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Prepared by Program Teacher Department Date Subject

: : : : : :

Syeda Maryam Zaidi M.A.S Sir Abuzer Wajidi Public Administration 08th June 2010 Research report

Faculty of Administrative Sciences University of Karachi

TABLE OF CONTENTS
S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. TOPICS
INTRODUCTION STUDY OBJECTIVES METHODOLOGY AND RESEARCH DESIGN THE CAREER MANAGEMENT PROCSS

a. Objectives & goals b. Career management stages


The exploration stage The establishment stage Mid- Career stage

Decline Stage

c.

Career management largely an individual's responsibility

d. Challenge for HR - matching career aspirations with


business need

e. 5. 6. 7.

Career management value proposition for an organization

Questionnaire Recommendations Conclusion

INTRODUCTION
Career is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as an individual's "course or progress through life (or a distinct portion of life)". It is usually considered to pertain to remunerative work (and sometimes also formal education). The word career covers all types of employment ranging from semi-skilled through skilled, and semi professional to professional. In recent years, however, career now refers to changes or modifications in employment during the foreseeable future

Career Management
Career Management is the combination of structured planning and the active management choice of one's own professional career. It includes 1. 2. 3. 4. Development of overall goals and objectives, Development of a strategy (a general means to accomplish the selected Development of the specific means (policies, rules, procedures and Systematic evaluation of the progress toward the achievement of the

goals/objectives), activities) to implement the strategy, and selected goals/objectives to modify the strategy, if necessary. The ongoing process whereby the employee obtains Develop a strategy Implement and experiment Self-knowledge; Knowledge of employment opportunities; Develop career goals

Career Planning
Career planning is a subset of career management. Career planning applies the concepts of Strategic planning and Marketing to taking charge of one's professional future. The outcome of successful career management should include personal fulfillment, work/life balance, goal achievement and financial assurity.

STUDY OBJECTIVES
To understand the career management process To find out the role of individual in career management & how an individual make this process better. To know the organizational role I the process of career management

Today with intense competition everywhere, coupled with economic changes, companies are aggressively pursuing the strategies for downsizing, outsourcing, and synergy through alliances. Pursuing strategies that result in loss of jobs is a distressing experience - both for those who get the axe and the people who are still with the company. It is in context of this corporate reality that career management assume more significance

Methodology and Research Design


The study attempts to understand the organization & individual role in managing the career stages through which an average individual passes. The research methodology, which I have chosen, is deductive in which primary data collected by Questionnaire which is composed have close ended and open ended questions & secondary data is collect by means of net & libraries.

The Career Management process

The process begins with the goal setting then further stages making is shape.

Goals/objectives Development
The career management process begins with setting goals/objectives. A relatively specific goal must be formulated. This task may be quite difficult when the individual lacks knowledge of career opportunities and/or is not fully aware of their talents and abilities. However, the entire career management process is based on the Short term goals (one or two years) are usually much more specific and limited in scope. Short terms goals are, of course, are easier to formulate. Intermediate goals (3 to 5 years) tend to be less specific and more open ended than short term goals. Long term goals are the most fluid of all. Lack of life experience and knowledge about potential opportunities make the formulation of long term goals difficult. Making career choices and decisions Managing the organizational career concerns the career management tasks of individuals within the workplace, such as decision-making, life-stage transitions, dealing with stress etc. Taking control of one's personal development as employers take less responsibility, employees need to take control of their own development in order to maintain and enhance their employability.

Stages of career management


Career formation starts during school years and ends at the retirement age five career stages regardless of occupation can be identified as,

The exploration stage


This stage ends for most individuals as they make transition from formal education programs to work. The grueling pressure and competition have left youngsters unprogrammed, exhausted, cynical, and chronically anxious about their future instead of being most optimistic and hopeful. Educational psychologists tell us that they are seeing record number of teenagers who are overwhelmed by the pressure and paralyzed by the tremendous number of choices available to them

The establishment stage

6 The period begins with the search for work and includes getting the first job, being accepted by your peers, learning the job, and gaining the first tangible evidence of success and failure in the real world. It begins with uncertainties and anxieties, feeling of excitement and fear and is, indeed, dominated by two problems: finding a niche and making your mark Although the specific causes of early career disappointments vary from person to person, some general causes have been identified. Studies of the early career problems of young managers typically find that those who experience frustrations are victims of reality shock (Ivancevich, 2004). These young managers perceive a mismatch between what they thought the organization was and what it actually is. Young professionals enter an organization with technical knowledge but often without an understanding of the organizations demands and expectations one reason for this could be that the new recruits are not provided with realistic job preview during the recruiting process. A realistic job preview provides the prospective employee with pertinent information about the job without exaggeration. Organization role during this period could be in the area of socializing, orienting and mentoring of new recruits. When we talk about socializing, and developing employees, referring to a process of helping new employees adapt to their new organization, to get them to become fully productive, thus helping them to develop their self-efficacy level. However in this stage individuals have yet to reach their peak productivity. The organizations role here would be to provide an array of services, like career guidance and training .Training involves change of skills, knowledge, attitudes or behavior to help individuals to improve their ability to perform the job effectively and efficiently. Training thus helps them to reduce the stress that arises due to personal inadequacy.

Mid- Career stage


This is a period when individuals continue their performance, or level off, or begin to deteriorate. The mid level executive experiences certain pressures, Haider & Supriya 187 which is unique because of the position he occupies in the organization The growing managers display a high need for self-actualization. They seek opportunities enabling them to use their skills and knowledge to reach their creative potential.

7 A study of Indian Industries by Nanjanath et. al. (1980) has found that, of all the factors contributing to managerial effectiveness, the individual qualities of the managers top the list. The third option for mid-career deals with the employee whose performance begins to deteriorate. This stage for this kind of employee is characterized by loss of both interest and productivity at work Loss of productivity and managerial effectiveness has been reported to be a function of personal and environmental factors. Organizational roles play an important part in increasing the individuals effectiveness in an organization. Increased decision-making enhances the meaningfulness; employees find in work and provide them greater sense of autonomy, responsibility, certainty, control and ownership. Continued growth and high performance are not the only successful outcomes at this stage. Maintenance is another possible outcome of the mid-career stage. The organizational role here would be providing sensitivity training exercises, by getting survey feedback from employees to identify discrepancies if any, or simply moving them to another position in the organization. This can work to boost morale and productivity.

Decline Stage
The decline or late stage in ones career is difficult for just about everyone, but, ironically, is probably hardest on those who have had continued successes in the earlier stages. After decades of continued achievements and high level of performance, the time has come for retirement. These individual step out of the limelight and relinquish a major component of their identity. Educational workshops and seminars and counseling sessions are an invaluable way to help the pre-retirement persons make the transition from work to retirement. Organizational efforts must include programs to facilitate pursuing careers financial planning, promotion of individual retirement programs and a comprehensive educational programs Back (1969) has suggested that the more the retirement is looked upon as a change to new status, the better the transition will be accomplished.

Career management largely an individual's responsibility


If on one hand competition and cost economics are spreading insecurity in jobs and on the other hand competition and evolution of new industries which were nonexistent a couple of

8 decades ago are opening a plethora of opportunities for the individuals to choose from. New opportunities and accompanying threats make the job markets extremely unpredictable. In such an uncertain environment, it is ultimately the responsibility of the individual to decide and make choices to pursue a desired career. Personal ambitions coupled with emerging business trends are increasingly shaping the career choice of the people. An organization can at best support an individuals aspirations if in line with its business goals. With this view of careers in todays environment, an individual needs to change the way jobs have traditionally been looked at. A job is not merely a means of earning money, it must be viewed by the individuals as an opportunity for learning, so that when you are doing a job to fulfill you responsibility for the company, you are also strengthening your skills required to develop your career. Career management thus is primarily an individual responsibility. It is a life long process for an individual, where he continuously learns about his purpose, personality, skills and interests.

An individual must continuously review learning from his assignments and try to develop alternate perspectives of the job, which helps in enriching ones' experience. Also a periodic relook at the job and the company along with the opportunities available outside will definitely help an individual in giving boost to his career advancement. Finally, one must take some time at some important milestones to assess his progress against the long term goals a review gives an opportunity for the individual to refine clarity on long term goals, which in turn will affect his further course of action. Following points will be of immense help for an individual:

Taking a long term view of where one wants to be Accept short term trade offs for long term benefits (low pay offer or some lateral move, which are vital for career development and contact building) Judicious decision between specialized jobs and isolated jobs Building the right connections - both inside and outside the firm Assess oneself honestly Keep abreast of changes and capture first mover advantage Plan your exit (timing, convenience and dignity)

A Career Management Model


Information, opportunities and support from . Need to make decision

Career exploration Career exploration

Awareness of self Awareness of self and environment and environment Feedback: Feedback: Work/non-work Work/non-work

Goal setting Goal setting

Career appraisal Career appraisal

Progress towards Progress towards goal goal

Strategy Strategy Implementation Implementation

Strategy Strategy Development Development

Educational, family, work, and social institutions

Source: Exhibit from Career Management, third edition, by Jeffrey H Greenhaus, Gerard A Callanan and Veronica M Godshalk. Copyright 1997, 2001 by Harcourt College Publishers, Reproduced by permission of publisher

Challenge for HR matching career aspirations with business needs


Employee loyalty to the company is higher when the job fulfills intrinsic needs and personal goals of the employees. By assisting an individual in planning his career and providing opportunities for career development, an organization can ensure higher loyalty and productivity from employees. Challenge for HR professional is to match and support

10 career expectation of performers with organizational requirements. Though, managing one's career lies with the individual, thrust of HR must be on designing great careers from the jobs to attract and retain the best of the talent to such an extent that people find themselves in the "right job" Few of the ways in which this can be done is shown below:

Mentoring is one way by which organizations create context for directing careers of youngsters Enriching the jobs - Encourage people to continuously redesign the work procedures Job rotations in line with individual capability and company requirements Providing organization wide, team based and individual learning opportunities designing the career path of capable and performing individuals Design developmental programmes

Though an organization and an individual have distinct roles to play in the process of career management, but HR can add value at each step of the individual efforts in career progression. Also individuals must use the HR interventions as an opportunity for giving shape to their career plans. Individual and organizational role in career management Key Aspect Individual role HR Role Managing the expectations Goal setting (by an individual) Developing term goal and

realistically:

gaining clarity on long

clarifying possibilities of knowledge based and hierarchical based goals

Action planning(by Planning w.r.t. type Support individual plan through movement along an individual) and duration of jobs to the be taken companies or industry assignments etc. to be targeted, and other developmental career path: up, Job rotations, advancements, problem solving

11 needs Learn

from

the and Align individuals to the company values

experience Mentoring & coaching (by the org.) coaches establish life

insights of mentors /

provide informal guidance about building career long within the organization

relationships Learn about present Assessment (by individual & org) profile and gaps that assess the long run Attaining additional educational Development (by the individual & org.) qualification, obtaining certifications possessed Focus on bottlenecking Challenging work processes, (by the org.) "challenge work" alive in keeping the element of the exposure to new business improvement tools external as Honest performance appraisals, identifying values synchronization, performance, need to be fulfilled in potential and likely career path

individual developmental needs and fulfilling the same, providing opportunity to implement learning for organizational benefit

authentication of skills de-

opportunity to participate in various task forces to thus solve real time business problems

Career

management

value

proposition

for

an

organization
Career management for an organization starts with managing and directing the career expectation of the employees realistically. Considering individual goals, performance and potential, HR must chart out the career path of the employees in such a way that these efforts of career planning and development culminate into succession planning at highest

12 levels in the organization. This will not only ensure smooth transfer of charge at the top without major cultural upheavals but also in enriching organizational talent pool and strengthening leadership bench.
DESCRIPTION CAREER CONCEPT The ongoing process whereby the employee obtains (1) Self-knowledge;(2) knowledge of employment CAREER MANAGEMENT opportunities; (3) develop career goals;(4) develop a strategy; (5) implement and experiment (6) obtain feedback on the effectiveness of the strategy and the relevance of the goals. Process by which individuals obtain knowledge about themselves (their values, personality, CAREER PLANNINGpreferences, interests, abilities), information about employment opportunities, formulate goals and develop a plan for reaching those goals. The ongoing process by which individuals progress CAREER DEVELOPMENT through a series of stages, each of which is characterized by a relatively unique set of issues, themes or tasks. Objective descriptions of sequential work CAREER PATHS experiences, as opposed to subjective, personal feelings about career progress, personal development or satisfaction. The ability to keep pace with the speed at which CAREER SELFMANAGEMENT change occurs within the organization and the industry and to prepare for the future through continuous learning and career planning efforts.

Questionnaire
Names 1. Status Employed ______ Part time employed ________ Unemployed __________ Age

13 Student ____________ 2. Education


High school graduate Other Graduate Post graduate

3. Would you be willing to go back to school to develop your career?


Yes no

4. What is your ideal working environment?


Organized, calm and serene Work best in chaos Interesting 5. Have you ever been promoted? 2. ii. 3. iii. Yes no

1. I.

6. What achievements have you made in your career? 7. Would you consider a career change? 8. Does your organization help you to develop you career? If yes explain how? 9. Career managements is responsibility of Individual Organization

Only for executive 10. Do employees actively take part in the process of career management? Strongly agree

14 Agree Disagree Strongly disagree

Recommendation & Findings


From above discuss & findings I am able to say that by providing proper direction and development, career progression of individuals can be planned within the organization, where not only the individual achieves a sense of personal fulfillment but also future requirements of critical positions in the organization are taken care of.

Conclusions
Career management provides a great opportunity for an organization to arrive at congruence of aspiration and interests of high performing individuals with current and future business needs. By providing proper direction and development, career progression of these individuals can be planned within the organization, where not only the individual achieves a sense of personal fulfillment but also future requirements of critical positions in the organization are taken care of

References Oxford English Dictionary Wikipedia


Sutherland, V.J. and Cooper, C.L. 2000, Strategic Stress Management, An Organizational Approach, London: Macmillan. Career change (Ibarra 2003) (Strenger 2008) (Ivancevich, 2003) Haider & Supriya 189 careers financial planning (French & Caplan, 1982) (McLean, 1964 as cited in Chauhan, 2002)

15 Study, which used social support as a moderator variable was conducted by Singh and Srivastava (1996 as cited in Pestonjee, 1999).
QUALITATIVE QUESTIONS 2 KEY FINDINGS 3 PARENTAL LEAVE OFFERED 6 RETURNING TO WORK 10 RESPONDENT COMMENTS 14 CONCLUSICES