the traditional ship classification societies known as the Certifying Authority (CA). operating life provided it is designed. welder qualifications and inspection plans. procedures for cutting.) in addition to a vast number of weld procedure specifications and qualifications. However. the underwriters normally agree to insure the plant during its Clearly this is necessary on some items. many of which will be specifically for jacket construction. at any stage of construction.Lecture 15A. material control. Consider for instance the number of welds in a complex buoyancy tank. Table 1 Jacket Construction Phases and Characteristics Phase Work Centre Efficiency Quality Variability Increasing Increasing Increasing Risk Engineering Procurement Fabrication Assembly and Erection Loadout and Seafastening Transport and Installation Office Factory Fabrication Shop Decreasing Decreasing Decreasing Increasing Increasing Increasing Yard Site Decreasing Increasing Increasing Transition Decreasing Increasing Increasing Offshore Site Decreasing Increasing Increasing Page 19 of 22 Page 20 of 22 . the anodes. e. rather than inspect everything.g. Management of Non Conformities. welds. Pile Installation Procedure. the certification function can mean audits of the construction so that. several must be individually inspected.an enormous task. that these be kept to a minimum and that the identification system be simple. etc.000 items.g. This certification is also almost invariably required by the state authorities in whose waters the plant is installed. certification requires that the CA carry out independent surveillance to ensure that the standards chosen for the project are satisfactory and that the project is performed in accordance with them. etc. it constitutes less than half of the total documentation produced for a complete jacket.8 Certification On most offshore projects. constructed and maintained to predetermined standards and certified as such. Lecture 15A.) and Control Procedures (e. However the requirement to produce sophisticated documentation in respect of each is questionable. For this reason it is important that agreement is reached at an early stage as to the individual items which require identification.8 dimensional control phases at a number of successive locations. Each plate inevitably becomes an individual as it is allocated a unique number corresponding to a Material Utilisation Schedule or Cutting Plan. The primary object of material control is to ensure that. These documents may be useful during maintenance of the platform enabling many in-service problems to be traced to abnormalities which occurred during construction. etc. voluminous as this documentation may be. the origin of each and every item can be traced back to a material certificate which in turn corresponds to a set of test/chemical composition etc. Construction Procedures/Specifications are also required (e. post-weld heat treatment along with the more obvious welding and NDT procedures and Inspection Plans. The individual number of pieces of plate could be in excess of 20. forming. the walkways on top of the jacket. Each of these must be welded. Construction of a large jacket typically involves thousands of steel plates. NDT Certificates for the jacket primary structure. pre-heating. Dimensional Control Procedure for Node Fabrication at factory etc. launch runners. Management of Jacket Completion Onshore. the CA satisfies himself that the manner in which the construction is being managed and performed (based on incomplete but comprehensive inspection) is likely to lead to a satisfactory product. More recently with the advent of QA. Formerly this meant that the CA inspected every activity likely to influence the adequacy of the final product . Procedures and Specifications Within the Contractor's organisation QA/QC procedures must be developed for the project. Procedure for Ultrasonic Testing of welds at Jacket Yard.

Lecture 15A.8

Lecture 15A.8

5 Table 2 Jacket Construction Engineering: Typical Organisation of Contractor's Technical Documents No. 1 Document Series Shop Drawings, Cutting Plan Group or Individual Subject Title Welding standards, nodes, tubulars, piles, pile sleeves, clusters, conductor guide frames, launch runners, buoyancy tanks, cathodic protection system, protective coating systems, risers, j-tubes, caissons, boat landings, boat bumpers, walkways, grouting systems, ballasting system, installation aids, as-built drawings. 2 Method and Temporary Subassemblies, assemblies, supports, access, 8 7 6

Manuals

Testing, commissioning and preparation of jacket for tow. Load-out manuals - jacket piles, topsides. Installation manuals - jacket, piles, topsides.

Weld Procedures

For each location - weld procedures - repair procedures.

Design

Reports,

Reviews

Quay design, skidway design, mooring system design, soil improvement spec., skidding system spec., dredging spec., transportation of jacket and piles, buoyancy tanks, jacket launching and emplacement, on-bottom stability, pile driveability, jacket levelling study.

and Specifications

Works Drawings

scaffolding, lifting and transportation onshore, test and commission, identification. Onshore construction accessories. Offshore installation (preparation, lifting, launching, anchor patterns etc.). Offshore installation accessories (tools, guides, access, handling etc.). transportation,

Engineering Meetings

Normally held at critical phases of construction at the various construction locations.

9

Fabrication, Assembly and Erection

Fabrication/welding sequence (for principal items), forming, bending, stress relieving, coating, assembly and erection, temporary and secondary attachments, lifting and transporting, jackdown, weight control, settlement control, jacket weighing.

10 distribution points, and hold technical and

Inspection plan

Steel supply (at each supplier). Fabrication of typical jacket and pile components (at relevant centres). Assembly and erection.

3

Quality Procedures

Assurance

Documentation approval, material

identification, and

witness control,

modifications and non-conformance management, material identification traceability, procurement and subcontracting, weld parameter control, management of specific problem areas. 4 Quality Control Procedures NDT methods (visual, UT, x-ray, dye penetrant, MPI), dimensional control, destructive testing methods, NDT operator training and qualification, calibration of inspection equipment, pressure testing, miscellaneous testing. 11 Technical Resolutions Proposals and

Technical Clarification Requests ) Technical Relaxation Requests ) Possible at every Major Non-Conformance Reports ) Phase of location Minor Non-Conformance Reports ) of the Project.

Non-Conformance

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Lecture 15A.9

Lecture 15A.9

Installation
OBJECTIVE To describe the general methods of jacket installation. To discuss the various stages of operation from loadout through offshore positioning and installation, including construction practices and equipment. To indicate the calculations normally involved. PREREQUISITES Lectures 15A.1: Offshore Structures: General Introduction RELATED LECTURES Lectures 3.1: General Fabrication of Steel Structures Lectures 3.2: Erection Lecture 3.3: Principles of Welding Lecture 3.4: Welding Processes Lectures 15A: Structural Systems: Offshore SUMMARY The phases of installation of a steel jacket - loadout, seafastening, offshore transportation and installation - are described and the associated analyses are indicated. 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Project Phases A steel jacket installation usually consists of the following project phases: Loadout - Comprises the movement of the completed structure onto the barge which will transport it offshore. Seafastening - Comprises fitting and welding sufficient structure between the structure and the barge to prevent the jacket shifting during transit to the offshore site. Offshore Transportation - Comprises the tow to the location offshore and arrival of the barge at the offshore site with the seafastened structure.

Installation - Comprises the series of activities required to place the structure in the final offshore location. These activities include jacket lift and upending, positioning, pile installation, jacket levelling and grouting, together with support services for these activities. 1.2 Construction Philosophy In deciding how best to fabricate (i.e. vertical or on its side) and install (i.e. lifted, launched or self-floating) a given jacket, the options are principally determined by the installation equipment available and the jacket's intended water depth. In general, the preference is to lift the jacket into location. The motivation for this installation method, rather than the more traditional barge-launching, is a reluctance to spend money on jacket steelwork which will only be used during the temporary installation phase. The size of such lifted jackets has been increasing as offshore lifting capacity has grown. With modern lifting capacity now up to 14000 tonnes (see Table 1), jackets approaching this order of magnitude are now candidates for lifting into position. Figure 1 shows how the 6000 tonne jacket for the Kittiwake field in the North Sea was lifted from the barge into the water and up-ended in a continuous operation, ending with the jacket on the seabed ready for piling. The advantage of this approach is that the jacket, being lowered into the water, does not require the launch frames necessary for launching from a barge. Also, since the weight of the jacket is taken by the cranes throughout, there is no need for special buoyancy tanks and deballasting systems.

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Lecture 15A.9

Lecture 15A.9

Jackets destined for deeper water are heavier and are usually erected on their side and launched from a barge (Figure 2). This method of construction is currently applicable for jackets up to 25000 tonnes. A launched jacket usually requires additional buoyancy tanks with extensive pipework and valving to enable the legs and tanks to be flooded in order to ballast the jacket into the vertical position on site. For instance, in the case of the Brae 'B' jacket (a large 19000 tonne jacket installed in 100m water depth in the North Sea) it was necessary to provide 11000 tonnes of additional buoyancy. This buoyancy was primarily to limit the jacket trajectory through launch (i.e. to stop it hitting the sea bed) but was also essential for maintaining bottom clearance during up-ending. The additional buoyancy took the form of two 'saddle' tanks, two pairs of twin 'piggy-bank tanks' and twelve 'cigar' tubes installed down the pile guides (Figure 3). Altogether the auxiliary buoyancy added about 3,300 tonnes additional weight to the jacket.

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Page 4 of 19

in anticipation of installation of the platform topsides. He is also required to demonstrate that. prior to the commencement of an activity. An important aspect is the avoidance of unacceptable risk during offshore activities from loadout through to platform completion.Lecture 15A.9 Very large jackets. positioning the jacket on the site and achieving a stable structure in accordance with the design drawings and specifications. have been constructed as self-floaters in a graving dock. seafastening and transporting the structure to the installation site.9 Lecture 15A. all the necessary preparations have been completed. towed offshore subsequent to flooding the dock. Page 5 of 19 Page 6 of 19 . and installed on location by means of controlled flooding of the legs (see Figure 4). Normally therefore the contractor is obliged to produce procedures for these activities which demonstrate that the risk of failure has been reduced to acceptable levels. 1.3 Installation Planning The installation of a jacket consists of loading out. It is recognised that the potential cost to the project associated with failure to successfully execute marine activities is particularly high. in excess of launch capacity.

Depending on the complexity of the installation. Limitations on the various operations due to factors such as environmental conditions. In addition. jacking brackets. etc. detailed procedures and instructions may be needed for special items such as grouting. loadout. Allowable static and dynamic stresses in the barge hull and framing due to loadout. transportation and installation. especially if the jacket has been erected with its weight bearing continuously on the skid way. or even fibre-filled Teflon faced pads. if this is required. at the time of loadout. lifting capacity. Quality management is a vital and integral component of all offshore installation projects. LOADOUT AND SEAFASTENING Loadout entails the movement of the completed structure onto the barge which will transport it offshore. e. These must be designed in accordance with an approved offshore design code. 9 of Lecture 15A. The barge should be of adequate size and structural strength to ensure that the stability and static and dynamic stresses in the barge and seafastenings due to the loading operation and during transportation remain within acceptable limits. Can the barge be properly ballasted? If the tide will vary during loadout. are used. For jackets installed by flotation or launching. These drawings typically include details of all inspection aids such as lifting eyes. The American Bureau of Shipping. stabbing points. grease on hardwood. Lecture 15A. i. step-by-step as the jacket is loaded. Is the jacket complete? Has the structure been analysed for loadout stresses on the basis of the actual structure as fabricated at the time of loadout? 2. diving. they may be lifted onto the barge or skidded out. usually on two inner legs of the jacket. Jackets which have been fabricated on their side are usually loaded by skidding the entire structure onto a cargo or launch barge. If compression struts are used between the barge skid ways and those on shore. see Fig. It is usual in this case to load out on a rising tide so that the tide assists the ballast system.9 An installation plan must be prepared for each installation. superstructure and equipment. shackles and installation aids. e. etc. are ballasting arrangements adequate? Will ballast be adjusted as the weight of the jacket goes onto the barge? Are there proper controls? Is there an adequate standby ballast system? Are there back-up systems to pull the jacket back to shore if anything goes wrong during loadout? If the ballast correction is to be made iteratively. barge stability. The engineering input into an offshore installation project also involves the design of all temporary bracing. piles. are they accurately aligned and supported so they won't kick out during loadout? Have the pull lines. Is the launch barge securely moored to the loadout dock. valving and controls of the flotation system. In the case of a barge which will be grounded during loadout.8 : Fabrication. etc. seafastening and transportation and for the complete installation of the jacket. must be defined. During loadout.g. the jacket is lowered onto the skid ways. API RP2A [1]. It is equally applicable to an offshore installation project. shackles. The legs function as the bottom chord of a large truss. To reduce the sliding friction. details are also provided for piping.e. slings. In this latter case. Where jackets are fabricated in the vertical. Then. specifications and procedures must be prepared showing all the pertinent information necessary for construction of the total facility on location at sea. especially when part of the jacket is on the barge and part still on the skid ways. which can span between points of support.Lecture 15A.g. seafastening. The jacket must be loaded in such a manner that the barge is in a balanced and stable condition. For a barge which floats during the loadout. drawings showing launching. 2. welding inspections. Values of sliding friction as low as 3 per cent are usually attained. are there clear paint marks so that each step can be clearly identified? Page 7 of 19 Page 8 of 19 . The plan will include the method and procedures developed for the loadout. adequate temporary pads and braces must be provided under the columns to distribute the loads during skidding. as well as barge arrangements and tie-down details. or heavy lubricating oil on steel. In some cases the jacket is initially fabricated slightly above the skid ways using hydraulic or sand jacks. rigging. up-ending and flotation procedures must be prepared. the ballast system must be capable of compensating the changes in tide and loading. The barge must also have the capability to launch the jacket. Installation drawings. launch runners or trusses. A general note on Quality Assurance for Offshore Construction is appended to Lecture 15A. transportation and launching must not be exceeded. and pad eyes been inspected to ensure they are properly installed and can't foul during loadout? 4.. Seafastening entails fitting and welding sufficient ties between the jacket and the barge to prevent the jacket shifting while in transit to the offshore site. or the US Coast Guard. the jacket is supported on the skid ways. etc. the barge must have sufficient structural strength to distribute the concentrated deck loads to the supporting foundation material. A simplified check list for the operations relating to jacket loadout might be: 1. so that it won't move out during the loading? Is the barge properly moored against sideways movement? 3.9 Initial friction of the jacket on the skid ways may be as high as 15 per cent. in the same attitude as the final installation. The installation plan is normally subdivided into phases. seafastenings. etc.1. without the use of a derrick barge. Barge stability can be determined in accordance with regulations such as those published by Noble Denton.

When the barge is out of the port the problems are not totally solved since it must be assumed that the worst can happen. With a short towline between two considerable masses. Once the tow is under way. Tug selection involves such considerations as length of tow route. e. Therefore. Since the loads are dynamic. Consequently. and especially to minimise submersion of projecting members of the jacket during the tow and the consequent slamming. The draft and freeboard will have been carefully selected to maximise stability. the sensitivity of the dynamic analysis will usually warrant verification by model testing. the design of seafastenings. In determining this criteria. impact must be minimised. In the harbour area a big tug can normally exercise very little control even with a shortened towline. The so-called dynamic stability of wind overturning criteria Page 10 of 19 . However. Usually the barge will be trimmed down by the stern. 5. As a minimum the tugs should be capable of maintaining station in a 15 metre/second wind with accompanying waves. If one scheme of ballasting is to be used for a sheltered channel tow and another for the open sea. Accordingly. Both are verified by means of numerical analyses. the barge must be ballasted for transportation. calculations should be performed to demonstrate that freeing is not required by the reballasting procedure. Weather forecasting is provided throughout the tow so that. subjected to both static and dynamic loads. the large tug and the much larger barge/jacket. Have clear lines of supervision and control been established? Are the voice radio channels checked? Have the marine surveyors been notified so that they can be present? Owner's representatives? Certifying Authority? Have their approvals been received? Once the jacket is on the barge. these considerations are no longer relevant and the tanks can be ballasted to suit the demands of the sea voyage. Also. The size and power requirements of the towing vessels and the design of the towing arrangement must be calculated or determined from past experience. For instance. particularly for larger structures.0m significant sea-state and 0. tow route. in order to control deck elevation and trim. OFFSHORE TRANSPORTATION The transportation of heavy components from a fabrication yard to the offshore site is a critical activity. However. Thus it is standard practice to lengthen the towline once out of the port. Also there are the practical aspects of tug selection. i. to be considered. the reliability of the short term weather forecast should be considered. The behaviour of the jacket seafastened to the barge must be satisfactory both from the point of view of static and dynamic stability. Thus the departure is normally subject to strict weather forecast conditions for a period which assumes that the speed of the tow is between 1 and 2 knots for the first 100 nautical miles from the coast. the requirement in the Mediterranean is typically that the main tug should maintain station against a 20 metre/second wind.g. etc. the harbour tugs take the barge out under the guidance of a pilot who knows the port. Ballast tanks should normally either be full or completely empty.5 metre/second current. the gravity and inertial forces involved must be calculated for all anticipated barge accelerations and angles of roll and pitch during the design sea conditions adopted for the tow (usually the 10-year return storm for that season and location). They should also be designed to facilitate easy removal on location. to eliminate free surface and sloshing effects. as a minimum.9 5. this criterion depends on the location. When the barge is on the high seas it must be assumed that it can encounter conditions which are "as bad as could have been statistically foreseen". During loadout. a favourable 48-hour weather forecast is required. close control is essential in order to avoid the possibility of running aground. They are major structural systems. The intact static stability criteria usually adopted is that the righting arm be positive throughout a range of 36 about any axis. Seafastenings should be attached to the jacket only at locations approved by the designer. because of the nature of many ports. However. with the jacket fully supported on the barge. Seafastenings are installed after loadout and must be completed prior to sailaway.9 the design of the jacket itself. It is especially so in the case of the jacket since the behaviour of the unit usually influences the verification of barge strength. The tug must have sufficient time to pick up the emergency towline and control the barge before it drifts into shallow water. Experience has shown that the first phase of transportation is the most treacherous. therefore. They should be attached to the barge at locations which are capable of distributing the load to the barge internal framing. if exceptional weather threatens. Normally.e. There are several reasons for this. Seafastenings are normally subject to the same code requirements for fabrication as the jacket. the risk of snapping is high. acting simultaneously. proximity of safe harbours and the anticipated weather conditions and sea states.Lecture 15A. many tanks will be partially full. the seafastenings should be freed during the reballasting to avoid imposing undue stresses on the jacket legs or. 3. alternatively. and indeed Page 9 of 19 Lecture 15A. Force 5 and decreasing. the towline may break. trim will be adjusted to optimise tow speed and give directional stability during tow. Large jacket launch and cargo barges are relatively flexible structures in that the jacket structure is normally (much) stiffer. a pre-arranged port of refuge may be sought. ballasting the barge to obtain the required draft and trim should preferably be done at the dock side before seafastenings are attached. buoyancy and collapse forces.

All of these considerations reflect static properties of the jacket and barge. the roll will diminish and if the barge is set at a (much) deeper draft. As the jacket moves towards the stern of the barge. Once launched the jacket must float with a reserve of buoyancy in order to stop the downward This section is concerned with the stages of jacket installation commencing with removal of the jacket from the barge to its placing on the sea bed and temporary on-bottom stability. 4. define operational requirements during launch. These need to be removable and are located where they give most benefit. the roll will also diminish.1 Launch The launch site is normally at or near the installation location. or designing into the jacket a special truss. check the stability of the jacket during launch and when free floating. The jacket is then pulled along the barge skid ways (which were used for loadout) by winches. Thus. the barge start to tilt and a point is reached when the jacket is self sliding. Lecture 15A. including ballast configuration. the energy which tends to overturn the barge is at least 40% less than that which is available due to the inherent righting stability of the barge. There are two basic methods used: • • launch lift momentum of the jacket. Incorrect "balancing" of these aspects can have very serious cost/risk implications in overall project terms. Further movement causes the rocker arm and jacket to rotate. it must first be removed from the transportation barge. This is achieved by adding buoyancy tanks. 4. there is frequently a need for even more buoyancy. verify that the trajectory followed has a safe seabed clearance. An initial tilt to the barge may have been provided by ballasting immediately prior to launch. OFFSHORE INSTALLATION Lecture 15A. It may be less obvious. This can be achieved either by strengthening those members which might be over-stressed by the launching operation. Immediately prior to launch.1 Removal of Jacket from Barge Unless a jacket is a self floater. In considering the motions of the jacket and barge it is intuitively plausible that roll will be the most problematical motion (from the point of view of body accelerations) and that the largest roll will be caused by a beam sea. 4.000 tonnes and was being installed in 105 metres of water. commonly referred to as a launch truss.9 simply ensure that for a given wind. This requires the jacket to be water tight. that if the barge width and. Spacing between jacket members or launch trusses will be dictated by the spacing between launch skid ways. As the jacket moves along the skid ways its centre of gravity reaches a point where it is vertically above the rocker arm pivot.6: Foundations covers the subject of pile installation. The launch of a jacket is clearly a critical phase in the life of the jacket. A jacket launch naval analysis is required in order to: • • • • • ensure that an adequate sliding velocity is maintained during the rocker arm rotation. The plots shown in Figures 1a to 1d are extracted from such an analysis. but nevertheless true. Buoyancy tanks from previous launches are often used. the barge selection process is normally performed at a very early stage of the design process. The jacket must be designed and fabricated to withstand the stresses caused by the launch. A stern trim of approximately 5 is usually aimed for. to a lesser extent the length. Once in the water the self floating jacket is brought under control with lines from tugs and/or the installation vessel.1. Various stages in the launch of a jacket are shown in Figure 1a to 1d.Lecture 15A. the seafastening securing the jacket to the barge is cut. Page 11 of 19 Page 12 of 19 . With heavy jackets in shallow water it may be necessary to launch the jacket in deep water at some distance from the installation location and tow the jacket to site. determine the jacket behaviour during launch. Improvements can occasionally be made by choosing a narrower barge (although obviously stability will suffer) or increasing the draft (although in this case stability may again suffer and parts of the structure which were previously 'dry' may now be subjected to 'slamming'). are reduced.9 The skid ways terminate in rocker arms at the stern of the barge. The jacket will then slide under its own self weight into the water. The jacket weight was 14. for a large jacket. The analysis showed that it should take approximately 2 minutes between start of self sliding (Figure 1a) and the jacket reaching its final floating position (Figure 1d). However. Thus a jacket will generally be designed from the outset for installation by a specific barge. It is common practice to gain additional buoyancy by sealing jacket legs and pile sleeves with removable rubber diaphragms. Considerable design effort is required in order to ensure that the launch sequence is feasible.

The next stage is to transfer the weight of the jacket from the barge to the crane. The nitrogen power source and associated control panels were contained in watertight capsules. e. In this case the barge is flooded and hence submerged. The same lift procedure is adopted in both a direct and buoyancy assisted lift. They also have sophisticated computer controlled ballast systems to keep the vessel level during lifting operations. In intermediate environments. The barge will normally be controlled by tugs.2 Jacket Up-ending and Set-down Unless a jacket is transported and lifted in its upright position. In this case no up-ending is required and installation is straight forward. careful control and phasing with barge and crane vessel motions is required in order to ensure that once the jacket is lifted clear of the barge it does not hit the barge as a subsequent wave passes through. This trend has been encouraged by the availability of large crane vessels such as the Micoperi 7000. This can further reduce the apparent lift capacity. Normally this means that beam seas should be avoided since this excites roll and connecting the slings to the hook. Buoyancy tanks may be added to the jacket if required. The general requirement here is to lift as rapidly as possible.2. it is also necessary to consider stability and motion response characteristics. When considering a tandem lift it should be noted that it is unlikely that both hooks will carry the same load. Up-ending may be achieved by controlled flooding of buoyancy tanks.9 which is the most disruptive motion. the "best attitude" is not always possible since it depends on the work that the vessel is required to perform. However. pitch and heave tend to be close to the typical peak periods of the sea spectra encountered offshore. A second form of lift is the buoyancy assisted lift. Upending is therefore achieved by controlled flooding. Lecture 15A. During a lift the ballast system is also used to counteract heel and increase hoisting and lowering speeds during the crucial lift-off and set-down operations. Once the jacket is lifted clear of the barge. In addition to lift capacity. In this case the flooding system involved 42 primary and 22 contingency subsea valves under direct hydraulic control. noting that large derrick barges such as the Micoperi 7000 are fitted with two cranes as standard. Another factor tending to increase direct lift jackets are savings in weight that are being achieved in jacket design. the weight of lifting slings need to be considered. Up-ending of the jacket will then normally proceed directly. Figure 4 shows a sequence of sketches indicating how a self floating jacket is upended.9 4.. More water line tanks are flooded in step 2 until by step 3 the upper frame of the jacket reaches waterline and may also be flooded. Curves showing load capacity against lifting radius are shown in Figure 2. these contributing as much as 7% of the lift weight. Deep water jackets will in general be lifted on their side. This results in part of the jacket being buoyant. In the harsh North Sea environments installation vessels are usually semi-submersibles such as the Micoperi 7000. A small installation vessel will usually be required for the installation of piles once the jacket has been set-down. ship-shaped vessels may be used. the Gulf of Mexico. Two cranes will normally be used. by using a crane vessel or by a combination of both. In step 1 the waterline compartments at one end of the jacket are flooded. The first stages in lifting a jacket from the transportation barge involve positioning the barge In a direct lift the jacket is lifted off the barge completely in air. However. it is normal for the installation vessel to be correctly moored and positioned so that up-ending and set-down may proceed as one integral lift operation.Lecture 15A.g.1. The natural period of large installation vessels in roll. the barge is removed by tugs. Finally. it will be necessary to up-end the jacket at the installation location. These motions therefore predominate. and that the maximum permissible jacket weight will be less than the sum of the two crane capacities. It should also be noted that cranes are frequently guyed back to give maximum lift capacity and carry less load if they are revolving. 4. The jacket is then allowed to rotate until all legs are equally flooded as in Page 13 of 19 Page 14 of 19 . so this is used as the platform from which to control the various flooding operations. Accordingly vessel operators perform extensive studies to determine permissible sea states for specific operations and vessel captains invariably "experiment" with different headings in a particular sea in order to minimise motions and maximise workability. Once everything is ready for lift to proceed the seafastenings will be cut. In more moderate waters they are often flat bottomed barges. The large semi-submersible crane vessels used in the North Sea have full dynamic positioning systems for locating themselves on site. reducing hook loads. Figure 3 shows a sketch of the Brae 'B' jacket showing the auxiliary buoyancy tanks.1 Up-ending by Ballast control and Flooding A large crane vessel will not normally be required for either a launched or self-floating jacket. 4. This installation vessel will also be used to help position the jacket. When the jacket is to be removed from the transportation barge by lifting. Shallow water jackets may be lifted in the vertical position.2 Lift An increasing number of jackets are being installed by direct lift. The selection of a suitable installation vessel is clearly essential.

A second method is to up-end directly. A horizontally lifted jacket may be upended in one of two ways. An increasing trend is to install a jacket over an existing well or wells. as shown in Figure 5. Although two crane hooks are shown in Figure 6. or of flooding valves failing to operate. This may require closures to legs and some additional buoyancy. it should be noted that for light weight jackets it is possible to up-end using a single crane.9 new slings attached at the top of the jacket. A feature of these analyses is the need to consider what happens in the event of buoyancy tanks being accidentally flooded. In this case the main and auxiliary hooks are used together. The crane and ballasting operations need to be clearly defined before the operation begins. The main difference is that there may be less excess buoyancy with which to control the operation. may be used to up-end and set-down the jacket. Since the lifting points are submerged divers may be required to disconnect the slings from the jacket. as shown in Figure 6. Contingency procedures and equipment must be provided.9 step 4. For horizontally oriented jackets that are lifted directly the procedure is more involved. The jacket may then be up-ended as shown in Figure 5. The jackets natural position will then be floating upright as in step 5. that the necessary rotation between slings and jacket can occur. Perhaps the straightest forward is to lower the jacket into the water so that it floats. Lecture 15A. Slings can then be removed and Once up-ended the jacket can be set-down on the sea-bed. Further flooding of the jacket as in step 6 will enable the jacket to be lowered onto the sea bed in a controlled manner. for example the main hook taking the weight of the jacket with the auxiliary hook providing the upending force.Lecture 15A. Page 15 of 19 Page 16 of 19 . the same template being used to position the jacket. This requires special padears so The up-ending of a launched jacket will be similar to that shown in Figure 4. This is acceptable for jackets that are launched. This involves careful naval analysis of the free floating position of the jacket at various stages during the up-ending procedure.2. It is necessary to ensure that the well heads are protected from damage due to accidental contact with the jacket. A pre-drilling template will have been used to position the wells. 4.2 Up-ending using the crane vessel Figure 5 shows the simplest use of a crane to up-end and set-down a jacket. Careful naval analysis is also required in order to carefully determine hook loads and to ensure that the jacket remains stable. In this case a combination of flooding and lift.

the piles also provide a degree of resistance to over turning.loadout. This should be the maximum statistical wave which may occur prior to piling being completed. These will penetrate some distance under self weight providing additional sliding resistance. offshore transportation and installation offshore. A number of engineering studies are required for jacket launch and set-down. REFERENCES [1] API RP2A.9 Once set-down the jacket should be positioned at or near grade and levelled within the tolerances specified in the installation plan. It is necessary for the jacket to be stable and level during piling. Once level. Rules for construction and installation of steel jackets as required by DNV. However. levelling should take place after a minimum number of piles have been driven by jacking or lifting. In these circumstances mudmats with skirts may be used. 4. latest edition. Det Norske Veritas. Det Norske Veritas Marine Operations Recommended Practice RP5 . with good soil conditions the jacket may be able to be supported directly on existing jacket steel with no extra provision made. In this instance procedures should be used to minimise bending stresses in the piles. (2) stability against sliding under wave/current loading. ADDITIONAL READING 1. Another option frequently used is to stab a number of piles as soon as the Lecture 15A. Engineering design principles and practices that have evolved during the development of offshore oil resources. Assuming installation to occur in the summer months. latest edition. 7. This is a result of long term weather forecasting being less reliable than short term forecasting. Removal of the jacket from the barge is accomplished either by direct lifting with a derrick barge and lowering into position. In carrying out the above analyses it is necessary to use an appropriate sea-state to generate hydro-dynamic loading. • • • • An installation plan must be prepared for each installation. The provisions that need to be made to ensure on-bottom stability vary greatly depending on jacket location. a typical criteria may be a 1 year summer storm wave. Since most piles are inclined.9 jacket is set-down. care should be exercised to maintain grade and levelness of the jacket during subsequent operations. Three conditions need to be met: (1) vertical resistance to jacket weight and piling loads. In deciding how best to fabricate and install a given jacket. If necessary. Principles and good practice for offshore heavy lifts.1-88. Page 17 of 19 Page 18 of 19 . Construction and Inspection of Offshore Structures. with poor soil conditions large 'mudmats' may be required in order to spread the load. For example. it is normal for piling to proceed as rapidly as possible. A separate on-bottom stability analysis is therefore carried out. Rules for the Design. (3) stability against overturning under wave/current loading. These can influence launch and installation dynamics. 2. height and on sea-bed soil conditions. or by launching. Loadout entails the movement of the completed structure onto the barge which will transport it offshore.Lifting (June 1985). 1977. 6. AWS Structural Welding Code AWS D1. CONCLUDING SUMMARY • • There are broadly four phases to the installation of a steel jacket . AISC Specification for the Design. 4. It should also be noted that any problems encountered during the installation procedure will result in delay and that it may be some time before the jacket is adequately fixed to the sea bed by piling. Designing and Construction of Fixed Offshore Installations. Seafastening entails fitting and welding sufficient ties between the jacket and the barge to prevent shifting while in transit to the offshore site. 3.3 On-bottom Stability Once set-down on the sea bed. Levelling the jacket after all piles have been installed should be avoided if at all possible as it is costly and frequently ineffective. Recommended Practice for Planning. API code refers to this specification for calculation of basic allowable stresses of all jacket members. this far into the installation procedure the weather and hence sea conditions may be detioriating. seafastening. For many jackets it is not possible to achieve stability against sliding and overturning using flat mudmats. All jacket welding and weld procedure qualifications are required by the API code to be undertaken in accordance with this code. the options are principally determined by the installation equipment available and the jacket's intended water depth. and in silty or clay soils can allow nominal tension loading to resist overturning. Fabrication and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings. The transportation of heavy components from a fabrication yard to the offshore site is a critical activity requiring careful calculation and planning. However. Skirts considerably improve the resistance to sliding. 5.Lecture 15A.

Rules and Regulations for the Classification of Fixed Offshore Installations. 1989. Table 1 Major Offshore Crane Vessels Operator Name Type Mode Fix Lifting Capacity 2720 1820 2720 2450 4536 + 3628 = 8164 3630 + 2720 = 6350 3630 + 2720 = 6350 3000 + 2000 = 5000 4000 3800 1820 1450 3360 2450 6000 + 6000 = 12000 7000 + 7000 = 14000 Thor Monohull Rev Fix Odin Heerema Monohull Rev Fix Hermod Semisub Rev Fix Balder Semisub Rev Fix DB50 Monohull Rev Fix DB100 McDermott Semisub Rev Fix DB101 Semisub Rev DB102 Micoperi M7000 Semisub Semisub Rev Rev Notes: 1.Lecture 15A. Based on Lloyd's experience from certification of over 500 platforms world-wide.9 5. these are situated at the vessels stern at approximately 60m distance etc. Page 19 of 19 . When the crane vessels are provided with two cranes. Rated lifting capacity in metric tonnes 2. Lloyds Register of Shipping.

INTRODUCTION This lecture deals with the overall aspects of the design of offshore topsides. module support frame.4: Plate Girder Behaviour & Design Lectures 11. referring to API-RP2G [1]. modules.4: Steel Grades and Qualities Lecture 2. The structural concept for the deck is influenced greatly by the type of substructure (jacket or GBS) and the method of construction. and crane pedestals. jacket or GBS) are introduced and described.3: Elastic Instability Modes Lecture 7. 2. These types are: 1. to identify major interfaces with the process.6: Built-up Columns Lectures 8. to introduce the structural concepts for jacket and gravity based structure (GBS) topsides. The different types of topside structures (relevant to the type of substructure.Offshore SUMMARY The topside lay-out is discussed. Page 1 of 21 Page 2 of 21 . and safety. helideck. microwave tower. logistics.2: Welded Connections Lecture 12. integrated deck. to elaborate on structural design for deck floors. flare stack or flare boom. 1.2: Advanced Introduction to Fatigue Lectures 15A: Structural Systems .5: Selection of Steel Quality Lectures 3. equipment.10 Lecture 15A. see Figures 1 and 2.1: General Fabrication of Steel Structures Lecture 6.Lecture 15A. The topside of an offshore structure accommodates the equipment and supports modules and accessories such as living quarters.10 Superstructures I OBJECTIVE/SCOPE To introduce the functional requirements. Floor concepts are presented and several aspects of the plate floor design are addressed. 3. and to general aspects of interface control and weight control. PREREQUISITES Lectures 1A & 1B: Steel Construction Lecture 2.

2.10 Heavy decks. The area required for the equipment. The elevation on the lowest decks depends on the environmental conditions. Page 3 of 21 Page 4 of 21 . the vertical clearance as well as the access/egress requirements determine the deck area and deck elevations. Smaller decks. Most of this lecture refers to this type of integrated deck such as is shown in Figures 3 and 4. plus an air gap of 1. over 10. including tide and storm sway. The design requirements and their impact on the structural system are discussed below. The lay-out of the deck is influenced by the type of hydrocarbon processing to be undertaken.10 Lecture 15A.5m minimum. is based on the maximum elevation of the design wave crest. the lowest deck. BASIC ASPECTS OF DESIGN 2.000 tons.Lecture 15A. The vertical distance between the decks of the topside is generally in the range 6 .e. piping and cable routings. such as those located in the southern North Sea. are provided with a module support frame onto which a number of modules are placed. are nowadays installed complete with all equipment in one lift to minimize offshore hookup. The selection of the concept for the structural deck is made in close cooperation with the other disciplines. The elevation of the cellar deck.9m in the North Sea. i.1 Space and Elevations The first step in developing a new design concept is to consider all the requirements for the deck structure.

and architectural outfitting. vessels. walls.10 Consideration of the prevailing wind direction is very important in determining the position of various components on the platform. A stiff support is required in order to comply with the stringent deflection criteria. It Gas compressor module: the pressure in gas reservoirs declines due to production. Walkways. maintenance. Louvres may be used to allow natural ventilation. can require significant areas to be clear of structural members. The tip shall exceed the elevation of the helideck by at least 100 feet. Lay down areas for equipment. tankful live load and wind load are discussed here. ladders and stairs: these items should be kept obstacle free. Caissons for pumps and sumps for discharge are hung from the cellar deck and introduce significant vertical and horizontal loads in the deck. based on API-RP2G [1]. helideck.10 Survival capsules and man-overboard crane: the supporting structures for these items usually cantilever from the main structure. Tankful Page 5 of 21 Page 6 of 21 . Risers. The location of the deck crane should be outside the obstacle free area of the helideck and should not interfere with future facilities. cable routings.2 Lay-out Requirements The requirements for the various topside components are briefly described below. whilst preventing entry of rain. Cladding. sumps: the riser section of the pipeline rises from the seabed to the deck. cranes. machinery. For safety reasons. Deck crane: the location of the crane should be selected so as to obtain maximum deck coverage and to enable the crane operator to keep eye contact with the lifted object and the supply vessel. repair and platform modification. Heat radiation shall be checked. Both vents and flares should be located outside hazardous areas and away from the helideck. etc. caissons. 2.3 the different types of loads have been identified and partly quantified.Lecture 15A. equipment. Usually the helideck is located in the obstacle free area on top of the living quarters. snow and birds. cables. Hatches: access to the lower decks within reach of the crane is required to enable Living quarters and helideck: the helideck should be in the vicinity of the living quarters to enable fast evacuation. The reservoir then requires stimulation by. Shock loading and dynamic amplification increases the support reactions during operation. be non-slippery and have sufficient width to allow evacuation of personnel on stretchers. Dead weight. spares and consumables: these areas are provided by cantilevering from the main structure in order to allow access to the lower deck levels by the deck crane. a flare discharges and burns these products. 2. Lecture 15A. Dead weight includes the weight of structure. Other provisions: items such as monorails and inspection gangways may also be required. Equipment. doors and louvres: the type of cladding depends on the operational requirements and the preference of the oil company. piping and cable-supports: all devices to treat the oil or gas shall comply with the requirements of API-RP2G [1]. Deck penetrations: pipes connecting process-items on different decks and. without providing hatches through the decks. Wells: the position of the wells depends heavily on whether the wells will be drilled and worked with a separate cantilevered jack-up rig or with a platform-based rig. injection of water. walls and doors may have to satisfy specified explosion and fire resistance requirements. and the logistic and safety provisions. Water or gas injection module: oil production declines after some years of operation. Drainage provisions: provision is required for spillage in drip pans under the equipment and for collecting oil-polluted rainwater to prevent spilling into the sea. The hatches should be identified early in the design. The major penetrations should be identified early in the design and coordinated with major structural members. Future compression may be needed in order to achieve acceptable gas flow through the export pipeline. In the first case the wells must be close to the platform edge and require significant deck area above free of obstacles. In the second case a pair of heavy beams to support the drill rig must be provided. Microwave tower: A high mounting is required to provide obstacle free support for microwave antennae. Vent/flare boom or stack: a vent discharges gaseous products in the air without burning them. piping. such as the vent of the flare.3 Loads In Lecture 15A. for example. introduces vertical and horizontal loads (environmental and operational) in the deck structure.

Interface between the topside and bridge from adjacent platform. Live load also covers all sorts of miscellaneous loads such as bagged or palletized consumables. 2. see Figure 5. etc. pumps. the walkways. the walkways. etc. lubrication oil. methanol. to +5% in the final fabrication phase. spare parts. Interface between the deck and modules. weight engineering as explained in Section 2. For overall structural integrity. glycol. and variation over various decks. Interface between drilling and workover operations. Overhead clearance between piping. Weight engineering consists of: • • • • weight prognosis weight reporting weight control weighing Weight prognosis is the methodology which applies an uncertainty surcharge as high as +30% in the conceptual design phase. escape routes. This area is described in the code as the non-occupied area. Interface between platform crane and helideck. For local strength. stating both variation of loads over one deck. Lecture 15A. equipment and the floor overhead should be respected. Wind loads should be properly assessed. diesel fuel. This requires that the load file for the structural analysis and the weight report are compatible with respect to total weight.pile bearing resistance • the area to which live load is to be applied. cable routes. .direct loaded deck stringer . • the arrangement of loads that generates maximum stress.deck leg . well-kill mud. Page 7 of 21 Page 8 of 21 • • • • • • • Space allocation: the structure should not use space allocated for equipment or access routes. and flare stack. Lack of weight control can lead to costly design changes as well as to major provisions in order to keep within the limits of the construction strategy. vessels and piping require support by the steel structure.Lecture 15A. etc. waste. are considered as non-occupied by equipment and are thus loaded by live load. drilling rig. shall be performed by the project management staff.4 Interface Control The many functions of the topside result in the involvement of many disciplines in the design. Interface with the export riser. Special elements such as communication towers and flare booms require consideration as wind sensitive structures. The application of live load is typical for topsides.deck beam . To control the design process. maintenance equipment. Direct interface control.10 live load covers weight of potable water.5 Weight Engineering The weight of the overall facility as well as its major components is critical. Any structural analysis must be linked to the latest available information in the weight report. are considered as occupied (kept clear for evacuation) and consequently no live load is applied. A policy on this item should be prepared for each project.jacket . helifuel. This requirement leads to several major areas of interdisciplinary control. deckhouse.10 2. Interface with the substructure. etc. the facility must be designed to be very compact.deck truss . For design considerable engineering judgement is required concerning: • the magnitude of the load to be applied to the various structural items: • . Due to the high cost of providing platform space.5 below. the complex shape of the platform creates problems in assessing the effective area for wind load. escape routes. weight distribution and centres of gravity.pile . For overall strength.

STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS 3. ++ denotes greater benefit 12.10 Table 1 Comparison of concepts for main jacket-based structures No. 5.10 Lecture 15A. 6. 3. In a 20-25m wide deck. 4. are compared in Table 1.1 Selection of Topside for a Main Jacket-Based Structure Note: The selection of the concept for the topside structure is the second step in the development of a structural system. 8. The two possible basic alternatives: a truss type (Figure 4) or a portalframe type without braces (Figure 3). 7. 9. 2. Item Discipline non-interference Flexibility during construction Flexibility during operation Automated fabrication Construction depth Inspection Maintenance Weight of structure Strength reserve Potential for high strength steel Structural CAPEX Platform CAPEX Truss type ++ + + + + + Frame type ++ ++ ++ ++ 0 ++ + 0 ++ ++ + ++ -. 1. trusses will generally be arranged in longitudinal rows: centre line and both outer walls (Figure 6). 10.Lecture 15A. Page 9 of 21 Page 10 of 21 .denotes greater disadvantage The selection of the topside main structure concept. is linked with the decision of the position of the longitudinal structure in the cross-section. 3. 11. truss or portal frame.

Lecture 15A.10 • • attachment of secondary structures and of equipment/pipe/cable supports to the main structure must be strictly controlled. the deck is subject to fatigue. piping and cable routes. Page 11 of 21 Page 12 of 21 . Gravity based substructures have been built with one to four shafts. the connection area with the concrete shaft must provide the transition from circular (shaft) to square (deck). a design case difficult to control in topside design. 3. Orthotropic decks in steel have found application in helidecks. current development in Norway will show its A few elements only of the GBS-topside structural design are indicated below: • • due to portal frame action. equipment lay out optimization. The material used at present is high strength steel typically of 355 MPa yield stress. could gain increased application as their weight per sq. approximately 14-16m apart. Corrugated steel plate (approximately 1-3mm thick) as sub-flooring has been used in living quarters. especially with the plate type.2 Selection of Topsides for Gravity Based Structures Topsides of gravity based concrete structures (GBS) are quite different from the jacket based topsides. • inspection and repair options must be planned carefully. The options are: • • conventional steel floor steel grating (bar-type or plate type) aluminium floor system orthotropic deck in steel corrugated steel plate In such decks. Further study is required to assess their actual feasibility for floors of offshore modules. typically at 1000-1200mm centres. temporary crushing devices for deckmating. A rectangular or a T-arrangement of four shafts has been adopted. thus creating stress concentrations. real potential. however. is attractive. It accommodates high strength anchor bars. 3. to avoid fatigue problems. portal frames will be arranged in 2 longitudinal rows. There is a trend to use higher strength steel (420-460 MPa).3 Floor Systems The concept for the floor-system in offshore structures is conventional: hot rolled beams. • • • The conventional steel floor contributes approximately half of the weight of the steel structure of an offshore deck. Aluminium has attracted much interest recently. see Lecture 15A.1. especially as fatigue may occur. allowing floor cantilevers of approximately 5m (Figure 3). are covered by a chequered or flat steel plate 6-10mm thick. logistic and emergency routes require many big openings and perforations of plate walls.m. The topside structure is an important element in the overall portal-type system.10 Lecture 15A. Steel gratings. and requires tolerances on deck and substructure dimensions. The basic form is modularized topside with a grid of heavy box girders.

3. The cost is also a very important factor.Lecture 15A. It is common practice in the structural analysis for underfloor bracing to neglect completely the floor plate. 3. Where underfloor bracing is adopted. The interactive process of conceptual design of the jacket and deck yields the spacing of the columns. DECK FLOORING DESIGN There is a clear preference for the stabilization by the floor plate. wind. The rhomboid solution should be chosen for the upper deck. The underfloor bracing under a plate floor does create a very unclear structural situation. sea fastening horizontal components of sling forces module skewing during installation.4 Floor Panel Concept for Conventional Steel Floor The floor panel. All elevations and overhead clearances are involved in the choice of arrangement. pipe reactions.g.10 There are essentially two options for floor stabilization: • • provision of separate underfloor horizontal bracings allocate the stabilization function to the floor plate. due to congestion at the column by the padeyes for lifting. The bracing is assumed completely to perform the stabilizing function.10 In summary. there are two configuration options (see Figure 11).g. the floor concept used for a typical floor of an offshore deck of a module is a conventional steel floor or steel grating. defined as the assembly of the floor plate and the stringer. etc. The single most important structural aspect is the amount of prefabrication that can be carried out away from the main fabrication yard.5 Floor Stabilization Concept The deck structure requires lateral stabilization of each floor with respect to: • • • • • • lateral instability of beams horizontal forces. 4. 4. e. e. but in practice the floor plate is much too stiff to allow that. pipe routing. transverse column spacings are typically 9m Page 13 of 21 Page 14 of 21 . flush: stringer welded in between deck beam. can be connected to the overall structure in two ways: • • stacked: stringer over the top of deckbeams. It is practically impossible to change from the flush to stacked arrangement in a later phase of the design. pipe stress. In the Dutch sector of the North Sea.1 Introduction The selection of the main deck dimensions have been considered above in relation to lay-out requirements. cable routing. Lecture 15A. sea transport horizontal components of permanent braces horizontal components of temporary braces. Clearances are very important for equipment height. with top flange in one plane.

which incorporates membrane effects and is of special interest for design for local loads.3m load area Det Norske Veritas [3] presents an expression for the required plate thickness t. Joining floor plate and stringers requires welding. Longitudinally spacings are typically 15m. Intermittent welding is generally not accepted. chequered plate or tear plate.2 Floor Plate Design Options are to choose between flat plates. hard piping or with cable trays then is quite likely. In practice the floor plate acts as horizontal bracing between the columns. It is important to choose. Special attention is required to ensure that all welds between the floor plate and the underlying structure do not form brittle points. Another option for providing slip resistance is to coat with a sand finish. The floor plate thickness is usually 810mm and 6mm for lighter loaded floors. although welding distortion may rule out the 6 mm thickness. Next decisions are made on: • • • • floor system: plate versus grating main structure: truss versus portal frame floor panel concept: stacked versus flush floor stabilization underfloor bracing versus plate. 4. such as lay-down areas and food container platforms. Elastic. They are specified by the operator. An increased plate thickness may be required in these areas due to larger concentrated loads (1).3 x 0. Strength of Floor Plate The strength of the floor plate is very high both for uniform as well as concentrated loads.Lecture 15A. For a floor design of a production deck typical dimensions are: Structural item Typical span 1. API-RP2A (2) does not specify live loads. The shear in this weld is generally quite low. The structural concept is then complete. column These components are identified in Figure 6. main structure (longitudinal) 15m 5. deck beam (transversal) 15m 4. small-deflection theory provides uneconomical conservative results. 4. or F = 10-25 kN on a 0. Equipment and containers are regularly offloaded by the crane in some deck areas. A continuous thin weld (a = 4 mm) is usually specified. floor plate 1m 2. a profile which allows selection of heavier sections with practically identical depth to accommodate local heavy equipment. For main decks generally accepted figures are: p = 20kN/sqm. Interference with small diameter.10 The same attention applies to the buckling of the floor plate by stresses which are picked up unintentionally. Lecture 15A. A principle for economic design of steel structures is that the load-paths should be short. The joint between the stringer and the deck beam differs with the floor panel concept chosen. Page 15 of 21 Page 16 of 21 . stringer (longitudinal) 5m 3. Designers should avoid choosing deeper sections or reinforcing them to accommodate late extra load requirements by welding another section underneath. Failure of such welds could lead to crack initiation in the rest of the structure.3 Stringers The typical stringer for a production platform is an IPE 240-270 or HE 240-280A profile positioned at approximately 1m centres and spanning 5m.10 for a wellhead platform to 15m for a production platform. especially for stacked floor panels.

10 • stacked floors have a continuous fillet weld around the flange contact area and generally do not have web stiffening of the stringers.10 Stacked Floor Concept Figures 8 and 9 illustrate the problems. Deck beam prefabrication is also required. some operators will require seal plates to be welded between the deck beam and the floor plate.Lecture 15A. though HL 1000 (400mm wide) or HX 1000 (450mm wide) are also used for heavier loads or greater spans. • flush floors. The decision on the type of stringer joint should preferably be made prior to material ordering. 4. The major joint in the deck beam is that with the main structure. Lecture 15A. This is quite expensive. Page 17 of 21 Page 18 of 21 . A typical joint is depicted in Figure 7. The joint configuration is strongly determined by the prefabrication concept and elevation of the flanges. Welding the floor between deck beams requires removal of the top-flange of the stringer near its end and perfect fit between the deck beams and floor. If the top of the deck beam becomes inaccessible for maintenance. It is different for the stacked and for the flush concept.4 Deck Beams Deck beams supporting the floor panels or providing direct support to major equipment are generally provided as HE 800-1000 beams.

Lecture 15A. REFERENCES [1] API-RP2G: Production facilities on offshore structures. Options are shown in Figure 9 with detail (a) haunching and detail (b) slotting the top flange through the web. referring to API-RP2G. In Section 3. Horizontal bracing can easily clash with vertical piping and major hatches. the elevation must be chosen carefully. connection for the top flange of the transverse deck beam is more difficult. Flush Floor Concept Detailing is dependent of the prefabrication policy. modules. 6.5 the preference for the floor plate to act as horizontal bracing was indicated. Presents the basic requirements. module support frame. welding of the top flanges is straightforward. the detail shown in Figure 10a is the more appropriate. where only the transverse main beam is positioned lower. 1974. The bracing members have to pass with sufficient clearance under the stringers. Assembly of the braces is generally quite cumbersome. the different types of topside structure were introduced and described. Page 19 of 21 Page 20 of 21 . Lecture 15A. If however separate bracing members are required. the detail Figure 10b The lower flange. • • Floor concepts were described. If the deck panel is prefabricated as an assembly of plate. Several aspects of the plate floor design were addressed. For the less suitable partially stacked concept (Figure 8). These requirements generate the elevation and the maximum feasible diameter of the brace (Figure 11). Direct welding of the top flange of the deck beam to the web should be rejected. If the deck panel is fabricated as an assembly of plate and stringer only. CONCLUDING SUMMARY • • The topside lay-out was discussed. where both transverse and longitudinal main beam are positioned lower. will be the most feasible. They also require good access for welding of the joint. typically 20-25mm thick. penetrate the web of the deck beams at sufficient distance from the lower flange.10 To allow top flange welding a strip of the floor plate is fitted and welded last. These types are: integrated deck. if alignment of both flanges is ensured. together with general aspects of interface control and weight control. to enable back welding of the root.10 For the full stacked concept (Figure 9). 5. Based on the type of substructure. can only be welded to the web. Again it is apparent that a decision on joint configuration is required prior to material ordering. jacket and GBS.5 Horizontal Bracing The lower flange of the main structure should be at least 250mm underneath. 4. typically 40mm thick. American Petroleum Institute 1 ed. stringer and deck beam.

Permanent decks for wheel loading.10 [2] API-RP2A: Recommended practice for planning. Presents a recent example for a portal-framed topside. P. Langseth & c.d. 4. designing and constructing fixed platforms.s. Zee & A.C. P. 9th. 18th ed. 2. pp 1001-1014. Good background to theory of plated structures. IRO Journal. Floor and roof plate behaviour under accidental loading. ADDITIONAL READING 1.Lecture 15A. plugging capacity of steel plates. 7. Gjerde et al: Design of steel deckstructures for deepwater multishaft gravity concrete platform. August 1985. pp 3-9. Page 21 of 21 . Det Norske Veritas. M.G. Most recent presentation on GBS topside structure. 1987. Berkelder: Placid K12BP biggest Dutch production platform. American Petroleum Institute.. 3. pp 17-44.: Dropped objects.4. nr. Part 5.J. [3] DNV: Rules for the classification of steel ships.s. BOSS Conference 1988 Trondheim. IABSE Surveys S 31/1985. The structural offshore code governs the majority of platforms. Practical approach for economic floor plate design under static load. paper 90-335. 38. v.: Behaviour and design of steel plated structures. Chapter 2. OMAE conference Houston 1990. 1989. D. Dubas & c.

A structural system for a deck structure comprises several of the following elements: Floors (steel plate or grating) Deck stringer (H beams. Most of this lecture refers to this type of integrated deck as described in Lecture 15A. load out 4.11 Lecture 15A.: 1. Figs.e. box girder.2: Welded Connections Lecture 12. and modules. offshore installation especially deckmating 6. load-out. transport and installation.4: Steel Grades and Qualities Lecture 2. commissioning A brief discussion on inspection and repair and on platform removal concludes this lecture. INTRODUCTION This lecture deals with the structural design of jacket-based offshore deck structures. such as those located in the southern North Sea. i. following the introduction in Lecture 15A. are provided with a module support frame onto which a number of modules are placed. together with the various previous stages such as fabrication.10. fabrication 2.4: Plate Girder Behaviour and Design Lecture 11.e. over 10. see Lecture 15A. The selection of the concept for the structural deck is made in close cooperation with the Lecture 6. portal frame. 4 and 5.1.Lecture 15A. module support frames. sea transport 5. are nowadays installed complete with all equipment in one lift to minimize offshore hook-up.3: Elastic Instability Modes Lecture 7.1: General Fabrication of Steel Structures 7. Smaller decks.10.000 tons. the in-place condition has to be considered. hook-up 8. and stressed skin.5: Selection of Steel Quality Lectures 3. weighing 3. PRE-REQUISITES Lectures 1A & 1B: Steel Construction Lecture 2. i. To show principles and methods of construction (from yard to offshore site).11 Superstructures II OBJECTIVE/SCOPE To elaborate on structural steel concepts for integrated decks.6: Built-up Columns Lectures 8. 1. For the design of the deck structure. Heavy decks.2: Advanced Introduction to Fatigue Lecture 15A: Offshore Structures SUMMARY Structural systems for each type of topside structure are introduced. module installation Page 1 of 22 other disciplines.10 } Primary girders Vertical trusses or bracing Deck legs } } Discussed in } this lecture Page 2 of 22 . bulbs or troughs) Horizontal bracing Deck beams } } Discussed in } Lecture 15A. Some special topics of design are addressed and the different construction phases are presented in more detail. truss.

giving a height 1. The assessment of ultimate resistance as well as fatigue strength has been the subject of recent research (see Lecture 15A.Lecture 15A. . TTP-steel is chosen also for the diaphragm. Another option is to weld the girders directly onto the unstiffened can section of the column. Member selection for portal frame structures with increasing section module usually includes: • • • • • • 300 mm wide rolled beam. The disadvantage of both direct girder-column joints is that the girder sizing is governed by the very high moments at the column/beam transition point. as shown in Figure 1.11 The severe restraint of welding a tubular in a diaphragm requires the selection of TTP steel for the column section. which is internally stiffened by rings. however is not an option as these girders become highly loaded during transport. The main girder/column joint. 450 mm /460 mm wide rolled beam. material selection and procurement. A third solution is to weld the girders directly to the can section of the column. Further improvement of the theoretical and experimental background is required.12). Cast steel nodes form an alternative to the welded designs. Placid K12 [5] and Penzoil L8. 400 mm wide rolled beam.2 Main Structure-Portal Frame Design A portal frame design has been used in recent major projects in the Dutch sector such as Amoco P15. which is more lightly loaded-in-plane.11 2. Haunching of the transverse main girder.3 Main Structure-Truss Design Most offshore structures of moderate size have been provided with a truss-type structure. castellated beams fabricated from rolled beams. this non-stiffened type of joint has been used successfully. It is most practical to position the longitudinal and transverse main girder flanges at the same elevation. though its cost per tonne is approximately twice that of a rolled beam. Due to the high importance of the diaphragm plates in the overall integrity of the structure and Some major topics in topside structural design are reviewed below. Page 3 of 22 Page 4 of 22 Typically such trusses consist of rolled beams as chords and tubulars as diagonals. Its most severe disadvantage is the difficulty of inspecting the column interior. the welding constraints on the web plates in between.1 Introduction Lecture 15A. MAIN STRUCTURE DESIGN 2.5 times the original beam height built-up girders fabricated from rolled beam T-sections with a web plate welded-inbetween plate girder The plate girder of course provides the greatest flexibility for design. 2. is very important in determining the height. 2. For lighter loaded truss structures.

especially near the well area. The choice depends primarily on the loads and the chord width. Thus a wider chord flange is preferred. Providing a W-truss with light verticals should be evaluated against choosing a heavier chord section. The truss deflects under its vertical load which leads to restraint of the chord in the column and to bending of the chord. where full height plate walls take the function of the truss or the frame. much of the bracing stress would result from unintended bending. see Figure 3a. brace only. 2. Both effects can quite severely effect the efficiency. For smaller stressed skin modules. at the top deck. An evaluation should yield a preferred location therefore for the node of the end brace. It should be kept in mind that all diagonals and verticals form obstructions for piping and cable routings of all kinds. or crane pedestal for example. Modules for living quarters are frequently built to this concept. Figure 2 shows different arrangements of braces (basically N or W-type) obtained by variation of the number of nodes.g. trapezoid corrugated plate can be used to provide a wall in a frame of square hollow sections. e. flat plate stiffened with through-stiffeners is used for the walls. The detailed design can only be made with a clear plan for assembling the module which shows the panels that must be prefabricated.4 Main Structure-Stressed Skin Design A third major structural option is the stressed skin concept. Tubulars (circular. The chord section should be kept compact therefore and not given too much height.11 If a joint.11 Truss design requires several choices which affect the structural efficiency and have impact on other disciplines: • • • • • • • number and configuration of braces falling or rising braces intermediate load carrying of chords presence of external moments on joints braces: tubulars or H-rolled sections chords: rolled section or plate girders truss joints: locally reinforced chord or prefabricated node section Lecture 15A. Other types of modules have not been built with stressed skin since the obstruction they cause during construction is severe. For the transverse trusses. is subject to severe moments due to lifting. 2. A chord width of 300mm can accommodate a 10 in. For bigger modules. transparency is even more important. square or rectangular) or rolled sections can be chosen for the braces. Due to their function full welding to the main structure is often unavoidable.Lecture 15A. Generally the deck leg restraint creates a similar problem in the lower deck.5 Non-Load Bearing Walls Blast or fire walls are provided in offshore platforms. ventstack. Page 5 of 22 Page 6 of 22 . The number of members required should therefore be reduced to a minimum.

One solution is to provide a flexible detail. The top section contains the large flange for the slewing bearing. the pedestal requires a special column in order to avoid using a crane with large boom length. It is structurally economical to put the crane pedestal on top of a main column. Bending restraint by deck beams and/or main structure girders is not required and should be reduced where possible. For a truss type the main structure will be close to the platform periphery so a moderate length of crane boom is sufficient. are discussed briefly below. Torsion caused by slewing of the crane should preferably be resisted by the floor plate. the stiffest element. It has become practice to include the tapered top section of the pedestal in the supply package of the crane. The functions of the main structure with respect to the crane pedestal are: • • • • to provide torsional support preferable at top deck level to provide lateral restraint at top deck level to provide lateral restraint at the lower end of the pedestal to provide vertical support. Fatigue due to crane operations is a design criterion and requires careful detailing of the pedestal and the adjoining structure. Page 7 of 22 Page 8 of 22 . the strength of welds to the main structure being stronger than the plate to avoid rupture and potential crack initiation of the main structure. with stiffeners falling short. preferably at the lower end of the pedestal. For a portal frame type with columns closer to the outer periphery.11 Lecture 15A. see Figure 3b and 3c. 2.Lecture 15A. Figure 4 depicts such a solution. lifting and in-service.6 Crane Pedestals Crane pedestal. sea transport.11 Special attention is required concerning: • • the capability of the walls to comply with the deformation of the main structure during load-out.

several aspects require special attention: • • • • • • Plate girder design Strength of joints Strength of the floor plate Lifting points Modelling of floor plates Support of modules. Figure 6. For example the local forces that act on the lifting points (Figure 5) have to be transmitted safely through to the deck structure. The depth/thickness limits given above do not then apply. allows use of the postbuckling strength.1 Introduction Although the analysis of deck structures is a standard task.4 deal in more detail with plate girder design. trunnions and padeye. Web buckling due to bending. API-RP2A [2] refers to the AISC manual [3] which gives the figures below for material with yield-stress of 355 MPa: Allowable bending stress Ratio web height h to thickness t Ratio flange width b to thickness t 0. Lectures 8. 3. 3.11 3. Instead of the above approach. normal force and shear restricts the slenderness of the web which is expressed as the height of the web (h) divided by the web thickness (t). [3] and [6].4 Lifting Points The effect of lifting points on deck design is considerable.2 Plate Girder Design Design of plate girders requires selection of many dimensional variables and of approaches for assessing load-carrying resistance. more recent research.11 These joints are discussed in Lecture 15A.Lecture 15A. Lecture 15A.12. 3.3 Strength of Joints The most important joints in a topside steel structure are: • • • • the ring stiffened joint between rolled beams or plate girders with a circular column the non-stiffened joint between rolled beams or plate girders with a circular column the tubular brace joint to single web beams the non-overlapped tubular joint Page 9 of 22 Page 10 of 22 . ANALYSIS OF DECK STRUCTURES 3.60 Fy 138 27 There are two types of lifting points.66 Fy 90 18 0.

It should however be recognised that this "error" of elevation.2 Design aspects Since the overhead space is well covered by extensive piping routes as well as cable trays during construction. The prefabrication concept and joint detailing should maximize welding productivity with many horizontal welds preferably made using SMAW technology. in order to save nodes in the model.2. can affect the results. Fabrication of offshore steel structures is principally assembly by welding. Prefabrication will avoid congestion in one working area and it speeds up the whole construction process. In the 1970's major difficulties arose in the decks for concrete gravity structures. "late" structural work should preferably not be positioned overhead in that underfloor area. Some modules.Lecture 15A. Significant bending is generated which is transferred to the topdeck girders to the extent that they contribute to joint stiffness. with corrective measures. Support to the topside during construction should be well controlled to avoid settlement and to keep within construction tolerances.2 Fabrication 4. further provide control over the module . Dimensional controls of the module as well as the support. as far as they can be situated on top of the column. 3. acting at the support points. are often placed on anti-vibration pads in order to isolate them from vibrations. 3. A separate evaluation should then be performed on the effect to this deliberate "error" at least at some critical points. It is most efficient to leave these bending moments in the column. see Section 4. can generate considerable offset of the sling force with respect to the topdeck system points. by providing stiff columns. 4. API-RP2A [1] requires larger load factors to be used for members direct-loaded by padeyes or trunnions. The basic phenomenon of this interaction is that the distribution of the support reactions of the module is quite unequal and varies with the load Page 11 of 22 Page 12 of 22 . because modules were represented as a set of loads for the different load cases. There are several ways to model the plate. and neglecting structural interaction. For topsides more specific aspects are discussed below. The deck plate is often positioned in the model at the elevation of the centre line. For this reason the lifting concept must be developed in the concept phase of the structural development.1 Operations The design should allow efficient prefabrication of major sections. 4. 4. Prefabrication and assembly shall properly incorporate the aspects of installation of major and smaller mechanical equipment.5 Modelling of Floor Plates There are two points of major interest: • • representation of the floorplate in the structural model true elevation 4. such as living quarter modules. The most direct is to choose a computer-program which allows selection of plate elements.1m. API-RP2A [1] requires that modules are modelled as elastic structures for the analysis of the supporting deck.11 case. The requirement of recessed padeyes (recessed padeyes are those which are positioned between the top and bottom flange elevation) or the presence of other structures on the top deck can lead to very eccentric positioning and resulting heavy moments.11 Trunnions. the mid height of the main structure girders. A second option is to define representative members which model the plate stiffness by diagonals. It should be recognized that major mechanical and electrical equipment is often not available at the start of assembly and must be brought in during fabrication. though favourable from other points of view. amounting to 0.2.5 .deck interaction. as well as outfitting with piping.e. CONSTRUCTION Padeyes generally provide a good opportunity to minimize or eliminate offset.6 Support of Modules Modules and deck structures interact structurally. i. electrical and instrument cables and lines.1 Introduction In Lecture 15A. Lecture 15A. gas compressor and injection modules.1 the principal aspects of construction of offshore structures and their major equipment was introduced.

3 Weight Engineering The topside must be kept under strict weight control. see Figure 7 and Slide 1. Accuracy is necessary in order to check the actual position of the centre of gravity.4. 4. Knowledge of the position is vital for the installation.11 The short journey on land can be complicated when the track is not flat or curves have to be taken. as explained in Lecture 15A. installed between the topside and the shop floor.5-1%. The most preferred option for load out is therefore to use a platform trailer with individual suspended wheels. The system for support of the topside should be similar to the anticipated method of load out. the design should position such welding and the PWHT in the prefabrication phase. Where thick-walled elements are involved requiring Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT). Page 13 of 22 Page 14 of 22 . The accuracy of such systems is typically 0.10. To that end the topside is usually weighed prior to load out.Lecture 15A. 4.11 Special consideration should be given to the selection of materials suitable for the fabrication.1 Operations The load out usually combines two operations: • • moving the topside from the fabrication hall to the nearby quay moving the topside from the quay onto the barge Lecture 15A. The barge is kept in right trim by ballast pumping. Slide 1 : General arrangement of a load out through skidding The trailer drives from the quay over a rocker flap resting on the quay and the barge and then slowly onto the barge. The basic design of a weighing system usually consists of a set of hydraulic jacks with electrical load cells on top.4 Load Out 4.

the topside is set down on the beam grid of the sea fastening. etc inshore) barge selection (a.5. dynamic behaviour. Design for load-out requires coordination with sea fastening design. Prior to lifting. The advantage however is that sea fastening requires less effort. length of tow). Internal bracing of topside for transport is not favoured since it creates obstacles and risk of damage or fire to cables. the sea fastening is cut free. The barge is towed by one or two tugs to the offshore location. the barge is ballasted to its target draft and cleared for the transport.g. see Lecture 15A. e.lift off the barge.11 After completion of the load out and full fastening to the barge.2 Design aspects of sea transport and sea fastening Several elements of the structure are dominated by the load condition during transport. The designer should be aware that the bending stiffness of the topside often exceeds that of Slide 2: Seafastening of 105MN Brent C topside the barge.5 Sea Transport and Sea Fastening 4. Furthermore. instruments. evaluation of sea route (weather.g.is avoided. Planning the sea transport contains several steps: • • identification of critical clearances. during transport. stability. Skid systems which are not provided with a proper load sharing system will lead to a non-uniform load distribution. generator skids.1 Operations Sea transport is a very critical operation.4. assessment of barge integrity.o. There is also the option with some crane vessels to transport the top side on board. e. (harbour depth. development of a sea fastening concept. location of bulkends). The basic concept is therefore to fix the topside to the barge by its columns only. control panels.5. platform crane. Usually an extra take over is required as the draft of the crane vessel exceeds the depth at the fabricator's quay.1. especially for topsides (see Slide 2). the offshore operation is simpler and quicker. External bracing is also not without problems. There the barge is positioned close alongside the crane vessel. assessment of deck/module integrity. Considerable "composite" action can result when the barge deflects in heavy headon seas. The width of the topside requires an extra wide barge. It is difficult to find "strong" points on the topside exterior. 4.Lecture 15A. as the most critical and weather sensitive operation . All equipment in or on the topside is also subject to heavy loads. width of bridges or locks. assessment of barge motions in sea state. 4. piping and equipment during subsequent removal.11 When it reached the right position. • • • • • A uniform distribution of loads is assumed for platform trailers.2 Design aspects load out When using platform trailers the lower deck should be designed to meet three basic load-out requirements: • • • the bottom flange plates of the transverse beams should all be in one plane the distance of transverse beams should not exceed approximately 7 m the lower deck should be able to take an upward reaction typically in the range of 5060 kN/m2 of ground area Lecture 15A. Page 15 of 22 Page 16 of 22 . 4.

This requirement creates a very awkward load situation for the deck structure. The major steps are: • • • • • • • review of the weight report assessment of "critical" elevations assessment of feasible crane vessels development of a lift concept preliminary sizing of slings. etc concept design of guides and bumpers analysis of deck or module structure for lift condition Slide 3 : Deckmating of the 500MN Gullfaks-C topside Page 17 of 22 Page 18 of 22 . The lifting capacity of crane vessels is defined by hook-load and reach. e. fatigue may have to be considered on critical nodes. 4. i. When the tow is more than one or two days long.11 It is very important for any sea fastening concept to consider aspects of de-seafastening. The required reach is determined mainly by the width of the topside and/or the transport barge. cutting free. and the need to remain safe in a moderate sea state.11 Slide 4 : Installation of 60MN K12-BP topside by floating crane Deck mating is a floating operation in a sheltered location. Deck mating requires that the deck is temporarily supported with the final supports free. since the topside would not then be ready for immediate set down onto the jacket.e.g. prior to lift off. a Norwegian fjord or Scottish loch.1 Operations Installation on the substructure can be: • • deck mating with a deep submerged floating GBS (Slide 3) lifting onto an already installed jacket (Slide 4) Lecture 15A.6. During development of a platform concept. trunnions. the lift strategy should be defined as part of the overall construction strategy. shackles. Lifting is the usual installation method for jacket-based topsides. Braces cut loose at one end should therefore remain stable and safe while fixed at one end only.Lecture 15A.6 Installation 4. Design of the sea fastening should not require any welding in the column joint. De-seafastening should not require any handling by cranes.

Extensive engineering of removal is required to achieve a safe and effective operation.8 Commissioning Commissioning is not relevant to the structural design. as introduced in Lecture 15A. Evaluation should lead to modification of the inspection programme where appropriate. When Page 19 of 22 Page 20 of 22 . The unequal sling forces lead to significant stresses in the module (see Figure 8). It is very difficult and inefficient at present to include conceptual removal engineering in the design phase.10 Removal Removal requirements are different from country to country.9 Inspection Maintenance and Repair (IMR) These activities are a major source of operational expenditure.1. or trunnions Lecture 15A.2 Design aspects of installation by lifting The lift concept consists of several elements: • • • • • • the single or dual crane lift the sling configuration choice of topside pick-up points the necessity (or not) for spreader bars or even spreader frames the single. 4.11 The use of a spreader frame should only be considered in exceptional cases and does not prevent module distortion. greatly speeds up scaffolding crack growth through fatigue is slow. fully planned activity inspection is only possible when proper access to the area or joint is provided gaining access is costly and requires space to be left behind equipment minimum provisions. However the spreader bar is quite expensive and usually leads to a requirement for a higher hook elevation. The padeye/shackle option is limited by the safe working load (maximum 10MN) of the biggest shackle.11 4. OPEX.1. Critical hook up work is the work required immediately to secure the object in order to survive the next storm. A crack is usually detectable before one quarter of its life is passed. 4. In some depths of water full The use of spreader bars leads to a fully balanced lift without distorting the module. 4. Elsewhere only the structure 75 m or more above the mudline must be removed. The trunnion can accommodate higher loads. small clamps under the deck. e.7 Hook up Hook up is the completion of all joints and connections after installation. dirt accumulation promotes corrosion damage maximum use should be made of the results of inspection.g. double or paired slings the choice of padeyes. Some requirements are: • • • • • • • inspection of the primary structure is a statutory. A basic element in all elevations is the inevitable tolerance in sling length which leads to an unequal distribution of sling forces (typically 25%-75%) in a four sling lift.6. Crane vessels were listed in Lecture 15A. removal is required in some countries from the mudline upward. Slings are available up to over 400mm nominal diameter with safe working loads of 20-25 MN.Lecture 15A. In the Gulf of Mexico removed structures are dumped in the form of reefs. For economic reasons. 4. the overall construction strategy should keep hook up work to a minimum.

Lecture 15A. 1983. [2] AISC: Allowable stress design manual (ASD). Page 21 of 22 Page 22 of 22 .e. 1987. Bouwen met Staal. [6] R. The structural offshore code. governs the majority of platforms.v.Lecture 15A. truss. designing and constructing fixed platforms.G. American Petroleum Institute. i. 38. 1st ed. pp 24. 1st ed. Berkelder: Placid K12BP biggest Dutch production platform.J. In the section on construction the different phases were presented in more detail. Ocean Industry. load out iv. Applied Science Publishers.11 re-use of the facility is planned. Presents a recent example for a portal framed topside. Berkelder: Seafastening 105 MN Brent C deck.e. i. American Petroleum Institute. IRO Journal. box girder. • • • Structural systems for each type of topside structure were introduced. i.d. [3] API-Bulletin 2V: Bulletin on design of flat plate structures. 1989.24 1979.. Presentation of seafastening design for GBS topside. Valuable specialist addendum to API-RP2A. and stressed skin systems. portal. fabrication ii. London. Zee & A. offshore installation especially deckmating vi. 1987. nr.G. [8] A. [7] ANON: Gullfaks C platform deckmating. commissioning • A brief discussion on inspection and repair and on platform removal concluded the lecture. American Institute of Steel Construction.J. 5. REFERENCES [1] API-RP2A: Recommended practice for planning. 9th ed. 1987. then removal engineering should be developed early in the design.. CONCLUDING SUMMARY Valuable specialist addendum to API-RP2A. pp 3-9. Good description of the actual mating of deck to GBS. sea transport v. American Petroleum Institute. Widely used for structural code for topsides. Good designers guide to plated structures design.. Narayanan: Plated structures/Stability and Strength. nr.11 [4] API-Bulletin 2U: Bulletin on stability design of cylindrical shells. In the section on design some topics were addressed in more detail. [5] D. 18th ed. 6. April 1989.. 1989. weighing iii. hook-up viii. module installation vii.

transport. 2.11.4: Fatigue Behaviour of Hollow Section Joints SUMMARY Various forms of structural connections in steel offshore deck structures are discussed.e. if the carbon and carbon equivalent (CEV) is low. see Lectures 15A.Lecture 15A. PREREQUISITES Lectures 11. the topsides of light to medium offshore structures can now be installed in one lift. and have stimulated the use of higher strength steels.12 Connections in Offshore Deck Structures OBJECTIVE/SCOPE To outline and explain the best methods for forming structural connections in offshore deck structures. Another aspect influencing fabrication. have both resulted in larger structures.12 Lecture 15A. 1. steel with through-thickness properties. installation and the inplace condition (operation and storm). The joints have to be designed to withstand the various loading conditions (see Lectures 15A. and has resulted in heavier modules. see Lecture 2.6: Inspection/Quality Assurance Lecture 4A. INTRODUCTION Large offshore deck structures have traditionally been built up using modular components. and where possible.4) has a low sulphur content to avoid lamellar tearing. This socalled TTP steel (i. if this is not the case the joints themselves must have sufficient deformation/rotation capacity.2 and 15A.2: Advanced Introduction to Fatigue Lectures 12. and the exploration for gas and oil in deeper water. Furthermore. between main beams themselves. avoid the use of stiffeners. With the high lifting capacities currently available.3) experienced during fabrication. In order to allow redistribution of stresses it is important that the joints are stronger than the connected members. and thus the design. constructed of larger and heavier members. a module support frame is built on top of the deck legs of the jacket structure on which the various modules are installed.5: Simple Connections for Buildings Lecture 12. CONNECTIONS IN OFFSHORE DECK MODULES The type of connections used in offshore deck modules depends directly on the type of structure involved: • truss types Page 1 of 19 Page 2 of 19 . resulting in easier welding (without preheating) which again influences the connection design. This development has had a considerable influence on the fabrication and design of deck structures. the connections should be simple. truss connections and connections between columns and beams. with yield strengths above 355 N/mm2. The increase in lifting capacity. to discuss the importance of a proper choice of connection type to achieve both the required strength and stiffness. with modified chemical compositions and good through-thickness properties. Since the fabrication costs are mainly governed by the costs of welding. load-out. The connection design should take account of all the aforementioned aspects and should be considered as an interactive procedure involving the choice of the structural layout.5: Selection of Steel Quality Lectures 3. between main beams and deck legs. and ease of fabrication.5: Corrosion Protection in Offshore Structures and Sheet Piling Lecture 11.10 and 15A. the fabrication sequence and the steel grades and qualities to be used.2: Welded Connections Lectures 11.4: Analysis of Connections Lectures 13: Tubular Structures Lectures 15A: Structural Systems: Offshore RELATED LECTURES (covering specific items in greater detail) Lecture 2. was the development of cleaner steels. The importance of designing and dimensioning to minimise fabrication and maintenance is emphasised. the preheat temperature of the steel can be lowered. Other aspects such as inspection and corrosion protection requirements must also be considered. these cover the connections between deck stringers and main beams. with consequences for the connections.4: Steel Grades and Qualities Lecture 2.

The main connection types are discussed more in detail below.11. deck penetrations. bulb flats or troughs) deck beams main beams or girders (beams on main grid lines) vertical trusses or braces deck legs and columns Depending on their function. as shown in Figure 1. or as an orthotropic plate. the basic joint behaviour is discussed in this lecture without reference to the safety factors to be used. These elements have to be connected together.11. facilitates fabrication and is. are generally used in helidecks. and availability of sections. loading. Orthotropic plate structures. for the larger sizes. or welded sections. welded connections are common practices. This means that the vertical loads have to be transmitted by the webs. welded I or box plate girders or welded tubular members are used.12 • • frame types stressed skin Lecture 15A. rolled circular or rectangular hollow sections. For ease of fabrication. these elements can be made of rolled I or H-sections. since the modules are generally fabricated under controlled conditions at the fabrication yard. The floor plate with stringers is the most common type as it gives design flexibility for later changes (local loads. CONNECTIONS BETWEEN DECK STRINGERS AND BEAMS The deck floor structure can be designed as a floor plate with stringers.10 and 15A. the structural system for a deck includes several of the following elements: • • • • • • floor (steel plate or grating) deck stringers (I-beams. Although it is common practice in offshore design to use the API-RP2A [1] or the AISC rules [2]. see Lectures 15A. as shown in Figure 1. as shown in Figure 2. Page 3 of 19 Page 4 of 19 . stiffeners should be avoided if possible.12 As discussed in more detail in Lectures 15A.Lecture 15A. 3. therefore to be preferred to the use of continuous connections. The use of stacked stringers. etc).10 and 15A. over length ls for the stringer.

i. as shown in Figure 4. In case of equal heights. web crippling failure is also possible and should be checked. 4. Here the flanges are connected with full penetration welds. either the flange thickness of the intermediate beam should be less than 1. The bottom flange and web can generally be connected by fillet welds. to satisfy the requirements for avoidance of cold cracking. as shown in Figure 3b.. The type of full penetration weld at the top flange for continuous connections depends on the fabrication sequence and should be decided by the fabricator. is preferred because of corrosion protection although this results in a small weld defect at the neck between flange and web. however.12 and lb for the deck beam. Since all loading cases are not always checked. etc.10 and 15A. the web of the main beam should have a TTP quality due to the loads being transferred through the web thickness. fy/fu > 0. as local buckling may be a problem. between stringers. The shear loads are generally too high to allow a single or double sided notch as shown in Figure 3b since this results in a higher shear stress. CONNECTIONS BETWEEN INTERMEDIATE AND MAIN DECK BEAMS The connection between the deck beams is most convenient if these beams have the same height. It should be recognized that the shear stress distribution (Figure 2) for a detail with a 'mouse hole' is more severe than that without a 'mouse hole'.g. the welds have to be designed to have at least the same strength as the connected parts. as shown in Figure 3a. Tolerance control is necessary to avoid differences at the deck floor level. the moment is assumed to be transferred by the flange connection and the shear by the web connection.11.e. as the flange or web.12 As an expensive alternative solution.2 and [5]. and the web by fillet welds or a full penetration weld depending on the thickness. no TTP requirements are necessary for the beams. e. For the continuous connections. However. a plate connecting the flanges can be slotted through the web. These are common details which are dealt with in Eurocode 3 [3] and other codes.5 times the web thickness of the main beam. For the connection of beams with unequal heights. without a 'mouse hole'. shown in Figure 2. Special attention should be given to the unsupported upper side of the web in Figure 2b. Haunched alternatives are given in Lectures 15A. see Figure 2. Only in cases where very high strength steel (fy > 500N/mm2) is used and a high yield to ultimate stress ratio.5). see Lecture 6. A full penetration weld of the flange. Lecture 15A. even under fatigue loading such a defect can be accepted [4] the same is also valid for static loading. Page 5 of 19 Page 6 of 19 .9 occurs should this detail be evaluated rigorously. Furthermore.Lecture 15A. or the material should have a low carbon content (see Lecture 2.

t1) (see Figure 5). The design resistance. if the two loads in one direction are tensile and the two in the direction perpendicular to that are compressive. is derived from N = Mcw/(h1 . for factored loading. are generally prefabricated. 5. BEAM TO DECK LEG CONNECTIONS The main beams. this connection should be rigid and capable of transmitting the yield moment resistance of the connected beams. either rolled H sections or plate girders. more detailed research is currently being carried out [7]. is normally checked with the experimental Kamba formula. NRd is the design resistance for the flange for factored loading fy is the yield stress of deck leg "can" b1 is the flange width of deck beam do is the outer diameter of tube to is the wall thickness of the deck leg "can" ts is the thickness of ring plate hs is the smallest width of the ring plate bf = Validity ranges: The axial force in the flange N. only in case of large 'mouse holes' the shear stress and possible local buckling of the unsupported web part [5] have to be checked. This formula is based on the test results for a ring-stiffened joint with two opposite loads. which is simplified by Kurobane [6] as follows: NRd = Where. This type of connection requires special material specifications and special welding procedures. Lecture 15A. the joint strength will be greater.12 Stiffened Connections The shear loads are transferred by the connection of the web plates to the tube walls. consisting of a tubular "can" with surrounding "diamond" (diaphragm) plates for the connection with the beams. the joint strength may be decreased. if the deck leg is loaded by axial compressive stress Page 7 of 19 Page 8 of 19 . For a frame type structure. The moment is transmitted by the diamond plate in combination with an effective ring width of the tubular "can". must be connected to the deck legs. As a consequence the connection is as strong as the member. These connections. or nodes.12 All welds should be designed to have the strength of the connected parts. In the case of multi-planar loading. as shown in Figure 5. However. which are normally fabricated tubular members. Furthermore. Reference [7] reports that this decrease was found to be a maximum of 30%.Lecture 15A. for four loads acting in the same sense.

could be used.t1) Page 9 of 19 Page 10 of 19 .0 For bending moments in-plane.d (h1 .12 amounting to 60% of the yield value.2. see Lecture 15A.12 The static design resistance for factored load of the unstiffened connection is determined by the strength of the flange to tube connection. however. as shown in Figure 6. see Lecture 13. NRd = where: NRd is the design strength for the flange for factored loading fyo is the yield stress of joint "can" to is the wall thickness of joint "can" β is the flange width b1 to "can" diameter do ratio kp is the influence function for additional stress in the chord. For an axial loading the flange connections can interact such that the connection strength (I to tubular) is not twice the strength of one flange connection but: NRd . Non-Stiffened Connections For truss type frames. however. the secondary bending moments can be neglected for static loading. which can be based on Togo's ring model. The design resistance for flange loads in one direction (X-joint loading) is given by Eurocode 3 [3] and [9]. . not yet common practice. care should be taken with these secondary bending moments. this is. the strength of the connection has to be reduced by 20%.Lecture 15A.4 ≤ β ≤ 1. because the stress concentration factors at the flange to tubular connection are rather high. For practical cases these stress concentration factors can be in the order of 10 for [8]. Consequently the beam to deck leg connection has to be checked for: NSd ≤ NRd Mipsd ≤ NR. the beam to deck leg connection has to transfer mainly axial loading and an unstiffened connection. If sufficient deformation capacity exists. Validity ranges: 0. If fatigue loading has to be checked. the axial force N is derived from N = Mcw/(h1 -t1) as shown in Figure 5.

Figure 8 shows some connection details for lightly loaded trusses. the chord should be stiffened to obtain a full strength connection.12 The "joint can" should have about the same diameter and thickness as the column. Ibeam sections. However experimental evidence is only available for the connection according to Figure 8a. similarly as discussed in Section 5. Figure 7 shows a possible full strength detail for columns connected to a plate girder. welded box sections are used. although initial investigations indicate that this may be conservative [10]. No reduction has to be applied if the loads are acting in the same sense. In Figure 7 longitudinal beams and a cantilever beam are also connected to this can. the connections with a gap between the braces are preferred. the same 30% reduction in joint strength as before is recommended. Here the web of the plate girder is ended before the flange to allow a tubular section to be welded between the flanges. 6. can be easily welded to this tubular section. 7. CONNECTIONS BETWEEN BEAMS AND COLUMNS Columns between decks are necessary where external surfaces of the modules are clad. and the columns can be welded to the flanges. all have their advantages and disadvantages with regard to material costs. These connections generally do not develop a strength equal to or larger than the yield strength of the diagonals. TRUSS CONNECTIONS Since the chords of the trusses are part of the deck floors. However the connections with overlapped braces as shown in Figures 8c and 8d are stronger. The connection with the deck beams can be flexible in the longitudinal direction if these columns have only to withstand lateral loading. in exceptional cases.12 Currently. however. the connections should have the same strength as the column or they should have sufficient deformation capacity. The connection should be designed in such a way that fabrication and inspection will be easily possible. with possible connecting side beams and an extended cantilever. rectangular hollow sections. Consequently the connection should have sufficient deformation capacity. From a fabrication point of view. or where cantilevers or laydown areas are provided. Lecture 15A. The diagonals are tubular. or H sections.Lecture 15A. they are almost always made from an I or H-section. it should be kept in mind that intermediate beams may have to be connected to the chord at this location. If. The bending moment resistance is here determined by the connection of the bottom flange to the tubular can. Page 11 of 19 Page 12 of 19 . they are used to transfer loadings from cantilevers to both decks. even with different depths. for multi-planar loading with loads and moments acting in the opposite sense. Where these diagonals are connected to an I section chord. maintenance and fabrication.

b fyo The effective widths bm1. Lecture 15A.12 The strength of the connection for axial loads at the chord intersection (cross-section A) is governed by the effective width area: Aeff.8.c fyo and N2sin θ2 = Aeff. sufficient rotation capacity should be available if the bending moments are neglected.8 and Appendix K. In these cases where the joint strength is lower than the brace member strength. For connections according to Figure 8a. chord web buckling e. Table K. be1 and be2 are given in Eurocode 3 (6.2). weld failure (to be avoided by full strength welds) h.8. chord web strength b. chord web crippling under a compression brace c. Page 13 of 19 Page 14 of 19 . either the bending moments have to be incorporated in the strength assessment or the joint is stiffened to such an extent that the joint strength is larger than the brace member strength. depending on the geometry. Within the scope of this lecture it is not possible to deal with all connections in detail. chord web shear between the diagonals of a gap joint d.b = 2 (be1 + be2) tp The strength of the connection is thus given by: N2sin θ2 = Aeff. see Table K. Weld failure and lamellar tearing should always be avoided by choosing full strength welds and proper selection of the steel grade and quality.e: a. as shown in Figure 10.c = 2 (bm1 tp + bm2 tw) For the brace intersection the effective width is given by: Aeff.Lecture 15A. Since it is difficult to show that sufficient deformation capacity exists due to a lack of research evidence.12 The connection strength may be governed by various criteria.g. Eurocode 3 [3] provides design strength formulae which can be used in a modified way for the connections of Figure 8b to 8d. however one example is given for a connection between tubular braces and an I-section chord as shown in Figure 9. e.2 of Eurocode 3. As an additional check the chord cross-section between the braces has to be checked for shear and shear in combination with axial loading and bending moments. i. lamellar tearing (to be avoided by TTP material for the flange). bm2. The chord and braces have furthermore to satisfy the limits for d/t and h/t to avoid local buckling. brace shear failure at the flange connection g. brace (diagonal) effective width f.6.

This procedure can be used for modules which are designed using the stressed skin method. as shown in Figure 12. can be provided for this purpose.60 (a tL + 2 b tE) fy N2 = 1. are known. The SWL is the least of the following values of Ni: N1 = 0. Allowance is made for welding tolerances by welding the ends of the stringers after the fitting together of the panels. Here both panels are made by (semi) automatic welding processes. It is important that these lifting devices are designed in such a way that they can be connected to the deck structure at a later stage when the precise location of the centre of gravity of the module. for example. Strength of padeyes is often assessed by means of "Lloyds" formulae.Lecture 15A.12 Lecture 15A. which are presented in the SWL (safe working load) format. however.d) tE) fy N3 = 0.08 (c tL + (D . nowadays these devices are sometimes made of cast steel. for example. padeyes or trunnions. Figure 11.12 Special provisions are necessary for lifting the modules. and the lifting method. depending on the platform layout. shows the connection between two panels of stiffened plates. SPECIAL CONNECTIONS The previous sections dealt with the most common types of connection. 8.87 d (tL + 2 tE) fy Page 15 of 19 Page 16 of 19 . other types of connections may be necessary.

IIW doc XV-701-89 then put tL + 2 tE = d in the above formulae. [8] Hertogs. "Stress Concentration Factors in Plate to Tube Connections".Lecture 15A. Wardenier. R. Page 17 of 19 Page 18 of 19 . van der. [4] Dijkstra.15].3 and 8. Proceedings International Conference "Welded Structures 90". Delft University Press.0 ≤ and if ≤ 8. Puthli. Delft. "The Fatigue Behaviour of Welded Splices with and without Mouseholes in IPE 400 and HEM 320 beams". November 1990 [11] DNV "Rules for the Design. and Wardenier.D.1. R. and Wardenier. Proceedings International Symposium on Tubular Structures. 11 . R. 1989. and the various load conditions. for deck trusses can be economical. XV488-81/XIII-1004-81. the consequences of the choice of material grade and quality on the fabrication.0 ≤ 1. [6] Kurobane. due to restrictions in available sizes. access platforms and equipment supports. • In general.12 10.D. J. General Rules and Rules for Buildings. American Petroleum Institute.2 and 13. July 1988 [13] IIW-XV-E "Design Recommendations for Hollow Section Joints . built up from stiffened plate panels. "The Influence of Multiplanar Loading on the Strength and Stiffness of Plate to Tubular Column Connections". mechanical. fabrication. A. IIW doc.J. This shows that the use of RHS. 18th Edition. 1989 [2] AISC "Specification for the Design. Fabrication and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings". REFERENCES [1] API-RP2A "Recommended Practice for Planning. For offshore deck structures. 1980 [3] Eurocode 3: "Design of Steel Structures": ENV 1993-1-1: Part 1. Puthli. Delft. pp. UK. and Gietzeit. J. 1992. "New Developments and Practices in Tubular Joint Design". most connections can be designed with the basic formulae used for tubular connections and beam-to-column connections. on the coordination between the specialists for the various disciplines. CEN. Designing and Constructing Fixed • • 1.g. de "Numerical Investigation into the Static Strength of Stiffened I-Beam to Column Connections". March 1989. Delft University Press. International Institute of Welding. 1985.Predominantly Statically Loaded .05 Tubular connections are not dealt with in this lecture since these are discussed in more detail in Lectures 13. and Winkel.. London [5] Lindner.12 where the following limitations apply: Lecture 15A. J.A. Y. Construction and Inspection of Fixed offshore Structures" 1977 (with corrections 1982) [12] Lloyd's Register "Rules and Regulations for the Classification of Fixed Offshore Installation". 2. Proceedings ASME/OMAE Conference.2nd edition". 719-727 [9] Wardenier. However. 1982 [10] Broek. J. can it be welded properly?).. load out and installation engineers is important. 1981 [7] Rink.0 Offshore Platforms". reference should be made to Lectures 8. H. J. F.S. "Zur Tragfähigkeit ausgeklinkter Träger" Stahlbauwz. Chicago. II.4. for the layout. CONCLUDING SUMMARY • The optimal design of offshore deck structures depends. G. to a large extent. American Institute of Steel Construction. June 1991. Vol.. use can be made of the information in the previous sections. Paper 14 Int.3. November 1988. • Recently a study has been carried out to investigate the use of RHS in deck structures [16]. 9. Background information is given in [1. Wardenier. O. • The structural designer has to consider the fabrication sequence. T. "Hollow Section Joints". electrical. • • tE not to exceed tL/2 dHOLE/dPIN ≤ 1. London. economical solutions are mainly found for smaller platform sizes and for secondary steelwork such as staircase towers. Conference Weld Failures. instead of beams. London. 9.S. For living quarters and helicopter decks. the conditions for welding and inspection (e. coordination between structural.D.

ADDITIONAL READING 1. Steel Structures 3.12 [14] UEG "Design of Tubular Joints for Offshore Structures". Cardiff. Vol. D. and Wardenier. Dague. and Wardenier. Schaap.. Marshall. D.C. UEG.d.P. Pal. Vries. Steel Construction Today.C. P.A. de. Lappeenranta. "The Design of Amoco's 'Rijn' Production Platform". 1990. H. Elsvier. 4 11. R. 8-10 July 1987.Lecture 15A. J.. Paul. Proceedings of the third IIW International Symposium on Tubular Structures.M.. "The Static Strength of Circular Multiplanar X-joints". Proceedings of the International Conference on Steel and Aluminium Structures. TU Berlin D83.. "Lasteinleitung in geschweisste Vollwandträger aus Stahl im Hinblick auf die Bemessung von Lagersteifen". J.D-Thesis. 1983 [16] Guy.. "Design of Welded Tubular Connections: Basis and Use of AWS Provisions". "Structural Hollow Sections for Topside Constructions". v.d.J. Valk. C. A. London. 1985 (3 volumes) [15] Voss.D. UK.H. Ph. A. 1991 2. v. September 1989 Page 19 of 19 .W.

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