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JKMUN 12

UNEP

United Nations Environment Programme

2012

Table of Contents
Letter from the Executive Board.......3 Agenda................................... ...4 Committee Background... ......5 2007 2008 World Food Crisis........6 Rising Prices.................. 6 Projections. ..7 Crop Shortfall from natural disasters...........8 Effect Of Food Crisis On Nations.........9 Brazil.................................................................. ...........9 Haiti...............................................................................9 India............................................................................10 Pakistan......................................................................10 Russia.........................................................................10 Somalia.......................................................................10 Agencies Involved......11 Points To Consider...............13
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Dear Delegates,

Welcome to the United Nations Environment Programme of the JK Model United Nations Conference 2012. My name is Shubham Khanna and I am honoured to be Chairing the UNEP at JKMUN '12. Priyal Mahatta will be your Director. Your Executive Board remains committed to ensuring a fruitful experience for all participants. At JKMUN 12, we will be following the rules of procedure of The United Nations Environment Programme. This background guide is intended to steer you in the right direction as you prepare for the upcoming conference. It covers all the salient features, highlights the key issues to be addressed and also gives several lines of research to pursue. We hope that, in the process of preparing for this conference, you develop a more profound understanding of food problems and its crisis in the modern world. A brief introduction has been provided for the topics which are expected to be discussed in the committee, but other topics are also welcome in the discussion. Apart from all this, we expect you all to be well aware of the debt condition in your country. Hard Copy of various documents should be available at hand which will help in providing a strong support to your comments and proofs to your claims. During the committee, we expect you to come up with lively suggestions which can be implemented for the betterment of the human race.
Note: The Background Guide is just for reference and is strictly not to be used as a proof or as a document for the conference.

With this we wish you the All The Best for the Conference!
Executive Board, JKMUN 12, UNEP ~ Shubham Khanna (Chairperson) Priyal Mahatta (Director)

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The adopted agenda drawn up by the Executive Board of the UNEP and approved by the Secretary General shall be-

Inefficiencies in Food Production, Supply and Distribution during times of disasters

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Committee Background The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an international institution (a programme, rather than an agency of the UN) that coordinates United Nations environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices. It was founded as a result of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in June 1972 and has its headquarters in the Gigiri neighborhood of Nairobi, Kenya. UNEP also has six regional offices and various country offices. Its activities cover a wide range of issues regarding the atmosphere, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, environmental governance and green economy. It has played a significant role in developing international environmental conventions, promoting environmental science and information and illustrating the way those can be implemented in conjunction with policy, working on the development and implementation of policy with national governments, regional institutions in conjunction with environmental Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). UNEP has also been active in funding and implementing environment related development projects. UNEP has aided in the formulation of guidelines and treaties on issues such as the international trade in potentially harmful chemicals, transboundary air pollution, and contamination of international waterways. The World Meteorological Organization and UNEP established the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1988. UNEP is also one of several Implementing Agencies for the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol, and it is also a member of the United Nations Development Group.
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2007 2008 World Food Crisis World food prices increased dramatically in 2007 and the 1st and 2nd quarter of 2008 creating a global crisis and causing political and economical instability and social unrest in both poor and developed nations. Although the media spotlight focused on the riots that ensued in the face of high prices, the ongoing crisis of food insecurity has been years in the making. Systemic causes for the worldwide increases in food prices continue to be the subject of debate. After peaking in the second quarter of 2008 prices fell dramatically during the Late-2000s recession but increased during 2009 and 2010, peaking again in early 2011 at a level sightly higher than the level reached in 2008. However a repeat of the crisis of 2008 is not anticipated due to ample stockpiles. Initial causes of the late-2006 price spikes included droughts in grain-producing nations and rising oil prices. Oil price increases also caused general escalations in the costs of fertilizers, food transportation, and industrial agriculture. Root causes may be the increasing use of biofuels in developed countries (see also food vs fuel), and an increasing demand for a more varied diet across the expanding middle-class populations of Asia. These factors, coupled with falling world-food stockpiles all contributed to the worldwide rise in food prices. Rising prices From the beginning of 2007 to early 2008, the prices of some of the most basic international food commodities increased dramatically on international markets. The international market price of wheat doubled from February 2007 to February 2008 hitting a record high of over US$10 a bushel. Rice prices also reached ten year highs. In some nations, milk and meat prices more than doubled, while soy (which hit a 34 year high price in December 2007) and maize prices have increased dramatically.

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Total food import bills rose by an estimated 25% for developing countries in 2007. Researchers from the Overseas Development Institute have suggested this problem will be worsened by a likely fall in food aid. As food aid is programmed by budget rather than volume, rising food prices mean that the World Food Programme (WFP) needs an extra $500 million just to sustain the current operations. To ensure that food remains available for their domestic populations and to combat dramatic price inflation, major rice exporters, such as China, Brazil, India, Indonesia, Vietnam, Cambodia and Egypt, imposed strict export bans on rice. Conversely, several other nations, including Argentina, Ukraine, Russia, and Serbia either imposed high tariffs or blocked the export of wheat and other foodstuffs altogether, driving up prices still further for net food importing nations while trying to isolate their internal markets. North Korea suffered from the food crisis to such extent that a North Korean official was quoted in June '08 with saying "Life is more than difficult. It seems that everyone is going to die". This nation however is solely relying on food assistance to cope with the crisis

Projections The UN (FAO) released a study in December 2007 projecting a 49 percent increase in African cereal prices, and 53 percent in European prices, through July 2008. In April 2008, the World Bank, in combination with the International Monetary Fund, announced a series of measures aimed at mitigating the crisis, including increased loans to African farmers and emergency monetary aid to badly affected areas such as Haiti. According to FAO director Jacques Diouf, however, the World Food Programme needs an immediate cash injection of at least $1700 million, far more than the tens of million-worth in measures already pledged. On 28 April 2008, the United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon established a Task Force on the Global Food Security Crisis under his chairmanship and composed of the heads of the United Nations specialized agencies,
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funds and programmes, Bretton Woods institutions and relevant parts of the UN Secretariat to co-ordinate efforts to alleviate the crisis. Crop shortfalls from natural disasters Several distinct weather- and climate-related incidents have caused disruptions in crop production. Perhaps the most influential is the extended drought in Australia, in particular the fertile MurrayDarling Basin, which produces large amounts of wheat and rice. The drought has caused the annual rice harvest to fall by as much as 98% from pre-drought levels. Australia is historically the second-largest exporter of wheat after the United States, producing up to 25 million tons in a good year, the vast majority for export. However, the 2006 harvest was 9.8 million. Other events that have negatively affected the price of food include the 2006 heat wave in California's San Joaquin Valley, which killed large numbers of farm animals, and unseasonable 2008 rains in Kerala, India, which destroyed swathes of grain. Scientists have stated that several of these incidents are consistent with the predicted effects of climate change. The effects of Cyclone Nargis on Burma in May 2008 caused a spike in the price of rice. Burma has historically been a rice exporter, though yields have fallen as government price controls have reduced incentives for farmers. The storm surge inundated rice paddies up to 30 miles (48 km) inland in the Irrawaddy Delta, raising concern that the salt could make the fields infertile. The FAO had previously estimated that Burma would export up to 600,000 tons of rice in 2008, but concerns were raised in the cyclone's aftermath that Burma may be forced to import rice for the first time, putting further upward pressure on global rice prices. Stem rust reappeared in 1998 in Uganda (and possibly earlier in Kenya) with the particularly virulent UG99 fungus. Unlike other rusts, which only partially affect crop yields, UG99 can bring 100% crop loss. Up to 80% yield losses were recently recorded in Kenya.

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As of 2005 stem rust was still believed to be "largely under control worldwide except in Eastern Africa". But by January 2007 an even more virulent strain had gone across the Red Sea into Yemen. FAO first reported on 5 March 2008 that Ug99 had now spread to major wheat-growing areas in Iran. These countries in North Africa and Middle East consume over 150% of their own wheat production; the failure of this staple crop thus adds a major burden on them. The disease is now expected to spread over China and the Far-East. The strong international collaboration network of research and development that spread disease-resistant strains some 40 years ago and started the Green Revolution, known as CGIAR, was since slowly starved of research funds because of its own success and is now too atrophied to swiftly react to the new threat.

Effect of food crisis on nations Brazil In April 2008, the Brazilian government announced a temporary ban on the export of rice. The ban is intended to protect domestic consumers. Haiti On 12 April 2008, the Haitian Senate voted to dismiss Prime Minister Jacques-douard Alexis after violent food riots hit the country. The food riots caused the death of 5 people. Prices for food items such as rice, beans, fruit and condensed milk have gone up 50 percent in Haiti since late 2007 while the price of fuel has tripled in only two months. Riots broke out in April due to the high prices, and the government had been attempting to restore order by subsidizing a 15 percent reduction in the price of rice. As of February 2010, postearthquake Port-au-Prince is almost entirely reliant on foreign food aid, some of which ends up in the black markets.

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India India has banned the export of rice except for Basmati types of rice, which attract a premium price. Pakistan The Pakistan Army has been deployed to avoid the seizure of food from fields and warehouses. This hasn't stopped the food prices from increasing. The new government has been blamed for not managing the countries food stockpiles properly. Russia The Russian government pressured retailers to freeze food prices before key elections for fear of a public backlash against the rising cost of food in October 2007. The freeze ended on 1 May 2008 Somalia Riots in Somalia occurred on 5 May 2008 over the price of food, in which five protesters were killed. The protests occurred amid a serious humanitarian emergency due to the Ethiopian war in Somalia.

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Agencies involved brief description During times of disasters, there are some national agencies which aid in supplying food and other basic necessities to the affected. The delegates are expected to be well researched on the functioning of the various agencies working in their country and also about the various international agencies which have operated earlier in their country. A brief description about some of the agencies are given below ~ The Adventist Community Services (ACS) receives, processes, and distributes clothing, bedding, and food products. in major disasters, the agency brings in mobile distribution units filled with bedding and packaged clothing that is pre-sorted according to size, age, and gender. ACS also provides emergency food and counseling and participates in the cooperative disaster child care program. The American Red Cross is required by Congressional charter to undertake disaster relief activities to ease the suffering caused by a disaster. Emergency assistance includes fixed/mobile feeding stations, shelter, cleaning supplies, comfort kits, first aid, blood and blood products, food, clothing, emergency transportation, rent, home repairs, household items, and medical supplies. Additional assistance for long-term recovery may be provided when other relief assistance and/or personal resources are not adequate to meet disaster-caused needs. The American Red Cross provides referrals to the government and other agencies providing disaster assistance The Episcopal Church Presiding Bishops Fund for World Relief responds to domestic disasters principally through its network of nearly 100 U.S. dioceses and over 8,200 parishes. It also sends immediate relief grants for such basics as food, water, medical assistance, and financial aid within the first 90 days following a
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disaster. Ongoing recovery activities are provided through rehabilitation grants, which offer the means to rebuild, replant ruined crops, and counsel those in trauma. The Episcopal Church works primarily through Church World Service in providing its disasterrelated services. Feeding America is the nation's leading domestic hunger-relief charity. Our mission is to feed America's hungry through a nationwide network of member food banks and engage our country in the fight to end hunger. The National Emergency Response Team (NERT) meets the basic human needs of shelter, food, and clothing during times of crisis and disaster. NERT provides Emergency Mobile Trailer units (EMTUs), which are self-contained, modest living units for up to 8-10 people, to places where disaster occurs. When EMTUs are not in use, they serve as mobile teaching units used in Emergency Preparedness programs in communities. The Salvation Army provides emergency assistance including mass and mobile feeding, temporary shelter, counseling, missing person services, medical assistance, and distribution of donated goods including food, clothing, and household items. It also provides referrals to government and private agencies for special services. The Southern Baptist Disaster Relief provides more than 200 mobile feeding units staffed by volunteers who can prepare and distribute thousands of meals a day. Active in providing disaster childcare, the agency has several mobile childcare units. Southern Baptists also assist with clean-up activities, temporary repairs, reconstruction, counseling, and bilingual services.

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Points to Consider ~ Following topics are expected to be discussed during the Moderated Caucuses. However, other topics are also welcome. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The 2007 2008 food crisis and its outcome. Present Food crisis. Inflation in food prices and methods to tackle them. Food contamination in Japan by radioactive materials. (Imp.) Shortcomings in using corn and maize as bio fuels in USA with special reference to the policy which aims at reserving 40% of corn for fuel purposes. (Imp.) Food security and malnutrition problems Food adulteration issues Food quality management. Effect of disasters on food production and the national policies which come into force in such a situation.

6. 7. 8. 9.

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