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ELC 102.

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Laboratory Activity 10 Bipolar Transistor Differntial Amplifier Name: Name: Team Name:
10. 1 Aim To analyze different amplifier configuration that make up a differential amplifier. 10.2 Preliminary 10.2.1 Differential Operation The Bipolar transistor differential large signal amplifier is shown in Fig 10.1. The emitter supply voltage is Vee. The current is split into two transistors Q1 and Q2 at node Ve. Slight differences in value of R2 and R3 pair and R4 and R5 pair were intentionally introduced. The collector current in terms of base-emitter voltage is given as follows. (10.1) where is the reverse collector emitter current with base open.

Grade Date: Group No.

The current IEE is supplied by Vee and it is expressed as (10.2) (10.3) The differential collector current in terms of differential input voltage expressed as follows: (10.3) (10.4) (10.5) (10.6) The differential output current in terms of input differential voltage is derived as follows: (10.7) (10.8) ( ) A current difference at input is expressed as follow: CCO 2011 Page 1

ELC 102.2
(10.9) Run Lab 10.1.py to see the plot of equation (10.8). It is an equation for the large signal transfer characteristics of differential amplifier. See Fig 10.2

Fig 10.1 Bipolar Transistor Differential Large Signal Circuit

Fig 10.2

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The output voltages Vc1 and Vc2 for Q1 and Q2 respectively are given as follows: (10.10) (10.11) The differential output voltage Vout is expressed as follows: (10.12) (10.13) The current gain Aid is given as follows: (10.14) The voltage gain Avd is expressed as follows: (10.15)

10.2.2 Common Mode Differential Operation In Fig 10.3 the circuit is operated in common mode configuration. The difference in input signal is made zero. In ideal case the output Vout and Iout are zeros. However, the real world circuit shows otherwise. Hence, common-mode gain is expressed as follows: (10.16) The common-mode rejection ratio CMRR is expressed in term of Avd and Avc shown as follows: (10.17) The higher the value of CMRR the better the performance of the differential ciruit.

Fig 10.3 Bipolar Transistor Common Mode Configuration Differential Circuit CCO 2011 Page 3

ELC 102.2
10.2.3 Offset Voltage From equation (10.3), Ic1 and Ic2 must be equal if Vid is zero since ln 1 is zero. Vid may be zero as far as AC signal is concerned but may not be zero as far as DC biased is concerned. Consider the circuit in Fig 10.4 where resistance R4 and R5 were intentionally set not equal. Even if the Vid inputs are grounded, the biases may not be the same.

Fig 10.4 Offset biased for Q1 and Q2 Let (10.9) From Equation (10.3) is Vid becomes offset voltage Vos as follows: (10.10) Since (10.11) Let and , then , then and , then

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ELC 102.2
(10.12)

10.3Activity 10.3.1 Referring to Fig 10.1 1, record the nominal and measured values of the components used and record them in Table 10.1. Table 10.1 Quantities Q1 2N3904 hFE Q2 2N3904 hFE R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 C1 C2

Nominal Value 300 300 47k 47k 47k 15k 15k 10k 10k 0.01 uf 0.01 uf

Measured Value Instrument and Method DMM hFE meter DMM hFE meter DMM Ohmeter DMM Ohmeter DMM Ohmeter DMM Ohmeter DMM Ohmeter DMM Ohmeter DMM Ohmeter DMM Capacitance Meter DMM Capacitance Meter

10.3.2 Set up the circuit in Fig 10.1 in bread board. Measure the quantities listed in Table 10.2 and record them. Table 10.2 Quantities Measurement Vcc = 12 volts Vee = 12 volts V1 peak = 80 mv V1 frequency = 1khz Vin1 peak Vin2 peak Ve peak Vb1 peak Vc1 peak Vb2 peak Vc2 peak Vbe1=Vb1-Ve Vbe2=Vb2-Ve Vin=Vn1-Vn2 peak Vout=Vc1-Vc2 peak Vc1=Vin1-Vb1 CCO 2011

Instrument and Method DMM Voltmeter DMM Voltmeter Oscilloscope Oscilloscope Oscilloscope Oscilloscope Oscilloscope Oscilloscope Oscilloscope Oscilloscope Oscilloscope Oscilloscope, Ch1 at Vb1, Ch2 at Ve INV Oscilloscope, Ch1 at Vb2, Ch2 at Ve INV Oscilloscope, Ch1 at Vn1, Ch2 at Vn2 INV Oscilloscope, Ch1 at Vn1, Ch2 at Vn2 INV Oscilloscope, Ch1 at Vn1, Ch2 at Vn2 INV Page 5

ELC 102.2
Vc2=Vin2-Vb2 Oscilloscope, Ch1 at Vn1, Ch2 at Vn2 INV

10.3.3 Set up the circuit shown in Fig 10.3. Measure the quantities listed in Table 10.3 and record them. Table 10.3 Quantities V1 peak = 80 mv V1 frequency = 1khz Vinc=Vin1=Vin2 peak Ve peak Vb1 peak Vc1 peak Vb2 peak Vc2 peak Vbe1=Vb1-Ve Vbe2=Vb2-Ve Vin=Vn1-Vn2 peak Vout=Vc1-Vc2 peak Vbe1=Vb1-Ve

Measurement

Instrument and Method Oscilloscope Oscilloscope Oscilloscope Oscilloscope Oscilloscope Oscilloscope Oscilloscope Oscilloscope Oscilloscope, Ch1 at Vb1, Ch2 at Ve INV Oscilloscope, Ch1 at Vb2, Ch2 at Ve INV Oscilloscope, Ch1 at Vn1, Ch2 at Vn2 INV Oscilloscope, Ch1 at Vn1, Ch2 at Vn2 INV Oscilloscope, Ch1 at Vb1, Ch2 at Ve INV

10.3.4 Set up the circuit shown in Fig 10.4. Measure the quantities listed in Table 10.4 and record them. Table 10.4 Quantities Vcc = 12 volts Vee = 12 volts Ve Vb1 Vc1 Vb2 Vc2

Measurement

Instrument and Method DMM Voltmeter DMM Voltmeter DMM Voltmeter DMM Voltmeter DMM Voltmeter DMM Voltmeter DMM Voltmeter

10.4Equipment and Parts 10.4.1 10.4.2 10.4.3 10.4.4 10.4.5 1 unit DMM 1 unit Power Supply 1 unit Bread board Assorted Connectors and Wires 1 pc 1Meg Page 6

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10.4.6 1 pc 1 k 10.4.7 1 pc 680 k 10.4.8 1 pc 2N3904 Bipolar Transistor

10.5Post Lab Activity 10.5.1 Compute for the AC quantities specified in Table 10.4 using data from Table 10.1. Record the computed values in appropriate column. Table 10.4 Quantities Q1 Xc1 Iin1 IR4 Ib1 Rin1 hie1 Rb1 Ic1 hFE1 Q1 Xc2 Iin2 IR5 Ib2 Rin2 hie2 Rb2 Ic2 hFE2 Q1&Q2 Iind Vind Iout Vout Avd Aid

Formula

Computed Value

(Vin1-Vb1)/Xc1 Vb1/R4 Iin1-IR4 Vin1/Iin1 Vbe1/Ib1 Vb1/Ib1 Vc1/R2 Ic1/Ib1

(Vin2-Vb2)/Xc2 Vb2/R5 Iin2-IR4 Vin2/Iin2 Vbe2/Ib2 Vb2/Ib2 Vc2/R3 Ic2/Ib2 Iin1-In2 Vin1-Vin2 Ic1-Ic2 Ic1*R2-Ic2*R3 Vout/Vind Iout/Iind

10.5.2 Compute for the DC quantities specified in Table 9.6 using data from Table 9.3 and 9.4. Record the computed values in appropriate column.

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Table 10.4 Quantities Q1 Iin1 IR4 Ib1 Rin1 hie1 Rb1 Ic1 hFE1 Q1 Iin2 IR5 Ib2 Rin2 hie2 Rb2 Ic2 hFE2 Q1&Q2 Iinc Iout Vout Avc Aic

Formula (Vinc-Vb1)/Xc1 Vb1/R4 Iin1-IR4 Vin1/Iin1 Vbe1/Ib1 Vb1/Ib1 Vc1/R2 Ic1/Ib1 (Vinc-Vb2)/Xc2 Vb2/R5 Iin2-IR4 Vin2/Iin2 Vbe2/Ib2 Vb2/Ib2 Vc2/R3 Ic2/Ib2 Iin1-In2 Ic1-Ic2 Ic1*R2-Ic2*R3 Vout/Vinc Iout/Iinc

Computed Value

Table 9.6 Quantities Ib1 (temp25 C) Ic1 (temp25 C) hFE1 Ib2 (temp33 C) Ic2 (temp33 C) CCO 2011

Formula (Vcc-Vb)/R1 (Vcc-Vc)/R3 Ic/Ib (Vcc-Vb)/R1 (Vcc-Vc)/R3

Computed Value

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ELC 102.2
hFE2 Ib Ic Vb hFE S(Vb)=stability factor of Vb S(hFE)=stability factor of hFE Ic/Ib (Ib1-Ib2) (Ic1-Ic2) (Vb1-Vb2) (hFE1- hFE2) Ic/Vb Ic/ hFE

10.5.3 Discuss the difference in stability factor of Vb and hFE between the open loop and close loop bias with respect to temperature change. 10.5.4 Does feedback helps improve stability? Explain. 10.6 Peer Teaching List the teams or groups that you either consulted or assisted or both.

10.7 Reference Linear Technology, LTSpiceIV[Software], Available at http://www.linear.com/designtools/software/ Neamen, Donald A. Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, Copyright 1992, Richard D. Irwin, Inc. R. R. Donnelley & Sons Company Sadiku, Alexander, Fundamentals of electric Circuits, 3rd Edition, Copyright 2007, McGraw-Hill. ISBN-13: 978-007-126248-4 Fairchild Semiconductor, 2N3904 Datasheet, http://www.fairchildsemi.com/ available at http://www.fairchildsemi.com/ds/2N/2N3904.pdf June 13, 2011 Fairchild Semiconductor, 2N3906 Datasheet, http://www.fairchildsemi.com/ available at http://www.fairchildsemi.com/ds/2N/2N3906.pdf June 13, 2011 Grebene, Alan B., Bipolar and MOS Analog Integrated Circuit Design, Copyright 2003, Wiley Classics Library Edition.

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