A Modern Almagest

An Updated and Improved Version of Ptolemy’s Model of the Solar System

Richard Fitzpatrick
Professor of Physics
The University of Texas at Austin

Contents
1 Introduction

7

2 Dates

15

3 Keplerian Orbit Theory

19

4 The Celestial Sphere

22

5 The Sun

68

6 The Moon

80

7 Lunar-Solar Syzygies and Eclipses

92

8 The Superior Planets

104

9 The Inferior Planets

129

10 Planetary Latitudes

145

List of Figures
1

Ptolemy’s solar model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

2

A Keplerian orbit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

3

The celestial sphere. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

4

Celestial coordinates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

5

The ecliptic circle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

6

Ecliptic coordinates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

7

A general observation site on the earth’s surface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

8

The local horizon and meridian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

9

The local meridian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

10

The local celestial equator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

11

Horizontal coordinates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

12

The principal latitude circles of the earth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

13

Ecliptic altitude with southerly ecliptic culmination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

14

Ecliptic altitude with northerly ecliptic culmination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

15

Map of stars close to the ecliptic plane. (a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

16

Map of stars close to the ecliptic plane. (b) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

17

The apparent orbit of the sun about the earth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

18

The equinoxes and solstices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

19

The orbit of the moon about the earth.

20

Lunar parallax. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

21

Parallactic shifts in the moon’s ecliptic longitude and latitude. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

22

The phases of the moon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

23

The earth’s umbra. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

24

The limiting cases for lunar eclipses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

2

25

Heliocentric and geocentric models of the motion of a superior planet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

26

Planetary longitude model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

27

The triangle GBP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

28

The geocentric orbit of a superior planet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

29

Heliocentric and geocentric models of the motion of an inferior planet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

30

Orbit of a superior planet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

31

Orbit of an inferior planet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150

List of Tables
1

Julian Day Number: Century Years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

2

Julian Day Number: Years of the Century. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

3

Julian Day Number: Days of the Year. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

4

Table of bright stars close to the ecliptic plane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

5

Declinations and right ascensions of points on the ecliptic circle (a). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

6

Declinations and right ascensions of points on the ecliptic circle (b). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

7

Terrestrial climes in the northern hemisphere. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

8

Right ascensions of the ecliptic for latitude 0◦ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

9

Oblique ascensions of the ecliptic for latitude +10◦ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

10

Oblique ascensions of the ecliptic for latitude +20◦ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

11

Oblique ascensions of the ecliptic for latitude +30◦ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

12

Oblique ascensions of the ecliptic for latitude +40◦ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

13

Oblique ascensions of the ecliptic for latitude +50◦ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

14

Oblique ascensions of the ecliptic for latitude +55◦ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

15

Oblique ascensions of the ecliptic for latitude +60◦ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

16

Oblique ascensions of the ecliptic for latitude +65◦ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
3

17

Oblique ascensions of the ecliptic for latitude +70◦ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

18

Oblique ascensions of the ecliptic for latitude +75◦ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

19

Oblique ascensions of the ecliptic for latitude +80◦ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

20

Oblique ascensions of the ecliptic for latitude +85◦ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

21

Ecliptic altitude and parallactic angle for latitude 0◦ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

22

Ecliptic altitude and parallactic angle for latitude +10◦ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

23

Ecliptic altitude and parallactic angle for latitude +20◦ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

24

Ecliptic altitude and parallactic angle for latitude +30◦ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

25

Ecliptic altitude and parallactic angle for latitude +40◦ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

26

Ecliptic altitude and parallactic angle for latitude +50◦ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

27

Ecliptic altitude and parallactic angle for latitude +60◦ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

28

Ecliptic altitude and parallactic angle for latitude +70◦ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

29

Ecliptic altitude and parallactic angle for latitude +80◦ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

30

Keplerian orbital elements for the sun and the five visible planets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

31

Arc minute to decimal fraction conversion table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

32

Mean motion of the sun. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

33

Anomalies of the sun. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

34

The equation of time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

35

Orbital elements of the moon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

36

Mean motion of the moon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

37

Anomalies of the moon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

38

Ecliptic latitude of the moon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

39

Parallax of the moon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

40

Mean motion of the lunar-solar elongation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

41

Anomalies of the lunar-solar elongation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

4

42

Dates of the first new moons of the years 1900–2099 CE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

43

Lunar-solar eclipse functions.

44

Constants associated with the epicycles of the inferior and superior planets. . . . . . . . . . . . 116

45

Epicyclic interpolation coefficients. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

46

Mean motion of Mars. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

47

Deferential anomalies of Mars. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

48

Epicyclic anomalies of Mars. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

49

The conjunctions, oppositions, and stations of Mars during the years 2000–2020 CE. . . . . . . 120

50

Mean motion of Jupiter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

51

Deferential anomalies of Jupiter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

52

Epicyclic anomalies of Jupiter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

53

The conjunctions, oppositions, and stations of Jupiter during the years 2000–2010 CE. . . . . . 124

54

Mean motion of Saturn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

55

Deferential anomalies of Saturn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

56

Epicyclic anomalies of Saturn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

57

The conjunctions, oppositions, and stations of Saturn during the years 2000–2010 CE.

58

Mean motion of Venus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

59

Deferential anomalies of Venus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

60

Epicyclic anomalies of Venus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139

61

The conjunctions and greatest elongations of Venus during the years 2000–2015 CE. . . . . . . 140

62

Mean motion of Mercury. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

63

Deferential anomalies of Mercury. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142

64

Epicyclic anomalies of Mercury. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

65

The conjunctions and greatest elongations of Mercury during the years 2000–2002 CE. . . . . . 144

66

Additional Keplerian orbital elements for the five visible planets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

5

. . . . 128

67

Deferential ecliptic latitude of Mars. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

68

Epicyclic latitude correction factor for Mars.

69

Deferential ecliptic latitude of Jupiter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

70

Epicyclic latitude correction factor for Jupiter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

71

Deferential ecliptic latitude of Saturn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160

72

Epicyclic latitude correction factor for Saturn.

73

Epicyclic ecliptic latitude of Venus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

74

Deferential latitude correction factor for Venus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

75

Epicyclic ecliptic latitude of Mercury. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

76

Deferential latitude correction factor for Mercury.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165

1 INTRODUCTION

1 Introduction
1.1

Ptolemy’s Almagest

The modern world inherited two major scientific treaties from the civilization of Ancient Greece.
The first of these, the Elements of Euclid, is a large compendium of mathematical theorems concerning
geometry, proportion, and number theory. These theorems were not necessarily discovered by Euclid
himself—being largely the work of earlier mathematicians, such as Eudoxos of Cnidus, and Theaetetus of
Athens—but were arranged by him in a logical manner, so as to demonstrate that they can all ultimately
be derived from five simple axioms. The Elements is rightly regarded as the first, largely succesful, attempt
to construct an axiomatic system in mathematics, and is still held in high esteem within the scientific
community.
The second treatise, the Almagest1 of Claudius Ptolemy, is an attempt to find a simple geometric explanation for the apparent motions of the sun, the moon, and the planets in the earth’s sky. On the basis of
his own naked-eye observations, and those of earlier astronomers such as Hipparchus of Nicaea, Ptolemy
proposed a model of the solar system in which the earth is stationary. According to this model, the sun
moves in a circular orbit, (nearly) centered on the earth, which maintains a fixed inclination of about 23◦
to the terrestrial equator. Furthermore, the planets move on the rims of small circles called epicycles, whose
centers revolve around the earth on larger circles called deferents—see Fig. 26. The planetary deferents
and epicycles also maintain fixed inclinations, which are all fairly close to 23◦ , to the terrestrial equator.
The scientific reputation of the Almagest has not fared as well as that of Euclid’s Elements. Nowadays,
it is a commonly held belief, even amongst scientists, that Ptolemy’s mistaken adherence to the tenets of
Aristotelian philosophy—in particular, the immovability of the earth, and the necessity for heavenly bodies
to move uniformly in circles—led him to construct an overcomplicated, unwieldy, and faintly ridiculous
model of planetary motion. As is well-known, this model was superseded in 1543 CE by the heliocentric
model of Nicolaus Copernicus, in which the planets revolve about the sun in circular orbits. The Copernican
model was, in turn, superseded in the early 1600’s CE by the, ultimately correct, model of Johannes Kepler,
in which the planets revolve about the sun in elliptical orbits.
The aim of this study is to re-examine the scientific merits of Ptolemy’s Almagest.

1.2

Ptolemy’s Model of the Solar System

Claudius Ptolemy lived and worked in the city of Alexandria, capital of the Roman province of Egypt,
during the reigns of the later Flavian and the Antonine emperors. Ptolemy was heir—via the writings of
Euclid, and later mathematicians such as Apollonius of Perga, and Archimedes of Syracuse—to the considerable mathematical knowledge of geometry and arithmetic acquired by the civilization of Ancient Greece.
Ptolemy also inherited an extensive Ancient Greek tradition of observational and theoretical astronomy.
1
The true title of this work is Syntaxis Mathematica, which means something like “Mathematical Treatise”. The name Almagest
is probably an Arabic corruption of the work’s later Greek nickname, H Megiste (Syntaxis), meaning “The Greatest (Treatise)”.

7

1 INTRODUCTION
The most important astronomer prior to Ptolemy was undoubtedly Hipparchus of Nicaea (second century BCE), who developed the theory of solar motion used by Ptolemy, discovered the precession of the
equinoxes, and collected an extensive set of astronomical observations—some of which he made himself,
and some of which dated back to Babylonian times—which were available to Ptolemy (probably via the
famous Library of Alexandria). Other astronomers who made significant contributions prior to Ptolemy
include Meton of Athens (5th century BCE), Eudoxos of Cnidus (5th/4th century BCE), Callipus of Cyzicus
(4th century BCE), Aristarchus of Samos (4th/3rd century BCE), Eratosthenes of Cyrene (3rd/2nd century
BCE), and Menelaus of Alexandria (1st century CE).
Ptolemy’s aim in the Almagest is to construct a kinematic model of the solar system, as seen from the
earth. In other words, the Almagest outlines a relatively simple geometric model which describes the
apparent motions of the sun, moon, and planets, relative to the earth, but does not attempt to explain why
these motions occur (in this respect, the models of Copernicus and Kepler are similar). As such, the fact
that the model described in the Almagest is geocentric in nature is a non-issue, since the earth is stationary
in its own frame of reference. This is not to say that the heliocentric hypothesis is without advantages.
As we shall see, the assumption of heliocentricity allowed Copernicus to determine, for the first time, the
ratios of the mean radii of the various planets in the solar system.
We now know, from the works of Kepler and Newton, that planetary orbits are actually ellipses which
are confocal with the sun. Such orbits possess two main properties. First, they are eccentric: i.e., the sun
is displaced from the geometric center of the orbit. Second, they are elliptical: i.e., the shape of the orbit
looks like a squashed circle. Now, ellipses are characterized by a quantity, e, called the eccentricity, which
measures their deviation from circularity. It is easily demonstrated that the eccentricity of an elliptical orbit
scales as e, whereas the corresponding degree of squashness scales as e2. Since the elliptical orbits of the
visible planets in the solar system all possess relatively small values of e (i.e., e ≤ 0.21), it follows that, to
an excellent approximation, these orbits can be represented as eccentric circles: i.e., circles which are not
quite concentric with the sun. In other words, we can neglect the ellipticities of planetary orbits compared
to their eccentricities. This is exactly what Ptolemy does in the Almagest. Note that Ptolemy’s assumption
that heavenly bodies move in circles is actually one of the main strengths of his model, rather than being
the main weakness, as is commonly supposed.
Kepler’s second law of planetary motion states that the radius vector connecting a planet to the sun
sweeps out equal areas in equal time intervals. In the approximation in which planetary orbits are represented as eccentric circles, this law implies that a typical planet revolves around the sun at a non-uniform
rate. However, it is easily demonstrated that the non-uniform rotation of the radius vector connecting the
planet to the sun implies a uniform rotation of the radius vector connecting the planet to the so-called
equant: i.e., the point directly opposite the sun relative to the geometric center of the orbit—see Fig. 1.
Ptolemy discovered the equant scheme empirically, and used it to control the non-uniform rotation of the
planets in his model. In fact, this discovery is one of Ptolemy’s main claims to fame.
It follows, from the above discussion, that the geocentric model of Ptolemy is equivalent to a heliocentric model in which the various planetary orbits are represented as eccentric circles, and in which the
radius vector connecting a given planet to its corresponding equant revolves at a uniform rate. In fact,
Ptolemy’s model of planetary motion can be thought of as a version of Kepler’s model which is accurate to
first-order in the planetary eccentricities. According to the Ptolemaic scheme, from the point of view of the
earth, the orbit of the sun is described by a single circular motion, whereas that of a planet is described
8

1 INTRODUCTION
by a combination of two circular motions. In reality, the single circular motion of the sun represents the
(approximately) circular motion of the earth around the sun, whereas the two circular motions of a typical
planet represent a combination of the planet’s (approximately) circular motion around the sun, and the
earth’s motion around the sun. Incidentally, the popular myth that Ptolemy’s scheme requires an absurdly
large number of circles in order to fit the observational data to any degree of accuracy has no basis in fact.
Actually, Ptolemy’s model of the sun and the planets, which fits the data very well, only contains 12 circles
(i.e., 6 deferents and 6 epicycles).
Ptolemy is often accused of slavish adherence to the tenants of Aristotelian philosophy, to the overall detriment of his model. However, despite Ptolemy’s conventional geocentrism, his model of the solar
system deviates from orthodox Aristotelism in a number of crucially important respects. First of all, Aristotle argued—from a purely philosophical standpoint—that heavenly bodies should move in single uniform
circles. However, in the Ptolemaic system, the motion of the planets is a combination of two circular motions. Moreover, at least one of these motions is non-uniform. Secondly, Aristotle also argued—again from
purely philosophical grounds—that the earth is located at the exact center of the universe, about which all
heavenly bodies orbit in concentric circles. However, in the Ptolemaic system, the earth is slightly displaced
from the center of the universe. Indeed, there is no unique center of the universe, since the circular orbit
of the sun and the circular planetary deferents all have slightly different geometric centers, none of which
coincide with the earth. As described in the Almagest, the non-orthodox (from the point of view of Aristolelian philosophy) aspects of Ptolemy’s model were ultimately dictated by observations. This suggests
that, although Ptolemy’s world-view was based on Aristolelian philosophy, he did not hesitate to deviate
from this standpoint when required to by observational data.
From our heliocentric point of view, it is easily appreciated that the epicycles of the superior planets
(i.e., the planets further from the sun than the earth) in Ptolemy’s model actually represent the earth’s
orbit around the sun, whereas the deferents represent the planets’ orbits around the sun—see Fig. 25. It
follows that the epicycles of the superior planets should all be the same size (i.e., the size of the earth’s
orbit), and that the radius vectors connecting the centers of the epicycles to the planets should always all
point in the same direction as the vector connecting the earth to the sun.
We can also appreciate that the deferents of the inferior planets (i.e., the planets closer to the sun than
the earth) in Ptolemy’s model actually represent the earth’s orbit around the sun, whereas the epicycles
represent the planets’ orbits around the sun—see Fig. 29. It follows that the deferents of the inferior planets
should all be the same size (i.e., the size of the earth’s orbit), and that the centers of the epicycles should
all correspond to the position of the sun (relative to the Earth).
The geocentric model of the solar system outlined above represents a perfected version of Ptolemy’s
model, constructed with a knowledge of the true motions of the planets around the sun. Not surprisingly,
the model actually described in the Almagest deviates somewhat from this ideal form. In the following, we
shall refer to these deviations as “errors”, but this should not be understood in a perjorative sense.
Ptolemy’s first error lies in his model of the sun’s apparent motion around the earth, which he inherited
from Hipparchus. Figure 1 compares what Ptolemy actually did, in this respect, compared to what he
should have done, in order to be completely consistent with the rest of his model. Let us normalize the
mean radius of the sun’s apparent orbit to unity, for the sake of clarity. Ptolemy should have adopted the
model shown on the left in Fig. 1, in which the earth is displaced from the center of the sun’s orbit a
9

1 INTRODUCTION

Π

Π

S

S
G
G
C
Q

2e

e

C

e

A

A

Figure 1: Ptolemy’s model of the Sun’s apparent orbit (right) compared to the correct model (left). The radius
vectors in both models rotate uniformly. Here, S is the Sun, G the Earth, C the geometric center of the orbit,
Q the equant, Π the perigee, and A the apogee. The radius of the orbit is normalized to unity.
distance e = 0.0167 (the eccentricity of the earth’s orbit around the sun) towards the perigee (the point
of the sun’s closest approach to the earth), and the equant is displaced the same distance in the opposite
direction. The instantaneous position of the sun is then obtained by allowing the radius vector connecting
the equant to the sun to rotate uniformly at the sun’s mean angular velocity. Of course, this implies that
the sun rotates non-uniformly about the geometric center of the orbit. Ptolemy actually adopted the model
shown on the right in Fig. 1. In this model, the earth is displaced a distance 2e from the center of the
sun’s orbit in the direction of the perigee, and the sun rotates at a uniform rate (i.e., the radius vector
CS rotates uniformly). It turns out that, to first-order in e, these two models are equivalent. Hence,
the error [which is (e2)] is small. Nevertheless, Ptolemy’s model is incorrect, since it implies too large a
variation in the angular size of the sun during the course of a year. Ptolemy presumably adopted the latter
model, rather than the former, because his Aristotelian leanings prejudiced him in favor of uniform circular
motion whenever this was consistent with observations. (Note that Ptolemy was not particularly interested
in explaining the relatively small variations in the angular size of the sun during the year—presumably,
because this effect was difficult for him to accurately measure.)
Ptolemy’s next error was to neglect the non-uniform rotation of the superior planets on their epicycles.
This is equivalent to neglecting the orbital eccentricity of the earth (recall that the epicycles of the superior
planets actually represent the earth’s orbit) compared to those of the superior planets. It turns out that this
is a fairly good approximation, since the superior planets all have significantly greater orbital eccentricities
than the earth. Nevertheless, neglecting the non-uniform rotation of the superior planets on their epicycles
has the unfortunate effect of obscuring the tight coupling between the apparent motions of these planets,
and that of the sun. The radius vectors connecting the epicycle centers of the superior planets to the
planets themselves should always all point exactly in the same direction as that of the sun relative to the
earth. When the aforementioned non-uniform rotation is neglected, the radius vectors instead point in
10

1 INTRODUCTION
the direction of the mean sun relative to the earth. The mean sun is a fictitious body which has the same
apparent orbit around the earth as the real sun, but which circles the earth at a uniform rate. The mean
sun only coincides with the real sun twice a year.
Ptolemy’s third error is associated with his treatment of the inferior planets. As we have seen, in going
from the superior to the inferior planets, deferents and epicycles effectively swap roles. For instance, it is
the deferents of the inferior planets, rather than the epicycles, which represent the earth’s orbit. Hence,
for the sake of consistency with his treatment of the superior planets, Ptolemy should have neglected the
non-uniform rotation of the epicycle centers around the deferents of the inferior planets, and retained the
non-uniform rotation of the planets themselves around the epicycle centers. Instead, he did exactly the
opposite. This is equivalent to neglecting the inferior planets’ orbital eccentricities relative to that of the
earth. It follows that this approximation only works when an inferior planet has a significantly smaller
orbital eccentricity than that of the earth. It turns out that this is indeed the case for Venus, which has the
smallest eccentricity of any planet in the solar system. Thus, Ptolemy was able to successfully account for
the apparent motion of Venus. Mercury, on the other hand, has a much larger eccentricity than the earth.
Moreover, it was very difficult for Ptolemy to obtain accurate measurements of Mercury’s position in the
sky, since this position is always close to that of the sun. Consequently, Ptolemy’s Mercury data was highly
inaccurate. Not surprisingly, Ptolemy was not able to account for the apparent motion of Mercury using
his standard deferent-epicycle approach. Instead, in order to fit the data, he was forced to introduce an
additional, and quite spurious, epicycle into his model of Mercury’s orbit.
Ptolemy’s fourth, and possibly largest, error is associated with his treatment of the moon. It should be
noted that the moon’s motion around the earth is extremely complicated in nature, and was not fully understood until the early 20th century CE. Ptolemy constructed an ingenious geometric model of the moon’s
orbit which was capable of predicting the lunar ecliptic longitude to reasonable accuracy. Unfortunately,
this model necessitates a monthly variation in the earth-moon distance by a factor of about two, which
implies a similarly large variation in the moon’s angular diameter. However, the observed variation in the
moon’s diameter is much smaller than this. Hence, Ptolemy’s model is not even approximately correct.
Ptolemy’s fifth error is associated with his treatment of planetary ecliptic latitudes. Given that the
deferents and epicycles of the superior planets represent the orbits of the planets themselves around the
sun, and the sun’s apparent orbit around the earth, respectively, it follows that one should take the slight
inclination of planetary orbits to the ecliptic plane (i.e., the plane of the sun’s apparent orbit) into account
by tilting the deferents of superior planets, whilst keeping their epicycles parallel to the ecliptic. Similarly,
given that the epicycles and deferents of inferior planets represent the orbits of the planets themselves
around the sun, and the sun’s apparent orbit around the earth, respectively, one should tilt the epicycles
of inferior planets, whilst keeping their deferents parallel to the ecliptic. Finally, since the inclination of
planetary orbits are all essentially constant in time, the inclinations of the epicycles and deferents should
also be constant. Unfortunately, when Ptolemy constructed his theory of planetary latitudes he tilted the
both deferents and epicyles of all the planets. Even worse, he allowed the inclinations of the epicycles to
the ecliptic plane to vary in time. The net result is a theory which is far more complicated than is necessary.
The final failing in Ptolemy’s model of the solar system lies in its scale invariance. Using angular position
data alone, Ptolemy was able to determine the ratio of the epicycle radius to that of the deferent for each
planet, but was not able to determine the relative sizes of the deferents of different planets. In order to
break this scale invariance it is necessary to make an additional assumption—e.g., that the earth orbits the
11

1 INTRODUCTION
sun. This brings us to Copernicus.

1.3

Copernicus’s Model of the Solar System

The Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543 CE) studied the Almagest assiduously, but eventually became dissatisfied with Ptolomy’s approach. The main reason for this dissatisfaction was not the
geocentric nature of Ptolomy’s model, but rather the fact that it mandates that heavenly bodies execute
non-uniform circular motion. Copernicus, like Aristotle, was convinced that the supposed perfection of
the heavens requires such bodies to execute uniform circular motion only. Copernicus was thus spurred to
construct his own model of the solar system, which was described in the book De Revolutionibus Orbium
Coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres), published in the year of his death.
The most well-known aspect of Copernicus’s model is the fact that it is heliocentric. As has already been
mentioned, when describing the motion of the sun, moon, and planets relative to the earth, it makes little
practical difference whether one adopts a geocentric or a heliocentric model of the solar system. Having
said this, the heliocentric approach does have one large advantage. If we accept that the sun, and not the
earth, is stationary, then it immediately follows that the epicycles of the superior planets, and the deferents
of the inferior planets, represent the earth’s orbit around the sun. Hence, all of these circles must be the
same size. This realization allows us to break the scale invariance which is one of the main failings of
Ptolemy’s model. Thus, the ratio of the deferent radius to that of the epicycle for a superior planet, which
is easily inferred from observations, actually corresponds to the ratio of planet’s orbital radius to that of
the earth. Likewise, the ratio of the epicycle radius to that of the deferent for an inferior planet, which is
again easily determined observationally, also corresponds to the ratio of the planet’s orbital radius to that
of the earth. Using this type of reasoning, Copernicus was able to construct the first accurate scale model
of the solar system, and to firmly establish the order in which the planets orbit the sun. In some sense, this
was his main achievement.
Copernicus’s insistence that heavenly bodies should only move in uniform circles lead him to reject
Ptolemy’s essentially correct equant scheme, and to replace it with spurious additional epicycles. Consequently, Copernicus’s model of the solar system contains more epicycles than Ptolemy’s. Indeed, the model
of Copernicus is somewhat more complicated, and not appreciably more accurate, than that of the Almagest. In this respect, Copernicus cannot be said to have demonstrated the correctness of his heliocentric
approach on the basis of observational data.

1.4

Kepler’s Model of the Solar System

Johannes Kepler (1571–1630 CE) was fortunate enough to inherit an extensive set of naked-eye solar,
lunar, and planetary angular position data from the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546–1601 CE). This
data extended over many decades, and was of unprecedented accuracy.
Although Kepler adopted the heliocentric approach of Copernicus, what he effectively first did was to
perfect Ptolemy’s model of the solar system (or, rather, its heliocentric equivalent). Thus, Kepler replaced
Ptolemy’s erroneous equantless model of the sun’s apparent orbit around the earth with a corrected ver12

1 INTRODUCTION
sion containing an equant—in the process, halving the eccentricity of the orbit (see Fig. 1). Kepler also
introduced equants into the epicycles of the superior and inferior planets. Once he had perfected Ptolemy’s
model, the heliocentric nature of the solar system became manifestly apparent to Kepler. For instance, he
found that the epicycles of the superior planets, the sun’s apparent orbit around the earth, and the deferents of the inferior planets each have exactly the same eccentricity. The obvious implication of this result
is that these circles all correspond to a common motion within the solar system—in fact, the motion of the
earth around the sun.
Once Kepler had corrected the Almagest model, he compared its predictions with his observational
data. In particular, Kepler investigated the apparent motion of Mars in the night sky. Kepler found that his
model performed extremely well, but that there remained small differences between its predictions and the
observational data. The maximum discrepancy was about 8 ′ : i.e., about 1/4 the apparent size of the sun.
By the standards of naked-eye astronomy, this was a very small discrepancy indeed. Nevertheless, given the
incredible accuracy of Tycho Brahe’s observations, it was still significant. Thus, Kepler embarked on an epic
new series of calculations which eventually lead him to the conclusion that the planetary orbits are actually
ellipses, rather than eccentric circles. Kepler published the results of his research in Astronomia Nova (New
Astronomy) in 1609 CE. It is interesting to note that had Tycho’s data been a little less accurate, or had the
orbit of Mars been a little less eccentric, Kepler might have settled for a model which was kinematically
equivalent to a perfected version of the model described in the Almagest. We can also appreciate that,
given the far less accurate observational data available to Ptolemy, there was no way in which he could
have discerned the very small difference between elliptical planetary orbits and the eccentric circular orbits
employed in the Almagest.

1.5

Purpose of This Work

As we have seen, misconceptions abound regarding the details of Ptolemy’s model of the solar system, as
well as its scientific merit. Part of the reason for this is that the Almagest is an extremely difficult book for
a modern reader to comprehend. For instance, virtually all of its theoretical results are justified via lengthy
and opaque geometric proofs. Moreover, the plane and spherical trigonometry employed by Ptolemy is
of a rather primitive nature, and, consequently, somewhat unwieldy. Dates are a major stumbling block,
since three different systems are used, all of which are archaic, and essentially meaningless to the modern
reader. Another difficulty is the unfamiliar, and far from optimal, Ancient Greek method of representing
numbers and fractions. Finally, the terminology employed in the Almagest is, in many instances, significantly different to that used in modern astronomy textbooks.
The aim of this work is to reconstruct Ptolemy’s model of the solar system employing modern mathematical methods, standard dates, and conventional astronomical terminology. It is hoped that the resulting
model will enable the reader to comprehend the full extent of Ptolemy’s scientific achievement. In fact,
the model described in this work is a somewhat improved version of Ptolemy’s, in that all of the previously
mentioned deficiencies have been corrected. Furthermore, Ptolemy’s equant scheme has been replaced
by Keplerian orbit theory, expanded to second order in the planetary eccentricities. It should be noted,
however, that these two schemes are essentially indistinguishable for small eccentricity orbits. Certain
aspects of the Almagest have not been reproduced. For instance, it was not thought necessary to instruct
the reader on how to construct trigonometric tables, or primitive astronomical instruments. Furthermore,
13

1 INTRODUCTION
no attempted has been made to derive any of the model parameters directly from observational data, since
the orbital elements and physical properties of the sun, moon, and planets are, by now, extremely well
established. Any detailed discussion of the fixed stars has also been omitted, because stellar positions are
also very well established, and the apparent motion of the stars in the sky is comparatively straightforward
compared to those of objects in the solar system. What remains is a mathematical model of the solar system
which is surprisingly accurate (the maximum errors in the ecliptic longitudes of the sun, moon, Mercury,
Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn during the years 1995–2006 CE are 0.7 ′ , 14 ′ , 28 ′ , 10 ′ , 14 ′ , 4 ′ , and 1 ′ ,
respectively), yet sufficiently simple that all of the necessary calculations can be performed by hand, with
the aid of tables. The form of the calculations, as well as the layout of the tables, is, for the most part,
fairly similar to those found in the Almagest. Many examples of the use of the tables are provided.

14

2 DATES

2 Dates
Following modern astronomical practice, we shall specify dates by means of Julian day numbers. According
to this scheme, days are numbered consecutively from January 1, 4713 BCE, which is designated day zero.
For instance, October 14, 1066 CE (the date of the battle of Hastings) is day 2 110 701. Each Julian day
commences at 12:00 universal time (UT).
The Julian day number of a given day can be determined from Tables 1–3. The date must be expressed
in terms of the Gregorian calendar.
The procedure is as follows:
1. Enter the table of century years (Table 1) with the century year immediately preceding the date in
question, and take out the tabular value. If the century year is marked with a †, note this fact for use
in step 2.
2. Enter the table of years of the century (Table 2) with the last two digits of the year in question,
and take out the tabular value. If the century year used in step 1 was marked with a †, diminish
the tabular value by one day, unless the tabular value is zero. If the year in question is a leap year,
marked with a ∗, note this fact for use in step 3.
3. Enter the table of the days of the year (Table 3) with the day in question, and take out the tabular
value. If the year in question is a leap year and the table entry falls after February 28, add one day
to the tabular value. The sum of the values obtained in steps 1, 2, and 3 then gives the Julian day
number of the date in question.
Example 1: June 10, 1992 CE:
1. Century year
2. Year of the century
3. Day of the year
Julian day number

† 1900
∗ 92

June 10

33 603 - 1 =
161+1 =

2 415 020
33 602
162
2 448 784

Observe that in step 2 the tabular value has been diminished by 1 because 1900 is a common year (marked
with a † in Table 1). In step 3, the tabular value has been increased by 1 because 1992 is a leap year
(marked with a ∗ in Table 2), and the date falls after February 28.
Example 2: January 18, 1824 CE:
1. Century year
2. Year of the century
3. Day of the year
Julian day number

† 1800
∗ 24

January 18

8 766 - 1 =
18 =

2 378 496
8 765
18
2 387 279

Observe that in step 2 the tabular value has been diminished by 1 because 1800 is a common year (marked
15

2 DATES
with a † in Table 1). In step 3, the tabular value has not been increased by 1, despite the fact that 1824 is
a leap year (marked with an ∗ in Table 2), because the date falls before February 28.
We can specify the time of day (in universal time), as well as the date, by means of fractional Julian
day numbers. For instance, t = 2 448 784.0 JD corresponds to 12:00 UT on June 10, 1992 CE, whereas
t = 2 448 784.5 JD corresponds to 24:00 UT later the same day.

16

2 DATES
† 1800
† 1900

2000

2 378 496
2 415 020
2 451 544

Table 1: Julian Day Number: Century Years. † Common years. All years are CE. From “The History and
Practice of Ancient Astronomy”, J. Evans (Oxford University Press, Oxford UK, 1998).

§0

1
2
3
∗4

5
6
7
∗8

9
10
11
∗ 12

13
14
15
∗ 16

17
18
19

0
336
731
1 096

∗ 20

1 461
1 827
2 192
2 557

∗ 24

2 922
3 288
3 653
4 018

∗ 28

4 383
4 749
5 114
5 479

∗ 32

5 844
6 210
6 575
6 940

∗ 36

21
22
23

25
26
27

29
30
31

33
34
35

37
38
39

7 305
7 671
8 036
8 401

∗ 40

8 766
9 132
9 497
9 862

∗ 44

10 227
10 593
10 958
11 323

∗ 48

11 688
12 054
12 419
12 784

∗ 52

13 149
13 515
13 880
14 245

∗ 56

41
42
43

45
46
47

49
50
51

53
54
55

57
58
59

14 610
14 976
15 341
15 706

∗ 60

16 071
16 437
16 802
17 167

∗ 64

17 532
17 898
18 263
18 628

∗ 68

18 993
19 359
19 724
20 089

∗ 72

20 454
20 820
21 185
21 550

∗ 76

61
62
63

65
66
67

69
70
71

73
74
75

77
78
79

21 915
22 281
22 646
22 011

∗ 80

23 376
23 742
24 107
24 472

∗ 84

24 837
25 203
25 568
25 933

∗ 88

26 298
26 664
27 029
27 394

∗ 92

27 759
28 125
28 490
28 855

∗ 96

81
82
83

85
86
87

89
90
91

93
94
95

97
98
99

29 220
29 586
29 951
30 316
30 681
31 047
31 412
31 777
32 142
32 508
32 873
33 238
33 603
33 969
34 334
34 699
35 064
35 430
35 795
36 160

Table 2: Julian Day Number: Years of the Century. ∗ Leap year. § Leap year unless century is marked †. In
centuries marked †, subtract one day from the tabulated values for the years 1 through 99. From “The History
and Practice of Ancient Astronomy”, J. Evans (Oxford University Press, Oxford UK, 1998).

17

2 DATES

Day

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

1
2
3
4
5

1
2
3
4
5

32
33
34
35
36

60
61
62
63
64

91
92
93
94
95

121
122
123
124
125

152
153
154
155
156

182
183
184
185
186

213
214
215
216
217

244
245
246
247
248

274
275
276
277
278

305
306
307
308
309

335
336
337
338
339

6
7
8
9
10

6
7
8
9
10

37
38
39
40
41

65
66
67
68
69

96
97
98
99
100

126
127
128
129
130

157
158
159
160
161

187
188
189
190
191

218
219
220
221
222

249
250
251
252
253

279
280
281
282
283

310
311
312
313
314

340
341
342
343
344

11
12
13
14
15

11
12
13
14
15

42
43
44
45
46

70
71
72
73
74

101
102
103
104
105

131
132
133
134
135

162
163
164
165
166

192
193
194
195
196

223
224
225
226
227

254
255
256
257
258

284
285
286
285
288

315
316
317
318
319

345
346
347
348
349

16
17
18
19
20

16
17
18
19
20

47
48
49
50
51

75
76
77
78
79

106
107
108
109
110

136
137
138
139
140

167
168
169
170
171

197
198
199
200
201

228
229
230
231
232

259
260
261
262
263

289
290
291
292
293

320
321
322
323
324

350
351
352
353
354

21
22
23
24
25

21
22
23
24
25

52
53
54
55
56

80
81
82
83
84

111
112
113
114
115

141
142
143
144
145

172
173
174
175
176

202
203
204
205
206

233
234
235
236
237

264
265
266
267
268

294
295
296
297
298

325
326
327
328
329

355
356
357
358
359

26
27
28
29
30
31

26
27
28
29
30
31

57
58
59

85
86
87
88
89
90

116
117
118
119
120

146
147
148
149
150
151

177
178
179
180
181

207
208
209
210
211
212

238
239
240
241
242
243

269
270
271
272
273

299
300
301
302
303
304

330
331
332
333
334

360
361
362
363
364
365

Table 3: Julian Day Number: Days of the Year. ∗ In leap year, after February 28, add 1 to the tabulated value.
From “The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy”, J. Evans (Oxford University Press, Oxford UK, 1998).

18

3 KEPLERIAN ORBIT THEORY

3 Keplerian Orbit Theory
According to Kepler’s first law of planetary motion, all planetary orbits are ellipses which are confocal with
the sun and lie in a fixed plane. Moreover, according to Kepler’s second law, the radius vector which
connects the sun to a given planet sweeps out equal areas in equal time intervals.

D
Q

B

P

b

r
T

E

A

C
a

S

R

Π

ea
Figure 2: A Keplerian orbit.

Consider Figure 2. ΠPBA is half of an elliptical planetary orbit. Furthermore, C is the geometric center
of the orbit, S the focus at which the sun is located, P the instantaneous position of the planet, Π the
perihelion point (i.e., the point of closest approach to the sun), and A the aphelion point (i.e., the point
of furthest distance from the sun). The ellipse is symmetric about ΠA, which is termed the major axis,
and about CB, which is termed the minor axis. The length CA ≡ a is called the orbital major radius. The
length CS represents the displacement of the sun from the geometric center of the orbit, and is generally
written e a, where e is termed the orbital eccentricity. The length CB ≡ b = a (1 − e2)1/2 is called the
orbital minor radius. The length SP ≡ r represents the radial distance of the planet from the sun. Finally,
the angle RSP ≡ T is the angular bearing of the planet from the sun, relative to the major axis of the orbit,
and is termed the true anomaly.
ΠQDA is half of a circle whose geometric center is C, and whose radius is a. Hence, the circle passes
through the perihelion and aphelion points. R is the point at which the perpendicular from P meets the
major axis ΠA. The point where RP produced meets circle ΠQDA is denoted Q. Finally, the angle SCQ ≡ E
is called the elliptic anomaly.
Now, the equation of the ellipse ΠPBA is
x2 y2
+
= 1,
(1)
a2 b2
where x and y are the perpendicular distances from the minor and major axes, respectively. Likewise, the
equation of the circle ΠQDA is
x′ 2 y′ 2
+ 2 = 1.
(2)
a2
a
19

3 KEPLERIAN ORBIT THEORY
Hence, if x = x ′ then

and it follows that

y
b
= ,

y
a

(3)

b
RP
= .
RQ
a

(4)

It is easily demonstrated that SR = r cos T , RP = r sin T , CR = a cos E, RQ = a sin E, and CS = e a.
Consequently, Eq. (4) yields
r sin T = b sin E = a (1 − e2)1/2 sin E.
(5)
Also, since SR = CR − CS, we have
r cos T = a (cos E − e).

(6)

Taking the square root of the sum of the squares of the previous two equations, we obtain
r = a (1 − e cos E),

(7)

which can be combined with Eq. (6) to give
cos E − e
.
1 − e cos E

(8)

t − t∗
Area ΠPS
=
,
πab
τ

(9)

cos T =

Now, according to Kepler’s second law,

where t is the time at which the planet passes point P, t∗ the time at which it passes the perihelion point,
and τ the orbital period. However,
Area ΠPS = Area SRP + Area ΠRP
1 2
=
r cos T sin T + Area ΠRP.
2

(10)

But,
Area ΠRP =

b
Area ΠRQ,
a

(11)

since RP/RQ = b/a for all values of T . In addition,
Area ΠRQ = Area ΠQC − Area RQC
1
1
=
E a2 − a2 cos E sin E.
2
2

(12)

Hence, we can write 

b a2
1
t − t∗
(E − cos E sin E).
π a b = r2 cos T sin T +
τ
2
a 2 

20

(13)

3 KEPLERIAN ORBIT THEORY
According to Eqs. (5) and (6), r sin T = b sin E, and r cos T = a (cos E − e), so the above equation reduces
to
M = E − e sin E,
(14)
where
M= 


τ 

(15)

(t − t∗ )

is an angle which is zero at the perihelion point, increases uniformly in time, and has a repetition period
which matches the period of the planetary orbit. This angle is termed the mean anomaly.
In summary, the radial and angular polar coordinates, r and T , respectively, of a planet in a Keplerian
orbit about the sun are specified as implicit functions of the mean anomaly, which is a linear function of
time, by the following three equations:
M = E − e sin E,

(16)

r = a (1 − e cos E),
cos T

=

cos E − e
.
1 − e cos E

(17)
(18)

It turns out that the earth and the five visible planets all possess low eccentricity orbits characterized by
e ≪ 1. Hence, it is a good approximation to expand the above three equations using e as a small parameter.
To second-order, we get
E = M + e sin M + (1/2) e2 sin 2M,
2

2

r = a (1 − e cos T − e sin T ),
T

2

= E + e sin E + (1/4) e sin 2E.

(19)
(20)
(21)

These equations can be combined to give r and T as explicit functions of the mean anomaly:
r = a (1 − e cos M + e2 sin2 M),
T

2

= M + 2 e sin M + (5/4) e sin 2M.

(22)
(23)

It is interesting to note that the above formulae are almost identical to those obtained by expanding
Ptolemy’s equant theory to second-order in the eccentricity: i.e.,
r = a [1 − e cos M + (3/2) e2 sin2 M],
T

= M + 2 e sin M + e2 sin 2M.

21

(24)
(25)

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

4 The Celestial Sphere
4.1

The Celestial Sphere

It is often helpful to imagine that celestial objects are attached to a vast sphere centered on the earth.
This fictitious construction is known as the celestial sphere. The earth’s dimensions are assumed to be
infinitesimally small compared to those of the sphere (since the distance of a typical celestial object from
the earth is very much larger than the earth’s radius). It follows that only half of the sphere is visible from
any particular observation site on the earth’s surface. Furthermore, the angular position of a given celestial
object (relative to some fixed celestial reference) is the same at all such sites. In other words, there is
negligible parallax associated with viewing the same celestial object from different observation sites on the
surface of the earth (actually, this is not the case for the moon—see Sect. 6).

4.2

Celestial Motions

Celestial objects exhibit two types of motion. The first motion is such that the whole celestial sphere, and
all of the celestial objects attached to it, rotates uniformly from east to west (looking south in the earth’s
northern hemisphere) once every 24 (sidereal) hours, about a fixed axis passing through the earth’s north
and south poles. This type of motion is called diurnal motion, and is a consequence of the earth’s daily
rotation from west to east. Diurnal motion preserves the relative angular positions of all celestial objects.
However, certain celestial objects, such as the sun, the moon, and the planets, posses a second motion,
superimposed on the first, which causes their angular positions to slowly change relative to one another,
and to the fixed stars. This intrinsic motion of objects in the solar system is due to a combination of the
earth’s orbital motion about the sun, and the orbital motions of the moon and the planets about the earth
and the sun, respectively.

4.3

Celestial Coordinates

Consider Fig. 3. The celestial sphere rotates about the celestial axis, PP ′ , which is the imagined extension
of the earth’s axis of rotation. This axis intersects the celestial sphere at the north celestial pole, P, and the
south celestial pole, P ′ . It follows that the two celestial poles are unaffected by diurnal motion, and remain
fixed in the sky.
The celestial equator, VUV ′ U ′ , is the intersection of the earth’s equatorial plane with the celestial
sphere, and is therefore perpendicular to the celestial axis. The so-called vernal equinox, V, is a particular
point on the celestial equator which is used as the origin of celestial longitude. Furthermore, the autumnal
equinox, V ′ , is a point which lies directly opposite the vernal equinox on the celestial equator. Let the line
UU ′ lie in the plane of the celestial equator such that it is perpendicular to VV ′ , as shown in the figure.
It is helpful to define three mutually perpendicular unit vectors: v, u, and p. Here, v is directed from
the earth to the vernal equinox, u from the earth to point U, and p from the earth to the north celestial

22

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

P

p

V′

U
u

G
v

U′

V

P′
Figure 3: The celestial sphere. G, P, P ′ , V, and V ′ represent the earth, north celestial pole, south celestial pole,
vernal equinox, and autumnal equinox, respectively. VUV ′ U ′ is the celestial equator, and PP ′ the celestial axis.
pole—see Fig. 3.
Consider a general celestial object, R—see Fig. 4. The location of R on the celestial sphere is conveniently specified by two angular coordinates, δ and α. Let GR ′ be the projection of GR onto the equatorial
plane. The coordinate δ, which is known as declination, is the angle subtended between GR ′ and GR. Objects north of the celestial equator have positive declinations, and vice versa. It follows that objects on the
celestial equator have declinations of 0◦ , whereas the north and south celestial poles have declinations of
+90◦ and −90◦ , respectively. The coordinate α, which is known as right ascension, is the angle subtended
between GV and GR ′ . Right ascension increases from west to east (i.e., in the opposite direction to the
celestial sphere’s diurnal rotation). Thus, the vernal and autumnal equinoxes have right ascensions of 0◦
and 180◦ , respectively. Note that α lies in the range 0◦ to 360◦ . Right ascension is sometimes measured
in hours, instead of degrees, with one hour corresponding to 15◦ (since it takes 24 hours for the celestial
sphere to complete one diurnal rotation). In this scheme, the vernal and autumnal equinoxes have right
ascensions of 0 hrs. and 12 hrs., respectively. Moreover, α lies in the range 0 to 24 hrs. (Incidentally, in this
work, α is always measured relative to the mean equinox at date.) Finally, let r be a unit vector which is
directed from the earth to R—see Fig. 4. It is easily demonstrated that
r = cos δ cos α v + cos δ sin α u + sin δ p,

(26)

sin δ = r · p,  

r·u
.
tan α =
r·v

(27)

and

23

(28)

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

P
R
r
V′
G

R′

δ
α

V

P′
Figure 4: Celestial coordinates. R is a celestial object, and R ′ its projection onto the plane of the celestial
equator, VR ′ V ′ .

4.4

The Ecliptic Circle

During the course of a year, the sun’s intrinsic motion causes it to trace out a fixed circle bisecting the
celestial sphere. This circle is known as the ecliptic. The sun travels around the ecliptic from west to east.
Moreover, the ecliptic circle is inclined at a fixed angle of ǫ = 23◦ 26 ′ to the celestial equator. This angle
actually represents the fixed inclination of the earth’s axis of rotation to the normal to its orbital plane.
The vernal equinox, V, is defined as the point at which the ecliptic crosses the celestial equator from
south to north (in the direction of the sun’s ecliptic motion)—see Fig. 5. Likewise, the autumnal equinox,
V ′ , is the point at which the ecliptic crosses the celestial equator from north to south. In addition, the
summer solstice, S, is the point on the ecliptic which is furthest north of the celestial equator, whereas
the winter solstice, S ′ , is the point which is furthest south. It follows that the lines VV ′ and SS ′ are
perpendicular. Let QQ ′ be the normal to the plane of the ecliptic which passes through the earth, as
shown in Fig. 5. Here, Q is termed the northern ecliptic pole, and Q ′ the southern ecliptic pole. It is easily
demonstrated that
s = cos ǫ u + sin ǫ p,

(29)

q = − sin ǫ u + cos ǫ p,

(30)

where s is a unit vector which is directed from the earth to the summer solstice, and q a unit vector which
is directed from the earth to the north ecliptic pole—see Fig. 5. We can also write
u = cos ǫ s − sin ǫ q,

(31)

p = sin ǫ s + cos ǫ q.

(32)

24

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

Q

P
S

ǫ
V′ q

s

U′

U

v
V
S′
P

Q′

Figure 5: The ecliptic circle. P, P ′ , Q, Q ′ , V, V ′ , S, and S ′ denote the north celestial pole, south celestial pole,
north ecliptic pole, south ecliptic pole, vernal equinox, autumnal equinox, summer solstice, and winter solstice,
respectively. VUV ′ U ′ is the celestial equator, VSV ′ S ′ the ecliptic, and PP ′ the celestial axis.

Q
R
r
V

G

β
λ

R′
V

Q′
Figure 6: Ecliptic coordinates. G is the earth, R a celestial object, and R ′ its projection onto the ecliptic plane,
VR ′ V ′ .

25

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

4.5

Ecliptic Coordinates

It is convenient to specify the positions of the sun, moon, and planets in the sky using a pair of angular
coordinates, β and λ, which are measured with respect to the ecliptic, rather than the celestial equator. Let
R denote a celestial object, and GR ′ the projection of the line GR onto the plane of the ecliptic, VR ′ V ′ —see
Fig. 6. The coordinate β, which is known as ecliptic latitude, is the angle subtended between GR ′ and GR.
Objects north of the ecliptic plane have positive ecliptic latitudes, and vice versa. The coordinate λ, which is
known as ecliptic longitude, is the angle subtended between GV and GR ′ . Ecliptic longitude increases from
west to east (i.e., in the same direction that the sun travels around the ecliptic). (Again, in this work, λ is
always measured relative to the mean equinox at date.) Note that the unit vectors in the ecliptic coordinate
system are v, s, and q, whereas the corresponding unit vectors in the celestial coordinate system are v, u,
and p—see Figs. 3 and 5. By analogy with Eqs. (26)–(28), we can write
r = cos β cos λ v + cos β sin λ s + sin β q,
sin β = r · q,  

r·s
,
tan λ =
r·v

(33)
(34)
(35)

where r is a unit vector which is directed from G to R. Hence, it follows from Eqs. (26), (29), and (30) that
sin β = cos ǫ sin δ − sin ǫ cos δ sin α,

(36)

cos ǫ cos δ sin α + sin ǫ sin δ
.
cos δ cos α

(37)

tan λ =

These expressions specify the transformation from celestial to ecliptic coordinates. The inverse transformation follows from Eqs. (27), (28), and (31)—(33):
sin δ = cos ǫ sin β + sin ǫ cos β sin λ,

(38)

cos ǫ cos β sin λ − sin ǫ sin β
.
cos β cos λ

(39)

tan α =

Figures 15 and 16 show all stars of visible magnitude < +6 lying within 15◦ of the ecliptic. Table 4
gives the ecliptic longitudes and latitudes and visible magnitudes of a selection of these stars which lie
within 10◦ of the ecliptic. The figures and table can be used to convert ecliptic longitude and latitude into
approximate position in the sky, relative to the backdrop of the fixed stars.

4.6

The Signs of the Zodiac

The signs of the zodiac are a well-known set of names given to 30◦ long segments of the ecliptic circle.
Thus, the sign of Aries extends over the range of ecliptic longitudes 0◦ –30◦ , the sign of Taurus over the
range 30◦ –60◦ , and so on. Note that, as a consequence of the precession of the equinoxes, the signs of the
zodiac no longer coincide with the constellations of the same name (see Fig. 15 and 16). The 12 zodiacal
signs are listed in the table below. It can be seen from the table that ecliptic longitude 72◦ corresponds to
the twelfth degree of Gemini, and ecliptic longitude 242◦ to the second degree of Sagittarius, etc.
26

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE
Sign
Aries
Taurus
Gemini
Cancer

4.7

Abbr.

Longitude

Sign

AR
TA
GE
CN

0◦ –30◦
30◦ –60◦
60◦ –90◦
90◦ –120◦

Leo
Virgo
Libra
Scorpio

Abbr.

Longitude

Sign

LE
VI
LI
SC

120◦ –150◦
150◦ –180◦
180◦ –210◦
210◦ –240◦

Sagittarius
Capricorn
Aquarius
Pisces

Abbr.

Longitude

SG
CP
AQ
PI

240◦ –270◦
270◦ –300◦
300◦ –330◦
330◦ –360◦

Ecliptic Declinations and Right Ascenesions.

According to Eqs. (38) and (39), the celestial coordinates of a point on the ecliptic circle (i.e., β = 0) which
has ecliptic longitude λ are specified by
sin δ = sin ǫ sin λ,

(40)

tan α = cos ǫ tan λ.

(41)

The above formulae have been employed to construct Tables 5 and 6, which list the declinations and right
ascensions of a set of equally spaced points on the ecliptic circle.

4.8

The Local Horizon and Meridian

Consider a general observation site X on the surface of the earth. (Note that, in the following, we shall
only consider sites in the earth’s northern hemisphere. However, the generalization to observation sites in
the southern hemisphere is straightforward.) The local zenith Z is the point on the celestial sphere which
is directly overhead at X, whereas the nadir Z ′ is the point which is directly underfoot—see Fig. 7. The
horizon is the tangent plane to the earth at X, and divides the celestial sphere into two halves. The upper
half, containing the zenith, is visible from site X, whereas the lower half is invisible.
Figure 8 shows the visible half of the celestial sphere at observation site X. Here, NESW is the local
horizon, and N, E, S, and W are the north, east, south, and west compass points, respectively. The plane
NPZS, which passes through the north and south compass points, as well as the zenith, is known as the
local meridian. The meridian is perpendicular to the horizon. The north celestial pole lies in the meridian
plane, and is elevated an angular distance L above the north compass point—see Figs. 7 and 8. Here, L is
the terrestrial latitude of observation site X. It is helpful to define the three local unit vectors: n, e, and
z. Here, n is directed toward the north compass point, e toward the east compass point, and z toward the
zenith—see Fig. 8.
Figure 9 shows the meridian plane at X. Let the line MM ′ lie in this plane such that it is perpendicular
to the celestial axis, PP ′ . Moreover, let M lie in the visible hemisphere. It is helpful to define the unit
vector m which is directed toward M, as shown in the diagram. It is easily seen that
n = cos L p − sin L m,

(42)

z = sin L p + cos L m.

(43)

Figure 10 shows the celestial equator viewed from observation site X. Here, α0 is the right ascension
of the celestial objects culminating (i.e., reaching their highest altitude in the sky) on the meridian at the
27

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

P
N

Z

L
X

axis

S

L

equator

Z′

P′

Figure 7: A general observation site X, of latitude L, on the surface of the earth. P, P ′ , Z, and Z ′ denote the
directions to the north celestial pole, south celestial pole, zenith, and nadir, respectively. The line NS represents
the local horizon.

Z
meridian

P
E

z
N

e

L
n

S
horizon

W

Figure 8: The local horizon and meridian. N, S, E, W denote the north. south, east, and west compass points,
Z the zenith, and P the north celestial pole. NESW is the horizon, and NPZS the meridian.

28

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

Z
M
P
p
L
n

N

z

m
S
P′

M′

Z′

Figure 9: The local meridian.

M
V
U

m
u

v
α0

E

e

W
U′

V′

M′

Figure 10: The local celestial equator.

29

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE
time of observation. Incidentally, it is easily demonstrated that all objects culminating on the meridian at
any instant in time have the same right ascension. Note that the angle α0 increases uniformly in time, at
the rate of 15◦ a (sidereal) hour, due to the diurnal motion of the celestial sphere. It can be seen from the
diagram that
m = sin α0 u + cos α0 v,

(44)

e = cos α0 u − sin α0 v.

(45)

n = − sin L cos α0 v − sin L sin α0 u + cos L p,

(46)

e = − sin α0 v + cos α0 u,

(47)

z = cos L cos α0 v + cos L sin α0 u + sin L p.

(48)

Thus, from Eqs. (42) and (43),

Similarly, from Eqs. (31) and (32),
n = − sin L cos α0 v + (cos L sin ǫ − sin L cos ǫ sin α0) s + (cos L cos ǫ + sin L sin ǫ sin α0) q, (49)

4.9

e = − sin α0 v + cos ǫ cos α0 s − sin ǫ cos α0 q,

(50)

z = cos L cos α0 v + (sin L sin ǫ + cos L cos ǫ sin α0) s + (sin L cos ǫ − cos L sin ǫ sin α0) q.

(51)

Horizontal Coordinates

It is convenient to specify the positions of celestial objects in the sky, when viewed from a particular
observation site, X, on the earth’s surface, using a pair of angular coordinates, a and A, which are measured
with respect to the local horizon. Let R denote a celestial object, and XR ′ the projection of the line XR
onto the horizontal plane, NESW—see Fig. 11. The coordinate a, which is known as altitude, is the
angle subtended between XR ′ and XR. Objects above the horizon have positive altitudes, whereas objects
below the horizon have negative altitudes. The zenith has altitude 90◦ , and the horizon altitude 0◦ . The
coordinate A, which is known as azimuth, is the angle subtended between XN and XR ′ . Azimuth increases
from the north towards the east. Thus, the north, east, south, and west compass points have azimuths of
0◦ , 90◦ , 180◦ , and 270◦ , respectively. Note that the unit vectors in the horizontal coordinate system are n,
e, and z, whereas the corresponding unit vectors in the celestial coordinate system are v, u, and p—see
Figs. 3 and 8. By analogy with Eqs. (26)—(28), we can write
r = cos a cos A n + cos a sin A e + sin a z,
sin a = r · z,  

r·e
,
tan A =
r·n

(52)
(53)
(54)

where r is a unit vector directed from X to R. Hence, it follows from Eqs. (26), and (46)–(48), that
sin a = sin L sin δ + cos L cos δ cos(α − α0),

(55)

cos δ sin(α − α0)
.
cos L sin δ − sin L cos δ cos(α − α0)

(56)

tan A =

30

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

Z
R
r
R′
N

E
a

A
X

S

W
Figure 11: Horizontal coordinates. R is a celestial object, and R ′ its projection onto the horizontal plane,
NESW.
These expressions allow us to calculate the altitude and azimuth of a celestial object of declination δ and
right ascension α which is viewed from an observation site on the earth’s surface of terrestrial latitude L at
an instant in time when celestial objects of right ascension α0 are culminating at the meridian. According
to Eqs. (33), and (49)–(51), the altitude and azimuth of a similarly viewed point on the ecliptic (i.e., β = 0)
of ecliptic longitude λ are given by
sin a = cos L cos λ cos α0 + sin L sin ǫ sin λ + cos L cos ǫ sin λ sin α0,
cos ǫ sin λ cos α0 − cos λ sin α0
.
tan A =
cos L sin ǫ sin λ − sin L cos λ cos α0 − sin L cos ǫ sin λ sin α0

4.10

(57)
(58)

Meridian Transits

Consider a celestial object, of declination δ and right ascension α, which is viewed from an observation site
on the earth’s surface of terrestrial latitude L. According to Eq. (55), the object culminates, or attains its
highest altitude in the sky, when α0 = α. This event is known as an upper transit. Furthermore, the object
attains its lowest altitude in the sky when α0 = 180◦ + α. This event is known as a lower transit. Both
upper and lower transits take place as the object in question passes through the meridian plane.
According to Eq. (55), the altitude of a celestial object at its upper transit satisfies sin a+ = cos(L − δ),
implying that
a+ = 90◦ − |L − δ|.
(59)
Likewise, the altitude at its lower transit satisfies sin a− = − cos(L + δ), giving
a− = |L + δ| − 90◦ .
31

(60)

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE
The previous two expressions allow us to group celestial objects into three classes. Objects with declinations in the range 90◦ ≥ δ > 90◦ − L never set: i.e., their lower transits lie above the horizon. Objects with
declinations in the range L − 90◦ > δ ≥ −90◦ never rise: i.e., their upper transits lie below the horizon.
Finally, objects with declinations in the range 90◦ − L ≥ δ ≥ L − 90◦ both rise and set during the course
of a day. It follows that all celestial objects appear to rise and set when viewed from an observation site
on the terrestrial equator (i.e., L = 0◦ ) . On the other hand, when viewed from an observation site at
the north pole (i.e., L = 90◦ ), objects north of the celestial equator never set, whilst objects south of the
celestial equator never rise. All three classes of celestial object are present when the sky is viewed from an
observation site on the earth’s surface of intermediate latitude.

4.11

Principal Terrestrial Latitude Circles

According to Eq. (40), the sun’s declination varies between −ǫ and +ǫ during the course of a year. It
follows from Eq. (59) that it is only possible for the sun to have an upper transit at the zenith in a region of
the earth whose latitude lies between −ǫ and ǫ. The circles of latitude bounding this region are known as
the tropics. Thus, the tropic of Capricorn—so-called because the sun is at the winter solstice, and, therefore,
in the first degree of Capricorn, when it culminates at the zenith at this latitude—lies at latitude −23◦ 26 ′ .
Moreover, the tropic of Cancer—so-called because the sun is at the summer solstice, and, therefore, in the
first degree of Cancer, when it culminates at the zenith at this latitude—lies at latitude +23◦ 26 ′ .
Equations (59) and (60) imply that the sun does not rise for part of the year, and does not set for part
of the year, in two regions of the earth whose terrestrial latitudes satisfy |L| > 90◦ − ǫ. These two regions
are bounded by the poles and two circles of latitude known as the arctic circles. The south arctic circle lies
at latitude −66◦ 34 ′ . Likewise, the north arctic circle lies at latitude +66◦ 34 ′ .
The equator, the two tropics, and the two arctic circles constitute the five principal latitude circles of the
earth, and are shown in Fig. 12.

4.12

Equinoxes and Solstices

The ecliptic longitude of the sun when it reaches the vernal equinox is λ = 0◦ . It follows, from Eq. (57),
that the altitude of the sun on the day of the equinox is given by sin a = cos L cos α0. Thus, the sun rises
when α0 = −90◦ , culminates at an altitude of 90◦ − L when α0 = 0◦ , and sets when α0 = 90◦ . We conclude
that the length of the equinoctial day is 180 time-degrees, which is equivalent to 12 hours (since 15◦ of
right ascension cross the meridian in one hour). Thus, day and night are equally long on the day of the
vernal equinox. It is easily demonstrated that the same is true on the day of the autumnal equinox.
The ecliptic longitude of the sun when it reaches the summer solstice is λ = 90◦ . It follows that the
altitude of the sun on the day of the solstice is given by sin a = sin L sin ǫ+ cos L cos ǫ sin α0. Thus, the sun
rises when α0 = − sin−1(tan L tan ǫ), culminates at an altitude of 90◦ −|L−ǫ| when α0 = 90◦ , and sets when
α0 = 180◦ +sin−1(tan L tan ǫ). We conclude that the length of the longest day of the year (which, of course,
occurs when the sun reaches the summer solstice) is 180 + 2 sin−1(tan L tan ǫ) time-degrees. Likewise, the
length of the shortest night (which also occurs at the summer solstice) is 180 − 2 sin−1(tan L tan ǫ) time32

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

N. Arctic Circle
Tropic of Cancer
Equator
Tropic of Capricorn

S. Arctic Circle

Figure 12: The principal latitude circles of the earth.
degrees. These formulae are only valid for latitudes below the arctic circles. At higher latitudes, the sun
never sets for part of the year, and the longest “day” is consequently longer than 24 hours. It is easily
demonstrated that the shortest day, which takes place when the sun reaches the winter solstice, is equal
to the shortest night, and the longest night (which also occurs at the winter solstice) to the longest day.
Moreover, the sun culminates at an altitude of 90◦ − |L + ǫ| on day of the winter solstice. Again, at latitudes
above the arctic circles, the sun never rises for part of the year, and the longest “night” is consequently
longer than 24 hours.
Consider an observation site on the earth’s surface of latitude L which lies above the northern arctic
circle. The declination of the sun on the first day after the spring equinox on which it fails to set is
δ = 90◦ − L. According to Eq. (40), its ecliptic longitude on this day is sin−1(cos L/ sin ǫ). Likewise, the
declination of the sun on the day when it starts to set again is δ = 90◦ − L, and its ecliptic longitude
is 180◦ − sin−1(cos L/ sin ǫ). Assuming that the sun travels around the ecliptic circle at a uniform rate
(which is approximately true), the fraction of a year that the sun stays above the horizon in summer is
0.5 − sin−1(cos L/ sin ǫ)/180◦ . It is easily demonstrated that the fraction of a year that the sun stays below
the horizon in winter is also 0.5 − sin−1(cos L/ sin ǫ)/180◦ .

4.13

Terrestrial Climes

Table 7 specifies the length of the longest day, as well as the altitude of the sun when it culminates at the
meridian on the days of the equinoxes and solstices, calculated for a set of observation sites in the northern
hemisphere with equally spaced terrestrial latitudes. This table was constructed using the formulae in the
previous subsection.

33

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

4.14

Ecliptic Ascensions

Consider the rising, or ascension, of celestial objects at the eastern horizon, as viewed from a particular
observation site on the earth’s surface. If the observation site lies on the terrestrial equator then all celestial
objects appear to ascend at right angles to the horizon. This process is known as right ascension. On the
other hand, if the observation site does not lie at the equator then celestial objects appear to ascend at an
oblique angle to the horizon. This process is known as oblique ascension. For the case of right ascension,
it is easily demonstrated that all celestial objects with the same celestial longitude ascend simultaneously.
Indeed, celestial longitude is generally known as “right ascension” because, in the case of right ascension,
the celestial longitude of an object (in hours) is simply the time elapsed between the ascension of the
vernal equinox, and the ascension of the object in question.
Let us now consider the ascension of points on the ecliptic. Applying Eq. (55) to a point on the celestial
equator (i.e., δ = 0) of right ascension α, we obtain
sin a = cos L cos(α − α0) = cos L sin(α0 − α + 90◦ ).

(61)

It follows that we can write
α0 = α − 90◦ ,

(62)

where α is the right ascension of the point on the celestial equator which ascends at the eastern horizon
(i.e., a = 0 and da/dt > 0) at the same time that celestial objects of right ascension α0 are culminating at
the meridian. Substituting this result into Eq. (57), we get
sin a = cos L cos λ sin α + sin L sin ǫ sin λ − cos L cos ǫ sin λ cos α,

(63)

which implies that if a = 0 and da/dt > 0 then
tan λ =

cos L sin α
.
cos L cos ǫ cos α − sin ǫ sin L

(64)

This expression specifies the ecliptic longitude, λ, of the point on the ecliptic circle which ascends simultaneously with a point on the celestial equator of right ascension α. Note, incidentally, that points on the
celestial equator ascend at a uniform rate of 15◦ an hour at all viewing sites on the earth’s surface (except
the poles, where the celestial equator does not ascend at all). The same is not true of points on the ecliptic.
Expression (64) can be inverted to give
α = tan

−1

(tan λ cos ǫ) − sin

−1

"

#

sin λ sin ǫ tan L
.
(1 − sin2 λ sin2 ǫ)1/2

(65)

The solution of Eq. (65) for observation sites lying above the arctic circle is complicated by the fact
that, at such sites, a section of the ecliptic never sets, or descends, and a section never ascends. It is easily
demonstrated that the section which never descends lies between ecliptic longitudes λc and 180◦ − λc,
whereas the section which never ascends lies between longitudes 180◦ + λc and 360◦ − λc. Here, λc =
sin−1(cos L/ sin ǫ). Points on the ecliptic of longitude λc, 180◦ − λc, 180◦ + λc, and 360◦ − λc ascend
simultaneously with points on the celestial equator of right ascension 360◦ − αc, αc, 360◦ − αc, and αc,
respectively. Here, αc = cos−1(1/ tan L tan ǫ).
34

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE
Tables 8–20 list the ascensions of a set of equally spaced points on the ecliptic circle, as viewed from
a set of observation sites in the earth’s northern hemisphere with different terrestrial latitudes. The tables
were calculated with the aid of formula (65). Let us now illustrate the use of these tables.
Consider a day on which the sun is at ecliptic longitude 14LE00 (i.e., 14◦ 00 ′ into the sign of Leo). What
is the length of the day (i.e., the period between sunrise and sunset) at an observation site on the earth’s
surface of latitude +30◦ ? Consulting Table 11, we find that the sun ascends simultaneously with a point on
the celestial equator of right ascension 126◦ 32 ′ . Now, the ecliptic is a great circle on the celestial sphere.
Hence, exactly half of the ecliptic is visible from any observation site on the earth’s surface. This implies
that when a given point on the ecliptic circle is ascending, the point directly opposite it on the circle is
descending, and vice versa. Let us term the directly opposite point the complimentary point. By definition,
the difference in ecliptic longitude between a given point on the ecliptic circle and its complementary point
is 180◦ . Thus, the complimentary point to 14LE00 is 14AQ00. It follows that 14AQ00 ascends at the same
time that 14LE00 descends. In other words, the sun sets when 14AQ00 ascends. Consulting Table 11, we
find that the sun sets at the same time that a point on the celestial equator of right ascension 326◦ 23 ′ rises.
Thus, in the time interval between the rising and setting of the sun a 326◦ 23 ′ − 126◦ 32 ′ = 199◦ 51 ′ section
of the celestial equator ascends at the eastern horizon. However, points on the celestial equator ascend at
the uniform rate of 15◦ an hour. Thus, the length, in hours, of the period between the rising and setting of
the sun is 199◦ 51 ′ /15◦ = 13h14m. In other words, the length of the day in question is 13h14m.
The above calculation is slightly inaccurate for a number of reasons. Firstly, it neglects the fact that the
sun is continuously moving on the ecliptic circle at the rate of about 1◦ a day. Secondly, it neglects the fact
that the celestial equator ascends at the rate of 15◦ per sidereal, rather than solar, hour. A sidereal hour
is 1/24th of a sidereal day, which is the time between successive upper transits of a fixed celestial object,
such as a star. On the other hand, a solar hour is 1/24th of a solar day, which is the mean time between
successive upper transits of the sun. A sidereal day is shorter than a solar day by 4 minutes. Fortunately, it
turns out that these first two inaccuracies largely cancel one another out. Another source of inaccuracy is
the fact that, due to refraction of light by the atmosphere, the sun is actually 1◦ below the horizon when
it appears to rise or set. The final source of inaccuracy is the fact that the sun has a finite angular extent
(of about half a degree), and that, strictly speaking, dawn and dusk commence when the sun’s upper limb
rises and sets, respectively. Of course, our calculation only deals with the rising and setting of the center
of the sun. All in all, the above mentioned inaccuracies can make the true length of a day differ from that
calculated from the ascension tables by up to 15 minutes.
The ascendent, or horoscope, is defined as the point on the ecliptic which is ascending at the eastern
horizon. Suppose that we wish to find the ascendent 2.6 hours after sunrise, as seen from an observation
site of latitude +55◦ , on a day on which the sun has ecliptic longitude 16SC00. Of course, knowledge of the
ascendent at the time of birth is key to drawing up a natal chart in astrology. Hence, this type of calculation
was of great importance to the ancients. Consulting Table 14, we find that, on the day in question, the
sun rises simultaneously with a point on the celestial equator of right ascension 248◦ 46 ′ . Now, 2.6 hours
corresponds to 39◦ 00 ′ . Thus, the ascendent rises simultaneously with a point on the celestial equator of
right ascension 248◦ 46 ′ + 39◦ 00 ′ = 287◦ 46 ′ . Consulting Table 14 again, we find that, to the nearest degree,
the ascendent at the time in question has ecliptic longitude 13SG00.
Suppose, next, that we wish to find the right ascension, α, of the point on the celestial equator which
culminates simultaneously with a given point on the ecliptic of ecliptic longitude λ. From Eq. (58), we can
35

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE
see that if A = 180◦ then tan A = 0, and tan λ cos ǫ = sin α, or
α = sin−1(tan λ cos ǫ).

(66)

However, this expression is identical to expression (65), when the latter is evaluated for the special case
L = 0◦ . It follows that our problem can be solved by consulting Table 8, which is the ascension table for the
case of right ascension. For instance, on a day on which the ecliptic longitude of the sun is 08TA00, we find
from Table 8 that the right ascension of the point on the celestial equator which culminates simultaneously
with the sun (i.e., which culminates at local noon) is 35◦ 38 ′ . Moreover, this is the case for observation sites
at all terrestrial latitudes. Note that we have effectively calculated the right ascension of the sun on the
day in question.
Suppose, finally, that we wish to find the point on the ecliptic which culminates 7 hours after local noon
on the aforementioned day. Since 7 hours corresponds to 105◦ , the right ascension of the point on the
celestial equator which culminates simultaneously with the point is question is 35◦ 38 ′ + 105◦ 00 ′ = 143◦ 38 ′ .
Consulting Table 8 again, we find that, to the nearest degree, the ecliptic longitude of the point in question
is 21LE00.

4.15

Azimuth of Ecliptic Ascension Point

Consider the azimuth of the point on the ecliptic circle which is ascending at the eastern horizon. According
to Eq. (52), the azimuth of any point on the horizon (i.e., a = 0◦ ) satisfies cos A = r · n. It follows from
Eqs. (33) and (49) that
cos A = − cos λ sin L sin α + sin λ cos L sin ǫ + sin λ sin L cos ǫ cos α.

(67)

Here, we have made use of the fact that the point in question also lies on the ecliptic (i.e., β = 0), as well
as the fact that α0 = α − 90◦ , where α is the right ascension of the simultaneously rising point on the
celestial equator. Here, λ is the ecliptic longitude of the point in question, and L the terrestrial latitude of
the observation site. Now, λ and α satisfy Eq. (64), as well as the above equation. Thus, eliminating α
between these two equations, we obtain
sin λ sin ǫ
.
(68)
cos L
This expression gives the azimuth, A, of the ascending point of the ecliptic as a function of its ecliptic
longitude, λ, and the latitude, L, of the observation site.
cos A =

For instance, suppose that we wish to find the azimuth of the point at which the sun rises on the eastern
horizon at an observation site of terrestrial latitude +60◦ , on a day on which the sun’s ecliptic longitude is
08PI00. It follows from Eq. (68) that A = cos−1[sin(338◦ ) sin(23◦ 26 ′ )/ cos(60◦ )] = 107◦ 20 ′ . We conclude
that the sun rises 17◦ 20 ′ to the south of the east compass point on the day in question.

4.16

Ecliptic Altitude and Orientation

Consider a point on the ecliptic of ecliptic longitude λ. We wish to determine the altitude of this point, as
well as the angle subtended there between the ecliptic and the vertical, t hours before it culminates at the
36

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

Z

D

µ
Y

S

C

B

E

Figure 13: Ecliptic altitude. SCBE is the southern horizon, with S and E the south and east compass points,
respectively. DYB is the ecliptic. ZDS the meridian, and Z the zenith. ZYC is an altitude circle.
meridian.
The situation is as shown in Fig. 13. Here, Y is the point in question, and ZYC an altitude circle (i.e.,
a great circle passing through the zenith) drawn through it. We wish to determine the altitude a ≡ CY
of point Y, as well as the angle µ ≡ ZYB. Note that the angle, µ, subtended between the ecliptic and an
altitude circle is always defined such that it lies to the east of the altitude circle, and to the north of the
ecliptic. We shall refer to µ as the parallactic angle. However, it should be noted that, according to the
modern definition, the parallactic angle is 90◦ − µ.
According to Eqs. (40) and (41), the declination and right ascension of point Y are given by
sin δ = sin ǫ sin λ,

(69)

tan α = cos ǫ tan λ,

(70)

respectively. We can also write α0 = α − t, where α0 is the right ascension of the point on the ecliptic which
is culminating (i.e., point D in the diagram), and t is measured in time-degrees. It follows from Eqs. (55)
and (56) that the altitude and azimuth of point Y are
sin a = sin L sin δ + cos L cos δ cos t,
cos δ sin t
,
tan A =
cos L sin δ − sin L cos δ cos t

(71)
(72)

respectively. According to Eq. (57), the ecliptic longitude, λh, of the intersection of the ecliptic and the
eastern horizon (i.e., point B in the diagram) is
tan λh =

− cos L cos(α − t)
.
cos L cos ǫ sin(α − t) + sin ǫ sin L
37

(73)

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

Z

µ

D

Y

E

B

C

N

Figure 14: Ecliptic altitude. NCBE is the northern horizon, with N and E the south and east compass points,
respectively. DYB is the ecliptic. ZDN the meridian, and Z the zenith. ZYC is an altitude circle.
It follows from Eq. (68) that the azimuth of this point is
sin λh sin ǫ
.
cos L

cos Ah =

(74)

Consider the right-angled spherical triangle YBC. According to a well-known theorem in spherical
trigonometry,
tan(CY) = tan(BY) cos(CYB),
(75)
where CY and CB are arcs, and CYB an angle. In fact, CY = a, BY = λh − λ, and CYB = 180◦ − µ. Hence,
cos µ = −

tan a
.
tan(λh − λ)

(76)

In the above analysis, we have tacitly assumed that the point on the ecliptic which is culiminating (i.e.,
point D) lies to the south of the zenith. The situation in which the point lies to the north of the zenith is
shown in Fig. 14. In this case, analysis of spherical triangle YBC yields
cos µ =

tan a
.
tan(λh − λ)

(77)

As is easily demonstrated, the point on the ecliptic which is culminating lies to the south of the zenith
whenever A − Ah > 0, and to the north whenever A − Ah < 0.
For times after the culmination of point X—i.e., for t < 0—the above formulae remain valid, except that
the point on the ecliptic which is culminating now lies to the south of the zenith whenever Ah−A+180◦ > 0,
and to the north whenever Ah − A + 180◦ < 0.
38

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE
According to Eq. (71), the critical value of t at which point Y reaches the horizon is given by
cos th = − tan L tan δ.

(78)

Of course, the above equation is only soluble if | tan L tan δ| < 1. However, it is easily demonstrated that if
tan L tan δ < −1 then point Y never sets, whereas if tan L tan δ > 1 then point Y never rises.
Tables 21–29 show the altitudes of twelve equally spaced points on the ecliptic, as well as the parallactic
angle at these points, as functions of time, calculated for a series of observation sites in the northern
hemisphere with equally spaced terrestrial latitudes. The twelve points correspond to the start of the twelve
zodiacal signs, and are named accordingly. Thus, “Aries” corresponds to ecliptic longitude 0◦ , “Taurus” to
ecliptic longitude 30◦ , etc. For each point, four columns of data are provided. The first column corresponds
to the time (in hours and minutes) either before or after the culmination of the point, the second column
gives the altitude of the point (which is the same in both cases), the third column gives the parallactic
angle, µ, for the case in which the first column indicates time prior to the culmination of the point, and the
fourth column gives the parallactic angle for the opposite case. The symbol N indicates that the ecliptic
crosses the meridian to the north of the zenith. Data is only provided for cases in which the various points
on the ecliptic lie on or above the horizon.

39

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

Virgo

Leo

Cancer

10

0

-10
180

170

160

150

140

Geminii

130

120

110

Taurus

100

90

10

0

Aries

10

0

-10
90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

Figure 15: Map showing all stars of visual magnitude < +6 lying within 15◦ of the ecliptic plane. (a)

40

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

Pisces

Aquarius

Capricorn

10

0

-10
360

350

340

330

320

Saggitarius

310

300

290

Scorpio

280

270

190

180

Libra

10

0

-10
270

260

250

240

230

220

210

200

Figure 16: Map showing all stars of visual magnitude < +6 lying within 15◦ of the ecliptic plane. (b)

41

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

Aries
λ

Mag.

Name

λ

+2.8
+3.6

γ PEG
η PSC

04 50
10◦ 08 ′
11◦ 28 ′
22◦ 08 ′
23◦ 51 ′

Taurus
Mag.

Name

+2.6
+2.0

β ARI
α ARI

15 5
19◦ 22 ′

Gemini
β
Mag.

Name

λ

+2.9
+0.9
+1.7

η TAU
α TAU
β TAU

02 34
02◦ 56 ′
03◦ 11 ′
07◦ 48 ′
09◦ 46 ′
11◦ 27 ′
17◦ 58 ′

Cancer
β
Mag.

Name

λ

β

09 09
26◦ 49 ′

+12 36
+5◦ 23 ′

λ

β

03 58
07◦ 39 ′

λ

00 00
09◦ 47 ′
22◦ 34 ′

λ

+8 29
+9◦ 58 ′

+4 03
−5◦ 28 ′
+5◦ 23 ′

05 18
09◦ 06 ′
09◦ 56 ′
20◦ 14 ′
23◦ 13 ′

− 0 49
− 6◦ 44 ′
+ 2◦ 04 ′
+10◦ 06 ′
+ 6◦ 41 ′

λ

β

β

20 47
29◦ 37 ′
29◦ 50 ′

+9 43
+8◦ 49 ′
+0◦ 28 ′

λ

β

06 23
13◦ 25 ′
17◦ 34 ′
27◦ 10 ′

+0 09
+9◦ 40 ′
+6◦ 06 ′
+0◦ 42 ′

λ

Scorpio
β
Mag.

Name

◦ ′

+2.8
+2.6

α LIB
β LIB

Saggitarius
β
Mag.

Name

+0 20
+8◦ 30 ′

+2.3
+2.9
+2.6
+2.9
+1.0
+2.8
+2.4

δ SCO
π SCO
β SCO
σ SCO
α SCO
τ SCO
η OPH

Capricorn
β
Mag.

Name

−1 59
−5◦ 29 ′
+1◦ 00 ′
−4◦ 02 ′
−4◦ 34 ′
−6◦ 08 ′
+7◦ 12 ′

+2.9
+1.9
+3.0
+2.0
+1.1

µ GEM
γ GEM
ǫ GEM
α GEM
β GEM

01 16
04◦ 34 ′
06◦ 19 ′
12◦ 23 ′
13◦ 38 ′
16◦ 15 ′

Mag.

Name

λ

+3.0
+2.6
+1.4

ǫ LEO
γ LEO
α LEO

23 24
23◦ 33 ′

+8 37
−2◦ 36 ′

Mag.

Name

λ

β

ρ LEO
θ LEO
ι LEO
β VIR

+3.9
+3.3
+3.9
+3.6

Name
η VIR
γ VIR
δ VIR
ζ VIR
α VIR

+1 22
+2◦ 46 ′
+8◦ 37 ′
+8◦ 38 ′
−2◦ 03 ′

+3.0
+2.7
+2.8
+2.0
+2.6
+2.9

γ SGR
δ SGR
λ SGR
σ SGR
ζ SGR
π SGR

Aquarius
β
Mag.

Name

−7 00
−6◦ 28 ′
−2◦ 08 ′
−3◦ 27 ′
−7◦ 11 ′
+1◦ 26 ′

Virgo

+3.9
+3.5
+3.4
+3.4
+1.0

Leo

Libra
Mag.

06 43
08◦ 52 ′
11◦ 34 ′
21◦ 27 ′

+2.9
+2.9

β AQR
δ CAP

Pisces
Mag.

Name

+8 14
−8◦ 12 ′
−0◦ 23 ′
+7◦ 15 ′

+3.8
+3.3
+3.7
+3.7

γ AQR
δ AQR
λ AQR
γ PSC

Table 4: Ecliptic longitudes and latitudes and visual magnitudes of selected bright stars lying within 10◦ of the
ecliptic plane.

42

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

Aries
δ

λ

Taurus
δ

Gemini
δ

α

λ

α

λ

00◦

+00◦ 00 ′

000◦ 00 ′

00◦

+11◦ 28 ′

027◦ 55 ′

00◦

+20◦ 09 ′

02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

+00◦ 48 ′
+01◦ 35 ′
+02◦ 23 ′
+03◦ 10 ′
+03◦ 58 ′
+04◦ 45 ′
+05◦ 31 ′
+06◦ 18 ′
+07◦ 04 ′
+07◦ 49 ′
+08◦ 34 ′
+09◦ 19 ′
+10◦ 02 ′
+10◦ 46 ′
+11◦ 28 ′

001◦ 50 ′
003◦ 40 ′
005◦ 30 ′
007◦ 21 ′
009◦ 11 ′
011◦ 02 ′
012◦ 53 ′
014◦ 44 ′
016◦ 36 ′
018◦ 28 ′
020◦ 20 ′
022◦ 13 ′
024◦ 07 ′
026◦ 00 ′
027◦ 55 ′

02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

+12◦ 10 ′
+12◦ 51 ′
+13◦ 31 ′
+14◦ 10 ′
+14◦ 49 ′
+15◦ 26 ′
+16◦ 02 ′
+16◦ 37 ′
+17◦ 11 ′
+17◦ 44 ′
+18◦ 16 ′
+18◦ 46 ′
+19◦ 15 ′
+19◦ 43 ′
+20◦ 09 ′

029◦ 50 ′
031◦ 45 ′
033◦ 41 ′
035◦ 38 ′
037◦ 36 ′
039◦ 34 ′
041◦ 33 ′
043◦ 32 ′
045◦ 32 ′
047◦ 33 ′
049◦ 35 ′
051◦ 38 ′
053◦ 41 ′
055◦ 45 ′
057◦ 49 ′

02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

+20◦ 33 ′
+20◦ 57 ′
+21◦ 18 ′
+21◦ 38 ′
+21◦ 57 ′
+22◦ 13 ′
+22◦ 28 ′
+22◦ 42 ′
+22◦ 54 ′
+23◦ 03 ′
+23◦ 12 ′
+23◦ 18 ′
+23◦ 22 ′
+23◦ 25 ′
+23◦ 26 ′

α

λ

α

λ

Cancer
δ

λ

Leo
δ

Virgo
δ

00◦

+23◦ 26 ′

090◦ 00 ′

00◦

+20◦ 09 ′

122◦ 11 ′

00◦

+11◦ 28 ′

02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

+23◦ 25 ′
+23◦ 22 ′
+23◦ 18 ′
+23◦ 12 ′
+23◦ 03 ′
+22◦ 54 ′
+22◦ 42 ′
+22◦ 28 ′
+22◦ 13 ′
+21◦ 57 ′
+21◦ 38 ′
+21◦ 18 ′
+20◦ 57 ′
+20◦ 33 ′
+20◦ 09 ′

092◦ 11 ′
094◦ 21 ′
096◦ 32 ′
098◦ 43 ′
100◦ 53 ′
103◦ 03 ′
105◦ 12 ′
107◦ 21 ′
109◦ 30 ′
111◦ 38 ′
113◦ 46 ′
115◦ 53 ′
117◦ 60 ′
120◦ 06 ′
122◦ 11 ′

02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

+19◦ 43 ′
+19◦ 15 ′
+18◦ 46 ′
+18◦ 16 ′
+17◦ 44 ′
+17◦ 11 ′
+16◦ 37 ′
+16◦ 02 ′
+15◦ 26 ′
+14◦ 49 ′
+14◦ 10 ′
+13◦ 31 ′
+12◦ 51 ′
+12◦ 10 ′
+11◦ 28 ′

124◦ 15 ′
126◦ 19 ′
128◦ 22 ′
130◦ 25 ′
132◦ 27 ′
134◦ 28 ′
136◦ 28 ′
138◦ 27 ′
140◦ 26 ′
142◦ 24 ′
144◦ 22 ′
146◦ 19 ′
148◦ 15 ′
150◦ 10 ′
152◦ 05 ′

02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

+10◦ 46 ′
+10◦ 02 ′
+09◦ 19 ′
+08◦ 34 ′
+07◦ 49 ′
+07◦ 04 ′
+06◦ 18 ′
+05◦ 31 ′
+04◦ 45 ′
+03◦ 58 ′
+03◦ 10 ′
+02◦ 23 ′
+01◦ 35 ′
+00◦ 48 ′
+00◦ 00 ′

α
057◦ 49 ′
059◦ 54 ′
062◦ 00 ′
064◦ 07 ′
066◦ 14 ′
068◦ 22 ′
070◦ 30 ′
072◦ 39 ′
074◦ 48 ′
076◦ 57 ′
079◦ 07 ′
081◦ 17 ′
083◦ 28 ′
085◦ 39 ′
087◦ 49 ′
090◦ 00 ′

α
152◦ 05 ′
153◦ 60 ′
155◦ 53 ′
157◦ 47 ′
159◦ 40 ′
161◦ 32 ′
163◦ 24 ′
165◦ 16 ′
167◦ 07 ′
168◦ 58 ′
170◦ 49 ′
172◦ 39 ′
174◦ 30 ′
176◦ 20 ′
178◦ 10 ′
180◦ 00 ′

Table 5: Declinations and right ascensions of points on the ecliptic circle (a).

43

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

λ

Libra
δ

Scorpio
δ

α

λ

α

λ

00◦

-00◦ 00 ′

180◦ 00 ′

00◦

-11◦ 28 ′

207◦ 55 ′

02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

-00◦ 48 ′
-01◦ 35 ′
-02◦ 23 ′
-03◦ 10 ′
-03◦ 58 ′
-04◦ 45 ′
-05◦ 31 ′
-06◦ 18 ′
-07◦ 04 ′
-07◦ 49 ′
-08◦ 34 ′
-09◦ 19 ′
-10◦ 02 ′
-10◦ 46 ′
-11◦ 28 ′

181◦ 50 ′
183◦ 40 ′
185◦ 30 ′
187◦ 21 ′
189◦ 11 ′
191◦ 02 ′
192◦ 53 ′
194◦ 44 ′
196◦ 36 ′
198◦ 28 ′
200◦ 20 ′
202◦ 13 ′
204◦ 07 ′
206◦ 00 ′
207◦ 55 ′

02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

-12◦ 10 ′
-12◦ 51 ′
-13◦ 31 ′
-14◦ 10 ′
-14◦ 49 ′
-15◦ 26 ′
-16◦ 02 ′
-16◦ 37 ′
-17◦ 11 ′
-17◦ 44 ′
-18◦ 16 ′
-18◦ 46 ′
-19◦ 15 ′
-19◦ 43 ′
-20◦ 09 ′

209◦ 50 ′
211◦ 45 ′
213◦ 41 ′
215◦ 38 ′
217◦ 36 ′
219◦ 34 ′
221◦ 33 ′
223◦ 32 ′
225◦ 32 ′
227◦ 33 ′
229◦ 35 ′
231◦ 38 ′
233◦ 41 ′
235◦ 45 ′
237◦ 49 ′

00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

λ

Capricorn
δ

α

λ

Aquarius
δ

α

λ

Saggitarius
δ
α
-20◦ 09 ′
-20◦ 33 ′
-20◦ 57 ′
-21◦ 18 ′
-21◦ 38 ′
-21◦ 57 ′
-22◦ 13 ′
-22◦ 28 ′
-22◦ 42 ′
-22◦ 54 ′
-23◦ 03 ′
-23◦ 12 ′
-23◦ 18 ′
-23◦ 22 ′
-23◦ 25 ′
-23◦ 26 ′
Pisces
δ

00◦

-23◦ 26 ′

270◦ 00 ′

00◦

-20◦ 09 ′

302◦ 11 ′

00◦

-11◦ 28 ′

02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

-23◦ 25 ′
-23◦ 22 ′
-23◦ 18 ′
-23◦ 12 ′
-23◦ 03 ′
-22◦ 54 ′
-22◦ 42 ′
-22◦ 28 ′
-22◦ 13 ′
-21◦ 57 ′
-21◦ 38 ′
-21◦ 18 ′
-20◦ 57 ′
-20◦ 33 ′
-20◦ 09 ′

272◦ 11 ′
274◦ 21 ′
276◦ 32 ′
278◦ 43 ′
280◦ 53 ′
283◦ 03 ′
285◦ 12 ′
287◦ 21 ′
289◦ 30 ′
291◦ 38 ′
293◦ 46 ′
295◦ 53 ′
297◦ 60 ′
300◦ 06 ′
302◦ 11 ′

02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

-19◦ 43 ′
-19◦ 15 ′
-18◦ 46 ′
-18◦ 16 ′
-17◦ 44 ′
-17◦ 11 ′
-16◦ 37 ′
-16◦ 02 ′
-15◦ 26 ′
-14◦ 49 ′
-14◦ 10 ′
-13◦ 31 ′
-12◦ 51 ′
-12◦ 10 ′
-11◦ 28 ′

304◦ 15 ′
306◦ 19 ′
308◦ 22 ′
310◦ 25 ′
312◦ 27 ′
314◦ 28 ′
316◦ 28 ′
318◦ 27 ′
320◦ 26 ′
322◦ 24 ′
324◦ 22 ′
326◦ 19 ′
328◦ 15 ′
330◦ 10 ′
332◦ 05 ′

02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

-10◦ 46 ′
-10◦ 02 ′
-09◦ 19 ′
-08◦ 34 ′
-07◦ 49 ′
-07◦ 04 ′
-06◦ 18 ′
-05◦ 31 ′
-04◦ 45 ′
-03◦ 58 ′
-03◦ 10 ′
-02◦ 23 ′
-01◦ 35 ′
-00◦ 48 ′
-00◦ 00 ′

237◦ 49 ′
239◦ 54 ′
242◦ 00 ′
244◦ 07 ′
246◦ 14 ′
248◦ 22 ′
250◦ 30 ′
252◦ 39 ′
254◦ 48 ′
256◦ 57 ′
259◦ 07 ′
261◦ 17 ′
263◦ 28 ′
265◦ 39 ′
267◦ 49 ′
270◦ 00 ′

α
332◦ 05 ′
333◦ 60 ′
335◦ 53 ′
337◦ 47 ′
339◦ 40 ′
341◦ 32 ′
343◦ 24 ′
345◦ 16 ′
347◦ 07 ′
348◦ 58 ′
350◦ 49 ′
352◦ 39 ′
354◦ 30 ′
356◦ 20 ′
358◦ 10 ′
360◦ 00 ′

Table 6: Declinations and right ascensions of points on the ecliptic circle (b).

44

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

Latitude

Longest Day

Summer Solstice Noon
Altitude of Sun

Equinoctial Noon
Altitude of Sun

Winter Solstice Noon
Altitude of Sun

+00◦
+05◦
+10◦
+15◦
+20◦
+25◦
+30◦
+35◦
+40◦
+45◦
+50◦
+55◦
+60◦
+65◦
+70◦
+75◦
+80◦
+85◦
+90◦

12h00m
12h17m
12h35m
12h53m
13h13m
13h33m
13h56m
14h21m
14h51m
15h25m
16h09m
17h06m
18h29m
21h07m
61d06h
100d06h
130d02h
156d22h
182d15h

+66◦ 34 ′ N
+71◦ 34 ′ N
+76◦ 34 ′ N
+81◦ 34 ′ N
+86◦ 34 ′ N
+88◦ 26 ′ N
+83◦ 26 ′
+78◦ 26 ′
+73◦ 26 ′
+68◦ 26 ′
+63◦ 26 ′
+58◦ 26 ′
+53◦ 26 ′
+48◦ 26 ′
+43◦ 26 ′
+38◦ 26 ′
+33◦ 26 ′
+28◦ 26 ′
+23◦ 26 ′

+90◦ 00 ′
+85◦ 00 ′
+80◦ 00 ′
+75◦ 00 ′
+70◦ 00 ′
+65◦ 00 ′
+60◦ 00 ′
+55◦ 00 ′
+50◦ 00 ′
+45◦ 00 ′
+40◦ 00 ′
+35◦ 00 ′
+30◦ 00 ′
+25◦ 00 ′
+20◦ 00 ′
+15◦ 00 ′
+10◦ 00 ′
+05◦ 00 ′
+00◦ 00 ′

+66◦ 34 ′
+61◦ 34 ′
+56◦ 34 ′
+51◦ 34 ′
+46◦ 34 ′
+41◦ 34 ′
+36◦ 34 ′
+31◦ 34 ′
+26◦ 34 ′
+21◦ 34 ′
+16◦ 34 ′
+11◦ 34 ′
+06◦ 34 ′
+01◦ 34 ′
−03◦ 26 ′
−08◦ 26 ′
−13◦ 26 ′
−18◦ 26 ′
−23◦ 26 ′

Table 7: Terrestrial climes in the northern hemisphere. The superscripts h, m, and d stand for hours, minutes,
and days, respectively. The symbol N indicated that the upper transit of the sun occurs to the north of the
zenith.

45

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Aries
α
000◦ 00 ′
001◦ 50 ′
003◦ 40 ′
005◦ 30 ′
007◦ 21 ′
009◦ 11 ′
011◦ 02 ′
012◦ 53 ′
014◦ 44 ′
016◦ 36 ′
018◦ 28 ′
020◦ 20 ′
022◦ 13 ′
024◦ 07 ′
026◦ 00 ′
027◦ 55 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Taurus
α
027◦ 55 ′
029◦ 50 ′
031◦ 45 ′
033◦ 41 ′
035◦ 38 ′
037◦ 36 ′
039◦ 34 ′
041◦ 33 ′
043◦ 32 ′
045◦ 32 ′
047◦ 33 ′
049◦ 35 ′
051◦ 38 ′
053◦ 41 ′
055◦ 45 ′
057◦ 49 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Libra
α
180◦ 00 ′
181◦ 50 ′
183◦ 40 ′
185◦ 30 ′
187◦ 21 ′
189◦ 11 ′
191◦ 02 ′
192◦ 53 ′
194◦ 44 ′
196◦ 36 ′
198◦ 28 ′
200◦ 20 ′
202◦ 13 ′
204◦ 07 ′
206◦ 00 ′
207◦ 55 ′

Scorpio
λ
α

00
207◦ 55 ′

02
209◦ 50 ′

04
211◦ 45 ′

06
213◦ 41 ′

08
215◦ 38 ′

10
217◦ 36 ′

12
219◦ 34 ′

14
221◦ 33 ′

16
223◦ 32 ′

18
225◦ 32 ′

20
227◦ 33 ′

22
229◦ 35 ′

24
231◦ 38 ′

26
233◦ 41 ′

28
235◦ 45 ′

30
237◦ 49 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Gemini
α
057◦ 49 ′
059◦ 54 ′
062◦ 00 ′
064◦ 07 ′
066◦ 14 ′
068◦ 22 ′
070◦ 30 ′
072◦ 39 ′
074◦ 48 ′
076◦ 57 ′
079◦ 07 ′
081◦ 17 ′
083◦ 28 ′
085◦ 39 ′
087◦ 49 ′
090◦ 00 ′

Sagittarius
λ
α

00
237◦ 49 ′

02
239◦ 54 ′

04
242◦ 00 ′

06
244◦ 07 ′

08
246◦ 14 ′

10
248◦ 22 ′

12
250◦ 30 ′

14
252◦ 39 ′

16
254◦ 48 ′

18
256◦ 57 ′

20
259◦ 07 ′

22
261◦ 17 ′

24
263◦ 28 ′

26
265◦ 39 ′

28
267◦ 49 ′

30
270◦ 00 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Cancer
α
090◦ 00 ′
092◦ 11 ′
094◦ 21 ′
096◦ 32 ′
098◦ 43 ′
100◦ 53 ′
103◦ 03 ′
105◦ 12 ′
107◦ 21 ′
109◦ 30 ′
111◦ 38 ′
113◦ 46 ′
115◦ 53 ′
117◦ 60 ′
120◦ 06 ′
122◦ 11 ′

Capricorn
λ
α

00
270◦ 00 ′

02
272◦ 11 ′

04
274◦ 21 ′

06
276◦ 32 ′

08
278◦ 43 ′

10
280◦ 53 ′

12
283◦ 03 ′

14
285◦ 12 ′

16
287◦ 21 ′

18
289◦ 30 ′

20
291◦ 38 ′

22
293◦ 46 ′

24
295◦ 53 ′

26
297◦ 60 ′

28
300◦ 06 ′

30
302◦ 11 ′

Leo
α
122◦ 11 ′
124◦ 15 ′
126◦ 19 ′
128◦ 22 ′
130◦ 25 ′
132◦ 27 ′
134◦ 28 ′
136◦ 28 ′
138◦ 27 ′
140◦ 26 ′
142◦ 24 ′
144◦ 22 ′
146◦ 19 ′
148◦ 15 ′
150◦ 10 ′
152◦ 05 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Virgo
α
152◦ 05 ′
153◦ 60 ′
155◦ 53 ′
157◦ 47 ′
159◦ 40 ′
161◦ 32 ′
163◦ 24 ′
165◦ 16 ′
167◦ 07 ′
168◦ 58 ′
170◦ 49 ′
172◦ 39 ′
174◦ 30 ′
176◦ 20 ′
178◦ 10 ′
180◦ 00 ′

Aquarius
λ
α

00
302◦ 11 ′

02
304◦ 15 ′

04
306◦ 19 ′

06
308◦ 22 ′

08
310◦ 25 ′

10
312◦ 27 ′

12
314◦ 28 ′

14
316◦ 28 ′

16
318◦ 27 ′

18
320◦ 26 ′

20
322◦ 24 ′

22
324◦ 22 ′

24
326◦ 19 ′

26
328◦ 15 ′

28
330◦ 10 ′

30
332◦ 05 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Pisces
α
332◦ 05 ′
333◦ 60 ′
335◦ 53 ′
337◦ 47 ′
339◦ 40 ′
341◦ 32 ′
343◦ 24 ′
345◦ 16 ′
347◦ 07 ′
348◦ 58 ′
350◦ 49 ′
352◦ 39 ′
354◦ 30 ′
356◦ 20 ′
358◦ 10 ′
360◦ 00 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Table 8: Right ascensions of the ecliptic for latitude 0◦ .

46

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Aries
α
000◦ 00 ′
001◦ 42 ′
003◦ 23 ′
005◦ 05 ′
006◦ 47 ′
008◦ 29 ′
010◦ 12 ′
011◦ 55 ′
013◦ 38 ′
015◦ 21 ′
017◦ 05 ′
018◦ 49 ′
020◦ 34 ′
022◦ 19 ′
024◦ 05 ′
025◦ 52 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Taurus
α
025◦ 52 ′
027◦ 39 ′
029◦ 27 ′
031◦ 16 ′
033◦ 05 ′
034◦ 55 ′
036◦ 46 ′
038◦ 38 ′
040◦ 31 ′
042◦ 25 ′
044◦ 19 ′
046◦ 15 ′
048◦ 11 ′
050◦ 09 ′
052◦ 07 ′
054◦ 07 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Libra
α
180◦ 00 ′
181◦ 59 ′
183◦ 57 ′
185◦ 56 ′
187◦ 54 ′
189◦ 53 ′
191◦ 52 ′
193◦ 52 ′
195◦ 51 ′
197◦ 51 ′
199◦ 51 ′
201◦ 52 ′
203◦ 53 ′
205◦ 54 ′
207◦ 56 ′
209◦ 58 ′

Scorpio
λ
α

00
209◦ 58 ′

02
212◦ 00 ′

04
214◦ 03 ′

06
216◦ 07 ′

08
218◦ 11 ′

10
220◦ 16 ′

12
222◦ 21 ′

14
224◦ 27 ′

16
226◦ 33 ′

18
228◦ 40 ′

20
230◦ 47 ′

22
232◦ 55 ′

24
235◦ 04 ′

26
237◦ 13 ′

28
239◦ 22 ′

30
241◦ 32 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Gemini
α
054◦ 07 ′
056◦ 07 ′
058◦ 08 ′
060◦ 10 ′
062◦ 13 ′
064◦ 17 ′
066◦ 22 ′
068◦ 28 ′
070◦ 34 ′
072◦ 41 ′
074◦ 49 ′
076◦ 58 ′
079◦ 07 ′
081◦ 16 ′
083◦ 26 ′
085◦ 37 ′

Sagittarius
λ
α

00
241◦ 32 ′

02
243◦ 42 ′

04
245◦ 53 ′

06
248◦ 03 ′

08
250◦ 15 ′

10
252◦ 26 ′

12
254◦ 38 ′

14
256◦ 50 ′

16
259◦ 02 ′

18
261◦ 14 ′

20
263◦ 26 ′

22
265◦ 37 ′

24
267◦ 49 ′

26
270◦ 01 ′

28
272◦ 12 ′

30
274◦ 23 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Cancer
α
085◦ 37 ′
087◦ 48 ′
089◦ 59 ′
092◦ 11 ′
094◦ 23 ′
096◦ 34 ′
098◦ 46 ′
100◦ 58 ′
103◦ 10 ′
105◦ 22 ′
107◦ 34 ′
109◦ 45 ′
111◦ 57 ′
114◦ 07 ′
116◦ 18 ′
118◦ 28 ′

Capricorn
λ
α

00
274◦ 23 ′

02
276◦ 34 ′

04
278◦ 44 ′

06
280◦ 53 ′

08
283◦ 02 ′

10
285◦ 11 ′

12
287◦ 19 ′

14
289◦ 26 ′

16
291◦ 32 ′

18
293◦ 38 ′

20
295◦ 43 ′

22
297◦ 47 ′

24
299◦ 50 ′

26
301◦ 52 ′

28
303◦ 53 ′

30
305◦ 53 ′

Leo
α
118◦ 28 ′
120◦ 38 ′
122◦ 47 ′
124◦ 56 ′
127◦ 05 ′
129◦ 13 ′
131◦ 20 ′
133◦ 27 ′
135◦ 33 ′
137◦ 39 ′
139◦ 44 ′
141◦ 49 ′
143◦ 53 ′
145◦ 57 ′
148◦ 00 ′
150◦ 02 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Virgo
α
150◦ 02 ′
152◦ 04 ′
154◦ 06 ′
156◦ 07 ′
158◦ 08 ′
160◦ 09 ′
162◦ 09 ′
164◦ 09 ′
166◦ 08 ′
168◦ 08 ′
170◦ 07 ′
172◦ 06 ′
174◦ 04 ′
176◦ 03 ′
178◦ 01 ′
180◦ 00 ′

Aquarius
λ
α

00
305◦ 53 ′

02
307◦ 53 ′

04
309◦ 51 ′

06
311◦ 49 ′

08
313◦ 45 ′

10
315◦ 41 ′

12
317◦ 35 ′

14
319◦ 29 ′

16
321◦ 22 ′

18
323◦ 14 ′

20
325◦ 05 ′

22
326◦ 55 ′

24
328◦ 44 ′

26
330◦ 33 ′

28
332◦ 21 ′

30
334◦ 08 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Pisces
α
334◦ 08 ′
335◦ 55 ′
337◦ 41 ′
339◦ 26 ′
341◦ 11 ′
342◦ 55 ′
344◦ 39 ′
346◦ 22 ′
348◦ 05 ′
349◦ 48 ′
351◦ 31 ′
353◦ 13 ′
354◦ 55 ′
356◦ 37 ′
358◦ 18 ′
360◦ 00 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Table 9: Oblique ascensions of the ecliptic for latitude +10◦ .

47

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Aries
α
000◦ 00 ′
001◦ 33 ′
003◦ 06 ′
004◦ 38 ′
006◦ 12 ′
007◦ 45 ′
009◦ 18 ′
010◦ 52 ′
012◦ 26 ′
014◦ 01 ′
015◦ 36 ′
017◦ 12 ′
018◦ 48 ′
020◦ 25 ′
022◦ 02 ′
023◦ 41 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Taurus
α
023◦ 41 ′
025◦ 20 ′
026◦ 59 ′
028◦ 40 ′
030◦ 22 ′
032◦ 04 ′
033◦ 48 ′
035◦ 32 ′
037◦ 18 ′
039◦ 04 ′
040◦ 52 ′
042◦ 41 ′
044◦ 31 ′
046◦ 23 ′
048◦ 15 ′
050◦ 09 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Libra
α
180◦ 00 ′
182◦ 07 ′
184◦ 15 ′
186◦ 23 ′
188◦ 30 ′
190◦ 38 ′
192◦ 46 ′
194◦ 54 ′
197◦ 02 ′
199◦ 11 ′
201◦ 20 ′
203◦ 29 ′
205◦ 38 ′
207◦ 48 ′
209◦ 58 ′
212◦ 09 ′

Scorpio
λ
α

00
212◦ 09 ′

02
214◦ 20 ′

04
216◦ 31 ′

06
218◦ 42 ′

08
220◦ 54 ′

10
223◦ 07 ′

12
225◦ 20 ′

14
227◦ 33 ′

16
229◦ 46 ′

18
232◦ 00 ′

20
234◦ 14 ′

22
236◦ 29 ′

24
238◦ 44 ′

26
240◦ 59 ′

28
243◦ 14 ′

30
245◦ 30 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Gemini
α
050◦ 09 ′
052◦ 04 ′
054◦ 00 ′
055◦ 57 ′
057◦ 56 ′
059◦ 56 ′
061◦ 57 ′
063◦ 59 ′
066◦ 02 ′
068◦ 07 ′
070◦ 13 ′
072◦ 19 ′
074◦ 27 ′
076◦ 35 ′
078◦ 45 ′
080◦ 55 ′

Sagittarius
λ
α

00
245◦ 30 ′

02
247◦ 45 ′

04
250◦ 01 ′

06
252◦ 16 ′

08
254◦ 32 ′

10
256◦ 48 ′

12
259◦ 03 ′

14
261◦ 18 ′

16
263◦ 33 ′

18
265◦ 48 ′

20
268◦ 02 ′

22
270◦ 16 ′

24
272◦ 29 ′

26
274◦ 42 ′

28
276◦ 53 ′

30
279◦ 05 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Cancer
α
080◦ 55 ′
083◦ 07 ′
085◦ 18 ′
087◦ 31 ′
089◦ 44 ′
091◦ 58 ′
094◦ 12 ′
096◦ 27 ′
098◦ 42 ′
100◦ 57 ′
103◦ 12 ′
105◦ 28 ′
107◦ 44 ′
109◦ 59 ′
112◦ 15 ′
114◦ 30 ′

Capricorn
λ
α

00
279◦ 05 ′

02
281◦ 15 ′

04
283◦ 25 ′

06
285◦ 33 ′

08
287◦ 41 ′

10
289◦ 47 ′

12
291◦ 53 ′

14
293◦ 58 ′

16
296◦ 01 ′

18
298◦ 03 ′

20
300◦ 04 ′

22
302◦ 04 ′

24
304◦ 03 ′

26
306◦ 00 ′

28
307◦ 56 ′

30
309◦ 51 ′

Leo
α
114◦ 30 ′
116◦ 46 ′
119◦ 01 ′
121◦ 16 ′
123◦ 31 ′
125◦ 46 ′
128◦ 00 ′
130◦ 14 ′
132◦ 27 ′
134◦ 40 ′
136◦ 53 ′
139◦ 06 ′
141◦ 18 ′
143◦ 29 ′
145◦ 40 ′
147◦ 51 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Virgo
α
147◦ 51 ′
150◦ 02 ′
152◦ 12 ′
154◦ 22 ′
156◦ 31 ′
158◦ 40 ′
160◦ 49 ′
162◦ 58 ′
165◦ 06 ′
167◦ 14 ′
169◦ 22 ′
171◦ 30 ′
173◦ 37 ′
175◦ 45 ′
177◦ 53 ′
180◦ 00 ′

Aquarius
λ
α

00
309◦ 51 ′

02
311◦ 45 ′

04
313◦ 37 ′

06
315◦ 29 ′

08
317◦ 19 ′

10
319◦ 08 ′

12
320◦ 56 ′

14
322◦ 42 ′

16
324◦ 28 ′

18
326◦ 12 ′

20
327◦ 56 ′

22
329◦ 38 ′

24
331◦ 20 ′

26
333◦ 01 ′

28
334◦ 40 ′

30
336◦ 19 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Pisces
α
336◦ 19 ′
337◦ 58 ′
339◦ 35 ′
341◦ 12 ′
342◦ 48 ′
344◦ 24 ′
345◦ 59 ′
347◦ 34 ′
349◦ 08 ′
350◦ 42 ′
352◦ 15 ′
353◦ 48 ′
355◦ 22 ′
356◦ 54 ′
358◦ 27 ′
360◦ 00 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Table 10: Oblique ascensions of the ecliptic for latitude +20◦ .

48

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Aries
α
000◦ 00 ′
001◦ 23 ′
002◦ 45 ′
004◦ 08 ′
005◦ 31 ′
006◦ 54 ′
008◦ 17 ′
009◦ 41 ′
011◦ 05 ′
012◦ 30 ′
013◦ 55 ′
015◦ 21 ′
016◦ 47 ′
018◦ 15 ′
019◦ 42 ′
021◦ 11 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Taurus
α
021◦ 11 ′
022◦ 41 ′
024◦ 11 ′
025◦ 43 ′
027◦ 15 ′
028◦ 49 ′
030◦ 23 ′
031◦ 59 ′
033◦ 37 ′
035◦ 15 ′
036◦ 55 ′
038◦ 36 ′
040◦ 19 ′
042◦ 03 ′
043◦ 48 ′
045◦ 36 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Libra
α
180◦ 00 ′
182◦ 18 ′
184◦ 35 ′
186◦ 53 ′
189◦ 11 ′
191◦ 29 ′
193◦ 47 ′
196◦ 05 ′
198◦ 23 ′
200◦ 42 ′
203◦ 01 ′
205◦ 20 ′
207◦ 39 ′
209◦ 59 ′
212◦ 18 ′
214◦ 38 ′

Scorpio
λ
α

00
214◦ 38 ′

02
216◦ 59 ′

04
219◦ 19 ′

06
221◦ 40 ′

08
224◦ 01 ′

10
226◦ 22 ′

12
228◦ 44 ′

14
231◦ 06 ′

16
233◦ 28 ′

18
235◦ 50 ′

20
238◦ 12 ′

22
240◦ 34 ′

24
242◦ 56 ′

26
245◦ 19 ′

28
247◦ 41 ′

30
250◦ 03 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Gemini
α
045◦ 36 ′
047◦ 24 ′
049◦ 14 ′
051◦ 06 ′
053◦ 00 ′
054◦ 55 ′
056◦ 51 ′
058◦ 50 ′
060◦ 49 ′
062◦ 51 ′
064◦ 54 ′
066◦ 58 ′
069◦ 04 ′
071◦ 12 ′
073◦ 20 ′
075◦ 30 ′

Sagittarius
λ
α

00
250◦ 03 ′

02
252◦ 25 ′

04
254◦ 46 ′

06
257◦ 08 ′

08
259◦ 28 ′

10
261◦ 49 ′

12
264◦ 09 ′

14
266◦ 28 ′

16
268◦ 46 ′

18
271◦ 04 ′

20
273◦ 21 ′

22
275◦ 37 ′

24
277◦ 52 ′

26
280◦ 05 ′

28
282◦ 18 ′

30
284◦ 30 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Cancer
α
075◦ 30 ′
077◦ 42 ′
079◦ 55 ′
082◦ 08 ′
084◦ 23 ′
086◦ 39 ′
088◦ 56 ′
091◦ 14 ′
093◦ 32 ′
095◦ 51 ′
098◦ 11 ′
100◦ 32 ′
102◦ 52 ′
105◦ 14 ′
107◦ 35 ′
109◦ 57 ′

Capricorn
λ
α

00
284◦ 30 ′

02
286◦ 40 ′

04
288◦ 48 ′

06
290◦ 56 ′

08
293◦ 02 ′

10
295◦ 06 ′

12
297◦ 09 ′

14
299◦ 11 ′

16
301◦ 10 ′

18
303◦ 09 ′

20
305◦ 05 ′

22
307◦ 00 ′

24
308◦ 54 ′

26
310◦ 46 ′

28
312◦ 36 ′

30
314◦ 24 ′

Leo
α
109◦ 57 ′
112◦ 19 ′
114◦ 41 ′
117◦ 04 ′
119◦ 26 ′
121◦ 48 ′
124◦ 10 ′
126◦ 32 ′
128◦ 54 ′
131◦ 16 ′
133◦ 38 ′
135◦ 59 ′
138◦ 20 ′
140◦ 41 ′
143◦ 01 ′
145◦ 22 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Virgo
α
145◦ 22 ′
147◦ 42 ′
150◦ 01 ′
152◦ 21 ′
154◦ 40 ′
156◦ 59 ′
159◦ 18 ′
161◦ 37 ′
163◦ 55 ′
166◦ 13 ′
168◦ 31 ′
170◦ 49 ′
173◦ 07 ′
175◦ 25 ′
177◦ 42 ′
180◦ 00 ′

Aquarius
λ
α

00
314◦ 24 ′

02
316◦ 12 ′

04
317◦ 57 ′

06
319◦ 41 ′

08
321◦ 24 ′

10
323◦ 05 ′

12
324◦ 45 ′

14
326◦ 23 ′

16
328◦ 01 ′

18
329◦ 37 ′

20
331◦ 11 ′

22
332◦ 45 ′

24
334◦ 17 ′

26
335◦ 49 ′

28
337◦ 19 ′

30
338◦ 49 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Pisces
α
338◦ 49 ′
340◦ 18 ′
341◦ 45 ′
343◦ 13 ′
344◦ 39 ′
346◦ 05 ′
347◦ 30 ′
348◦ 55 ′
350◦ 19 ′
351◦ 43 ′
353◦ 06 ′
354◦ 29 ′
355◦ 52 ′
357◦ 15 ′
358◦ 37 ′
360◦ 00 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Table 11: Oblique ascensions of the ecliptic for latitude +30◦ .

49

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Aries
α
000◦ 00 ′
001◦ 10 ′
002◦ 20 ′
003◦ 30 ′
004◦ 41 ′
005◦ 52 ′
007◦ 03 ′
008◦ 14 ′
009◦ 26 ′
010◦ 38 ′
011◦ 51 ′
013◦ 05 ′
014◦ 19 ′
015◦ 34 ′
016◦ 50 ′
018◦ 07 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Taurus
α
018◦ 07 ′
019◦ 24 ′
020◦ 43 ′
022◦ 03 ′
023◦ 24 ′
024◦ 46 ′
026◦ 10 ′
027◦ 35 ′
029◦ 02 ′
030◦ 30 ′
031◦ 59 ′
033◦ 31 ′
035◦ 04 ′
036◦ 38 ′
038◦ 15 ′
039◦ 54 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Libra
α
180◦ 00 ′
182◦ 30 ′
185◦ 00 ′
187◦ 31 ′
190◦ 01 ′
192◦ 31 ′
195◦ 02 ′
197◦ 32 ′
200◦ 03 ′
202◦ 34 ′
205◦ 05 ′
207◦ 36 ′
210◦ 08 ′
212◦ 39 ′
215◦ 11 ′
217◦ 43 ′

Scorpio
λ
α

00
217◦ 43 ′

02
220◦ 15 ′

04
222◦ 47 ′

06
225◦ 20 ′

08
227◦ 52 ′

10
230◦ 25 ′

12
232◦ 57 ′

14
235◦ 30 ′

16
238◦ 03 ′

18
240◦ 35 ′

20
243◦ 07 ′

22
245◦ 40 ′

24
248◦ 12 ′

26
250◦ 43 ′

28
253◦ 14 ′

30
255◦ 45 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Gemini
α
039◦ 54 ′
041◦ 34 ′
043◦ 16 ′
045◦ 01 ′
046◦ 48 ′
048◦ 36 ′
050◦ 27 ′
052◦ 20 ′
054◦ 15 ′
056◦ 12 ′
058◦ 12 ′
060◦ 13 ′
062◦ 17 ′
064◦ 23 ′
066◦ 31 ′
068◦ 40 ′

Sagittarius
λ
α

00
255◦ 45 ′

02
258◦ 15 ′

04
260◦ 44 ′

06
263◦ 13 ′

08
265◦ 41 ′

10
268◦ 07 ′

12
270◦ 33 ′

14
272◦ 57 ′

16
275◦ 21 ′

18
277◦ 42 ′

20
280◦ 03 ′

22
282◦ 22 ′

24
284◦ 39 ′

26
286◦ 54 ′

28
289◦ 08 ′

30
291◦ 20 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Cancer
α
068◦ 40 ′
070◦ 52 ′
073◦ 06 ′
075◦ 21 ′
077◦ 38 ′
079◦ 57 ′
082◦ 18 ′
084◦ 39 ′
087◦ 03 ′
089◦ 27 ′
091◦ 53 ′
094◦ 19 ′
096◦ 47 ′
099◦ 16 ′
101◦ 45 ′
104◦ 15 ′

Capricorn
λ
α

00
291◦ 20 ′

02
293◦ 29 ′

04
295◦ 37 ′

06
297◦ 43 ′

08
299◦ 47 ′

10
301◦ 48 ′

12
303◦ 48 ′

14
305◦ 45 ′

16
307◦ 40 ′

18
309◦ 33 ′

20
311◦ 24 ′

22
313◦ 12 ′

24
314◦ 59 ′

26
316◦ 44 ′

28
318◦ 26 ′

30
320◦ 06 ′

Leo
α
104◦ 15 ′
106◦ 46 ′
109◦ 17 ′
111◦ 48 ′
114◦ 20 ′
116◦ 53 ′
119◦ 25 ′
121◦ 57 ′
124◦ 30 ′
127◦ 03 ′
129◦ 35 ′
132◦ 08 ′
134◦ 40 ′
137◦ 13 ′
139◦ 45 ′
142◦ 17 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Virgo
α
142◦ 17 ′
144◦ 49 ′
147◦ 21 ′
149◦ 52 ′
152◦ 24 ′
154◦ 55 ′
157◦ 26 ′
159◦ 57 ′
162◦ 28 ′
164◦ 58 ′
167◦ 29 ′
169◦ 59 ′
172◦ 29 ′
175◦ 00 ′
177◦ 30 ′
180◦ 00 ′

Aquarius
λ
α

00
320◦ 06 ′

02
321◦ 45 ′

04
323◦ 22 ′

06
324◦ 56 ′

08
326◦ 29 ′

10
328◦ 01 ′

12
329◦ 30 ′

14
330◦ 58 ′

16
332◦ 25 ′

18
333◦ 50 ′

20
335◦ 14 ′

22
336◦ 36 ′

24
337◦ 57 ′

26
339◦ 17 ′

28
340◦ 36 ′

30
341◦ 53 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Pisces
α
341◦ 53 ′
343◦ 10 ′
344◦ 26 ′
345◦ 41 ′
346◦ 55 ′
348◦ 09 ′
349◦ 22 ′
350◦ 34 ′
351◦ 46 ′
352◦ 57 ′
354◦ 08 ′
355◦ 19 ′
356◦ 30 ′
357◦ 40 ′
358◦ 50 ′
360◦ 00 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Table 12: Oblique ascensions of the ecliptic for latitude +40◦ .

50

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Aries
α
000◦ 00 ′
000◦ 53 ′
001◦ 47 ′
002◦ 40 ′
003◦ 34 ′
004◦ 27 ′
005◦ 22 ′
006◦ 16 ′
007◦ 11 ′
008◦ 07 ′
009◦ 03 ′
010◦ 00 ′
010◦ 57 ′
011◦ 56 ′
012◦ 55 ′
013◦ 55 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Taurus
α
013◦ 55 ′
014◦ 56 ′
015◦ 59 ′
017◦ 02 ′
018◦ 07 ′
019◦ 13 ′
020◦ 21 ′
021◦ 31 ′
022◦ 42 ′
023◦ 54 ′
025◦ 09 ′
026◦ 26 ′
027◦ 44 ′
029◦ 05 ′
030◦ 28 ′
031◦ 54 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Libra
α
180◦ 00 ′
182◦ 47 ′
185◦ 34 ′
188◦ 21 ′
191◦ 08 ′
193◦ 55 ′
196◦ 43 ′
199◦ 30 ′
202◦ 18 ′
205◦ 05 ′
207◦ 53 ′
210◦ 41 ′
213◦ 29 ′
216◦ 17 ′
219◦ 06 ′
221◦ 54 ′

Scorpio
λ
α

00
221◦ 54 ′

02
224◦ 43 ′

04
227◦ 32 ′

06
230◦ 20 ′

08
233◦ 09 ′

10
235◦ 58 ′

12
238◦ 46 ′

14
241◦ 34 ′

16
244◦ 23 ′

18
247◦ 10 ′

20
249◦ 58 ′

22
252◦ 45 ′

24
255◦ 31 ′

26
258◦ 16 ′

28
261◦ 01 ′

30
263◦ 45 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Gemini
α
031◦ 54 ′
033◦ 22 ′
034◦ 52 ′
036◦ 25 ′
038◦ 01 ′
039◦ 40 ′
041◦ 22 ′
043◦ 06 ′
044◦ 54 ′
046◦ 45 ′
048◦ 38 ′
050◦ 35 ′
052◦ 35 ′
054◦ 38 ′
056◦ 45 ′
058◦ 54 ′

Sagittarius
λ
α

00
263◦ 45 ′

02
266◦ 27 ′

04
269◦ 09 ′

06
271◦ 48 ′

08
274◦ 27 ′

10
277◦ 03 ′

12
279◦ 38 ′

14
282◦ 11 ′

16
284◦ 42 ′

18
287◦ 10 ′

20
289◦ 36 ′

22
292◦ 00 ′

24
294◦ 20 ′

26
296◦ 39 ′

28
298◦ 54 ′

30
301◦ 06 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Cancer
α
058◦ 54 ′
061◦ 06 ′
063◦ 21 ′
065◦ 40 ′
068◦ 00 ′
070◦ 24 ′
072◦ 50 ′
075◦ 18 ′
077◦ 49 ′
080◦ 22 ′
082◦ 57 ′
085◦ 33 ′
088◦ 12 ′
090◦ 51 ′
093◦ 33 ′
096◦ 15 ′

Capricorn
λ
α

00
301◦ 06 ′

02
303◦ 15 ′

04
305◦ 22 ′

06
307◦ 25 ′

08
309◦ 25 ′

10
311◦ 22 ′

12
313◦ 15 ′

14
315◦ 06 ′

16
316◦ 54 ′

18
318◦ 38 ′

20
320◦ 20 ′

22
321◦ 59 ′

24
323◦ 35 ′

26
325◦ 08 ′

28
326◦ 38 ′

30
328◦ 06 ′

Leo
α
096◦ 15 ′
098◦ 59 ′
101◦ 44 ′
104◦ 29 ′
107◦ 15 ′
110◦ 02 ′
112◦ 50 ′
115◦ 37 ′
118◦ 26 ′
121◦ 14 ′
124◦ 02 ′
126◦ 51 ′
129◦ 40 ′
132◦ 28 ′
135◦ 17 ′
138◦ 06 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Virgo
α
138◦ 06 ′
140◦ 54 ′
143◦ 43 ′
146◦ 31 ′
149◦ 19 ′
152◦ 07 ′
154◦ 55 ′
157◦ 42 ′
160◦ 30 ′
163◦ 17 ′
166◦ 05 ′
168◦ 52 ′
171◦ 39 ′
174◦ 26 ′
177◦ 13 ′
180◦ 00 ′

Aquarius
λ
α

00
328◦ 06 ′

02
329◦ 32 ′

04
330◦ 55 ′

06
332◦ 16 ′

08
333◦ 34 ′

10
334◦ 51 ′

12
336◦ 06 ′

14
337◦ 18 ′

16
338◦ 29 ′

18
339◦ 39 ′

20
340◦ 47 ′

22
341◦ 53 ′

24
342◦ 58 ′

26
344◦ 01 ′

28
345◦ 04 ′

30
346◦ 05 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Pisces
α
346◦ 05 ′
347◦ 05 ′
348◦ 04 ′
349◦ 03 ′
350◦ 00 ′
350◦ 57 ′
351◦ 53 ′
352◦ 49 ′
353◦ 44 ′
354◦ 38 ′
355◦ 33 ′
356◦ 26 ′
357◦ 20 ′
358◦ 13 ′
359◦ 07 ′
360◦ 00 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Table 13: Oblique ascensions of the ecliptic for latitude +50◦ .

51

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Aries
α
000◦ 00 ′
000◦ 42 ′
001◦ 24 ′
002◦ 06 ′
002◦ 48 ′
003◦ 31 ′
004◦ 14 ′
004◦ 57 ′
005◦ 41 ′
006◦ 25 ′
007◦ 10 ′
007◦ 55 ′
008◦ 41 ′
009◦ 28 ′
010◦ 15 ′
011◦ 04 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Taurus
α
011◦ 04 ′
011◦ 54 ′
012◦ 44 ′
013◦ 36 ′
014◦ 30 ′
015◦ 24 ′
016◦ 21 ′
017◦ 18 ′
018◦ 18 ′
019◦ 19 ′
020◦ 23 ′
021◦ 28 ′
022◦ 36 ′
023◦ 46 ′
024◦ 58 ′
026◦ 14 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Libra
α
180◦ 00 ′
182◦ 58 ′
185◦ 57 ′
188◦ 55 ′
191◦ 53 ′
194◦ 52 ′
197◦ 50 ′
200◦ 49 ′
203◦ 48 ′
206◦ 47 ′
209◦ 46 ′
212◦ 46 ′
215◦ 45 ′
218◦ 45 ′
221◦ 45 ′
224◦ 45 ′

Scorpio
λ
α

00
224◦ 45 ′

02
227◦ 46 ′

04
230◦ 46 ′

06
233◦ 46 ′

08
236◦ 46 ′

10
239◦ 47 ′

12
242◦ 47 ′

14
245◦ 47 ′

16
248◦ 46 ′

18
251◦ 46 ′

20
254◦ 44 ′

22
257◦ 42 ′

24
260◦ 39 ′

26
263◦ 36 ′

28
266◦ 31 ′

30
269◦ 25 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Gemini
α
026◦ 14 ′
027◦ 31 ′
028◦ 52 ′
030◦ 16 ′
031◦ 44 ′
033◦ 14 ′
034◦ 48 ′
036◦ 26 ′
038◦ 07 ′
039◦ 52 ′
041◦ 41 ′
043◦ 34 ′
045◦ 31 ′
047◦ 32 ′
049◦ 37 ′
051◦ 45 ′

Sagittarius
λ
α

00
269◦ 25 ′

02
272◦ 17 ′

04
275◦ 08 ′

06
277◦ 57 ′

08
280◦ 44 ′

10
283◦ 29 ′

12
286◦ 12 ′

14
288◦ 52 ′

16
291◦ 29 ′

18
294◦ 03 ′

20
296◦ 33 ′

22
299◦ 01 ′

24
301◦ 25 ′

26
303◦ 45 ′

28
306◦ 02 ′

30
308◦ 15 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Cancer
α
051◦ 45 ′
053◦ 58 ′
056◦ 15 ′
058◦ 35 ′
060◦ 59 ′
063◦ 27 ′
065◦ 57 ′
068◦ 31 ′
071◦ 08 ′
073◦ 48 ′
076◦ 31 ′
079◦ 16 ′
082◦ 03 ′
084◦ 52 ′
087◦ 43 ′
090◦ 35 ′

Capricorn
λ
α

00
308◦ 15 ′

02
310◦ 23 ′

04
312◦ 28 ′

06
314◦ 29 ′

08
316◦ 26 ′

10
318◦ 19 ′

12
320◦ 08 ′

14
321◦ 53 ′

16
323◦ 34 ′

18
325◦ 12 ′

20
326◦ 46 ′

22
328◦ 16 ′

24
329◦ 44 ′

26
331◦ 08 ′

28
332◦ 29 ′

30
333◦ 46 ′

Leo
α
090◦ 35 ′
093◦ 29 ′
096◦ 24 ′
099◦ 21 ′
102◦ 18 ′
105◦ 16 ′
108◦ 14 ′
111◦ 14 ′
114◦ 13 ′
117◦ 13 ′
120◦ 13 ′
123◦ 14 ′
126◦ 14 ′
129◦ 14 ′
132◦ 14 ′
135◦ 15 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Virgo
α
135◦ 15 ′
138◦ 15 ′
141◦ 15 ′
144◦ 15 ′
147◦ 14 ′
150◦ 14 ′
153◦ 13 ′
156◦ 12 ′
159◦ 11 ′
162◦ 10 ′
165◦ 08 ′
168◦ 07 ′
171◦ 05 ′
174◦ 03 ′
177◦ 02 ′
180◦ 00 ′

Aquarius
λ
α

00
333◦ 46 ′

02
335◦ 02 ′

04
336◦ 14 ′

06
337◦ 24 ′

08
338◦ 32 ′

10
339◦ 37 ′

12
340◦ 41 ′

14
341◦ 42 ′

16
342◦ 42 ′

18
343◦ 39 ′

20
344◦ 36 ′

22
345◦ 30 ′

24
346◦ 24 ′

26
347◦ 16 ′

28
348◦ 06 ′

30
348◦ 56 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Pisces
α
348◦ 56 ′
349◦ 45 ′
350◦ 32 ′
351◦ 19 ′
352◦ 05 ′
352◦ 50 ′
353◦ 35 ′
354◦ 19 ′
355◦ 03 ′
355◦ 46 ′
356◦ 29 ′
357◦ 12 ′
357◦ 54 ′
358◦ 36 ′
359◦ 18 ′
360◦ 00 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Table 14: Oblique ascensions of the ecliptic for latitude +55◦ .

52

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Aries
α
000◦ 00 ′
000◦ 27 ′
000◦ 55 ′
001◦ 23 ′
001◦ 50 ′
002◦ 18 ′
002◦ 46 ′
003◦ 15 ′
003◦ 44 ′
004◦ 13 ′
004◦ 43 ′
005◦ 13 ′
005◦ 44 ′
006◦ 15 ′
006◦ 47 ′
007◦ 20 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Taurus
α
007◦ 20 ′
007◦ 54 ′
008◦ 29 ′
009◦ 05 ′
009◦ 42 ′
010◦ 20 ′
011◦ 00 ′
011◦ 41 ′
012◦ 24 ′
013◦ 08 ′
013◦ 55 ′
014◦ 43 ′
015◦ 34 ′
016◦ 28 ′
017◦ 23 ′
018◦ 22 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Libra
α
180◦ 00 ′
183◦ 13 ′
186◦ 26 ′
189◦ 38 ′
192◦ 51 ′
196◦ 05 ′
199◦ 18 ′
202◦ 31 ′
205◦ 45 ′
208◦ 59 ′
212◦ 13 ′
215◦ 28 ′
218◦ 43 ′
221◦ 58 ′
225◦ 13 ′
228◦ 29 ′

Scorpio
λ
α

00
228◦ 29 ′

02
231◦ 45 ′

04
235◦ 01 ′

06
238◦ 18 ′

08
241◦ 34 ′

10
244◦ 51 ′

12
248◦ 08 ′

14
251◦ 24 ′

16
254◦ 40 ′

18
257◦ 56 ′

20
261◦ 12 ′

22
264◦ 27 ′

24
267◦ 41 ′

26
270◦ 54 ′

28
274◦ 06 ′

30
277◦ 16 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Gemini
α
018◦ 22 ′
019◦ 24 ′
020◦ 29 ′
021◦ 38 ′
022◦ 50 ′
024◦ 07 ′
025◦ 27 ′
026◦ 52 ′
028◦ 22 ′
029◦ 57 ′
031◦ 38 ′
033◦ 23 ′
035◦ 14 ′
037◦ 11 ′
039◦ 13 ′
041◦ 21 ′

Sagittarius
λ
α

00
277◦ 16 ′

02
280◦ 25 ′

04
283◦ 32 ′

06
286◦ 36 ′

08
289◦ 38 ′

10
292◦ 37 ′

12
295◦ 33 ′

14
298◦ 25 ′

16
301◦ 13 ′

18
303◦ 57 ′

20
306◦ 37 ′

22
309◦ 12 ′

24
311◦ 42 ′

26
314◦ 06 ′

28
316◦ 26 ′

30
318◦ 39 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Cancer
α
041◦ 21 ′
043◦ 34 ′
045◦ 54 ′
048◦ 18 ′
050◦ 48 ′
053◦ 23 ′
056◦ 03 ′
058◦ 47 ′
061◦ 35 ′
064◦ 27 ′
067◦ 23 ′
070◦ 22 ′
073◦ 24 ′
076◦ 28 ′
079◦ 35 ′
082◦ 44 ′

Capricorn
λ
α

00
318◦ 39 ′

02
320◦ 47 ′

04
322◦ 49 ′

06
324◦ 46 ′

08
326◦ 37 ′

10
328◦ 22 ′

12
330◦ 03 ′

14
331◦ 38 ′

16
333◦ 08 ′

18
334◦ 33 ′

20
335◦ 53 ′

22
337◦ 10 ′

24
338◦ 22 ′

26
339◦ 31 ′

28
340◦ 36 ′

30
341◦ 38 ′

Leo
α
082◦ 44 ′
085◦ 54 ′
089◦ 06 ′
092◦ 19 ′
095◦ 33 ′
098◦ 48 ′
102◦ 04 ′
105◦ 20 ′
108◦ 36 ′
111◦ 52 ′
115◦ 09 ′
118◦ 26 ′
121◦ 42 ′
124◦ 59 ′
128◦ 15 ′
131◦ 31 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Virgo
α
131◦ 31 ′
134◦ 47 ′
138◦ 02 ′
141◦ 17 ′
144◦ 32 ′
147◦ 47 ′
151◦ 01 ′
154◦ 15 ′
157◦ 29 ′
160◦ 42 ′
163◦ 55 ′
167◦ 09 ′
170◦ 22 ′
173◦ 34 ′
176◦ 47 ′
180◦ 00 ′

Aquarius
λ
α

00
341◦ 38 ′

02
342◦ 37 ′

04
343◦ 32 ′

06
344◦ 26 ′

08
345◦ 17 ′

10
346◦ 05 ′

12
346◦ 52 ′

14
347◦ 36 ′

16
348◦ 19 ′

18
349◦ 00 ′

20
349◦ 40 ′

22
350◦ 18 ′

24
350◦ 55 ′

26
351◦ 31 ′

28
352◦ 06 ′

30
352◦ 40 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Pisces
α
352◦ 40 ′
353◦ 13 ′
353◦ 45 ′
354◦ 16 ′
354◦ 47 ′
355◦ 17 ′
355◦ 47 ′
356◦ 16 ′
356◦ 45 ′
357◦ 14 ′
357◦ 42 ′
358◦ 10 ′
358◦ 37 ′
359◦ 05 ′
359◦ 33 ′
360◦ 00 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Table 15: Oblique ascensions of the ecliptic for latitude +60◦ .

53

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Aries
α
000◦ 00 ′
000◦ 08 ′
000◦ 16 ′
000◦ 23 ′
000◦ 31 ′
000◦ 39 ′
000◦ 47 ′
000◦ 55 ′
001◦ 04 ′
001◦ 12 ′
001◦ 21 ′
001◦ 29 ′
001◦ 38 ′
001◦ 48 ′
001◦ 57 ′
002◦ 07 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Taurus
α
002◦ 07 ′
002◦ 17 ′
002◦ 28 ′
002◦ 39 ′
002◦ 51 ′
003◦ 03 ′
003◦ 16 ′
003◦ 29 ′
003◦ 44 ′
003◦ 59 ′
004◦ 15 ′
004◦ 32 ′
004◦ 51 ′
005◦ 11 ′
005◦ 33 ′
005◦ 56 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Libra
α
180◦ 00 ′
183◦ 32 ′
187◦ 05 ′
190◦ 38 ′
194◦ 10 ′
197◦ 44 ′
201◦ 17 ′
204◦ 51 ′
208◦ 25 ′
212◦ 00 ′
215◦ 35 ′
219◦ 11 ′
222◦ 48 ′
226◦ 25 ′
230◦ 03 ′
233◦ 42 ′

Scorpio
λ
α

00
233◦ 42 ′

02
237◦ 22 ′

04
241◦ 02 ′

06
244◦ 43 ′

08
248◦ 25 ′

10
252◦ 08 ′

12
255◦ 52 ′

14
259◦ 36 ′

16
263◦ 21 ′

18
267◦ 06 ′

20
270◦ 52 ′

22
274◦ 38 ′

24
278◦ 24 ′

26
282◦ 10 ′

28
285◦ 56 ′

30
289◦ 42 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Gemini
α
005◦ 56 ′
006◦ 22 ′
006◦ 51 ′
007◦ 22 ′
007◦ 57 ′
008◦ 36 ′
009◦ 19 ′
010◦ 07 ′
011◦ 02 ′
012◦ 04 ′
013◦ 14 ′
014◦ 33 ′
016◦ 02 ′
017◦ 42 ′
019◦ 34 ′
021◦ 39 ′

Sagittarius
λ
α

00
289◦ 42 ′

02
293◦ 27 ′

04
297◦ 10 ′

06
300◦ 52 ′

08
304◦ 31 ′

10
308◦ 08 ′

12
311◦ 41 ′

14
315◦ 10 ′

16
318◦ 34 ′

18
321◦ 51 ′

20
325◦ 01 ′

22
328◦ 02 ′

24
330◦ 54 ′

26
333◦ 35 ′

28
336◦ 04 ′

30
338◦ 21 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Cancer
α
021◦ 39 ′
023◦ 56 ′
026◦ 25 ′
029◦ 06 ′
031◦ 58 ′
034◦ 59 ′
038◦ 09 ′
041◦ 26 ′
044◦ 50 ′
048◦ 19 ′
051◦ 52 ′
055◦ 29 ′
059◦ 08 ′
062◦ 50 ′
066◦ 33 ′
070◦ 18 ′

Capricorn
λ
α

00
338◦ 21 ′

02
340◦ 26 ′

04
342◦ 18 ′

06
343◦ 58 ′

08
345◦ 27 ′

10
346◦ 46 ′

12
347◦ 56 ′

14
348◦ 58 ′

16
349◦ 53 ′

18
350◦ 41 ′

20
351◦ 24 ′

22
352◦ 03 ′

24
352◦ 38 ′

26
353◦ 09 ′

28
353◦ 38 ′

30
354◦ 04 ′

Leo
α
070◦ 18 ′
074◦ 04 ′
077◦ 50 ′
081◦ 36 ′
085◦ 22 ′
089◦ 08 ′
092◦ 54 ′
096◦ 39 ′
100◦ 24 ′
104◦ 08 ′
107◦ 52 ′
111◦ 35 ′
115◦ 17 ′
118◦ 58 ′
122◦ 38 ′
126◦ 18 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Virgo
α
126◦ 18 ′
129◦ 57 ′
133◦ 35 ′
137◦ 12 ′
140◦ 49 ′
144◦ 25 ′
148◦ 00 ′
151◦ 35 ′
155◦ 09 ′
158◦ 43 ′
162◦ 16 ′
165◦ 50 ′
169◦ 22 ′
172◦ 55 ′
176◦ 28 ′
180◦ 00 ′

Aquarius
λ
α

00
354◦ 04 ′

02
354◦ 27 ′

04
354◦ 49 ′

06
355◦ 09 ′

08
355◦ 28 ′

10
355◦ 45 ′

12
356◦ 01 ′

14
356◦ 16 ′

16
356◦ 31 ′

18
356◦ 44 ′

20
356◦ 57 ′

22
357◦ 09 ′

24
357◦ 21 ′

26
357◦ 32 ′

28
357◦ 43 ′

30
357◦ 53 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Pisces
α
357◦ 53 ′
358◦ 03 ′
358◦ 12 ′
358◦ 22 ′
358◦ 31 ′
358◦ 39 ′
358◦ 48 ′
358◦ 56 ′
359◦ 05 ′
359◦ 13 ′
359◦ 21 ′
359◦ 29 ′
359◦ 37 ′
359◦ 44 ′
359◦ 52 ′
360◦ 00 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Table 16: Oblique ascensions of the ecliptic for latitude +65◦ .

54

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Aries
α
360◦ 00 ′
359◦ 39 ′
359◦ 18 ′
358◦ 57 ′
358◦ 35 ′
358◦ 14 ′
357◦ 52 ′
357◦ 29 ′
357◦ 06 ′
356◦ 43 ′
356◦ 18 ′
355◦ 53 ′
355◦ 27 ′
355◦ 00 ′
354◦ 32 ′
354◦ 02 ′

Taurus
λ
α
00◦
354◦ 02 ′
02◦
353◦ 30 ′
04◦
352◦ 57 ′
06◦
352◦ 21 ′
08◦
351◦ 42 ′
10◦
351◦ 00 ′
12◦
350◦ 14 ′

14
349◦ 23 ′

16
348◦ 26 ′

18
347◦ 20 ′

20
346◦ 04 ′

22
344◦ 32 ′

24
342◦ 37 ′

26
340◦ 03 ′

28
335◦ 55 ′


29 19
327◦ 07 ′

Gemini
λ
α
00◦

02◦

04◦

06◦

08◦

10◦

12◦

14◦

16◦

18◦

20◦

22◦

24◦

26◦

28◦

30◦

Cancer
λ
α
00◦

02◦

04◦

06◦

08◦

10◦

12◦

14◦

16◦

18◦

20◦

22◦

24◦

26◦

28◦

30◦

λ
00◦ 41 ′
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Leo
α
032◦ 54 ′
044◦ 26 ′
052◦ 41 ′
059◦ 22 ′
065◦ 22 ′
070◦ 57 ′
076◦ 15 ′
081◦ 21 ′
086◦ 18 ′
091◦ 07 ′
095◦ 49 ′
100◦ 26 ′
104◦ 58 ′
109◦ 27 ′
113◦ 51 ′
118◦ 13 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Virgo
α
118◦ 13 ′
122◦ 31 ′
126◦ 47 ′
131◦ 01 ′
135◦ 13 ′
139◦ 22 ′
143◦ 31 ′
147◦ 37 ′
151◦ 43 ′
155◦ 47 ′
159◦ 51 ′
163◦ 54 ′
167◦ 56 ′
171◦ 57 ′
175◦ 59 ′
180◦ 00 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Libra
α
180◦ 00 ′
184◦ 01 ′
188◦ 03 ′
192◦ 04 ′
196◦ 06 ′
200◦ 09 ′
204◦ 13 ′
208◦ 17 ′
212◦ 23 ′
216◦ 29 ′
220◦ 38 ′
224◦ 47 ′
228◦ 59 ′
233◦ 13 ′
237◦ 29 ′
241◦ 47 ′

Scorpio
λ
α

00
241◦ 47 ′

02
246◦ 09 ′

04
250◦ 33 ′

06
255◦ 02 ′

08
259◦ 34 ′

10
264◦ 11 ′

12
268◦ 53 ′

14
273◦ 42 ′

16
278◦ 39 ′

18
283◦ 45 ′

20
289◦ 03 ′

22
294◦ 38 ′

24
300◦ 38 ′

26
307◦ 19 ′

28
315◦ 34 ′


29 19
327◦ 07 ′

Sagittarius
λ
α

00

02◦

04◦

06◦

08◦

10◦

12◦

14◦

16◦

18◦

20◦

22◦

24◦

26◦

28◦

30◦

Capricorn
λ
α

00

02◦

04◦

06◦

08◦

10◦

12◦

14◦

16◦

18◦

20◦

22◦

24◦

26◦

28◦

30◦

Aquarius
λ
α


00 41
032◦ 52 ′

02
024◦ 05 ′

04
019◦ 57 ′

06
017◦ 23 ′

08
015◦ 28 ′

10
013◦ 56 ′

12
012◦ 40 ′

14
011◦ 34 ′

16
010◦ 37 ′

18
009◦ 46 ′

20
009◦ 00 ′

22
008◦ 18 ′

24
007◦ 39 ′

26
007◦ 03 ′

28
006◦ 30 ′

30
005◦ 58 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Pisces
α
005◦ 58 ′
005◦ 28 ′
005◦ 00 ′
004◦ 33 ′
004◦ 07 ′
003◦ 42 ′
003◦ 17 ′
002◦ 54 ′
002◦ 31 ′
002◦ 08 ′
001◦ 46 ′
001◦ 25 ′
001◦ 03 ′
000◦ 42 ′
000◦ 21 ′
000◦ 00 ′

Table 17: Oblique ascensions of the ecliptic for latitude +70◦ .

55

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Aries
α
360◦ 00 ′
358◦ 52 ′
357◦ 44 ′
356◦ 35 ′
355◦ 25 ′
354◦ 13 ′
353◦ 00 ′
351◦ 44 ′
350◦ 26 ′
349◦ 05 ′
347◦ 39 ′
346◦ 08 ′
344◦ 30 ′
342◦ 45 ′
340◦ 50 ′
338◦ 42 ′

Taurus
λ
α
00◦
338◦ 42 ′
02◦
336◦ 16 ′
04◦
333◦ 24 ′
06◦
329◦ 54 ′
08◦
325◦ 10 ′
10◦
316◦ 55 ′
11◦ 36 ′ 308◦ 12 ′
14◦

16◦

18◦

20◦

22◦

24◦

26◦

28◦

30◦

Gemini
λ
α
00◦

02◦

04◦

06◦

08◦

10◦

12◦

14◦

16◦

18◦

20◦

22◦

24◦

26◦

28◦

30◦

Cancer
λ
α
00◦

02◦

04◦

06◦

08◦

10◦

12◦

14◦

16◦

18◦

20◦

22◦

24◦

26◦

28◦

30◦

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
19◦ 24 ′
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Leo
α









051◦ 50 ′
061◦ 44 ′
073◦ 54 ′
082◦ 31 ′
089◦ 54 ′
096◦ 36 ′
102◦ 52 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Virgo
α
102◦ 52 ′
108◦ 49 ′
114◦ 32 ′
120◦ 04 ′
125◦ 27 ′
130◦ 43 ′
135◦ 52 ′
140◦ 57 ′
145◦ 58 ′
150◦ 56 ′
155◦ 50 ′
160◦ 43 ′
165◦ 34 ′
170◦ 23 ′
175◦ 12 ′
180◦ 00 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Libra
α
180◦ 00 ′
184◦ 48 ′
189◦ 37 ′
194◦ 26 ′
199◦ 17 ′
204◦ 10 ′
209◦ 04 ′
214◦ 02 ′
219◦ 03 ′
224◦ 08 ′
229◦ 17 ′
234◦ 33 ′
239◦ 56 ′
245◦ 28 ′
251◦ 11 ′
257◦ 08 ′

Scorpio
λ
α

00
257◦ 08 ′

02
263◦ 24 ′

04
270◦ 06 ′

06
277◦ 29 ′

08
286◦ 06 ′

10
298◦ 16 ′


11 36
308◦ 12 ′

14

16◦

18◦

20◦

22◦

24◦

26◦

28◦

30◦

Sagittarius
λ
α

00

02◦

04◦

06◦

08◦

10◦

12◦

14◦

16◦

18◦

20◦

22◦

24◦

26◦

28◦

30◦

Capricorn
λ
α

00

02◦

04◦

06◦

08◦

10◦

12◦

14◦

16◦

18◦

20◦

22◦

24◦

26◦

28◦

30◦

Aquarius
λ
α

00

02◦

04◦

06◦

08◦

10◦

12◦

14◦

16◦

19◦ 24 ′ 051◦ 50 ′
20◦
043◦ 05 ′

22
034◦ 50 ′

24
030◦ 06 ′

26
026◦ 36 ′

28
023◦ 44 ′

30
021◦ 18 ′

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Pisces
α
021◦ 18 ′
019◦ 10 ′
017◦ 15 ′
015◦ 30 ′
013◦ 52 ′
012◦ 21 ′
010◦ 55 ′
009◦ 34 ′
008◦ 16 ′
007◦ 00 ′
005◦ 47 ′
004◦ 35 ′
003◦ 25 ′
002◦ 16 ′
001◦ 08 ′
000◦ 00 ′

Table 18: Oblique ascensions of the ecliptic for latitude +75◦ .

56

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

Aries
λ
α
00◦
360◦ 00 ′
02◦
357◦ 19 ′
04◦
354◦ 37 ′
06◦
351◦ 52 ′
08◦
349◦ 02 ′
10◦
346◦ 04 ′
12◦
342◦ 58 ′

14
339◦ 39 ′

16
336◦ 02 ′

18
331◦ 59 ′

20
327◦ 20 ′

22
321◦ 39 ′

24
313◦ 51 ′


25 53
294◦ 01 ′

28

30◦

Taurus
λ
α
00◦ —
02◦ —
04◦ —
06◦ —
08◦ —
10◦ —
12◦ —
14◦ —
16◦ —
18◦ —
20◦ —
22◦ —
24◦ —
26◦ —
28◦ —
30◦ —

Gemini
λ
α
00◦

02◦

04◦

06◦

08◦

10◦

12◦

14◦

16◦

18◦

20◦

22◦

24◦

26◦

28◦

30◦

Cancer
λ
α
00◦

02◦

04◦

06◦

08◦

10◦

12◦

14◦

16◦

18◦

20◦

22◦

24◦

26◦

28◦

30◦

Leo
λ
α
00◦ —
02◦ —
04◦ —
06◦ —
08◦ —
10◦ —
12◦ —
14◦ —
16◦ —
18◦ —
20◦ —
22◦ —
24◦ —
26◦ —
28◦ —
30◦ —

Virgo
λ
α
00◦

02◦

04◦ 07 ′ 066◦ 01 ′
06◦
089◦ 25 ′
08◦
100◦ 58 ′
10◦
110◦ 24 ′
12◦
118◦ 47 ′

14
126◦ 33 ′

16
133◦ 52 ′

18
140◦ 54 ′

20
147◦ 42 ′

22
154◦ 20 ′

24
160◦ 51 ′

26
167◦ 16 ′

28
173◦ 39 ′

30
180◦ 00 ′

Libra
λ
α

00
180◦ 00 ′

02
186◦ 21 ′

04
192◦ 44 ′

06
199◦ 09 ′

08
205◦ 40 ′

10
212◦ 18 ′

12
219◦ 06 ′

14
226◦ 08 ′

16
233◦ 27 ′

18
241◦ 13 ′

20
249◦ 36 ′

22
259◦ 02 ′

24
270◦ 35 ′


25 53
294◦ 01 ′

28

30◦

Scorpio
λ
α

00

02◦ —
04◦ —
06◦ —
08◦ —
10◦ —
12◦ —
14◦ —
16◦ —
18◦ —
20◦ —
22◦ —
24◦ —
26◦ —
28◦ —
30◦ —

Sagittarius
λ
α

00

02◦

04◦

06◦

08◦

10◦

12◦

14◦

16◦

18◦

20◦

22◦

24◦

26◦

28◦

30◦

Capricorn
λ
α

00

02◦

04◦

06◦

08◦

10◦

12◦

14◦

16◦

18◦

20◦

22◦

24◦

26◦

28◦

30◦

Aquarius
λ
α

00

02◦ —
04◦ —
06◦ —
08◦ —
10◦ —
12◦ —
14◦ —
16◦ —
18◦ —
20◦ —
22◦ —
24◦ —
26◦ —
28◦ —
30◦ —

Pisces
λ
α

00

02◦

04◦ 07 ′ 066◦ 01 ′
06◦
046◦ 09 ′

08
038◦ 21 ′

10
032◦ 40 ′

12
028◦ 01 ′

14
023◦ 58 ′

16
020◦ 21 ′

18
017◦ 02 ′

20
013◦ 56 ′

22
010◦ 58 ′

24
008◦ 08 ′

26
005◦ 23 ′

28
002◦ 41 ′

30
000◦ 00 ′

Table 19: Oblique ascensions of the ecliptic for latitude +80◦ .

57

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

Aries
λ
α
00◦
360◦ 00 ′
02◦
352◦ 42 ′
04◦
345◦ 11 ′
06◦
337◦ 07 ′
08◦
328◦ 02 ′
10◦
316◦ 53 ′
12◦
299◦ 32 ′


12 40
281◦ 40 ′

16

18◦

20◦

22◦

24◦

26◦

28◦

30◦

Taurus
λ
α
00◦ —
02◦ —
04◦ —
06◦ —
08◦ —
10◦ —
12◦ —
14◦ —
16◦ —
18◦ —
20◦ —
22◦ —
24◦ —
26◦ —
28◦ —
30◦ —

Gemini
λ
α
00◦

02◦

04◦

06◦

08◦

10◦

12◦

14◦

16◦

18◦

20◦

22◦

24◦

26◦

28◦

30◦

Cancer
λ
α
00◦

02◦

04◦

06◦

08◦

10◦

12◦

14◦

16◦

18◦

20◦

22◦

24◦

26◦

28◦

30◦

Leo
λ
α
00◦ —
02◦ —
04◦ —
06◦ —
08◦ —
10◦ —
12◦ —
14◦ —
16◦ —
18◦ —
20◦ —
22◦ —
24◦ —
26◦ —
28◦ —
30◦ —

Virgo
λ
α
00◦

02◦

04◦

06◦

08◦

10◦

12◦

14◦

17◦ 20 ′ 078◦ 23 ′
18◦
097◦ 28 ′

20
118◦ 31 ′

22
133◦ 20 ′

24
146◦ 06 ′

26
157◦ 50 ′

28
169◦ 02 ′

30
180◦ 00 ′

Libra
λ
α

00
180◦ 00 ′

02
190◦ 58 ′

04
202◦ 10 ′

06
213◦ 54 ′

08
226◦ 40 ′

10
241◦ 29 ′

12
262◦ 32 ′


12 40
281◦ 40 ′

16

18◦

20◦

22◦

24◦

26◦

28◦

30◦

Scorpio
λ
α

00

02◦ —
04◦ —
06◦ —
08◦ —
10◦ —
12◦ —
14◦ —
16◦ —
18◦ —
20◦ —
22◦ —
24◦ —
26◦ —
28◦ —
30◦ —

Sagittarius
λ
α

00

02◦

04◦

06◦

08◦

10◦

12◦

14◦

16◦

18◦

20◦

22◦

24◦

26◦

28◦

30◦

Capricorn
λ
α

00

02◦

04◦

06◦

08◦

10◦

12◦

14◦

16◦

18◦

20◦

22◦

24◦

26◦

28◦

30◦

Aquarius
λ
α

00

02◦ —
04◦ —
06◦ —
08◦ —
10◦ —
12◦ —
14◦ —
16◦ —
18◦ —
20◦ —
22◦ —
24◦ —
26◦ —
28◦ —
30◦ —

Pisces
λ
α

00

02◦

04◦

06◦

08◦

10◦

12◦

14◦

17◦ 20 ′ 078◦ 23 ′
18◦
060◦ 28 ′

20
043◦ 07 ′

22
031◦ 58 ′

24
022◦ 53 ′

26
014◦ 49 ′

28
007◦ 18 ′

30
000◦ 00 ′

Table 20: Oblique ascensions of the ecliptic for latitude +85◦ .

58

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00

90◦ 00 ′
75◦ 00 ′
60◦ 00 ′
45◦ 00 ′
30◦ 00 ′
15◦ 00 ′
00◦ 00 ′

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00

78◦ 32 ′
71◦ 12 ′
58◦ 04 ′
43◦ 52 ′
29◦ 21 ′
14◦ 42 ′
00◦ 00 ′

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00

69◦ 51 ′
65◦ 04 ′
54◦ 24 ′
41◦ 36 ′
28◦ 00 ′
14◦ 04 ′
00◦ 00 ′

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00

66◦ 34 ′
62◦ 24 ′
52◦ 37 ′
40◦ 27 ′
27◦ 18 ′
13◦ 44 ′
00◦ 00 ′

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00

69◦ 51 ′
65◦ 04 ′
54◦ 24 ′
41◦ 36 ′
28◦ 00 ′
14◦ 04 ′
00◦ 00 ′

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00

78◦ 32 ′
71◦ 12 ′
58◦ 04 ′
43◦ 52 ′
29◦ 21 ′
14◦ 42 ′
00◦ 00 ′

Aries
156◦ 34 ′
156◦ 34 ′
156◦ 34 ′
156◦ 34 ′
156◦ 34 ′
156◦ 34 ′
156◦ 34 ′
Taurus
069◦ 26 ′
016◦ 00 ′
178◦ 26 ′
170◦ 40 ′
165◦ 58 ′
162◦ 28 ′
159◦ 25 ′
Gemini
077◦ 46 ′
039◦ 53 ′
018◦ 35 ′
006◦ 46 ′
179◦ 01 ′
173◦ 03 ′
167◦ 46 ′
Cancer
090◦ 00 ′
056◦ 02 ′
034◦ 33 ′
021◦ 41 ′
012◦ 56 ′
006◦ 05 ′
000◦ 00 ′
Leo
102◦ 14 ′
064◦ 21 ′
043◦ 03 ′
031◦ 14 ′
023◦ 28 ′
017◦ 30 ′
012◦ 14 ′
Virgo
110◦ 34 ′
057◦ 09 ′
039◦ 35 ′
031◦ 49 ′
027◦ 07 ′
023◦ 37 ′
020◦ 34 ′

156◦ 34 ′
156◦ 34 ′
156◦ 34 ′
156◦ 34 ′
156◦ 34 ′
156◦ 34 ′
156◦ 34 ′

N
N
N
N
N
N
N

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00

N
N

110◦ 34 ′
122◦ 51 ′
140◦ 25 ′
148◦ 11 ′
152◦ 53 ′
156◦ 23 ′
159◦ 25 ′

N
N
N
N
N
N
N

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00

N
N
N
N

102◦ 14 ′
115◦ 39 ′
136◦ 57 ′
148◦ 46 ′
156◦ 32 ′
162◦ 30 ′
167◦ 46 ′

N
N
N
N
N
N
N

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00

N
N
N
N
N
N
N

090◦ 00 ′
123◦ 58 ′
145◦ 27 ′
158◦ 19 ′
167◦ 04 ′
173◦ 55 ′
180◦ 00 ′

N
N
N
N
N
N
N

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00

N
N
N
N
N
N
N

077◦ 46 ′
140◦ 07 ′
161◦ 25 ′
173◦ 14 ′
000◦ 59 ′
006◦ 57 ′
012◦ 14 ′

N
N
N
N

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00

N
N
N
N
N
N
N

069◦ 26 ′ N
164◦ 00 ′ N
001◦ 34 ′
009◦ 20 ′
014◦ 02 ′
017◦ 32 ′
020◦ 34 ′

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00

Libra
023◦ 26 ′ N
023◦ 26 ′ N
023◦ 26 ′ N
023◦ 26 ′ N
023◦ 26 ′ N
023◦ 26 ′ N
023◦ 26 ′ N
Scorpio
78◦ 32 ′ 110◦ 34 ′
71◦ 12 ′ 164◦ 00 ′
58◦ 04 ′ 001◦ 34 ′ N
43◦ 52 ′ 009◦ 20 ′ N
29◦ 20 ′ 014◦ 01 ′ N
14◦ 42 ′ 017◦ 31 ′ N
00◦ 00 ′ 020◦ 34 ′ N
Saggitarius
69◦ 51 ′ 102◦ 14 ′
65◦ 04 ′ 140◦ 07 ′
54◦ 24 ′ 161◦ 25 ′
41◦ 36 ′ 173◦ 13 ′
28◦ 00 ′ 000◦ 59 ′ N
14◦ 04 ′ 006◦ 57 ′ N
00◦ 00 ′ 012◦ 14 ′ N
Capricorn
66◦ 34 ′ 090◦ 00 ′
62◦ 24 ′ 123◦ 58 ′
52◦ 37 ′ 145◦ 26 ′
40◦ 27 ′ 158◦ 19 ′
27◦ 18 ′ 167◦ 04 ′
13◦ 44 ′ 173◦ 55 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 180◦ 00 ′
Aquarius
69◦ 51 ′ 077◦ 46 ′
65◦ 04 ′ 115◦ 39 ′
54◦ 24 ′ 136◦ 57 ′
41◦ 36 ′ 148◦ 46 ′
28◦ 00 ′ 156◦ 32 ′
14◦ 04 ′ 162◦ 30 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 167◦ 46 ′
Pisces
78◦ 32 ′ 069◦ 26 ′
71◦ 12 ′ 122◦ 51 ′
58◦ 04 ′ 140◦ 25 ′
43◦ 52 ′ 148◦ 11 ′
29◦ 20 ′ 152◦ 53 ′
14◦ 42 ′ 156◦ 23 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 159◦ 25 ′
90◦ 00 ′
75◦ 00 ′
60◦ 00 ′
45◦ 00 ′
30◦ 00 ′
15◦ 00 ′
00◦ 00 ′

023◦ 26 ′
023◦ 26 ′
023◦ 26 ′
023◦ 26 ′
023◦ 26 ′
023◦ 26 ′
023◦ 26 ′
110◦ 34 ′
057◦ 09 ′
039◦ 35 ′
031◦ 49 ′
027◦ 07 ′
023◦ 37 ′
020◦ 34 ′
102◦ 14 ′
064◦ 21 ′
043◦ 03 ′
031◦ 14 ′
023◦ 28 ′
017◦ 30 ′
012◦ 14 ′
090◦ 00 ′
056◦ 02 ′
034◦ 34 ′
021◦ 41 ′
012◦ 56 ′
006◦ 05 ′
000◦ 00 ′
077◦ 46 ′
039◦ 53 ′
018◦ 35 ′
006◦ 47 ′
179◦ 01 ′ N
173◦ 03 ′ N
167◦ 46 ′ N
069◦ 26 ′
016◦ 00 ′
178◦ 26 ′
170◦ 40 ′
165◦ 59 ′
162◦ 29 ′
159◦ 25 ′

Table 21: Ecliptic altitude and parallactic angle for latitude 0◦ .

59

N
N
N
N
N

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00

80◦ 00 ′
72◦ 02 ′
58◦ 32 ′
44◦ 08 ′
29◦ 30 ′
14◦ 46 ′
00◦ 00 ′

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
06:08

88◦ 32 ′
75◦ 11 ′
60◦ 30 ′
45◦ 48 ′
31◦ 08 ′
16◦ 31 ′
01◦ 59 ′
00◦ 00 ′

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
06:14

79◦ 51 ′
72◦ 20 ′
59◦ 22 ′
45◦ 32 ′
31◦ 28 ′
17◦ 24 ′
03◦ 26 ′
00◦ 00 ′

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
06:17

76◦ 34 ′
70◦ 22 ′
58◦ 23 ′
45◦ 04 ′
31◦ 23 ′
17◦ 38 ′
03◦ 58 ′
00◦ 00 ′

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
06:14

79◦ 51 ′
72◦ 20 ′
59◦ 22 ′
45◦ 32 ′
31◦ 28 ′
17◦ 24 ′
03◦ 26 ′
00◦ 00 ′

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00

88◦ 32 ′
75◦ 11 ′
60◦ 30 ′
45◦ 48 ′
31◦ 08 ′
16◦ 31 ′

Aries
066◦ 34 ′
122◦ 18 ′
137◦ 08 ′
142◦ 34 ′
145◦ 03 ′
146◦ 13 ′
146◦ 34 ′
Taurus
069◦ 26 ′
163◦ 41 ′
159◦ 21 ′
156◦ 49 ′
154◦ 35 ′
152◦ 16 ′
149◦ 37 ′
149◦ 13 ′
Gemini
077◦ 46 ′
020◦ 37 ′
002◦ 38 ′
174◦ 04 ′
168◦ 13 ′
163◦ 15 ′
158◦ 22 ′
157◦ 07 ′
Cancer
090◦ 00 ′
040◦ 40 ′
020◦ 04 ′
009◦ 35 ′
002◦ 27 ′
176◦ 31 ′
170◦ 49 ′
169◦ 05 ′
Leo
102◦ 14 ′
045◦ 05 ′
027◦ 06 ′
018◦ 31 ′
012◦ 40 ′
007◦ 42 ′
002◦ 50 ′
001◦ 34 ′
Virgo
110◦ 34 ′
024◦ 50 ′
020◦ 30 ′
017◦ 58 ′
015◦ 44 ′
013◦ 25 ′

06:00
06:08

066◦ 34 ′
010◦ 50 ′
176◦ 00 ′
170◦ 34 ′
168◦ 05 ′
166◦ 55 ′
166◦ 34 ′

N
N
N
N
N

110◦ 34 ′
155◦ 10 ′
159◦ 30 ′
162◦ 02 ′
164◦ 16 ′
166◦ 35 ′
169◦ 14 ′
169◦ 38 ′

N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N

N
N
N

102◦ 14 ′
134◦ 55 ′
152◦ 54 ′
161◦ 29 ′
167◦ 20 ′
172◦ 18 ′
177◦ 10 ′
178◦ 26 ′

N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N

N
N
N
N
N

090◦ 00 ′
139◦ 20 ′
159◦ 56 ′
170◦ 25 ′
177◦ 33 ′
003◦ 29 ′
009◦ 11 ′
010◦ 55 ′

N
N
N
N
N

N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N

077◦ 46 ′ N
159◦ 23 ′ N
177◦ 22 ′ N
005◦ 56 ′
011◦ 47 ′
016◦ 45 ′
021◦ 38 ′
022◦ 53 ′

N
N
N
N
N
N

069◦ 26 ′ N
016◦ 19 ′
020◦ 39 ′
023◦ 11 ′
025◦ 25 ′
027◦ 44 ′

N

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
05:51
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
05:45
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
05:42
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
05:45
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
05:51

01◦ 59 ′
00◦ 00 ′

010◦ 46 ′ N
010◦ 22 ′ N
Libra
80◦ 00 ′ 113◦ 26 ′
72◦ 02 ′ 169◦ 10 ′
58◦ 32 ′ 004◦ 01 ′ N
44◦ 08 ′ 009◦ 26 ′ N
29◦ 30 ′ 011◦ 56 ′ N
14◦ 46 ′ 013◦ 05 ′ N
00◦ 00 ′ 013◦ 26 ′ N
Scorpio
68◦ 32 ′ 110◦ 34 ′
63◦ 52 ′ 145◦ 55 ′
53◦ 15 ′ 165◦ 58 ′
40◦ 23 ′ 176◦ 40 ′
26◦ 37 ′ 003◦ 07 ′ N
12◦ 26 ′ 007◦ 30 ′ N
00◦ 00 ′ 010◦ 22 ′ N
Saggitarius
59◦ 51 ′ 102◦ 14 ′
56◦ 26 ′ 129◦ 41 ′
47◦ 48 ′ 149◦ 23 ′
36◦ 26 ′ 162◦ 11 ′
23◦ 44 ′ 170◦ 55 ′
10◦ 20 ′ 177◦ 27 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 001◦ 34 ′ N
Capricorn
56◦ 34 ′ 090◦ 00 ′
53◦ 29 ′ 115◦ 22 ′
45◦ 31 ′ 134◦ 39 ′
34◦ 44 ′ 147◦ 56 ′
22◦ 30 ′ 157◦ 24 ′
09◦ 29 ′ 164◦ 40 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 169◦ 05 ′
Aquarius
59◦ 51 ′ 077◦ 46 ′
56◦ 26 ′ 105◦ 13 ′
47◦ 48 ′ 124◦ 55 ′
36◦ 26 ′ 137◦ 43 ′
23◦ 44 ′ 146◦ 28 ′
10◦ 20 ′ 153◦ 00 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 157◦ 07 ′
Pisces
68◦ 32 ′ 069◦ 26 ′
63◦ 52 ′ 104◦ 47 ′
53◦ 15 ′ 124◦ 49 ′
40◦ 23 ′ 135◦ 31 ′
26◦ 37 ′ 141◦ 59 ′
12◦ 26 ′ 146◦ 21 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 149◦ 13 ′

030◦ 23 ′
030◦ 47 ′
113◦ 26 ′
057◦ 42 ′
042◦ 51 ′
037◦ 26 ′
034◦ 56 ′
033◦ 47 ′
033◦ 26 ′
110◦ 34 ′
075◦ 13 ′
055◦ 11 ′
044◦ 29 ′
038◦ 01 ′
033◦ 39 ′
030◦ 47 ′
102◦ 14 ′
074◦ 47 ′
055◦ 05 ′
042◦ 17 ′
033◦ 32 ′
027◦ 00 ′
022◦ 53 ′
090◦ 00 ′
064◦ 38 ′
045◦ 21 ′
032◦ 04 ′
022◦ 36 ′
015◦ 20 ′
010◦ 55 ′
077◦ 46 ′
050◦ 19 ′
030◦ 37 ′
017◦ 49 ′
009◦ 05 ′
002◦ 33 ′
178◦ 26 ′ N
069◦ 26 ′
034◦ 05 ′
014◦ 02 ′
003◦ 20 ′
176◦ 53 ′ N
172◦ 30 ′ N
169◦ 38 ′ N

Table 22: Ecliptic altitude and parallactic angle for latitude +10◦ .
60

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00

70◦ 00 ′
65◦ 11 ′
54◦ 28 ′
41◦ 38 ′
28◦ 01 ′
14◦ 05 ′
00◦ 00 ′

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
06:16

81◦ 28 ′
73◦ 15 ′
59◦ 57 ′
45◦ 59 ′
31◦ 54 ′
17◦ 50 ′
03◦ 54 ′
00◦ 00 ′

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
06:30

89◦ 51 ′
75◦ 55 ′
61◦ 52 ′
47◦ 52 ′
33◦ 59 ′
20◦ 15 ′
06◦ 46 ′
00◦ 00 ′

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
06:36

86◦ 34 ′
75◦ 39 ′
61◦ 58 ′
48◦ 13 ′
34◦ 33 ′
21◦ 03 ′
07◦ 49 ′
00◦ 00 ′

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
06:30

89◦ 51 ′
75◦ 55 ′
61◦ 52 ′
47◦ 52 ′
33◦ 59 ′
20◦ 15 ′
06◦ 46 ′
00◦ 00 ′

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00

81◦ 28 ′
73◦ 15 ′
59◦ 57 ′
45◦ 59 ′
31◦ 54 ′
17◦ 50 ′

Aries
066◦ 34 ′
101◦ 59 ′
120◦ 31 ′
129◦ 20 ′
133◦ 46 ′
135◦ 55 ′
136◦ 34 ′
Taurus
069◦ 26 ′
126◦ 58 ′
139◦ 10 ′
142◦ 26 ′
142◦ 53 ′
141◦ 53 ′
139◦ 48 ′
139◦ 00 ′
Gemini
077◦ 46 ′
165◦ 46 ′
162◦ 48 ′
159◦ 52 ′
156◦ 42 ′
153◦ 07 ′
148◦ 54 ′
146◦ 24 ′
Cancer
090◦ 00 ′
010◦ 58 ′
001◦ 12 ′
175◦ 44 ′
171◦ 08 ′
166◦ 33 ′
161◦ 32 ′
158◦ 07 ′
Leo
102◦ 14 ′
010◦ 14 ′
007◦ 16 ′
004◦ 19 ′
001◦ 09 ′
177◦ 34 ′
173◦ 22 ′
170◦ 52 ′
Virgo
110◦ 34 ′
168◦ 07 ′
000◦ 19 ′
003◦ 35 ′
004◦ 02 ′
003◦ 02 ′

066◦ 34 ′
031◦ 09 ′
012◦ 37 ′
003◦ 48 ′
179◦ 22 ′ N
177◦ 13 ′ N
176◦ 34 ′ N
069◦ 26 ′
011◦ 53 ′
179◦ 41 ′
176◦ 25 ′
175◦ 58 ′
176◦ 58 ′
179◦ 03 ′
179◦ 51 ′
N

102◦ 14 ′
169◦ 46 ′
172◦ 44 ′
175◦ 41 ′
178◦ 51 ′
002◦ 26 ′
006◦ 38 ′
009◦ 08 ′

N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N

N
N
N

090◦ 00 ′ N
169◦ 02 ′ N
178◦ 48 ′ N
004◦ 16 ′
008◦ 52 ′
013◦ 27 ′
018◦ 28 ′
021◦ 53 ′

N
N
N
N
N

077◦ 46 ′ N
014◦ 14 ′
017◦ 12 ′
020◦ 08 ′
023◦ 18 ′
026◦ 53 ′
031◦ 06 ′
033◦ 36 ′

N
N
N
N

110◦ 34 ′
053◦ 02 ′
040◦ 50 ′
037◦ 34 ′
037◦ 07 ′
038◦ 07 ′

06:00
06:16
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
05:43
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
05:29
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
05:23
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
05:29
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
05:43

03◦ 54 ′
00◦ 00 ′

000◦ 57 ′ N
000◦ 09 ′ N
Libra
70◦ 00 ′ 113◦ 26 ′
65◦ 11 ′ 148◦ 51 ′
54◦ 28 ′ 167◦ 23 ′
41◦ 38 ′ 176◦ 12 ′
28◦ 01 ′ 000◦ 38 ′ N
14◦ 05 ′ 002◦ 47 ′ N
00◦ 00 ′ 003◦ 26 ′ N
Scorpio
58◦ 32 ′ 110◦ 34 ′
55◦ 14 ′ 135◦ 49 ′
46◦ 51 ′ 153◦ 58 ′
35◦ 41 ′ 165◦ 27 ′
23◦ 06 ′ 172◦ 48 ′
09◦ 48 ′ 177◦ 40 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 000◦ 09 ′ N
Saggitarius
49◦ 51 ′ 102◦ 14 ′
47◦ 15 ′ 123◦ 13 ′
40◦ 15 ′ 140◦ 14 ′
30◦ 24 ′ 152◦ 37 ′
18◦ 52 ′ 161◦ 33 ′
06◦ 21 ′ 168◦ 11 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 170◦ 52 ′
Capricorn
46◦ 34 ′ 090◦ 00 ′
44◦ 10 ′ 109◦ 49 ′
37◦ 38 ′ 126◦ 24 ′
28◦ 16 ′ 138◦ 59 ′
17◦ 10 ′ 148◦ 24 ′
05◦ 00 ′ 155◦ 40 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 158◦ 07 ′
Aquarius
49◦ 51 ′ 077◦ 46 ′
47◦ 15 ′ 098◦ 46 ′
40◦ 15 ′ 115◦ 46 ′
30◦ 24 ′ 128◦ 10 ′
18◦ 52 ′ 137◦ 05 ′
06◦ 21 ′ 143◦ 44 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 146◦ 24 ′
Pisces
58◦ 32 ′ 069◦ 26 ′
55◦ 14 ′ 094◦ 41 ′
46◦ 51 ′ 112◦ 49 ′
35◦ 41 ′ 124◦ 18 ′
23◦ 06 ′ 131◦ 39 ′
09◦ 48 ′ 136◦ 31 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 139◦ 00 ′

040◦ 12 ′
041◦ 00 ′
113◦ 26 ′
078◦ 01 ′
059◦ 29 ′
050◦ 40 ′
046◦ 14 ′
044◦ 05 ′
043◦ 26 ′
110◦ 34 ′
085◦ 19 ′
067◦ 11 ′
055◦ 42 ′
048◦ 21 ′
043◦ 29 ′
041◦ 00 ′
102◦ 14 ′
081◦ 14 ′
064◦ 14 ′
051◦ 50 ′
042◦ 55 ′
036◦ 16 ′
033◦ 36 ′
090◦ 00 ′
070◦ 11 ′
053◦ 36 ′
041◦ 01 ′
031◦ 36 ′
024◦ 20 ′
021◦ 53 ′
077◦ 46 ′
056◦ 47 ′
039◦ 46 ′
027◦ 23 ′
018◦ 27 ′
011◦ 49 ′
009◦ 10 ′
069◦ 26 ′
044◦ 11 ′
026◦ 02 ′
014◦ 33 ′
007◦ 12 ′
002◦ 20 ′
179◦ 51 ′ N

Table 23: Ecliptic altitude and parallactic angle for latitude +20◦ .
61

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
06:26
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
06:48
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
06:57
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
06:48
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00

Aries
60◦ 00 ′ 066◦ 34 ′
56◦ 46 ′ 090◦ 43 ′
48◦ 35 ′ 107◦ 28 ′
37◦ 46 ′ 117◦ 20 ′
25◦ 40 ′ 122◦ 53 ′
12◦ 57 ′ 125◦ 42 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 126◦ 34 ′
Taurus
71◦ 28 ′ 069◦ 26 ′
66◦ 49 ′ 104◦ 08 ′
56◦ 33 ′ 121◦ 13 ′
44◦ 24 ′ 128◦ 24 ′
31◦ 35 ′ 131◦ 07 ′
18◦ 36 ′ 131◦ 23 ′
05◦ 42 ′ 129◦ 55 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 128◦ 45 ′
Gemini
80◦ 09 ′ 077◦ 46 ′
73◦ 15 ′ 128◦ 48 ′
61◦ 12 ′ 141◦ 47 ′
48◦ 20 ′ 144◦ 53 ′
35◦ 22 ′ 144◦ 39 ′
22◦ 30 ′ 142◦ 39 ′
09◦ 55 ′ 139◦ 19 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 135◦ 36 ′
Cancer
83◦ 26 ′ 090◦ 00 ′
75◦ 06 ′ 150◦ 38 ′
62◦ 30 ′ 159◦ 40 ′
49◦ 32 ′ 160◦ 38 ′
36◦ 36 ′ 159◦ 05 ′
23◦ 52 ′ 156◦ 10 ′
11◦ 28 ′ 152◦ 05 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 146◦ 59 ′
Leo
80◦ 09 ′ 102◦ 14 ′
73◦ 15 ′ 153◦ 15 ′
61◦ 12 ′ 166◦ 14 ′
48◦ 20 ′ 169◦ 20 ′
35◦ 22 ′ 169◦ 06 ′
22◦ 30 ′ 167◦ 06 ′
09◦ 55 ′ 163◦ 46 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 160◦ 03 ′
Virgo
71◦ 28 ′ 110◦ 34 ′
66◦ 49 ′ 145◦ 17 ′
56◦ 33 ′ 162◦ 22 ′
44◦ 24 ′ 169◦ 33 ′
31◦ 35 ′ 172◦ 16 ′
18◦ 36 ′ 172◦ 32 ′

066◦ 34 ′
042◦ 25 ′
025◦ 40 ′
015◦ 48 ′
010◦ 15 ′
007◦ 26 ′
006◦ 34 ′
069◦ 26 ′
034◦ 43 ′
017◦ 38 ′
010◦ 27 ′
007◦ 44 ′
007◦ 28 ′
008◦ 56 ′
010◦ 06 ′
077◦ 46 ′
026◦ 45 ′
013◦ 46 ′
010◦ 40 ′
010◦ 54 ′
012◦ 54 ′
016◦ 14 ′
019◦ 57 ′
090◦ 00 ′
029◦ 22 ′
020◦ 20 ′
019◦ 22 ′
020◦ 55 ′
023◦ 50 ′
027◦ 55 ′
033◦ 01 ′
102◦ 14 ′
051◦ 12 ′
038◦ 13 ′
035◦ 07 ′
035◦ 21 ′
037◦ 21 ′
040◦ 41 ′
044◦ 24 ′
110◦ 34 ′
075◦ 52 ′
058◦ 47 ′
051◦ 36 ′
048◦ 53 ′
048◦ 37 ′

06:00
06:26
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
05:33
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
05:11
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
05:02
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
05:11
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
05:33

05◦ 42 ′
00◦ 00 ′

171◦ 04 ′
169◦ 54 ′
Libra
60◦ 00 ′ 113◦ 26 ′
56◦ 46 ′ 137◦ 35 ′
48◦ 35 ′ 154◦ 20 ′
37◦ 46 ′ 164◦ 12 ′
25◦ 40 ′ 169◦ 45 ′
12◦ 57 ′ 172◦ 34 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 173◦ 26 ′
Scorpio
48◦ 32 ′ 110◦ 34 ′
46◦ 05 ′ 129◦ 26 ′
39◦ 28 ′ 144◦ 41 ′
30◦ 03 ′ 155◦ 36 ′
18◦ 58 ′ 163◦ 03 ′
06◦ 54 ′ 168◦ 00 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 169◦ 54 ′
Saggitarius
39◦ 51 ′ 102◦ 14 ′
37◦ 49 ′ 118◦ 43 ′
32◦ 08 ′ 132◦ 59 ′
23◦ 45 ′ 144◦ 13 ′
13◦ 33 ′ 152◦ 43 ′
02◦ 11 ′ 159◦ 04 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 160◦ 03 ′
Capricorn
36◦ 34 ′ 090◦ 00 ′
34◦ 40 ′ 105◦ 49 ′
29◦ 18 ′ 119◦ 46 ′
21◦ 17 ′ 131◦ 05 ′
11◦ 27 ′ 139◦ 56 ′
00◦ 23 ′ 146◦ 47 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 146◦ 59 ′
Aquarius
39◦ 51 ′ 077◦ 46 ′
37◦ 49 ′ 094◦ 15 ′
32◦ 08 ′ 108◦ 32 ′
23◦ 45 ′ 119◦ 46 ′
13◦ 33 ′ 128◦ 16 ′
02◦ 11 ′ 134◦ 37 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 135◦ 36 ′
Pisces
48◦ 32 ′ 069◦ 26 ′
46◦ 05 ′ 088◦ 17 ′
39◦ 28 ′ 103◦ 33 ′
30◦ 03 ′ 114◦ 27 ′
18◦ 58 ′ 121◦ 54 ′
06◦ 54 ′ 126◦ 51 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 128◦ 45 ′

050◦ 05 ′
051◦ 15 ′
113◦ 26 ′
089◦ 17 ′
072◦ 32 ′
062◦ 40 ′
057◦ 07 ′
054◦ 18 ′
053◦ 26 ′
110◦ 34 ′
091◦ 43 ′
076◦ 27 ′
065◦ 33 ′
058◦ 06 ′
053◦ 09 ′
051◦ 15 ′
102◦ 14 ′
085◦ 45 ′
071◦ 28 ′
060◦ 14 ′
051◦ 44 ′
045◦ 23 ′
044◦ 24 ′
090◦ 00 ′
074◦ 11 ′
060◦ 14 ′
048◦ 55 ′
040◦ 04 ′
033◦ 13 ′
033◦ 01 ′
077◦ 46 ′
061◦ 17 ′
047◦ 01 ′
035◦ 47 ′
027◦ 17 ′
020◦ 56 ′
019◦ 57 ′
069◦ 26 ′
050◦ 34 ′
035◦ 19 ′
024◦ 24 ′
016◦ 57 ′
012◦ 00 ′
010◦ 06 ′

Table 24: Ecliptic altitude and parallactic angle for latitude +30◦ .
62

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
06:39
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
07:00
07:11
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
07:00
07:25
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
07:00
07:11
00:00
01:00
02:00

Aries
50◦ 00 ′ 066◦ 34 ′
47◦ 44 ′ 083◦ 43 ′
41◦ 34 ′ 097◦ 21 ′
32◦ 48 ′ 106◦ 41 ′
22◦ 31 ′ 112◦ 28 ′
11◦ 26 ′ 115◦ 35 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 116◦ 34 ′
Taurus
61◦ 28 ′ 069◦ 26 ′
58◦ 32 ′ 091◦ 45 ′
51◦ 05 ′ 106◦ 59 ′
41◦ 12 ′ 115◦ 28 ′
30◦ 13 ′ 119◦ 34 ′
18◦ 47 ′ 120◦ 50 ′
07◦ 21 ′ 120◦ 00 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 118◦ 26 ′
Gemini
70◦ 09 ′ 077◦ 46 ′
66◦ 21 ′ 107◦ 24 ′
57◦ 35 ′ 123◦ 23 ′
46◦ 53 ′ 130◦ 11 ′
35◦ 31 ′ 132◦ 22 ′
24◦ 03 ′ 131◦ 54 ′
12◦ 47 ′ 129◦ 33 ′
02◦ 01 ′ 125◦ 32 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 124◦ 34 ′
Cancer
73◦ 26 ′ 090◦ 00 ′
69◦ 09 ′ 123◦ 52 ′
59◦ 48 ′ 139◦ 36 ′
48◦ 49 ′ 145◦ 21 ′
37◦ 23 ′ 146◦ 36 ′
25◦ 57 ′ 145◦ 23 ′
14◦ 49 ′ 142◦ 24 ′
04◦ 14 ′ 137◦ 54 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 135◦ 32 ′
Leo
70◦ 09 ′ 102◦ 14 ′
66◦ 21 ′ 131◦ 51 ′
57◦ 35 ′ 147◦ 50 ′
46◦ 53 ′ 154◦ 39 ′
35◦ 31 ′ 156◦ 49 ′
24◦ 03 ′ 156◦ 21 ′
12◦ 47 ′ 154◦ 00 ′
02◦ 01 ′ 150◦ 00 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 149◦ 01 ′
Virgo
61◦ 28 ′ 110◦ 34 ′
58◦ 32 ′ 132◦ 54 ′
51◦ 05 ′ 148◦ 08 ′

066◦ 34 ′
049◦ 25 ′
035◦ 47 ′
026◦ 27 ′
020◦ 40 ′
017◦ 33 ′
016◦ 34 ′
069◦ 26 ′
047◦ 06 ′
031◦ 52 ′
023◦ 23 ′
019◦ 17 ′
018◦ 01 ′
018◦ 51 ′
020◦ 25 ′
077◦ 46 ′
048◦ 09 ′
032◦ 10 ′
025◦ 21 ′
023◦ 11 ′
023◦ 39 ′
026◦ 00 ′
030◦ 00 ′
030◦ 59 ′
090◦ 00 ′
056◦ 08 ′
040◦ 24 ′
034◦ 39 ′
033◦ 24 ′
034◦ 37 ′
037◦ 36 ′
042◦ 06 ′
044◦ 28 ′
102◦ 14 ′
072◦ 36 ′
056◦ 37 ′
049◦ 49 ′
047◦ 38 ′
048◦ 06 ′
050◦ 27 ′
054◦ 28 ′
055◦ 26 ′
110◦ 34 ′
088◦ 15 ′
073◦ 01 ′

03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
06:39
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
05:20
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
04:48
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
04:34
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
04:48
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
05:20

41◦ 12 ′
30◦ 13 ′
18◦ 47 ′
07◦ 21 ′
00◦ 00 ′

156◦ 37 ′
160◦ 43 ′
161◦ 59 ′
161◦ 09 ′
159◦ 35 ′
Libra
50◦ 00 ′ 113◦ 26 ′
47◦ 44 ′ 130◦ 35 ′
41◦ 34 ′ 144◦ 13 ′
32◦ 48 ′ 153◦ 33 ′
22◦ 31 ′ 159◦ 20 ′
11◦ 26 ′ 162◦ 27 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 163◦ 26 ′
Scorpio
38◦ 32 ′ 110◦ 34 ′
36◦ 41 ′ 124◦ 53 ′
31◦ 29 ′ 137◦ 16 ′
23◦ 46 ′ 146◦ 52 ′
14◦ 20 ′ 153◦ 47 ′
03◦ 49 ′ 158◦ 26 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 159◦ 35 ′
Saggitarius
29◦ 51 ′ 102◦ 14 ′
28◦ 15 ′ 115◦ 14 ′
23◦ 40 ′ 126◦ 57 ′
16◦ 41 ′ 136◦ 40 ′
07◦ 57 ′ 144◦ 17 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 149◦ 01 ′
Capricorn
26◦ 34 ′ 090◦ 00 ′
25◦ 03 ′ 102◦ 38 ′
20◦ 41 ′ 114◦ 10 ′
13◦ 58 ′ 123◦ 56 ′
05◦ 30 ′ 131◦ 48 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 135◦ 32 ′
Aquarius
29◦ 51 ′ 077◦ 46 ′
28◦ 15 ′ 090◦ 47 ′
23◦ 40 ′ 102◦ 30 ′
16◦ 41 ′ 112◦ 13 ′
07◦ 57 ′ 119◦ 50 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 124◦ 34 ′
Pisces
38◦ 32 ′ 069◦ 26 ′
36◦ 41 ′ 083◦ 44 ′
31◦ 29 ′ 096◦ 07 ′
23◦ 46 ′ 105◦ 43 ′
14◦ 20 ′ 112◦ 38 ′
03◦ 49 ′ 117◦ 18 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 118◦ 26 ′

064◦ 32 ′
060◦ 26 ′
059◦ 10 ′
060◦ 00 ′
061◦ 34 ′
113◦ 26 ′
096◦ 17 ′
082◦ 39 ′
073◦ 19 ′
067◦ 32 ′
064◦ 25 ′
063◦ 26 ′
110◦ 34 ′
096◦ 16 ′
083◦ 53 ′
074◦ 17 ′
067◦ 22 ′
062◦ 42 ′
061◦ 34 ′
102◦ 14 ′
089◦ 13 ′
077◦ 30 ′
067◦ 47 ′
060◦ 10 ′
055◦ 26 ′
090◦ 00 ′
077◦ 22 ′
065◦ 50 ′
056◦ 04 ′
048◦ 12 ′
044◦ 28 ′
077◦ 46 ′
064◦ 46 ′
053◦ 03 ′
043◦ 20 ′
035◦ 43 ′
030◦ 59 ′
069◦ 26 ′
055◦ 07 ′
042◦ 44 ′
033◦ 08 ′
026◦ 13 ′
021◦ 34 ′
020◦ 25 ′

Table 25: Ecliptic altitude and parallactic angle for latitude +40◦ .
63

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
06:55
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
07:00
07:43
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
07:00
08:00
08:04
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
07:00
07:43
00:00
01:00

Aries
40◦ 00 ′ 066◦ 34 ′
38◦ 23 ′ 078◦ 49 ′
33◦ 50 ′ 089◦ 20 ′
27◦ 02 ′ 097◦ 15 ′
18◦ 45 ′ 102◦ 34 ′
09◦ 35 ′ 105◦ 36 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 106◦ 34 ′
Taurus
51◦ 28 ′ 069◦ 26 ′
49◦ 32 ′ 084◦ 17 ′
44◦ 15 ′ 096◦ 05 ′
36◦ 43 ′ 103◦ 58 ′
27◦ 52 ′ 108◦ 27 ′
18◦ 23 ′ 110◦ 17 ′
08◦ 46 ′ 110◦ 00 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 108◦ 01 ′
Gemini
60◦ 09 ′ 077◦ 46 ′
57◦ 51 ′ 096◦ 00 ′
51◦ 51 ′ 109◦ 08 ′
43◦ 40 ′ 116◦ 42 ′
34◦ 26 ′ 120◦ 14 ′
24◦ 50 ′ 120◦ 57 ′
15◦ 18 ′ 119◦ 34 ′
06◦ 11 ′ 116◦ 25 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 113◦ 05 ′
Cancer
63◦ 26 ′ 090◦ 00 ′
60◦ 58 ′ 110◦ 03 ′
54◦ 38 ′ 123◦ 43 ′
46◦ 12 ′ 131◦ 02 ′
36◦ 50 ′ 134◦ 04 ′
27◦ 13 ′ 134◦ 17 ′
17◦ 44 ′ 132◦ 27 ′
08◦ 45 ′ 128◦ 55 ′
00◦ 34 ′ 123◦ 50 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 123◦ 24 ′
Leo
60◦ 09 ′ 102◦ 14 ′
57◦ 51 ′ 120◦ 27 ′
51◦ 51 ′ 133◦ 35 ′
43◦ 40 ′ 141◦ 10 ′
34◦ 26 ′ 144◦ 41 ′
24◦ 50 ′ 145◦ 24 ′
15◦ 18 ′ 144◦ 01 ′
06◦ 11 ′ 140◦ 52 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 137◦ 33 ′
Virgo
51◦ 28 ′ 110◦ 34 ′
49◦ 32 ′ 125◦ 26 ′

066◦ 34 ′
054◦ 19 ′
043◦ 48 ′
035◦ 53 ′
030◦ 34 ′
027◦ 32 ′
026◦ 34 ′
069◦ 26 ′
054◦ 34 ′
042◦ 46 ′
034◦ 53 ′
030◦ 24 ′
028◦ 34 ′
028◦ 51 ′
030◦ 50 ′
077◦ 46 ′
059◦ 33 ′
046◦ 25 ′
038◦ 50 ′
035◦ 19 ′
034◦ 36 ′
035◦ 59 ′
039◦ 08 ′
042◦ 27 ′
090◦ 00 ′
069◦ 57 ′
056◦ 17 ′
048◦ 58 ′
045◦ 56 ′
045◦ 43 ′
047◦ 33 ′
051◦ 05 ′
056◦ 10 ′
056◦ 36 ′
102◦ 14 ′
084◦ 00 ′
070◦ 52 ′
063◦ 18 ′
059◦ 46 ′
059◦ 03 ′
060◦ 26 ′
063◦ 35 ′
066◦ 55 ′
110◦ 34 ′
095◦ 43 ′

02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
06:55
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
05:04
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
04:16
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
03:55
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
04:16
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
05:04

44◦ 15 ′
36◦ 43 ′
27◦ 52 ′
18◦ 23 ′
08◦ 46 ′
00◦ 00 ′

137◦ 14 ′
145◦ 07 ′
149◦ 36 ′
151◦ 26 ′
151◦ 09 ′
149◦ 10 ′
Libra
40◦ 00 ′ 113◦ 26 ′
38◦ 23 ′ 125◦ 41 ′
33◦ 50 ′ 136◦ 12 ′
27◦ 02 ′ 144◦ 07 ′
18◦ 45 ′ 149◦ 26 ′
09◦ 35 ′ 152◦ 28 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 153◦ 26 ′
Scorpio
28◦ 32 ′ 110◦ 34 ′
27◦ 08 ′ 121◦ 21 ′
23◦ 09 ′ 131◦ 02 ′
17◦ 03 ′ 138◦ 58 ′
09◦ 22 ′ 144◦ 55 ′
00◦ 37 ′ 148◦ 57 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 149◦ 10 ′
Saggitarius
19◦ 51 ′ 102◦ 14 ′
18◦ 36 ′ 112◦ 20 ′
15◦ 00 ′ 121◦ 40 ′
09◦ 22 ′ 129◦ 39 ′
02◦ 10 ′ 136◦ 05 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 137◦ 33 ′
Capricorn
16◦ 34 ′ 090◦ 00 ′
15◦ 22 ′ 099◦ 56 ′
11◦ 54 ′ 109◦ 10 ′
06◦ 27 ′ 117◦ 13 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 123◦ 24 ′
Aquarius
19◦ 51 ′ 077◦ 46 ′
18◦ 36 ′ 087◦ 53 ′
15◦ 00 ′ 097◦ 12 ′
09◦ 22 ′ 105◦ 12 ′
02◦ 10 ′ 111◦ 38 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 113◦ 05 ′
Pisces
28◦ 32 ′ 069◦ 26 ′
27◦ 08 ′ 080◦ 12 ′
23◦ 09 ′ 089◦ 53 ′
17◦ 03 ′ 097◦ 49 ′
09◦ 22 ′ 103◦ 46 ′
00◦ 37 ′ 107◦ 49 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 108◦ 01 ′

083◦ 55 ′
076◦ 02 ′
071◦ 33 ′
069◦ 43 ′
070◦ 00 ′
071◦ 59 ′
113◦ 26 ′
101◦ 11 ′
090◦ 40 ′
082◦ 45 ′
077◦ 26 ′
074◦ 24 ′
073◦ 26 ′
110◦ 34 ′
099◦ 48 ′
090◦ 07 ′
082◦ 11 ′
076◦ 14 ′
072◦ 11 ′
071◦ 59 ′
102◦ 14 ′
092◦ 07 ′
082◦ 48 ′
074◦ 48 ′
068◦ 22 ′
066◦ 55 ′
090◦ 00 ′
080◦ 04 ′
070◦ 50 ′
062◦ 47 ′
056◦ 36 ′
077◦ 46 ′
067◦ 40 ′
058◦ 20 ′
050◦ 21 ′
043◦ 55 ′
042◦ 27 ′
069◦ 26 ′
058◦ 39 ′
048◦ 58 ′
041◦ 02 ′
035◦ 05 ′
031◦ 03 ′
030◦ 50 ′

Table 26: Ecliptic altitude and parallactic angle for latitude +50◦ .
64

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
07:00
07:22
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
07:00
08:00
08:37
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
07:00
08:00
09:00
09:14
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
07:00
08:00

Aries
30◦ 00 ′ 066◦ 34 ′
28◦ 53 ′ 075◦ 04 ′
25◦ 40 ′ 082◦ 40 ′
20◦ 42 ′ 088◦ 46 ′
14◦ 29 ′ 093◦ 08 ′
07◦ 26 ′ 095◦ 43 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 096◦ 34 ′
Taurus
41◦ 28 ′ 069◦ 26 ′
40◦ 12 ′ 079◦ 11 ′
36◦ 37 ′ 087◦ 35 ′
31◦ 15 ′ 093◦ 51 ′
24◦ 40 ′ 097◦ 53 ′
17◦ 24 ′ 099◦ 50 ′
09◦ 55 ′ 099◦ 56 ′
02◦ 36 ′ 098◦ 20 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 097◦ 20 ′
Gemini
50◦ 09 ′ 077◦ 46 ′
48◦ 44 ′ 089◦ 05 ′
44◦ 49 ′ 098◦ 24 ′
39◦ 04 ′ 104◦ 52 ′
32◦ 12 ′ 108◦ 33 ′
24◦ 49 ′ 109◦ 55 ′
17◦ 21 ′ 109◦ 22 ′
10◦ 11 ′ 107◦ 09 ′
03◦ 39 ′ 103◦ 29 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 100◦ 29 ′
Cancer
53◦ 26 ′ 090◦ 00 ′
51◦ 57 ′ 102◦ 07 ′
47◦ 53 ′ 111◦ 53 ′
41◦ 58 ′ 118◦ 24 ′
35◦ 01 ′ 121◦ 55 ′
27◦ 35 ′ 123◦ 01 ′
20◦ 09 ′ 122◦ 11 ′
13◦ 03 ′ 119◦ 43 ′
06◦ 36 ′ 115◦ 51 ′
01◦ 09 ′ 110◦ 43 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 109◦ 17 ′
Leo
50◦ 09 ′ 102◦ 14 ′
48◦ 44 ′ 113◦ 33 ′
44◦ 49 ′ 122◦ 52 ′
39◦ 04 ′ 129◦ 19 ′
32◦ 12 ′ 133◦ 01 ′
24◦ 49 ′ 134◦ 23 ′
17◦ 21 ′ 133◦ 49 ′
10◦ 11 ′ 131◦ 37 ′
03◦ 39 ′ 127◦ 57 ′

066◦ 34 ′
058◦ 04 ′
050◦ 28 ′
044◦ 22 ′
040◦ 00 ′
037◦ 25 ′
036◦ 34 ′
069◦ 26 ′
059◦ 40 ′
051◦ 17 ′
045◦ 00 ′
040◦ 58 ′
039◦ 01 ′
038◦ 55 ′
040◦ 31 ′
041◦ 31 ′
077◦ 46 ′
066◦ 27 ′
057◦ 08 ′
050◦ 41 ′
046◦ 59 ′
045◦ 37 ′
046◦ 11 ′
048◦ 23 ′
052◦ 03 ′
055◦ 04 ′
090◦ 00 ′
077◦ 53 ′
068◦ 07 ′
061◦ 36 ′
058◦ 05 ′
056◦ 59 ′
057◦ 49 ′
060◦ 17 ′
064◦ 09 ′
069◦ 17 ′
070◦ 43 ′
102◦ 14 ′
090◦ 55 ′
081◦ 36 ′
075◦ 08 ′
071◦ 27 ′
070◦ 05 ′
070◦ 38 ′
072◦ 51 ′
076◦ 31 ′

08:37
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
07:00
07:22
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
04:37
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
03:22
00:00
01:00
02:00
02:45
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
03:22
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
04:37

00◦ 00 ′

124◦ 56 ′
Virgo
41◦ 28 ′ 110◦ 34 ′
40◦ 12 ′ 120◦ 20 ′
36◦ 37 ′ 128◦ 43 ′
31◦ 15 ′ 135◦ 00 ′
24◦ 40 ′ 139◦ 02 ′
17◦ 24 ′ 140◦ 59 ′
09◦ 55 ′ 141◦ 05 ′
02◦ 36 ′ 139◦ 29 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 138◦ 29 ′
Libra
30◦ 00 ′ 113◦ 26 ′
28◦ 53 ′ 121◦ 56 ′
25◦ 40 ′ 129◦ 32 ′
20◦ 42 ′ 135◦ 38 ′
14◦ 29 ′ 140◦ 00 ′
07◦ 26 ′ 142◦ 35 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 143◦ 26 ′
Scorpio
18◦ 32 ′ 110◦ 34 ′
17◦ 31 ′ 118◦ 22 ′
14◦ 36 ′ 125◦ 33 ′
10◦ 02 ′ 131◦ 37 ′
04◦ 11 ′ 136◦ 18 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 138◦ 29 ′
Saggitarius
09◦ 51 ′ 102◦ 14 ′
08◦ 56 ′ 109◦ 45 ′
06◦ 13 ′ 116◦ 48 ′
01◦ 56 ′ 122◦ 57 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 124◦ 56 ′
Capricorn
06◦ 34 ′ 090◦ 00 ′
05◦ 40 ′ 097◦ 28 ′
03◦ 02 ′ 104◦ 30 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 109◦ 17 ′
Aquarius
09◦ 51 ′ 077◦ 46 ′
08◦ 56 ′ 085◦ 18 ′
06◦ 13 ′ 092◦ 20 ′
01◦ 56 ′ 098◦ 29 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 100◦ 29 ′
Pisces
18◦ 32 ′ 069◦ 26 ′
17◦ 31 ′ 077◦ 14 ′
14◦ 36 ′ 084◦ 24 ′
10◦ 02 ′ 090◦ 28 ′
04◦ 11 ′ 095◦ 09 ′
00◦ 00 ′ 097◦ 20 ′

079◦ 31 ′
110◦ 34 ′
100◦ 49 ′
092◦ 25 ′
086◦ 09 ′
082◦ 07 ′
080◦ 10 ′
080◦ 04 ′
081◦ 40 ′
082◦ 40 ′
113◦ 26 ′
104◦ 56 ′
097◦ 20 ′
091◦ 14 ′
086◦ 52 ′
084◦ 17 ′
083◦ 26 ′
110◦ 34 ′
102◦ 46 ′
095◦ 36 ′
089◦ 32 ′
084◦ 51 ′
082◦ 40 ′
102◦ 14 ′
094◦ 42 ′
087◦ 40 ′
081◦ 31 ′
079◦ 31 ′
090◦ 00 ′
082◦ 32 ′
075◦ 30 ′
070◦ 43 ′
077◦ 46 ′
070◦ 15 ′
063◦ 12 ′
057◦ 03 ′
055◦ 04 ′
069◦ 26 ′
061◦ 38 ′
054◦ 27 ′
048◦ 23 ′
043◦ 42 ′
041◦ 31 ′

Table 27: Ecliptic altitude and parallactic angle for latitude +60◦ .
65

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00

20 00
19◦ 17 ′
17◦ 14 ′
14◦ 00 ′
09◦ 51 ′
05◦ 05 ′
00◦ 00 ′

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
07:00
08:00
08:15

31◦ 28 ′
30◦ 42 ′
28◦ 30 ′
25◦ 05 ′
20◦ 46 ′
15◦ 53 ′
10◦ 46 ′
05◦ 45 ′
01◦ 06 ′
00◦ 00 ′

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
07:00
08:00
09:00
10:00
11:00
12:00

40◦ 09 ′
39◦ 20 ′
37◦ 00 ′
33◦ 25 ′
28◦ 58 ′
24◦ 00 ′
18◦ 53 ′
13◦ 55 ′
09◦ 23 ′
05◦ 33 ′
02◦ 37 ′
00◦ 46 ′
00◦ 09 ′

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
07:00
08:00
09:00
10:00
11:00

43◦ 26 ′
42◦ 36 ′
40◦ 12 ′
36◦ 33 ′
32◦ 03 ′
27◦ 04 ′
21◦ 57 ′
17◦ 00 ′
12◦ 31 ′
08◦ 44 ′
05◦ 51 ′
04◦ 03 ′

Aries
066◦ 34 ′
071◦ 57 ′
076◦ 53 ′
081◦ 00 ′
084◦ 04 ′
085◦ 56 ′
093◦ 26 ′
Taurus
069◦ 26 ′
075◦ 20 ′
080◦ 39 ′
084◦ 55 ′
087◦ 54 ′
089◦ 31 ′
089◦ 48 ′
088◦ 49 ′
093◦ 20 ′
094◦ 05 ′
Gemini
077◦ 46 ′
084◦ 21 ′
090◦ 08 ′
094◦ 37 ′
097◦ 34 ′
098◦ 58 ′
098◦ 58 ′
097◦ 40 ′
095◦ 15 ′
091◦ 50 ′
092◦ 22 ′
097◦ 09 ′
102◦ 14 ′
Cancer
090◦ 00 ′
096◦ 54 ′
102◦ 56 ′
107◦ 31 ′
110◦ 27 ′
111◦ 47 ′
111◦ 38 ′
110◦ 13 ′
107◦ 40 ′
104◦ 10 ′
099◦ 54 ′
084◦ 55 ′

12:00

03◦ 26 ′

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
07:00
08:00
09:00
10:00
11:00
12:00

40◦ 09 ′
39◦ 20 ′
37◦ 00 ′
33◦ 25 ′
28◦ 58 ′
24◦ 00 ′
18◦ 53 ′
13◦ 55 ′
09◦ 23 ′
05◦ 33 ′
02◦ 37 ′
00◦ 46 ′
00◦ 09 ′

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
07:00
08:00
08:15

31◦ 28 ′
30◦ 42 ′
28◦ 30 ′
25◦ 05 ′
20◦ 46 ′
15◦ 53 ′
10◦ 46 ′
05◦ 45 ′
01◦ 06 ′
00◦ 00 ′

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00

20◦ 00 ′
19◦ 17 ′
17◦ 14 ′
14◦ 00 ′
09◦ 51 ′
05◦ 05 ′
00◦ 00 ′

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
03:44

08◦ 32 ′
07◦ 52 ′
05◦ 56 ′
02◦ 53 ′
00◦ 00 ′

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
03:44

08◦ 32 ′
07◦ 52 ′
05◦ 56 ′
02◦ 53 ′
00◦ 00 ′

066 34
061◦ 11 ′
056◦ 15 ′
052◦ 08 ′
049◦ 04 ′
047◦ 12 ′
046◦ 34 ′

N
N

069◦ 26 ′
063◦ 31 ′
058◦ 12 ′
053◦ 56 ′
050◦ 58 ′
049◦ 20 ′
049◦ 03 ′
050◦ 02 ′
052◦ 12 ′
052◦ 56 ′

N
N
N

077◦ 46 ′
071◦ 12 ′
065◦ 25 ′
060◦ 56 ′
057◦ 59 ′
056◦ 34 ′
056◦ 35 ′
057◦ 52 ′
060◦ 18 ′
063◦ 43 ′
067◦ 55 ′
072◦ 42 ′
102◦ 14 ′ N

N

090◦ 00 ′
083◦ 06 ′
077◦ 04 ′
072◦ 29 ′
069◦ 33 ′
068◦ 13 ′
068◦ 22 ′
069◦ 47 ′
072◦ 20 ′
075◦ 50 ′
080◦ 06 ′
095◦ 05 ′ N

090◦ 00 ′ N
Leo
102◦ 14 ′
108◦ 48 ′
114◦ 35 ′
119◦ 04 ′
122◦ 01 ′
123◦ 26 ′
123◦ 25 ′
122◦ 08 ′
119◦ 42 ′
116◦ 17 ′
112◦ 05 ′
107◦ 18 ′
077◦ 46 ′ N
Virgo
110◦ 34 ′
116◦ 29 ′
121◦ 48 ′
126◦ 04 ′
129◦ 02 ′
130◦ 40 ′
130◦ 57 ′
129◦ 58 ′
127◦ 48 ′
127◦ 04 ′
Libra
113◦ 26 ′
118◦ 49 ′
123◦ 45 ′
127◦ 52 ′
130◦ 56 ′
132◦ 48 ′
133◦ 26 ′
Scorpio
110◦ 34 ′
115◦ 42 ′
120◦ 28 ′
124◦ 35 ′
127◦ 04 ′
Pisces
069◦ 26 ′
074◦ 33 ′
079◦ 20 ′
083◦ 26 ′
094◦ 05 ′

090◦ 00 ′ N
102◦ 14 ′
095◦ 39 ′
089◦ 52 ′
085◦ 23 ′
082◦ 26 ′
081◦ 02 ′
081◦ 02 ′
082◦ 20 ′
084◦ 45 ′
088◦ 10 ′
087◦ 38 ′ N
082◦ 51 ′ N
077◦ 46 ′ N
110◦ 34 ′
104◦ 40 ′
099◦ 21 ′
095◦ 05 ′
092◦ 06 ′
090◦ 29 ′
090◦ 12 ′
091◦ 11 ′
086◦ 40 ′ N
085◦ 55 ′ N
113◦ 26 ′
108◦ 03 ′
103◦ 07 ′
099◦ 00 ′
095◦ 56 ′
094◦ 04 ′
086◦ 34 ′
110◦ 34 ′
105◦ 27 ′
100◦ 40 ′
096◦ 34 ′
085◦ 55 ′
069◦ 26 ′
064◦ 18 ′
059◦ 32 ′
055◦ 25 ′
052◦ 56

Table 28: Ecliptic altitude and parallactic angle for latitude +70◦ .

66

4 THE CELESTIAL SPHERE

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00

10◦ 00 ′
09◦ 39 ′
08◦ 39 ′
07◦ 03 ′
04◦ 59 ′
02◦ 35 ′
00◦ 00 ′

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
07:00
08:00
09:00
10:00
11:00
12:00

21◦ 28 ′
21◦ 07 ′
20◦ 04 ′
18◦ 26 ′
16◦ 19 ′
13◦ 53 ′
11◦ 18 ′
08◦ 44 ′
06◦ 21 ′
04◦ 20 ′
02◦ 47 ′
01◦ 48 ′
01◦ 28 ′

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
07:00
08:00
09:00
10:00
11:00
12:00

30◦ 09 ′
29◦ 47 ′
28◦ 43 ′
27◦ 02 ′
24◦ 53 ′
22◦ 25 ′
19◦ 50 ′
17◦ 17 ′
14◦ 56 ′
12◦ 56 ′
11◦ 25 ′
10◦ 28 ′
10◦ 09 ′

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
07:00

33◦ 26 ′
33◦ 04 ′
31◦ 59 ′
30◦ 17 ′
28◦ 07 ′
25◦ 39 ′
23◦ 03 ′
20◦ 31 ′

Aries
066◦ 34 ′
069◦ 11 ′
071◦ 36 ′
073◦ 40 ′
075◦ 15 ′
076◦ 14 ′
103◦ 26 ′
Taurus
069◦ 26 ′
072◦ 11 ′
074◦ 44 ′
076◦ 52 ′
078◦ 26 ′
079◦ 23 ′
079◦ 38 ′
079◦ 12 ′
101◦ 52 ′
103◦ 30 ′
105◦ 35 ′
108◦ 00 ′
110◦ 34 ′
Gemini
077◦ 46 ′
080◦ 44 ′
083◦ 27 ′
085◦ 42 ′
087◦ 19 ′
088◦ 14 ′
088◦ 25 ′
087◦ 53 ′
086◦ 44 ′
094◦ 59 ′
097◦ 09 ′
099◦ 36 ′
102◦ 14 ′
Cancer
090◦ 00 ′
093◦ 04 ′
095◦ 53 ′
098◦ 10 ′
099◦ 49 ′
100◦ 43 ′
100◦ 53 ′
100◦ 19 ′

066◦ 34 ′
063◦ 57 ′
061◦ 32 ′
059◦ 28 ′
057◦ 53 ′
056◦ 54 ′
056◦ 34 ′

N
N
N
N
N

069◦ 26 ′
066◦ 40 ′
064◦ 07 ′
061◦ 59 ′
060◦ 25 ′
059◦ 29 ′
059◦ 14 ′
059◦ 39 ′
060◦ 43 ′
062◦ 21 ′
064◦ 26 ′
066◦ 51 ′
110◦ 34 ′ N

N
N
N
N

077◦ 46 ′
074◦ 48 ′
072◦ 05 ′
069◦ 51 ′
068◦ 14 ′
067◦ 19 ′
067◦ 08 ′
067◦ 39 ′
068◦ 49 ′
070◦ 32 ′
072◦ 41 ′
104◦ 51 ′ N
102◦ 14 ′ N
090◦ 00 ′
086◦ 56 ′
084◦ 07 ′
081◦ 50 ′
080◦ 11 ′
079◦ 17 ′
079◦ 07 ′
079◦ 41 ′

08:00
09:00
10:00
11:00
12:00

18◦ 11 ′
16◦ 12 ′
14◦ 42 ′
13◦ 45 ′
13◦ 26 ′

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
07:00
08:00
09:00
10:00
11:00
12:00

30◦ 09 ′
29◦ 47 ′
28◦ 43 ′
27◦ 02 ′
24◦ 53 ′
22◦ 25 ′
19◦ 50 ′
17◦ 17 ′
14◦ 56 ′
12◦ 56 ′
11◦ 25 ′
10◦ 28 ′
10◦ 09 ′

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
07:00
08:00
09:00
10:00
11:00
12:00

21◦ 28 ′
21◦ 07 ′
20◦ 04 ′
18◦ 26 ′
16◦ 19 ′
13◦ 53 ′
11◦ 18 ′
08◦ 44 ′
06◦ 21 ′
04◦ 20 ′
02◦ 47 ′
01◦ 48 ′
01◦ 28 ′

00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00

10◦ 00 ′
09◦ 39 ′
08◦ 39 ′
07◦ 03 ′
04◦ 59 ′
02◦ 35 ′
00◦ 00 ′

099◦ 06 ′
097◦ 21 ′
084◦ 51 ′
087◦ 21 ′
090◦ 00 ′
Leo
102◦ 14 ′
105◦ 12 ′
107◦ 55 ′
110◦ 09 ′
111◦ 46 ′
112◦ 41 ′
112◦ 52 ′
112◦ 21 ′
111◦ 11 ′
109◦ 28 ′
107◦ 19 ′
075◦ 09 ′
077◦ 46 ′
Virgo
110◦ 34 ′
113◦ 20 ′
115◦ 53 ′
118◦ 01 ′
119◦ 35 ′
120◦ 31 ′
120◦ 46 ′
120◦ 21 ′
119◦ 17 ′
117◦ 39 ′
115◦ 34 ′
113◦ 09 ′
069◦ 26 ′
Libra
113◦ 26 ′
116◦ 03 ′
118◦ 28 ′
120◦ 32 ′
122◦ 07 ′
123◦ 06 ′
123◦ 26 ′

N
N
N

080◦ 54 ′
082◦ 39 ′
095◦ 09 ′ N
092◦ 39 ′ N
090◦ 00 ′ N

N
N

102◦ 14 ′
099◦ 16 ′
096◦ 33 ′
094◦ 18 ′
092◦ 41 ′
091◦ 46 ′
091◦ 35 ′
092◦ 07 ′
093◦ 16 ′
085◦ 01 ′
082◦ 51 ′
080◦ 24 ′
077◦ 46 ′

N
N
N
N

N

110◦ 34 ′
107◦ 49 ′
105◦ 16 ′
103◦ 08 ′
101◦ 34 ′
100◦ 37 ′
100◦ 22 ′
100◦ 48 ′
078◦ 08 ′
076◦ 30 ′
074◦ 25 ′
072◦ 00 ′
069◦ 26 ′

N
N
N
N
N

113◦ 26 ′
110◦ 49 ′
108◦ 24 ′
106◦ 20 ′
104◦ 45 ′
103◦ 46 ′
076◦ 34 ′

Table 29: Ecliptic altitude and parallactic angle for latitude +80◦ .

67

5 THE SUN

5 The Sun
Our solar model is sketched in Figure 17. From a geocentric point of view, the sun, S, appears to execute a
(counterclockwise) Keplerian orbit of major radius a, and eccentricity e, about the earth, G. As has already
been mentioned, the circle traced out by the sun on the celestial sphere is known as the ecliptic circle. This
circle is inclined at 23◦ 26 ′ to the celestial equator, which is the projection of the earth’s equator onto the
celestial sphere. Suppose that the angle subtended at the earth between the vernal equinox (i.e., the point
at which the sun passes the celestial equator from south to north) and the sun’s perigee (i.e., the point of
closest approach to the earth) is ̟. This angle is termed the longitude of the perigee, and is assumed to
vary linearly with time:
̟ = ̟0 + ̟1 (t − t0).
(79)

S

A

G

λ
T
̟

Π

Υ

Figure 17: The apparent orbit of the sun about the earth. Here, S, G, Π, A, ̟, T , λ, and Υ represent the
sun, earth, perigee, apogee, longitude of the perigee, true anomaly, ecliptic longitude, and vernal equinox,
respectively. View is from northern ecliptic pole. The sun orbits counterclockwise.

The sun’s ecliptic longitude is defined as the angle subtended at the earth between the vernal equinox
and the sun. Hence, from Fig. 17,
λ = ̟ + T,
(80)
where T is the true anomaly (see Sect. 3). By analogy, the mean longitude is written
¯λ = ̟ + M,

(81)

where M is the mean anomaly (see Sect. 3). It follows from Eq. (23) that
λ = ¯λ + q,
68

(82)

5 THE SUN
where
q = 2 e sin M + (5/4) e2 sin 2M,

(83)

is called the equation of center. Note that λ, ¯λ, T , and M are usually written as angles in the range 0◦ to
360◦ , whereas q is generally written as an angle in the range −180◦ to +180◦ .
The mean longitude increases uniformly with time (since both ̟ and M increase uniformly with time)
as
¯λ = ¯λ0 + n (t − t0),

(84)

where ¯λ0 is termed the mean longitude at epoch, n the rate of motion in mean longitude, and t0 the epoch.
We can also write
M = M0 + n
˜ (t − t0),
(85)
where
M0 = ¯λ0 − ̟0

(86)

n
˜ = n − ̟1

(87)

is called the mean anomaly at epoch, and
the rate of motion in mean anomaly.
Our procedure for determining the ecliptic longitude of the sun is described below. The requisite
orbital elements (i.e., e, n, n
˜ , ¯λ0, and M0) for the J2000 epoch (i.e., 12:00 UT on January 1, 2000 CE,
which corresponds to t0 = 2 451 545.0 JD) are listed in Table 30. These elements are calculated on the
assumption that the vernal equinox precesses at the uniform rate of −3.8246 × 10−5 ◦ /day. The ecliptic
longitude of the sun is specified by the following formulae:
¯λ = ¯λ0 + n (t − t0),

(88)

M = M0 + n
˜ (t − t0),

(89)

q = 2 e sin M + (5/4) e2 sin 2M,

(90)

λ = ¯λ + q.

(91)

These formulae are capable of matching NASA ephemeris data during the years 1995–2006 CE (see
http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/) with a mean error of 0.2 ′ and a maximum error of 0.7 ′ .
The ecliptic longitude of the sun can be calculated with the aid of Tables 32 and 33. Table 32 allows
the mean longitude, ¯λ, and mean anomaly, M, of the sun to be determined as functions of time. Table 33
specifies the equation of center, q, as a function of the mean anomaly.
The procedure for using the tables is as follows:
1. Determine the fractional Julian day number, t, corresponding to the date and time at which the
sun’s ecliptic longitude is to be calculated with the aid of Tables 1–3. Form ∆t = t − t0, where
t0 = 2 451 545.0 is the epoch.
2. Enter Table 32 with the digit for each power of 10 in ∆t and take out the corresponding values of ∆¯λ
and ∆M. If ∆t is negative then the corresponding values are also negative. The value of the mean
69

5 THE SUN
longitude, ¯λ, is the sum of all the ∆¯λ values plus the value of ¯λ at the epoch. Likewise, the value of
the mean anomaly, M, is the sum of all the ∆M values plus the value of M at the epoch. Add as
many multiples of 360◦ to ¯λ and M as is required to make them both fall in the range 0◦ to 360◦ .
Round M to the nearest degree.
3. Enter Table 33 with the value of M and take out the corresponding value of the equation of center,
q, and the radial anomaly, ζ. (The latter step is only necessary if the ecliptic longitude of the sun is
to be used to determine that of a planet.) It is necessary to interpolate if M is odd.
4. The ecliptic longitude, λ, is the sum of the mean longitude, ¯λ, and the equation of center, q. If
necessary, convert λ into an angle in the range 0◦ to 360◦ . The decimal fraction can be converted into
arc minutes using Table 31. Round to the nearest arc minute.
Two examples of the use of this procedure are given below.
Example 1: May 5, 2005 CE, 00:00 UT:
According to Tables 1–3, t = 2 453 495.5 JD. Hence, t − t0 = 2 453 495.5 − 2 451 545.0 = 1 950.5 JD. Making
use of Table 32, we find:
t(JD)

¯λ(◦ )

M(◦ )

+1000
+900
+50
+.5
Epoch

265.647
167.083
49.280
0.493
280.458
762.961
42.961

265.600
167.040
49.280
0.493
357.588
840.001
120.001

Modulus

Rounding the mean anomaly to the nearest degree, we obtain M ≃ 120◦ . It follows from Table 33 that
q(120◦ ) = 1.641◦ ,
so
λ = ¯λ + q = 42.961 + 1.641 = 44.602 ≃ 44◦ 36 ′ .
Here, we have converted the decimal fraction into arc minutes using Table 31, and then rounded the final
result to the nearest arc minute.
Following the practice of the Ancient Greeks (and modern-day astrologers), we shall express ecliptic
longitudes in terms of the signs of the zodiac, which are listed in Sect. 4.6. The ecliptic longitude 44◦ 36 ′ is
conventionally written 14TA36: i.e., 14◦ 36 ′ into the sign of Taurus. Thus, we conclude that the position of
the sun at 00:00 UT on May 5, 2005 CE was 14TA36.
Example 2: December 25, 1800 CE, 00:00 UT:
According to Tables 1–3, t = 2 378 854.5 JD. Hence, t − t0 = 2 378 854.5 − 2 451 545.0 = −72 690.5 JD.
70

5 THE SUN
Making use of Table 32, we find:
t(JD)

¯λ(◦ )

M(◦ )

-70,000
-2,000
-600
-90
-.5
Epoch

−235.315
−171.295
−231.388
−88.708
−0.493
280.458
−446.741
273.259

−232.017
−171.200
−231.360
−88.704
−0.493
357.588
−366.186
353.814

Modulus

We conclude that M ≃ 354◦ . From Table 33,
q(354◦ ) = −0.204◦ ,
so
λ = ¯λ + q = 273.259 − 0.204 = 273.055 ≃ 273◦ 03 ′ .
Thus, the position of the sun at 00:00 UT on December 25, 1800 CE was 3CP03.
We can also use Tables 32 and 33 to calculate the dates of the equinoxes and solstices, and, hence, the
lengths of the seasons, in a given year. The vernal equinox (i.e., the point on the sun’s apparent orbit at
which it passes the celestial equator from south to north) corresponds to λ = 0◦ , the summer solstice (i.e.,
the point at which the sun is furthest north of the celestial equator) to λ = 90◦ , the autumnal equinox (i.e.,
the point at which the sun passes the celestial equator from north to south) to λ = 180◦ , and the winter
solstice (i.e., the point at which the sun is furthest south of the celestial equator) to λ = 270◦ —see Fig. 18.
Furthermore, spring is defined as the period between the spring equinox and the summer solstice, summer
as the period between the summer solstice and the autumnal equinox, autumn as the period between the
autumnal equinox and the winter solstice, and winter as the period between the winter solstice and the
following vernal equinox. Consider the year 2000 CE. For the case of the vernal equinox, we can first
estimate the time at which this event takes place by approximating the solar longitude as the mean solar
longitude: i.e.,
λ ≃ ¯λ = ¯λ0 + n (t − t0) = 280.458 + 0.98564735 (t − t0),
We obtain
t ≃ t0 + (360 − 280.458)/0.98564735 ≃ t0 + 81 JD.
Calculating the true solar longitude at this time, using Tables 32 and 33, we get λ = 2.177◦ . Now, the actual
vernal equinox occurs when λ = 0◦ . Thus, a much better estimate for the date of the vernal equinox is
t = t0 + 81 − 2.177/0.98564735 ≃ t0 + 78.8 JD,
which corresponds to 7:00 UT on March 20. Similar calculations show that the summer solstice takes place
at
t = t0 + 171.6 JD,
corresponding to 2:00 UT on June 21, that the autumnal equinox takes place at
t = t0 + 265.2 JD,
71

5 THE SUN
corresponding to 17:00 UT on September 22, and that the winter solstice takes place at
t = t0 + 355.1 JD,
corresponding to 14:00 UT on December 21. Thus, the length of spring is 92.8 days, the length of summer
93.6 days, and the length of autumn 89.9 days. Finally, the length of winter is the length of the tropical
year (i.e., the time period between successive vernal equinoxes), which is 360/0.98564735 = 325.24 days,
minus the sum of the lengths of the other three seasons. This gives 88.9 days.
Figure 18 illustrates the relationship between the equinox and solstice points, and the lengths of the
seasons. The earth is displaced from the geometric center of the sun’s apparent orbit in the direction of the
solar perigee, which presently lies between the winter solstice and the vernal equinox. This displacement
(which is greatly exaggerated in the figure) has two effects. Firstly, it causes the arc of the sun’s apparent
orbit between the summer solstice and autumnal equinox to be longer than that between the winter solstice
and the vernal equinox. Secondly, it causes the sun to appear to move faster in winter than in summer, in
accordance with Kepler’s second law, since the sun is closer to the earth in the former season. Both of these
effects tend to lengthen summer, and shorten winter. Hence, summer is presently the longest season, and
winter the shortest.
At any particular observation site on the earth’s surface, local noon is defined as the instant in time
when the sun culminates at the meridian. However, as a consequence of the inclination of the ecliptic
to the celestial equatior, as well as the uneven motion of the sun around the ecliptic, the time interval
between successive local noons, which is known as a solar day, is not constant, but varies throughout the
year. Hence, if we were to define a second as 1/86, 400 of a solar day then the length of a second would also
vary throughout the year, which is clearly undesirable. In order to avoid this problem, astronomers have
invented a fictitious body called the mean sun. The mean sun travels around the celestial equator (from
west to east) at a constant rate which is such that it completes one orbit every tropical year. Moreover, the
mean sun and the true sun coincide at the spring equinox. Local mean noon at a particular observation site
is defined as the instance in time when the mean sun culminates at the meridian. Since the orbit of the
mean sun is not inclined to the celestial equator, and the mean sun travels around the celestial equator at a
uniform rate, the time interval between successive mean noons, which is known as a mean solar day, takes
the constant value of 24 hours, or 86,400 seconds, throughout the year. Universal time (UT) is defined such
that 12:00 UT coincides with mean noon every day at an observation site of terrestrial longitude 0◦ . If we
define local time (LT) as LT = UT − φ(◦ )/15◦ hrs., where φ is the terrestrial longitude of the observation
site, then 12:00 LT coincides with mean noon every day at a general observation site on the earth’s surface.
According to the above definition, the right ascension, α
¯ , of the mean sun satisfies
α
¯ = ¯λ,

(92)

where ¯λ is the sun’s mean ecliptic longitude. Moreover, it follows from Eqs. (41) and (82) that the right
ascension of the true sun is given by
tan α = cos ǫ tan(¯λ + q),

(93)

where ǫ is the inclination of the ecliptic to the celestial equator, q(M) the sun’s equation of center, and
M its mean anomaly. Now, neglecting the small time variation of the longitude of the sun’s perigee [i.e.,
72

5 THE SUN
setting ̟1 = 0 in Eq. (79)], we can write [see Eqs. (84), (85), and (87), as well as Table 30]
M = ¯λ + M0 − ¯λ0 = ¯λ + 77.213◦ .

(94)

It follows that, to first order in the solar eccentricity, e, we have
∆α = α
¯ − α = λ − tan−1(cos ǫ tan λ) − 2 e sin M,

(95)

M = λ + 77.213◦ .

(96)

∆t = ∆α(◦ )/15◦

(97)

where
Now,
represents the time difference (in hours) between local noon and mean local noon (since right ascension
crosses the meridian at the uniform rate of 15◦ an hour), and is known as the equation of time. If ∆t is
positive then local noon occurs before mean local noon, and vice versa.
The equation of time specifies the difference between time calculated using a sundial or sextant—which
is known as solar time—and time obtained from an accurate clock—which is known as mean solar time.
Table 34 shows the equation of time as a function of the sun’s ecliptic longitude. It can be seen that the
difference between solar time and mean solar time can be as much as 16 minutes, and attains its maximum
value between the autumnal equinox and the winter solstice, and its minimum value between the winter
solstice and vernal equinox.

73

5 THE SUN

SS

93.6

92.8

A

λ
G

C

AE

VE

Π

88.9

89.9

WS
Figure 18: The sun’s apparent orbit around the earth, G, showing the vernal equinox (VE), summer solstice
(SS), autumnal equinox (AE), and winter solstice (WS). Here, λ, Π, A, and C are the ecliptic longitude, perigee,
apogee, and geometric center of the orbit, respectively. The lengths of the seasons (in days) are indicated.

74

5 THE SUN

Object
Mercury
Venus
Sun
Mars
Jupiter
Saturn

a (AU)
0.387098
0.723334
1.000000
1.523706
5.202873
9.536651

e
0.205636
0.006777
0.016711
0.093394
0.048386
0.053862

n (◦ /day)
4.09237703
1.60216872
0.98564735
0.52407118
0.08312507
0.03350830

n
˜ (◦ /day)
4.09233439
1.60213040
0.98560025
0.52402076
0.08308100
0.03348152

¯λ0 (◦ )
252.087
181.973
280.458
355.460
34.365
50.059

M0 (◦ )
174.693
49.237
357.588
19.388
19.348
317.857

Table 30: Keplerian orbital elements for the sun and the five visible planets at the J2000 epoch (i.e., 12:00 UT,
January 1, 2000 CE, which corresponds to t0 = 2 451 545.0 JD). The elements are optimized for use in the time
period 1800 CE to 2050 CE. Source: Jet Propulsion Laboratory (NASA), http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/. The
motion rates have been converted into tropical motion rates assuming a uniform precession of the equinoxes of
3.8246 × 10−5 ◦ /day.

75

5 THE SUN
00.0 ′
00.2 ′
00.4 ′
00.6 ′
00.8 ′
01.0 ′
01.2 ′
01.4 ′
01.6 ′
01.8 ′
02.0 ′
02.2 ′
02.4 ′
02.6 ′
02.8 ′
03.0 ′
03.2 ′
03.4 ′
03.6 ′
03.8 ′
04.0 ′
04.2 ′
04.4 ′
04.6 ′
04.8 ′
05.0 ′
05.2 ′
05.4 ′
05.6 ′
05.8 ′
06.0 ′
06.2 ′
06.4 ′
06.6 ′
06.8 ′
07.0 ′
07.2 ′
07.4 ′
07.6 ′
07.8 ′
08.0 ′
08.2 ′
08.4 ′
08.6 ′
08.8 ′
09.0 ′
09.2 ′
09.4 ′
09.6 ′
09.8 ′

.000
.003
.007
.010
.013
.017
.020
.023
.027
.030
.033
.037
.040
.043
.047
.050
.053
.057
.060
.063
.067
.070
.073
.077
.080
.083
.087
.090
.093
.097
.100
.103
.107
.110
.113
.117
.120
.123
.127
.130
.133
.137
.140
.143
.147
.150
.153
.157
.160
.163

10.0 ′
10.2 ′
10.4 ′
10.6 ′
10.8 ′
11.0 ′
11.2 ′
11.4 ′
11.6 ′
11.8 ′
12.0 ′
12.2 ′
12.4 ′
12.6 ′
12.8 ′
13.0 ′
13.2 ′
13.4 ′
13.6 ′
13.8 ′
14.0 ′
14.2 ′
14.4 ′
14.6 ′
14.8 ′
15.0 ′
15.2 ′
15.4 ′
15.6 ′
15.8 ′
16.0 ′
16.2 ′
16.4 ′
16.6 ′
16.8 ′
17.0 ′
17.2 ′
17.4 ′
17.6 ′
17.8 ′
18.0 ′
18.2 ′
18.4 ′
18.6 ′
18.8 ′
19.0 ′
19.2 ′
19.4 ′
19.6 ′
19.8 ′

.167
.170
.173
.177
.180
.183
.187
.190
.193
.197
.200
.203
.207
.210
.213
.217
.220
.223
.227
.230
.233
.237
.240
.243
.247
.250
.253
.257
.260
.263
.267
.270
.273
.277
.280
.283
.287
.290
.293
.297
.300
.303
.307
.310
.313
.317
.320
.323
.327
.330

20.0 ′
20.2 ′
20.4 ′
20.6 ′
20.8 ′
21.0 ′
21.2 ′
21.4 ′
21.6 ′
21.8 ′
22.0 ′
22.2 ′
22.4 ′
22.6 ′
22.8 ′
23.0 ′
23.2 ′
23.4 ′
23.6 ′
23.8 ′
24.0 ′
24.2 ′
24.4 ′
24.6 ′
24.8 ′
25.0 ′
25.2 ′
25.4 ′
25.6 ′
25.8 ′
26.0 ′
26.2 ′
26.4 ′
26.6 ′
26.8 ′
27.0 ′
27.2 ′
27.4 ′
27.6 ′
27.8 ′
28.0 ′
28.2 ′
28.4 ′
28.6 ′
28.8 ′
29.0 ′
29.2 ′
29.4 ′
29.6 ′
29.8 ′

.333
.337
.340
.343
.347
.350
.353
.357
.360
.363
.367
.370
.373
.377
.380
.383
.387
.390
.393
.397
.400
.403
.407
.410
.413
.417
.420
.423
.427
.430
.433
.437
.440
.443
.447
.450
.453
.457
.460
.463
.467
.470
.473
.477
.480
.483
.487
.490
.493
.497

30.0 ′
30.2 ′
30.4 ′
30.6 ′
30.8 ′
31.0 ′
31.2 ′
31.4 ′
31.6 ′
31.8 ′
32.0 ′
32.2 ′
32.4 ′
32.6 ′
32.8 ′
33.0 ′
33.2 ′
33.4 ′
33.6 ′
33.8 ′
34.0 ′
34.2 ′
34.4 ′
34.6 ′
34.8 ′
35.0 ′
35.2 ′
35.4 ′
35.6 ′
35.8 ′
36.0 ′
36.2 ′
36.4 ′
36.6 ′
36.8 ′
37.0 ′
37.2 ′
37.4 ′
37.6 ′
37.8 ′
38.0 ′
38.2 ′
38.4 ′
38.6 ′
38.8 ′
39.0 ′
39.2 ′
39.4 ′
39.6 ′
39.8 ′

.500
.503
.507
.510
.513
.517
.520
.523
.527
.530
.533
.537
.540
.543
.547
.550
.553
.557
.560
.563
.567
.570
.573
.577
.580
.583
.587
.590
.593
.597
.600
.603
.607
.610
.613
.617
.620
.623
.627
.630
.633
.637
.640
.643
.647
.650
.653
.657
.660
.663

40.0 ′
40.2 ′
40.4 ′
40.6 ′
40.8 ′
41.0 ′
41.2 ′
41.4 ′
41.6 ′
41.8 ′
42.0 ′
42.2 ′
42.4 ′
42.6 ′
42.8 ′
43.0 ′
43.2 ′
43.4 ′
43.6 ′
43.8 ′
44.0 ′
44.2 ′
44.4 ′
44.6 ′
44.8 ′
45.0 ′
45.2 ′
45.4 ′
45.6 ′
45.8 ′
46.0 ′
46.2 ′
46.4 ′
46.6 ′
46.8 ′
47.0 ′
47.2 ′
47.4 ′
47.6 ′
47.8 ′
48.0 ′
48.2 ′
48.4 ′
48.6 ′
48.8 ′
49.0 ′
49.2 ′
49.4 ′
49.6 ′
49.8 ′

.667
.670
.673
.677
.680
.683
.687
.690
.693
.697
.700
.703
.707
.710
.713
.717
.720
.723
.727
.730
.733
.737
.740
.743
.747
.750
.753
.757
.760
.763
.767
.770
.773
.777
.780
.783
.787
.790
.793
.797
.800
.803
.807
.810
.813
.817
.820
.823
.827
.830

Table 31: Arc minute to decimal fraction conversion table.
76

50.0 ′
50.2 ′
50.4 ′
50.6 ′
50.8 ′
51.0 ′
51.2 ′
51.4 ′
51.6 ′
51.8 ′
52.0 ′
52.2 ′
52.4 ′
52.6 ′
52.8 ′
53.0 ′
53.2 ′
53.4 ′
53.6 ′
53.8 ′
54.0 ′
54.2 ′
54.4 ′
54.6 ′
54.8 ′
55.0 ′
55.2 ′
55.4 ′
55.6 ′
55.8 ′
56.0 ′
56.2 ′
56.4 ′
56.6 ′
56.8 ′
57.0 ′
57.2 ′
57.4 ′
57.6 ′
57.8 ′
58.0 ′
58.2 ′
58.4 ′
58.6 ′
58.8 ′
59.0 ′
59.2 ′
59.4 ′
59.6 ′
59.8 ′

.833
.837
.840
.843
.847
.850
.853
.857
.860
.863
.867
.870
.873
.877
.880
.883
.887
.890
.893
.897
.900
.903
.907
.910
.913
.917
.920
.923
.927
.930
.933
.937
.940
.943
.947
.950
.953
.957
.960
.963
.967
.970
.973
.977
.980
.983
.987
.990
.993
.997

5 THE SUN

∆t(JD)

∆¯λ(◦ )

∆M(◦ )

∆t(JD)

∆¯λ(◦ )

∆M(◦ )

∆t(JD)

∆¯λ(◦ )

∆M(◦ )

10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
60,000
70,000
80,000
90,000

136.474
272.947
49.421
185.894
322.367
98.841
235.315
11.788
148.262

136.002
272.005
48.007
184.010
320.012
96.015
232.017
8.020
144.022

1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000

265.647
171.295
76.942
342.589
248.237
153.884
59.531
325.179
230.826

265.600
171.200
76.801
342.401
248.001
153.601
59.202
324.802
230.402

100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900

98.565
197.129
295.694
34.259
132.824
231.388
329.953
68.518
167.083

98.560
197.120
295.680
34.240
132.800
231.360
329.920
68.480
167.040

10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90

9.856
19.713
29.569
39.426
49.282
59.139
68.995
78.852
88.708

9.856
19.712
29.568
39.424
49.280
59.136
68.992
78.848
88.704

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

0.986
1.971
2.957
3.943
4.928
5.914
6.900
7.885
8.871

0.986
1.971
2.957
3.942
4.928
5.914
6.899
7.885
8.870

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9

0.099
0.197
0.296
0.394
0.493
0.591
0.690
0.789
0.887

0.099
0.197
0.296
0.394
0.493
0.591
0.690
0.788
0.887

Table 32: Mean motion of the sun. Here, ∆t = t − t0, ∆¯λ = ¯λ − ¯λ0, and ∆M = M − M0. At epoch
(t0 = 2 451 545.0 JD), ¯λ0 = 280.458◦ , and M0 = 357.588◦ .

77

5 THE SUN

M(◦ )

q(◦ )

100 ζ

M(◦ )

q(◦ )

100 ζ

M(◦ )

q(◦ )

100 ζ

M(◦ )

q(◦ )

100 ζ

0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
70
72
74
76
78
80
82
84
86
88
90

0.000
0.068
0.136
0.204
0.272
0.339
0.406
0.473
0.538
0.604
0.668
0.731
0.794
0.855
0.916
0.975
1.033
1.089
1.145
1.198
1.251
1.301
1.350
1.397
1.443
1.487
1.528
1.568
1.606
1.642
1.676
1.707
1.737
1.764
1.789
1.812
1.833
1.851
1.867
1.881
1.893
1.902
1.909
1.913
1.915
1.915

1.671
1.670
1.667
1.662
1.654
1.645
1.633
1.620
1.604
1.587
1.567
1.545
1.522
1.497
1.469
1.440
1.409
1.377
1.342
1.306
1.269
1.229
1.189
1.146
1.103
1.058
1.011
0.964
0.915
0.865
0.815
0.763
0.710
0.656
0.602
0.547
0.491
0.435
0.378
0.321
0.263
0.205
0.147
0.089
0.030
-0.028

90
92
94
96
98
100
102
104
106
108
110
112
114
116
118
120
122
124
126
128
130
132
134
136
138
140
142
144
146
148
150
152
154
156
158
160
162
164
166
168
170
172
174
176
178
180

1.915
1.912
1.907
1.900
1.891
1.879
1.865
1.849
1.830
1.809
1.787
1.762
1.735
1.705
1.674
1.641
1.606
1.569
1.530
1.490
1.447
1.403
1.358
1.310
1.261
1.211
1.160
1.107
1.052
0.997
0.940
0.882
0.824
0.764
0.703
0.642
0.580
0.517
0.454
0.390
0.326
0.261
0.196
0.131
0.065
0.000

-0.028
-0.086
-0.144
-0.202
-0.260
-0.317
-0.374
-0.431
-0.486
-0.542
-0.596
-0.650
-0.703
-0.755
-0.806
-0.856
-0.906
-0.954
-1.001
-1.046
-1.091
-1.134
-1.175
-1.216
-1.254
-1.292
-1.327
-1.362
-1.394
-1.425
-1.454
-1.482
-1.507
-1.531
-1.553
-1.574
-1.592
-1.608
-1.623
-1.636
-1.647
-1.655
-1.662
-1.667
-1.670
-1.671

180
182
184
186
188
190
192
194
196
198
200
202
204
206
208
210
212
214
216
218
220
222
224
226
228
230
232
234
236
238
240
242
244
246
248
250
252
254
256
258
260
262
264
266
268
270

0.000
-0.065
-0.131
-0.196
-0.261
-0.326
-0.390
-0.454
-0.517
-0.580
-0.642
-0.703
-0.764
-0.824
-0.882
-0.940
-0.997
-1.052
-1.107
-1.160
-1.211
-1.261
-1.310
-1.358
-1.403
-1.447
-1.490
-1.530
-1.569
-1.606
-1.641
-1.674
-1.705
-1.735
-1.762
-1.787
-1.809
-1.830
-1.849
-1.865
-1.879
-1.891
-1.900
-1.907
-1.912
-1.915

-1.671
-1.670
-1.667
-1.662
-1.655
-1.647
-1.636
-1.623
-1.608
-1.592
-1.574
-1.553
-1.531
-1.507
-1.482
-1.454
-1.425
-1.394
-1.362
-1.327
-1.292
-1.254
-1.216
-1.175
-1.134
-1.091
-1.046
-1.001
-0.954
-0.906
-0.856
-0.806
-0.755
-0.703
-0.650
-0.596
-0.542
-0.486
-0.431
-0.374
-0.317
-0.260
-0.202
-0.144
-0.086
-0.028

270
272
274
276
278
280
282
284
286
288
290
292
294
296
298
300
302
304
306
308
310
312
314
316
318
320
322
324
326
328
330
332
334
336
338
340
342
344
346
348
350
352
354
356
358
360

-1.915
-1.915
-1.913
-1.909
-1.902
-1.893
-1.881
-1.867
-1.851
-1.833
-1.812
-1.789
-1.764
-1.737
-1.707
-1.676
-1.642
-1.606
-1.568
-1.528
-1.487
-1.443
-1.397
-1.350
-1.301
-1.251
-1.198
-1.145
-1.089
-1.033
-0.975
-0.916
-0.855
-0.794
-0.731
-0.668
-0.604
-0.538
-0.473
-0.406
-0.339
-0.272
-0.204
-0.136
-0.068
-0.000

-0.028
0.030
0.089
0.147
0.205
0.263
0.321
0.378
0.435
0.491
0.547
0.602
0.656
0.710
0.763
0.815
0.865
0.915
0.964
1.011
1.058
1.103
1.146
1.189
1.229
1.269
1.306
1.342
1.377
1.409
1.440
1.469
1.497
1.522
1.545
1.567
1.587
1.604
1.620
1.633
1.645
1.654
1.662
1.667
1.670
1.671

Table 33: Anomalies of the sun.

78

5 THE SUN

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Aries
∆t
-07m 28s
-06m 51s
-06m 15s
-05m 38s
-05m 01s
-04m 24s
-03m 48s
-03m 12s
-02m 36s
-02m 01s
-01m 28s
+00m 55s
+00m 23s
+00m 06s
+00m 34s
+01m 02s

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Taurus
∆t
+01m 02s
+01m 27s
+01m 50s
+02m 12s
+02m 31s
+02m 48s
+03m 03s
+03m 16s
+03m 26s
+03m 34s
+03m 40s
+03m 43s
+03m 43s
+03m 41s
+03m 37s
+03m 30s

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Gemini
∆t
+03m 30s
+03m 21s
+03m 10s
+02m 56s
+02m 41s
+02m 23s
+02m 04s
+01m 43s
+01m 20s
+00m 57s
+00m 32s
+00m 06s
+00m 20s
+00m 47s
-01m 14s
-01m 42s

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Libra
∆t
+07m 28s
+08m 10s
+08m 53s
+09m 34s
+10m 14s
+10m 53s
+11m 30s
+12m 06s
+12m 41s
+13m 13s
+13m 43s
+14m 12s
+14m 38s
+15m 01s
+15m 22s
+15m 40s

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Scorpio
∆t
+15m 40s
+15m 55s
+16m 08s
+16m 17s
+16m 23s
+16m 26s
+16m 26s
+16m 23s
+16m 16s
+16m 06s
+15m 52s
+15m 36s
+15m 15s
+14m 52s
+14m 25s
+13m 55s

Sagittarius
λ
∆t

00
+13m 55s

02
+13m 22s

04
+12m 46s

06
+12m 08s

08
+11m 26s

10
+10m 42s

12
+09m 55s

14
+09m 07s

16
+08m 16s

18
+07m 23s

20
+06m 29s

22
+05m 33s

24
+04m 37s

26
+03m 39s

28
+02m 41s

30
+01m 42s

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Cancer
∆t
-01m 42s
-02m 09s
-02m 36s
-03m 03s
-03m 29s
-03m 53s
-04m 17s
-04m 39s
-05m 00s
-05m 19s
-05m 35s
-05m 50s
-06m 03s
-06m 14s
-06m 22s
-06m 27s

Capricorn
λ
∆t

00
+01m 42s

02
+00m 43s

04
+00m 15s

06
-01m 13s

08
-02m 11s

10
-03m 07s

12
-04m 03s

14
-04m 57s

16
-05m 50s

18
-06m 41s

20
-07m 30s

22
-08m 16s

24
-09m 01s

26
-09m 42s

28
-10m 22s

30
-10m 58s

Leo
∆t
-06m 27s
-06m 30s
-06m 31s
-06m 29s
-06m 24s
-06m 16s
-06m 06s
-05m 54s
-05m 38s
-05m 20s
-05m 00s
-04m 37s
-04m 12s
-03m 45s
-03m 15s
-02m 44s

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Virgo
∆t
-02m 44s
-02m 11s
-01m 36s
+00m 59s
+00m 21s
+00m 18s
+00m 58s
+01m 40s
+02m 22s
+03m 05s
+03m 49s
+04m 32s
+05m 16s
+06m 00s
+06m 44s
+07m 28s

Aquarius
λ
∆t

00
-10m 58s

02
-11m 32s

04
-12m 02s

06
-12m 30s

08
-12m 54s

10
-13m 16s

12
-13m 34s

14
-13m 49s

16
-14m 01s

18
-14m 09s

20
-14m 15s

22
-14m 17s

24
-14m 17s

26
-14m 13s

28
-14m 07s

30
-13m 58s

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Pisces
∆t
-13m 58s
-13m 46s
-13m 31s
-13m 14s
-12m 55s
-12m 33s
-12m 10s
-11m 44s
-11m 17s
-10m 48s
-10m 17s
-09m 45s
-09m 12s
-08m 38s
-08m 03s
-07m 28s

λ
00◦
02◦
04◦
06◦
08◦
10◦
12◦
14◦
16◦
18◦
20◦
22◦
24◦
26◦
28◦
30◦

Table 34: The equation of time. The superscripts m and s denote minutes and seconds.

79

6 THE MOON

6 The Moon
The orbit of the moon around the earth is strongly perturbed by the gravitational influence of the sun.
It follows that we cannot derive an accurate lunar model from Keplerian orbit theory alone. Instead,
we shall employ a greatly simplified version of modern lunar theory. According to such theory, the
time variation of the ecliptic longitude of the moon is fairly well represented by the following formulae
(see http://jgiesen.de/moonmotion/index.html, or Astronomical Algorithms, J. Meeus, Willmann-Bell,
1998):
¯λ = ¯λ0 + n (t − t0),

(98)

M = M0 + n
˜ (t − t0),

(99)

¯
F = ¯F0 + n
˘ (t − t0),

(100)

˜ = ¯λ − λS,
D

(101)

q1 = 2 e sin M + 1.430 e2 sin 2M,

(102)

˜ − M),
q2 = 0.422 e sin(2D

(103)

˜ − 0.066 sin D),
˜
q3 = 0.211 e (sin 2D

(104)

q4 = −0.051 e sin MS,

(105)

q5 = −0.038 e sin 2¯F,

(106)

λ = ¯λ + q1 + q2 + q3 + q4 + q5.

(107)

¯ and
Here, λS and MS are the longitude and mean anomaly of the sun, respectively. Moreover, e, λ, ¯λ, F,
qi are the eccentricity, longitude, mean longitude, mean argument of latitude, and ith anomaly of the
moon, respectively. The moon’s first anomaly is due to the eccentricity of its orbit, and is very similar
in form to that obtained from Keplerian orbit theory (see Sect. 3). The moon’s second, third, and fourth
anomalies are knows as evection, variation, and the annual inequality, respectively, and originate from the
perturbing influence of the sun. Finally, the moon’s fifth anomaly is called the reduction to the ecliptic, and
is a consequence of the fact that the moon’s orbit is slightly tilted with respect to the plane of the ecliptic.
Note that Ptolemy’s lunar theory only takes the first two lunar anomalies into account. The moon’s orbital
elements—e, n, n
˜, n
˘ , ¯λ0, M0, and F0—for the J2000 epoch are listed in Table 35. Note that the lunar
perigee precesses in the direction of the moon’s orbital motion at the rate of n − n
˜ = 0.11140 ◦ per day, or

360 in 8.85 years. This very large precession rate (more than 2000 times the corresponding precession
rate for the sun’s apparent orbit) is another consequence of the strong perturbing influence of the sun on
the moon’s orbit. The above formulae are capable of matching NASA ephemeris data during the years
1995–2006 CE with a mean error of 5 ′ and a maximum error of 14 ′ .
The ecliptic longitude of the moon can be calculated with the aid of Tables 36 and 37. Table 36 allows
the lunar mean longitude, ¯λ, mean anomaly, M, and mean argument of latitude, ¯F, to be determined as
functions of time. Table 37 specifies the lunar anomalies, q1–q5, as functions of their various arguments.
The procedure for using the tables is as follows:
1. Determine the fractional Julian day number, t, corresponding to the date and time at which the
80

6 THE MOON
moon’s ecliptic longitude is to be calculated with the aid of Tables 1–3. Form ∆t = t − t0, where
t0 = 2 451 545.0 is the epoch.
2. Calculate the ecliptic longitude, λS, and the mean anomaly, MS, of the sun using the procedure set
out in Sect. 5.
3. Enter Table 36 with the digit for each power of 10 in ∆t and take out the corresponding values of
∆¯λ, ∆M, and ∆¯
F. If ∆t is negative then the values are minus those shown in the table. The value
of the mean longitude, ¯λ, is the sum of all the ∆¯λ values plus the value of ¯λ at the epoch. Likewise,
the value of the mean anomaly, M, is the sum of all the ∆M values plus the value of M at the epoch.
Finally, the value of the mean argument of latitude, ¯F, is the sum of all the ∆¯F values plus the value
of ¯F at the epoch. Add as many multiples of 360◦ to ¯λ, M, and ¯F as is required to make them all fall
in the range 0◦ to 360◦ .
˜ = ¯λ − λS.
4. Form D
˜ − M, a3 = D,
˜ a4 = MS, a5 = 2F.
¯ Add as many multiples
5. Form the five arguments a1 = M, a2 = 2D

of 360 to the arguments as is required to make them all fall in the range 0◦ to 360◦ . Round each
argument to the nearest degree.
6. Enter Table 37 with the value of each of the five arguments a1–a5 and take out the value of each of
the five corresponding anomalies q1–q5. It is necessary to interpolate if the arguments are odd.
7. The moon’s ecliptic longitude is given by λ = ¯λ + q1 + q2 + q3 + q4 + q5. If necessary, convert λ
into an angle in the range 0◦ to 360◦ . The decimal fraction can be converted into arc minutes using
Table 31. Round to the nearest arc minute.
Two examples of the use of this procedure are given below.
Example 1: May 5, 2005 CE, 00:00 UT:
From Sect. 5, t − t0 = 1950.5 JD, λS = 44.602◦ , and MS = 120.001◦ . Making use of Table 36, we find:
t(JD)

¯λ(◦ )

M(◦ )

¯
F(◦ )

+1000
+900
+50
+.5
Epoch

216.396
338.757
298.820
6.588
218.322
1078.883
358.883

104.993
238.494
293.250
6.532
134.916
778.185
58.185

269.350
26.415
301.468
6.615
93.284
697.132
337.132

Modulus

It follows that
˜ = ¯λ − λS = 358.883 − 44.602 = 314.281◦ .
D
Thus,
˜ − M = 2 × 314.281 − 58.185 = 570.377 ≃ 210◦ ,
a1 = M ≃ 58◦ , a2 = 2D
81

6 THE MOON
˜ ≃ 314◦ , a4 = MS ≃ 120◦ ,
a3 = D
a5 = 2¯
F = 2 × 337.132 = 674.264 ≃ 314◦ .
Table 37 yields
q1(a1) = 5.555◦ , q2(a2) = −0.663◦ , q3(a3) = −0.631◦ ,
q4(a4) = −0.139◦ , q5(a5) = 0.086◦ .
Hence,
λ = ¯λ + q1 + q2 + q3 + q4 + q5 = 358.883 + 5.555 − 0.663 − 0.631 − 0.139 + 0.086 = 363.091◦ ,
or
λ = 3.091 ≃ 3◦ 05 ′ .
Thus, the ecliptic longitude of the moon at 00:00 UT on May 5, 2005 CE was 3AR05.
Example 2: December 25, 1800 CE, 00:00 UT:
From Sect. 5, t − t0 = −72 690.5 JD, λS = 273.055◦ , and MS = 353.814◦ . Making use of Table 36, we
find:
t(JD)

¯λ(◦ )

M(◦ )

¯F(◦ )

-70,000
-2,000
-600
-90
-.5
Epoch

−27.752
−72.793
−345.838
−105.876
−6.588
218.322
−340.525
19.475

−149.506
−209.986
−278.996
−95.849
−6.532
134.916
−605.953
114.047

−134.519
−178.701
−17.610
−110.642
−6.615
93.284
−354.803
5.197

Modulus

It follows that
˜ = ¯λ − λS = 19.475 − 273.055 = −253.580◦ .
D
Thus,
˜ − M = −2 × 253.580 − 114.047 = −621.207 ≃ 99◦ ,
a1 = M ≃ 114◦ , a2 = 2D
˜ ≃ 106◦ , a4 = MS ≃ 354◦ ,
a3 = D
a5 = 2¯
F = 2 × 5.197 = 10.394 ≃ 10◦ .
Table 37 yields
q1(a1) = 5.562◦ , q2(a2) = 1.311◦ , q3(a3) = −0.394◦ ,
q4(a4) = 0.017◦ , q5(a5) = −0.021◦ .
Hence,
λ = ¯λ + q1 + q2 + q3 + q4 + q5 = 19.475 + 5.562 + 1.311 − 0.394 + 0.017 − 0.021 = 25.950◦ ,

82

6 THE MOON

L
M
N
F
G

M′
N′
Υ
Figure 19: The orbit of the moon about the earth. Here, G, L, N, N ′ , Ω, F, and Υ represent the earth, moon,
ascending node, descending node, longitude of the ascending node, argument of latitude, and vernal equinox,
respectively. View is from northern ecliptic pole. The moon orbits counterclockwise.
or
λ = 25.950 ≃ 25◦ 57 ′ .
Thus, the ecliptic longitude of the moon at 00:00 UT on December 25, 1800 CE was 25AR57.
A model of the moon’s ecliptic latitude is needed in order to predict the occurrence of solar and lunar
eclipses. Figure 19 shows a top view of the moon’s orbit about the earth. The plane of this orbit is fixed,
but slightly tilted with respect to the plane of the ecliptic (i.e., the plane of the sun’s apparent orbit about
the earth). Let the two planes intersect along the line of nodes, NGN ′ . Here, N is the point at which the
orbit crosses the ecliptic plane from south to north (in the direction of the moon’s orbital motion), and
is termed the ascending node. Likewise, N ′ is the point at which the orbit crosses the ecliptic plane from
north to south, and is called the descending node. Incidentally, the line of nodes must pass through point G,
since the earth is common to the ecliptic plane and the plane of the lunar orbit. The angle, Ω, subtended
between the radius vector GΥ, connecting the earth to the vernal equinox, and the line GN, is known as
the longitude of the ascending node. Note, incidentally, that the ascending node precessess in the opposite
direction to the moon’s orbital motion at the rate n
˘ − n = 5.2954 × 10−2 ◦ per day, or 360◦ in 18.6 years.
This unusually large precession rate is another consequence of the sun’s strong perturbing influence on the
moon’s orbit. Let the line MGM ′ lie in the plane of the moon’s orbit such that it is perpendicular to NGN ′ .
The inclination, i, of the moon’s orbital plane is the angle that GM subtends with its projection onto the
ecliptic plane. Likewise, the moon’s ecliptic longitude, β, is the angle that GL subtends with its projection
onto the ecliptic plane. Simple geometry yields sin β = sin i sin F, where F is the angle between GN and
GL. This angle is termed the argument of latitude. Now, it is easily seen that F ≃ λ − Ω, where λ is the
moon’s ecliptic longitude (i.e., the angle subtended between GΥ and GL). Here, we are assuming that the
orbital inclination i is relatively small angle. The mean argument of latitude is defined ¯F = ¯λ − Ω. Hence,

83

6 THE MOON
our model for the moon’s ecliptic latitude becomes
F = ¯F + q1 + q2 + q3 + q4 + q5,
sin β = sin i sin F.

(108)
(109)

The value of the lunar orbital inclination, i, for the J2000 epoch is specified in Table 35. The above model
is capable of matching NASA ephemeris data during the years 1995-2006 CE with a mean error of 6 ′ , and
a maximum error of 11 ′ .
The ecliptic latitude of the moon can be calculated with the aid of Table 38. The procedure for using
this table is as follows:
1. Determine the fractional Julian day number, t, corresponding to the date and time at which the
moon’s ecliptic latitude is to be calculated with the aid of Tables 1–3. Form ∆t = t − t0, where
t0 = 2 451 545.0 is the epoch.
2. Calculate the lunar mean argument of latitude, ¯F, and the five lunar anomalies, q1–q5, using the
procedure outlined earlier in this section.
3. Form the argument F = ¯
F + q1 + q2 + q3 + q4 + q5. Add as many multiples of 360◦ to F as is required
to make it fall in the range 0◦ to 360◦ . Round F to the nearest degree.
4. Enter Table 38 with the value of F and take out the lunar ecliptic latitude, β. It is necessary to
interpolate if F is odd.
For example, we have already seen that at 00:00 UT on May 5, 2005 CE the lunar mean argument
of latitude, and the lunar anomalies, were ¯F = 337.132◦ , and q1 = 5.555◦ , q2 = −0.663◦ , q3 = −0.631◦ ,
q4 = −0.139◦ , and q5 = 0.086◦ , respectively. Hence, F = ¯F + q1 + q2 + q3 + q4 + q5 = 337.132 + 5.555 −
0.663 − 0.631 − 0.139 + 0.086 ≃ 341◦ . Thus, according to Table 38, the ecliptic latitude of the moon at 00:00
UT on May 5, 2005 CE was −1.680◦ ≃ −1◦ 41 ′ .
Now, it turns out that the moon is sufficiently close to the earth that its position in the sky is significantly
modified by parallax. All of our previous analysis applies to a hypothetical observer situated at the center
of the earth. Consider a real observer situated on the earth’s surface. It can be seen from Fig. 20 that the
altitude of the moon is a ′ for the real observer, and a for the hypothetical observer. Simple trigonometry
reveals that a ′ = a − δa, which implies that the real observer sees the moon at a lower altitude than the
hypothetical observer. Let R be the radius of the earth, and r the distance from the center of the earth to
the moon. More simple trigonometry yields
sin δa =

R
cos a ′ .
r

(110)

Let us assume that the moon’s orbit is elliptical to first order in its eccentricity. It follows, from Sect. 3, that
r ≃ aM (1 − e cos M),

(111)

where aM, e, and M are major radius, eccentricity, and mean anomaly of the lunar orbit. Assuming that
δa is small, we obtain
δa ≃ δa0 cos a (1 + e cos M),
(112)
84

6 THE MOON

L
δa

X

a

r

R
a
C

Figure 20: The moon, L, as viewed by a hypothetical observer, C, at the center of the earth, and a real observer,
X, on the surface of the earth.
where δa0 = R/aM = 0.0166 (since R = 6371 km and aM = 384399 km).
According to Eq. (112), lunar parallax can be written in the form
δa = δ(a) [1 + ζ(M)],

(113)

where a, a − δa, and M are the moon’s geocentric altitude (i.e., the altitude seen from the center of the
earth), true altitude, and mean anomaly, respectively. The functions δ(a) = δa0 cos a and ζ(M) = e cos M
are tabulated in Table 39. It can be seen from the table that lunar parallax increases with decreasing lunar
altitude, reaching a maximum value of about 57 ′ when the moon is close to the horizon. For example, if
a = 44◦ 00 ′ and M = 100◦ then Table 39 yields δ = 41.050 ′ and ζ = −0.00953. Hence, δa = 41.050 (1 −
0.00953) ≃ 41 ′ , and the true altitude of the moon becomes 43◦ 19 ′ .
It now remains to investigate how parallax affects the moon’s ecliptic longitude and latitude. Figure 21
shows a detail of Fig. 13. Point Y is the moon’s geocentric position on the celestial sphere. DB is a line
passing through this point which is parallel to the local ecliptic circle, whereas ZC is a small section of an
altitude circle passing through Y. The angle subtended between the ecliptic and the altitude circle is the
parallactic angle, µ. Let F be the true position of the moon. It follows that δa = YF. The changes in the
moon’s ecliptic longitude and latitude are δλ = YE and −δβ = EF, respectively. Assuming that the arcs δa,
δλ, and δβ are all fairly small, the triangle YEF can be treated as a plane triangle. Hence, we obtain
δλ = −δa cos µ,

(114)

δβ = −δa sin µ.

(115)

Actually, the above formulae only apply to the situation in which the ecliptic culminates south of the zenith.
In the opposite case, in which the ecliptic culminates north of the zenith, we have
δλ = δa cos µ,
85

(116)

6 THE MOON

Z
D

µ
E

Y

B
F
C
Figure 21: Parallactic shifts in the moon’s ecliptic longitude and latitude.
δβ = −δa sin µ.

(117)

For example, consider a day on which the geocentric ecliptic longitude and mean anomaly of the
moon are λ = 210◦ (i.e., 00Sc00) and M = 90◦ , respectively. Suppose that the moon is viewed from
an observation site located at terrestrial latitude +10◦ . The “Scorpio” entry in Table 22 gives the moon’s
geocentric altitude, a, as a function of time, as well as the value of the parallactic angle µ. Making use
of this data, in combination with Table 39 and Eqs. (114)–(117), we can calculate the parallax-induced
changes in the moon’s ecliptic longitude and latitude as it transits the sky. Data from such a calculation
is given in the table below. The first column specifies time since the moon’s upper transit (thus, t = 1
hrs. means one hour after the upper transit), the second column gives the moon’s geocentric altitude,
the third column the decrease in its real altitude due to parallax, and the fourth and fifth columns the
parallax-induced changes in its ecliptic longitude and latitude. It can be seen that parallax causes the
moon’s apparent location to shift by almost 2◦ relative to the fixed stars as it transits the sky. Note that the
above calculation is somewhat inaccurate because it does not take into account the moon’s motion along
the ecliptic (which can easily amount to 6◦ during the course of a night). However, the calculation does
illustrate how the data contained in Tables 21–29, in combination with the data in Table 39, permits the
parallax-induced shift in the moon’s ecliptic position to be calculated for a wide range of different lunar
phases, observation sites, and observation times.

86

6 THE MOON
t (hrs.)
−5.51
−5.00
−4.00
−3.00
−2.00
−1.00
+0.00
+1.00
+2.00
+3.00
+4.00
+5.00
+5.51

e
0.054881

a

δa

δλ

δβ

00◦ 00 ′
12◦ 26 ′
26◦ 37 ′
40◦ 23 ′
53◦ 15 ′
63◦ 52 ′
68◦ 32 ′
63◦ 52 ′
53◦ 15 ′
40◦ 23 ′
26◦ 37 ′
12◦ 26 ′
00◦ 00 ′

57 ′
56 ′
51 ′
43 ′
34 ′
25 ′
21 ′
25 ′
34 ′
43 ′
51 ′
56 ′
57 ′

+56 ′
+55 ′
+51 ′
+43 ′
+33 ′
+21 ′
+07 ′
−06 ′
−20 ′
−31 ′
−40 ′
−46 ′
−49 ′

−10 ′
−07 ′
−03 ′
−03 ′
−08 ′
−14 ′
−20 ′
−24 ′
−28 ′
−30 ′
−32 ′
−31 ′
−29 ′

n(◦ /day)
13.17639646

n
˜ (◦ /day)
13.06499295

n
˘ (◦ /day)
13.22935027

¯λ0(◦ )
218.322

M0(◦ )
134.916

F0(◦ )
93.284

i(◦ )
5.161

Table 35: Orbital elements of the moon for the J2000 epoch (i.e., 12:00 UT, January 1, 2000 CE, which
corresponds to t0 = 2 451 545.0 JD).

87

6 THE MOON

∆t(JD)

∆¯λ(◦ )

∆M(◦ )

∆¯F(◦ )

∆t(JD)

∆¯λ(◦ )

∆M(◦ )

∆¯F(◦ )

10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
60,000
70,000
80,000
90,000

3.965
7.929
11.894
15.858
19.823
23.788
27.752
31.717
35.681

329.930
299.859
269.788
239.718
209.648
179.577
149.506
119.436
89.366

173.503
347.005
160.508
334.011
147.513
321.016
134.519
308.022
121.524

1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000

216.396
72.793
289.189
145.586
1.982
218.379
74.775
291.172
147.568

104.993
209.986
314.979
59.972
164.965
269.958
14.951
119.944
224.937

269.350
178.701
88.051
357.401
266.751
176.102
85.452
354.802
264.152

100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900

237.640
115.279
352.919
230.559
108.198
345.838
223.478
101.117
338.757

226.499
92.999
319.498
185.997
52.496
278.996
145.495
11.994
238.494

242.935
125.870
8.805
251.740
134.675
17.610
260.545
143.480
26.415

10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90

131.764
263.528
35.292
167.056
298.820
70.584
202.348
334.112
105.876

130.650
261.300
31.950
162.600
293.250
63.900
194.550
325.199
95.849

132.294
264.587
36.881
169.174
301.468
73.761
206.055
338.348
110.642

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

13.176
26.353
39.529
52.706
65.882
79.058
92.235
105.411
118.588

13.065
26.130
39.195
52.260
65.325
78.390
91.455
104.520
117.585

13.229
26.459
39.688
52.917
66.147
79.376
92.605
105.835
119.064

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9

1.318
2.635
3.953
5.271
6.588
7.906
9.223
10.541
11.859

1.306
2.613
3.919
5.226
6.532
7.839
9.145
10.452
11.758

1.323
2.646
3.969
5.292
6.615
7.938
9.261
10.583
11.906

Table 36: Mean motion of the moon. Here, ∆t = t − t0, ∆¯λ = ¯λ − ¯λ0, ∆M = M − M0, and ∆¯F = ¯
F−¯
F0. At



¯
¯
epoch (t0 = 2 451 545.0 JD), λ0 = 218.322 , M0 = 134.916 , and F0 = 93.284 .

88

6 THE MOON
Arg. (◦ )

q1 (◦ )

q2 (◦ )

q3 (◦ )

q4 (◦ )

q5 (◦ )

Arg. (◦ )

q1 (◦ )

q2 (◦ )

q3 (◦ )

q4 (◦ )

q5 (◦ )

000/(360)
002/(358)
004/(356)
006/(354)
008/(352)
010/(350)
012/(348)
014/(346)
016/(344)
018/(342)
020/(340)
022/(338)
024/(336)
026/(334)
028/(332)
030/(330)
032/(328)
034/(326)
036/(324)
038/(322)
040/(320)
042/(318)
044/(316)
046/(314)
048/(312)
050/(310)
052/(308)
054/(306)
056/(304)
058/(302)
060/(300)
062/(298)
064/(296)
066/(294)
068/(292)
070/(290)
072/(288)
074/(286)
076/(284)
078/(282)
080/(280)
082/(278)
084/(276)
086/(274)
088/(272)
090/(270)

0.000
0.237
0.473
0.709
0.943
1.176
1.408
1.637
1.864
2.088
2.310
2.527
2.741
2.951
3.157
3.358
3.554
3.746
3.931
4.111
4.285
4.454
4.615
4.770
4.919
5.061
5.195
5.323
5.443
5.555
5.660
5.757
5.847
5.929
6.002
6.068
6.126
6.176
6.218
6.252
6.278
6.296
6.306
6.308
6.302
6.289

0.000
0.046
0.093
0.139
0.185
0.230
0.276
0.321
0.366
0.410
0.454
0.497
0.540
0.582
0.623
0.663
0.703
0.742
0.780
0.817
0.853
0.888
0.922
0.955
0.986
1.017
1.046
1.074
1.100
1.125
1.149
1.172
1.193
1.212
1.230
1.247
1.262
1.276
1.288
1.298
1.307
1.314
1.320
1.324
1.326
1.327

0.000
0.045
0.089
0.133
0.177
0.219
0.261
0.301
0.339
0.376
0.411
0.444
0.475
0.504
0.529
0.553
0.573
0.591
0.605
0.617
0.625
0.630
0.632
0.631
0.627
0.620
0.609
0.595
0.579
0.559
0.536
0.511
0.483
0.453
0.420
0.385
0.348
0.309
0.269
0.227
0.184
0.139
0.094
0.048
0.002
-0.044

-0.000
-0.006
-0.011
-0.017
-0.022
-0.028
-0.033
-0.039
-0.044
-0.050
-0.055
-0.060
-0.065
-0.070
-0.075
-0.080
-0.085
-0.090
-0.094
-0.099
-0.103
-0.107
-0.111
-0.115
-0.119
-0.123
-0.126
-0.130
-0.133
-0.136
-0.139
-0.142
-0.144
-0.147
-0.149
-0.151
-0.153
-0.154
-0.156
-0.157
-0.158
-0.159
-0.159
-0.160
-0.160
-0.160

-0.000
-0.004
-0.008
-0.012
-0.017
-0.021
-0.025
-0.029
-0.033
-0.037
-0.041
-0.045
-0.049
-0.052
-0.056
-0.060
-0.063
-0.067
-0.070
-0.074
-0.077
-0.080
-0.083
-0.086
-0.089
-0.092
-0.094
-0.097
-0.099
-0.101
-0.103
-0.106
-0.107
-0.109
-0.111
-0.112
-0.114
-0.115
-0.116
-0.117
-0.118
-0.118
-0.119
-0.119
-0.119
-0.119

090/(270)
092/(268)
094/(266)
096/(264)
098/(262)
100/(260)
102/(258)
104/(256)
106/(254)
108/(252)
110/(250)
112/(248)
114/(246)
116/(244)
118/(242)
120/(240)
122/(238)
124/(236)
126/(234)
128/(232)
130/(230)
132/(228)
134/(226)
136/(224)
138/(222)
140/(220)
142/(218)
144/(216)
146/(214)
148/(212)
150/(210)
152/(208)
154/(206)
156/(204)
158/(202)
160/(200)
162/(198)
164/(196)
166/(194)
168/(192)
170/(190)
172/(188)
174/(186)
176/(184)
178/(182)
180/(180)

6.289
6.268
6.239
6.203
6.160
6.109
6.051
5.986
5.915
5.836
5.751
5.660
5.562
5.458
5.348
5.233
5.111
4.985
4.853
4.716
4.575
4.428
4.277
4.122
3.963
3.799
3.632
3.462
3.288
3.111
2.931
2.748
2.562
2.375
2.184
1.992
1.798
1.603
1.406
1.207
1.008
0.807
0.606
0.404
0.202
0.000

1.327
1.326
1.324
1.320
1.314
1.307
1.298
1.288
1.276
1.262
1.247
1.230
1.212
1.193
1.172
1.149
1.125
1.100
1.074
1.046
1.017
0.986
0.955
0.922
0.888
0.853
0.817
0.780
0.742
0.703
0.663
0.623
0.582
0.540
0.497
0.454
0.410
0.366
0.321
0.276
0.230
0.185
0.139
0.093
0.046
0.000

-0.044
-0.090
-0.136
-0.182
-0.226
-0.270
-0.313
-0.354
-0.394
-0.432
-0.468
-0.502
-0.533
-0.562
-0.589
-0.613
-0.634
-0.652
-0.667
-0.678
-0.687
-0.693
-0.695
-0.694
-0.689
-0.682
-0.671
-0.657
-0.640
-0.620
-0.597
-0.571
-0.542
-0.511
-0.477
-0.442
-0.404
-0.364
-0.322
-0.279
-0.235
-0.189
-0.143
-0.095
-0.048
-0.000

-0.160
-0.160
-0.160
-0.159
-0.159
-0.158
-0.157
-0.156
-0.154
-0.153
-0.151
-0.149
-0.147
-0.144
-0.142
-0.139
-0.136
-0.133
-0.130
-0.126
-0.123
-0.119
-0.115
-0.111
-0.107
-0.103
-0.099
-0.094
-0.090
-0.085
-0.080
-0.075
-0.070
-0.065
-0.060
-0.055
-0.050
-0.044
-0.039
-0.033
-0.028
-0.022
-0.017
-0.011
-0.006
-0.000

-0.119
-0.119
-0.119
-0.119
-0.118
-0.118
-0.117
-0.116
-0.115
-0.114
-0.112
-0.111
-0.109
-0.107
-0.106
-0.103
-0.101
-0.099
-0.097
-0.094
-0.092
-0.089
-0.086
-0.083
-0.080
-0.077
-0.074
-0.070
-0.067
-0.063
-0.060
-0.056
-0.052
-0.049
-0.045
-0.041
-0.037
-0.033
-0.029
-0.025
-0.021
-0.017
-0.012
-0.008
-0.004
-0.000

˜ − M, D,
˜ MS, and 2¯
Table 37: Anomalies of the moon. The common argument corresponds to M, 2D
F for the
case of q1, q2, q3, q4, and q5, respectively. If the argument is in parenthesies then the anomalies are minus
the values shown in the table.
89

6 THE MOON

F(◦ )
000/180
002/178
004/176
006/174
008/172
010/170
012/168
014/166
016/164
018/162
020/160
022/158
024/156
026/154
028/152
030/150
032/148
034/146
036/144
038/142
040/140
042/138
044/136
046/134
048/132
050/130
052/128
054/126
056/124
058/122
060/120
062/118
064/116
066/114
068/112
070/110
072/108
074/106
076/104
078/102
080/100
082/098
084/096
086/094
088/092
090/090

β(◦ )
0.000
0.180
0.360
0.539
0.718
0.896
1.073
1.248
1.422
1.595
1.765
1.933
2.099
2.263
2.423
2.581
2.735
2.887
3.034
3.178
3.319
3.455
3.587
3.714
3.837
3.956
4.070
4.178
4.282
4.380
4.473
4.561
4.643
4.719
4.790
4.855
4.913
4.966
5.013
5.054
5.088
5.117
5.139
5.154
5.164
5.167

F(◦ )
(180)/(360)
(182)/(358)
(184)/(356)
(186)/(354)
(188)/(352)
(190)/(350)
(192)/(348)
(194)/(346)
(196)/(344)
(198)/(342)
(200)/(340)
(202)/(338)
(204)/(336)
(206)/(334)
(208)/(332)
(210)/(330)
(212)/(328)
(214)/(326)
(216)/(324)
(218)/(322)
(220)/(320)
(222)/(318)
(224)/(316)
(226)/(314)
(228)/(312)
(230)/(310)
(232)/(308)
(234)/(306)
(236)/(304)
(238)/(302)
(240)/(300)
(242)/(298)
(244)/(296)
(246)/(294)
(248)/(292)
(250)/(290)
(252)/(288)
(254)/(286)
(256)/(284)
(258)/(282)
(260)/(280)
(262)/(278)
(264)/(276)
(266)/(274)
(268)/(272)
(270)/(270)

Table 38: Ecliptic latitude of the moon. The latitude is minus the value shown in the table if the argument is
in parenthesies.

90

6 THE MOON

Arg. (◦ )

δ( ′ )

100 ζ

Arg. (◦ )

000/360
002/358
004/356
006/354
008/352
010/350
012/348
014/346
016/344
018/342
020/340
022/338
024/336
026/334
028/332
030/330
032/328
034/326
036/324
038/322
040/320
042/318
044/316
046/314
048/312
050/310
052/308
054/306
056/304
058/302
060/300
062/298
064/296
066/294
068/292
070/290
072/288
074/286
076/284
078/282
080/280
082/278
084/276
086/274
088/272
090/270

57.067
57.032
56.928
56.754
56.511
56.200
55.820
55.371
54.856
54.274
53.625
52.911
52.133
51.291
50.387
49.421
48.395
47.310
46.168
44.969
43.716
42.409
41.050
39.642
38.185
36.682
35.134
33.543
31.911
30.241
28.533
26.791
25.016
23.211
21.378
19.518
17.635
15.730
13.806
11.865
9.910
7.942
5.965
3.981
1.992
0.000

5.488
5.485
5.475
5.458
5.435
5.405
5.368
5.325
5.276
5.219
5.157
5.088
5.014
4.933
4.846
4.753
4.654
4.550
4.440
4.325
4.204
4.078
3.948
3.812
3.672
3.528
3.379
3.226
3.069
2.908
2.744
2.577
2.406
2.232
2.056
1.877
1.696
1.513
1.328
1.141
0.953
0.764
0.574
0.383
0.192
0.000

(180)/(180)
(178)/(182)
(176)/(184)
(174)/(186)
(172)/(188)
(170)/(190)
(168)/(192)
(166)/(194)
(164)/(196)
(162)/(198)
(160)/(200)
(158)/(202)
(156)/(204)
(154)/(206)
(152)/(208)
(150)/(210)
(148)/(212)
(146)/(214)
(144)/(216)
(142)/(218)
(140)/(220)
(138)/(222)
(136)/(224)
(134)/(226)
(132)/(228)
(130)/(230)
(128)/(232)
(126)/(234)
(124)/(236)
(122)/(238)
(120)/(240)
(118)/(242)
(116)/(244)
(114)/(246)
(112)/(248)
(110)/(250)
(108)/(252)
(106)/(254)
(104)/(256)
(102)/(258)
(100)/(260)
(098)/(262)
(096)/(264)
(094)/(266)
(092)/(268)
(090)/(270)

Table 39: Parallax of the moon. The arguments of δ and ζ are a and M, respectively. δ and ζ take minus the
values shown in the table if their arguments are in parenthesies.

91

7 LUNAR-SOLAR SYZYGIES AND ECLIPSES

7 Lunar-Solar Syzygies and Eclipses
Let λS and λM represent the ecliptic longitudes of the sun and the moon, respectively. The lunar-solar
elongation is defined
D = λM − λS.
(118)
Since the moon is only visible because of light reflected from the sun, there is a fairly obvious relationship
between lunar-solar elongation and lunar phase—see Fig. 22. For instance, a new moon corresponds to
D = 0◦ , a quarter moon to D = 90◦ or 270◦ , and a full moon to D = 180◦ . New moons and full moons are
collectively known as lunar-solar syzygies.

Quarter Moon
Light from Sun

Full Moon

D

Earth

New Moon

Figure 22: The phases of the moon.
We can predict the dates and times of lunar-solar syzygies by combining the solar and lunar models
described in the previous two sections. Our syzygy model is as follows:
¯ = ¯λM − ¯λS,
D

(119)
2

q1 = 2 eM sin MM + 1.430 e sin 2MM,

(120)

¯ − MM),
q2 = 0.422 eM sin(2D

(121)

¯ − 0.066 sin D),
¯
q3 = 0.211 eM (sin 2D

(122)

q4 = −(0.051 eM + 2 eS) sin MS − (5/4) eS2 sin 2MS,

(123)

q5 = −0.038 eM sin 2¯FM,

(124)

¯ + q1 + q2 + q3 + q4 + q5.
D = D

(125)

Here, eS, MS, and ¯λS are the eccentricity, mean anomaly, and mean longitude of the sun’s apparent orbit
about the earth, respectively. Moreover, eM, MM, ¯λM, and ¯FM are the eccentricity, mean anomaly, mean
longitude, and mean argument of latitude of the moon’s orbit, respectively.
92

7 LUNAR-SOLAR SYZYGIES AND ECLIPSES
The lunar-solar elongation can be calculated with the aid of Tables 40 and 41. Table 40 allows the
¯ the mean lunar argument of latitude, ¯FM, the mean anomaly of the sun,
mean lunar-solar elongation, D,
MS, and the mean anomaly of the moon, MM, to be determined as functions of time. Table 41 specifies
the anomalies q1–q5 as functions of their various arguments.
The procedure for using the tables is as follows:
1. Determine the fractional Julian day number, t, corresponding to the date and time at which the
lunar-solar elongation is to be calculated with the aid of Tables 1–3. Form ∆t = t − t0, where
t0 = 2 451 545.0 is the epoch.
2. Enter Table 40 with the digit for each power of 10 in ∆t and take out the corresponding values of
¯ ∆¯FM, ∆MS, and ∆MM. If ∆t is negative then the values are minus those shown in the table.
∆D,
¯ is the sum of all the ∆D
¯ values plus the value of D
¯
The value of the mean lunar-solar elongation, D,
¯
at the epoch. Likewise, the value of the mean lunar argument of latitude, FM, is the sum of all the
∆¯FM values plus the value of ¯
FM at the epoch. Moreover, the value of the solar mean anomaly, MS,
is the sum of all the ∆MS values plus the value of MS at the epoch. Finally, the value of the lunar
mean anomaly, MM, is the sum of all the ∆MM values plus the value of MM at the epoch. Add as
¯ ¯
many multiples of 360◦ to D,
FM, MS, and MM as is required to make them all fall in the range 0◦
to 360◦ .
¯ − MM, a3 = D,
¯ a4 = MS, a5 = 2F¯M. Add as many
3. Form the five arguments a1 = MM, a2 = 2D

multiples of 360 to the arguments as is required to make them all fall in the range 0◦ to 360◦ . Round
each argument to the nearest degree.
4. Enter Table 41 with the value of each of the five arguments a1–a5 and take out the value of each of
the five corresponding anomalies q1–q5. It is necessary to interpolate if the arguments are odd.
¯ + q1 + q2 + q3 + q4 + q5. If necessary, convert D into an
5. The lunar-solar elongation is given by D = D


angle in the range 0 to 360 . The decimal fraction can be converted into arc minutes using Table 31.
In order to facilitate the calculation of syzygies, the above model has been used to contruct Table 42,
which lists the dates and fractional Julian day numbers of the first new moons of the years 1900–2099 CE.
Two examples of syzygy calculations are given below.
Example 1: Sixth new moon of 2004 CE:
From Table 42, the date of first new moon of 2004 CE is 2453026.4 JD. Now, the lunar-solar elongation
increases at the mean rate nM − nS = 13.17639646 − 0.98564735 = 12.1907491◦ per day, or 360◦ in 29.53
days—the latter time period is known as a synodic month. Hence, a rough estimate for the date of the sixth
new moon of 2004 CE is five synodic months after that of the first: i.e., 2453026.4 + 5 × 29.53 ≃ 2453174.1
JD. It follows that ∆t = 2453174.1 − 2451545.0 = 1629.1 JD. Let us calculate the lunar-solar elongation at
this date. From Table 40:

93

7 LUNAR-SOLAR SYZYGIES AND ECLIPSES

t(JD)

¯ ◦)
D(

¯
FM(◦ )

MS(◦ )

MM(◦ )

+1000
+600
+20
+9
+.1
Epoch

310.749
114.449
243.815
109.717
1.219
297.864
1077.813
357.813

269.350
17.610
264.587
119.064
1.323
93.284
765.218
45.218

265.600
231.360
19.712
8.870
0.099
357.588
883.229
163.229

104.993
278.996
261.300
117.585
1.306
134.916
899.096
179.096

Modulus
Thus,

¯ − MM = 2 × 357.813 − 179.082 ≃ 177◦ ,
a1 = MM ≃ 179◦ , a2 = 2D
¯ ≃ 358◦ , a4 = MS ≃ 163◦ ,
a3 = D
a5 = 2¯FM = 2 × 45.218 ≃ 90◦ .
Table 41 yields
q1(a1) = 0.101◦ , q2(a2) = 0.070◦ , q3(a3) = −0.045◦ ,
q4(a4) = −0.596◦ , q5(a5) = −0.119◦ .
Hence,
¯ + q1 + q2 + q3 + q4 + q5 = 357.813 + 0.101 + 0.070 − 0.045 − 0.596 − 0.119 ≃ 357.22◦ .
D=D
Now, the actual new moon takes place when D = 360.00◦ . Thus, a far better estimate for the date of the
sixth new moon of 2004 CE is 2453174.10+(360.00−357.22)/12.1907491 = 2453174.33 JD. This corresponds
to 20:00 UT on June 17th.
Example 2: Third full moon of 1982 CE:
From Table 42, the fractional Julian day number of first new moon of 1982 CE is 2444994.7 JD, which
corresponds to January 25th. Since there is more than half a synodic month between this event and the
start of year, we conclude that the first full moon of 1982 CE took place before January 25th. Hence, a
rough estimate for the date of the third new moon of 1982 CE is one and a half synodic months after that of
the first: i.e., 2444994.7 + 1.5 × 29.53 ≃ 2445039.0 JD. It follows that ∆t = 2445039.0 − 2451545.0 = −6506.0
JD. Let us calculate the lunar-solar elongation at this date. From Table 40:
t(JD)

¯ ◦)
D(

¯
FM(◦ )

MS(◦ )

MM(◦ )

-6000
-500
-6
Epoch

−64.495
−335.375
−73.144
297.864
−175.150
184.131

−176.102
−134.675
−79.376
93.284
−296.869
63.062

−153.601
−132.800
−5.914
357.588
65.273
65.273

−269.958
−52.496
−78.390
134.916
−265.928
94.072

Modulus

94

7 LUNAR-SOLAR SYZYGIES AND ECLIPSES
Thus,
¯ − MM = 2 × 184.850 − 94.072 ≃ 276◦ ,
a1 = MM ≃ 94◦ , a2 = 2D
¯ ≃ 185◦ , a4 = MS ≃ 65◦ ,
a3 = D
a5 = 2¯FM = 2 × 63.062 ≃ 126◦ .
Table 41 yields
q1(a1) = 6.239◦ , q2(a2) = −1.320◦ , q3(a3) = 0.119◦ ,
q4(a4) = −1.896◦ , q5(a5) = −0.097◦ .
Hence,
¯ + q1 + q2 + q3 + q4 + q5 = 184.850 + 6.239 − 1.320 + 0.119 − 1.896 − 0.097 ≃ 187.895◦ .
D=D
Now, the actual full moon takes place when D = 180.00◦ . Thus, a far better estimate for the date of the
third full moon of 1982 CE is 2445039.0 + (180.00 − 187.90)/12.1907491 = 2445038.35 JD. This corresponds
to 20:00 UT on March 9th.
A solar eclipse—or, more accurately, a lunar-solar occultation—occurs when the moon blocks the light
of the sun. Clearly, this is only possible at a new moon—see Fig. 22. On the other hand, a lunar eclipse
occurs when the moon falls into the shadow of the earth. Of course, this is only possible at a full moon. It
follows that eclipses can only take place at lunar-solar syzygies.
In order to determine whether a particular lunar-solar syzygy conincides with an eclipse, we first need
to calculate the angular radii of the sun, the moon, and the earth’s shadow in the sky. Using the small angle
approximation, the angular radius of the sun is given by ρS = RS/rS, where RS is the solar radius, and rS
the earth-sun distance. However, rS ≃ aS (1 − eS cos MS), where aS, eS, and MS are the major radius,
eccentricity, and mean anomaly of the sun’s apparent orbit around the earth, respectively (see Sect. 3).
Hence,
ρS ≃ ρS0 (1 + eS cos MS),
(126)
where ρS0 = RS/aS = 6.960 × 105 km/1.496 × 108 km ≃ 15.99 ′ . Likewise, the angular radius of the moon is
ρM ≃ ρM0 (1 + eM cos MM),

(127)

where ρM0 = RM/aM = 1743 km/384399 km ≃ 15.59 ′ . Here, RM, aM, eM, and MM are the radius of
the moon, and the major radius, eccentricity, and mean anomaly of the moon’s orbit, respectively. As was
shown in the previous section, lunar parallax causes the angular position of the moon in the sky to shift by
up to
RE
= δM0 (1 + eM cos MM),
(128)
δM =
rM
where δM0 = RE/aM = 6371 km/384399 km = 56.99 ′ . Here, RE is the radius of the earth. Finally, simple
trigonometry reveals that the angular size of the earth’s shadow (i.e., umbra) at the radius of the moon’s
orbit is
ρU = δM − ρS.
(129)
This can be seen from Fig. 23. The radius of the umbra at the position of the moon is RU = RE − x = RE −
rM ρS. Hence, the angular radius of the umbra is ρU = RU/rM = δM − ρS. Incidentally, the identification
of two of the angles in the figure with ρS = RS/rS follows because RS ≫ RE.
95

7 LUNAR-SOLAR SYZYGIES AND ECLIPSES

ρS
RS
x

RE

rS

Sun

RU
rM

Earth

ρU
Moon

Figure 23: The earth’s umbra.
A solar eclipse does not take place every new moon, nor a lunar eclipse every full moon, because of the
inclination of the moon’s orbit to the ecliptic plane, which causes the moon to pass either above or below
the sun, or the earth’s shadow, respectively, in the majority of cases. It follows that the critical parameter
which determines the occurrence of eclipses is the ecliptic latitude of the moon at syzygy, βsyz. Of course,
once the date and time of a syzygy has been established, βsyz can be calculated from Table 38. However,
the lunar argument of latitude, F, must first be determined using
F=¯
FM + q1 + q2 + q3 + q4′ + q5,

(130)

where ¯FM comes from Table 40, q1, q2, q3, and q5 are obtained from Table 41, and q4′ is the q4 from
Table 37. For instance, we have seen that for the third new moon of 1982 CE, ¯FM = 63.131, MS ≃ 65◦ ,
q1 = 6.239◦ , q2 = −1.320◦ , q3 = 0.119◦ , and q5 = −0.097◦ . According to Table 37, q4′ (MS) = −0.145◦ .
Hence, F = ¯FM + q1 + q2 + q3 + q4′ + q5 = 63.139 + 6.239 − 1.320 + 0.119 − 0.145 − 0.097 = 67.926 ≃ 68◦ .
It follows from Table 38 that βsyz = 4.790◦ ≃ 4◦ 47 ′ .
The criterion for a lunar eclipse is particularly simple, since it is not complicated by lunar parallax. A
total lunar eclipse, in which the moon is completely immersed in the earth’s shadow, must take place at a
full moon if |βsyz| < ρU − ρM (see Fig. 24), or equivalently
|βsyz| < δM − ρM − ρS,

(131)

and either a total or a partial lunar eclipse, in which the moon is only partially immersed in the earth’s
shadow, must take place if |βsyz| < ρU + ρM (see Fig. 24), or equivalently
|βsyz| < δM + ρM − ρS.

(132)

Note that lunar eclipses are simultaneously visible at all observation sites on the earth for which the moon
is above the horizon, since the earth’s shadow is larger than the moon, and the relative position of the
moon and the earth’s shadow is not affected by parallax (since both the moon and the shadow are the
same distance from the earth). The criterion for a solar eclipse is modified by lunar parallax, which causes
96

7 LUNAR-SOLAR SYZYGIES AND ECLIPSES

Moon

Moon

ρM

ρM
ρU

ρU

βsyz

βsyz

Ecliptic
Earth’s umbra

Earth’s umbra

Figure 24: The limiting cases for a total lunar eclipse (left) and a partial lunar eclipse (right).
the angular position of the moon relative to the sun to shift by up to δM from its geocentric position. The
amount of the shift depends on the observation site. However, a site can always be found at which the shift
takes its maximum value in any particular direction. Note that the sun has negligible parallax, since it is
much further from the earth than the moon. Taking parallactic shifts into account, a total solar eclipse, in
which the sun is totally obscured by the moon, must take place if ρM > ρS and
|βsyz| < δM + ρM − ρS,

(133)

an annular solar eclipse, in which all of the sun apart from a thin outer ring is obscured by the moon, must
take place if ρS > ρM and
|βsyz| < δM + ρS − ρM,
(134)
and either a total, an annular, or a partial solar eclipse, in which the sun is only partially obscured by the
moon, must take place if
|βsyz| < δM + ρM + ρS.
(135)
As a consequence of lunar parallax, and the fact that the angular sizes of the sun and moon in the sky
are very similar, solar eclipses are only visible in very localized regions of the earth. Note, finally, that the
above criteria represent necessary, but not sufficient, conditions for the occurrence of the various eclipses
with which they are associated. This is the case because the point of closest approach of the moon and
the earth’s shadow, in the case of a lunar eclipse, and the moon and sun, in the case of a solar eclipse,
does not necessarily occur exactly at the syzygy, due to the inclination of the moon’s orbit to the ecliptic.
However, since the said inclination is fairly gentle, the above criteria turn out to be very accurate predictors
of eclipses.
The criterion for a total lunar eclipse can be written |βsyz| < βMt, where
βMt = 25.41 ′ + δβ1(MM) − δβ2(MM) − δβ3(MS).

(136)

Here, the functions δβ1 = δM0 eM cos MM, δβ2 = ρM0 eM cos MM, and δβ3 = ρS0 eS cos MS are tabulated in Table 43. The criterion for any type of lunar eclipse becomes |βsyz| < βM, where
βM = 56.59 ′ + δβ1(MM) + δβ2(MM) − δβ3(MS).
97

(137)

7 LUNAR-SOLAR SYZYGIES AND ECLIPSES
The criterion for a total solar eclipse can be written |βsyz| < βSt and βSt > βSa, where
βSt = 56.59 ′ + δβ1(MM) + δβ2(MM) − δβ3(MS),

(138)

βSa = 57.39 ′ + δβ1(MM) − δβ2(MM) + δβ3(MS),

(139)

and
The criterion for an annular solar eclipse is |βsyz| < βSa and βSa > βSt. Finally, the criterion for any type
of solar eclipse is |βsyz| < βS, where
βS = 88.57 ′ + δβ1(MM) + δβ2(MM) + δβ3(MS).

(140)

Consider a very large collection of lunar-solar syzygies. For such a collection, we expect the lunar
argument of latitude, F, the lunar mean anomaly, MM, and the solar mean anomaly, MS, to be statistically
independent of one another, and randomly distributed in the range 0◦ to 360◦ . Using this insight, we can
easily calculate the probability that a new moon is coincident with a solar eclipse, or a full moon with a
lunar eclipse, using Eq. (109) and the criteria (136)–(140). For a new moon we find:
Probability of total solar eclipse:
Probability of annular solar eclipse:
Probability of partial solar eclipse:
Probability of any solar eclipse:

4.2%
7.7%
6.6%
18.5%

For a full moon we get:
Probability of total lunar eclipse:
Probability of partial lunar eclipse:
Probability of any lunar eclipse:

5.2%
6.5%
11.7%

Thus, we can see that, over a long period of time, the ratio of the number of total/annular solar eclipses to
the number of partial solar eclipses is about 9/5, whereas the ratio of the number of partial lunar eclipses
to the number of total lunar eclipses is approximately 5/4. Furthermore, the ratio of the number of solar
eclipses to the number of lunar eclipses is about 11/7. Since there are 12.37 synodic months in a year, the
mean number of solar eclipses per year is approximately 12.37 × 0.185 ≃ 2.3, whereas the mean number
of lunar eclipses per year is about 12.37 × 0.117 ≃ 1.4. Clearly, solar eclipses are more common that lunar
eclipses. On the other hand, at a given observation site on the earth, lunar eclipses are much more common
than solar eclipses, since the former are visible all over the earth, whereas the latter are only visible in a
very localized region.
Finally, let us use our model to examine the lunar-solar syzygies of the year 1992 CE, in order to
see whether any of them were associated with solar or lunar eclipses. The table below shows the dates
and times of the new moons of 1992 CE, calculated using the method described at the beginning of this
section. Also shown is the magnitude of the moon’s ecliptic latitude at each syzygy, |βsyz|, calculated from
Eqs. (109) and (130), as well as the critical values of this parameter for a general, total, and annular solar
eclipse. The latter are calculated from Eqs. (138)–(140). It can be seen that the criterion for a total solar
eclipse (i.e., |βsyz| < βSt and βSt > βSa) is satisfied for the syzygy marked with a T, the criterion for an
98

7 LUNAR-SOLAR SYZYGIES AND ECLIPSES
annular solar eclipse (i.e., |βsyz| < βSa and βSa > βSt) for the syzygy marked with an A, and the criterion
for a partial solar eclipse (i.e., βSt, βSa < |βsyz| < βS) for the syzygy marked with a P. It is easily verified
that a total solar eclipse, an annular solar eclipse, and a partial solar eclipse did indeed take place in 1992
CE at the dates and times indicated.
Date
04/01/1992
03/02/1992
04/03/1992
03/04/1992
02/05/1992
01/06/1992
30/06/1992
29/07/1992
28/08/1992
26/09/1992
26/10/1992
24/11/1992
24/12/1992

Time (UT)
23:00
16:00
09:00
00:00
14:00
01:00
12:00
21:00
05:00
14:00
00:00
11:00
01:00

βS( ′ )
85.0
84.9
85.7
87.1
88.7
90.3
91.5
92.2
92.3
91.8
90.7
89.2
87.4

βSt( ′ )
52.5
52.5
53.4
55.1
57.0
58.8
60.1
60.7
60.7
59.9
58.5
56.8
54.9

βSa( ′ )
55.5
55.4
55.8
56.5
57.4
58.3
59.0
59.4
59.5
59.2
58.7
57.8
56.9

|βsyz|( ′ )
22.8
177.9
282.7
307.5
245.8
115.6
46.3
195.3
290.2
304.8
234.8
99.3
64.3

A

T

P

The table below shows the dates and times of the full moons of 1992 CE. Also shown is the magnitude
of the moon’s ecliptic latitude at each syzygy, as well as the critical values of this parameter for a general
and a total lunar eclipse. The latter are calculated from Eqs. (137) and (136), respectively. It can be seen
that the criterion for a total lunar eclipse (i.e., |βsyz| < βMt) is satisfied for the syzygy marked with a T,
whereas the criterion for a partial lunar eclipse (i.e., βMt < |βsyz| < βM) is satisfied for the syzygy marked
with a P. It is easily verified that a total lunar eclipse, and a partial lunar eclipse did indeed take place in
1992 CE at the dates and times indicated.
Date
19/01/1992
18/02/1992
18/03/1992
17/04/1992
16/05/1992
15/06/1992
14/07/1992
13/08/1992
12/09/1992
11/10/1992
10/11/1992
10/12/1992
08/01/1993

Time (UT)
20:00
05:00
14:00
01:00
13:00
03:00
20:00
13:00
05:00
21:00
12:00
01:00
12:00

βM( ′ )
60.3
60.1
59.3
57.9
56.3
54.7
53.4
52.8
53.1
54.3
55.8
57.5
59.0

βMt( ′ )
27.4
27.3
26.9
26.2
25.3
24.4
23.7
23.3
23.5
24.1
24.9
25.8
26.7

|βsyz|( ′ )
104.2
237.8
305.6
288.5
190.8
39.4
123.4
251.6
308.6
278.2
169.6
13.8
145.4

99

P

T

7 LUNAR-SOLAR SYZYGIES AND ECLIPSES

∆t(JD)

¯ ◦)
∆D(

∆¯
FM(◦ )

∆MS(◦ )

∆MM(◦ )

∆t(JD)

¯ ◦)
∆D(

∆¯FM(◦ )

∆MS(◦ )

∆MM(◦ )

10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
60,000
70,000
80,000
90,000

227.491
94.982
322.473
189.964
57.455
284.947
152.438
19.929
247.420

173.503
347.005
160.508
334.011
147.513
321.016
134.519
308.022
121.524

136.002
272.005
48.007
184.010
320.012
96.015
232.017
8.020
144.022

329.930
299.859
269.788
239.718
209.648
179.577
149.506
119.436
89.366

1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000

310.749
261.498
212.247
162.996
113.746
64.495
15.244
325.993
276.742

269.350
178.701
88.051
357.401
266.751
176.102
85.452
354.802
264.152

265.600
171.200
76.801
342.401
248.001
153.601
59.202
324.802
230.402

104.993
209.986
314.979
59.972
164.965
269.958
14.951
119.944
224.937

100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900

139.075
278.150
57.225
196.300
335.375
114.449
253.524
32.599
171.674

242.935
125.870
8.805
251.740
134.675
17.610
260.545
143.480
26.415

98.560
197.120
295.680
34.240
132.800
231.360
329.920
68.480
167.040

226.499
92.999
319.498
185.997
52.496
278.996
145.495
11.994
238.494

10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90

121.907
243.815
5.722
127.630
249.537
11.445
133.352
255.260
17.167

132.294
264.587
36.881
169.174
301.468
73.761
206.055
338.348
110.642

9.856
19.712
29.568
39.424
49.280
59.136
68.992
78.848
88.704

130.650
261.300
31.950
162.600
293.250
63.900
194.550
325.199
95.849

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

12.191
24.381
36.572
48.763
60.954
73.144
85.335
97.526
109.717

13.229
26.459
39.688
52.917
66.147
79.376
92.605
105.835
119.064

0.986
1.971
2.957
3.942
4.928
5.914
6.899
7.885
8.870

13.065
26.130
39.195
52.260
65.325
78.390
91.455
104.520
117.585

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9

1.219
2.438
3.657
4.876
6.095
7.314
8.534
9.753
10.972

1.323
2.646
3.969
5.292
6.615
7.938
9.261
10.583
11.906

0.099
0.197
0.296
0.394
0.493
0.591
0.690
0.788
0.887

1.306
2.613
3.919
5.226
6.532
7.839
9.145
10.452
11.758

¯ =D
¯ −D
¯ 0, ∆¯FM = ¯FM − ¯
Table 40: Mean motion of the lunar-solar elongation. Here, ∆t = t − t0, ∆D
FM0,
¯ 0 = 297.864◦ , ¯
∆MS = MS − MS0, and ∆MM = MM − MM0. At epoch (t0 = 2 451 545.0 JD), D
FM0 =
93.284◦ , MS0 = 357.588◦ , and MM0 = 134.916◦ .

100

7 LUNAR-SOLAR SYZYGIES AND ECLIPSES
Arg. (◦ )

q1 (◦ )

q2 (◦ )

q3 (◦ )

q4 (◦ )

q5 (◦ )

Arg. (◦ )

q1 (◦ )

q2 (◦ )

q3 (◦ )

q4 (◦ )

q5 (◦ )

000/(360)
002/(358)
004/(356)
006/(354)
008/(352)
010/(350)
012/(348)
014/(346)
016/(344)
018/(342)
020/(340)
022/(338)
024/(336)
026/(334)
028/(332)
030/(330)
032/(328)
034/(326)
036/(324)
038/(322)
040/(320)
042/(318)
044/(316)
046/(314)
048/(312)
050/(310)
052/(308)
054/(306)
056/(304)
058/(302)
060/(300)
062/(298)
064/(296)
066/(294)
068/(292)
070/(290)
072/(288)
074/(286)
076/(284)
078/(282)
080/(280)
082/(278)
084/(276)
086/(274)
088/(272)
090/(270)

0.000
0.237
0.473
0.709
0.943
1.176
1.408
1.637
1.864
2.088
2.310
2.527
2.741
2.951
3.157
3.358
3.554
3.746
3.931
4.111
4.285
4.454
4.615
4.770
4.919
5.061
5.195
5.323
5.443
5.555
5.660
5.757
5.847
5.929
6.002
6.068
6.126
6.176
6.218
6.252
6.278
6.296
6.306
6.308
6.302
6.289

0.000
0.046
0.093
0.139
0.185
0.230
0.276
0.321
0.366
0.410
0.454
0.497
0.540
0.582
0.623
0.663
0.703
0.742
0.780
0.817
0.853
0.888
0.922
0.955
0.986
1.017
1.046
1.074
1.100
1.125
1.149
1.172
1.193
1.212
1.230
1.247
1.262
1.276
1.288
1.298
1.307
1.314
1.320
1.324
1.326
1.327

0.000
0.045
0.089
0.133
0.177
0.219
0.261
0.301
0.340
0.376
0.411
0.444
0.475
0.504
0.529
0.553
0.573
0.591
0.605
0.617
0.625
0.631
0.633
0.632
0.627
0.620
0.609
0.596
0.579
0.559
0.537
0.511
0.483
0.453
0.420
0.385
0.348
0.309
0.269
0.227
0.184
0.140
0.094
0.049
0.003
-0.044

-0.000
-0.074
-0.148
-0.221
-0.294
-0.367
-0.440
-0.511
-0.583
-0.653
-0.723
-0.791
-0.859
-0.926
-0.991
-1.055
-1.118
-1.179
-1.239
-1.297
-1.354
-1.409
-1.462
-1.513
-1.562
-1.609
-1.655
-1.698
-1.739
-1.778
-1.815
-1.849
-1.881
-1.911
-1.938
-1.963
-1.985
-2.006
-2.023
-2.038
-2.051
-2.061
-2.068
-2.073
-2.075
-2.075

-0.000
-0.004
-0.008
-0.012
-0.017
-0.021
-0.025
-0.029
-0.033
-0.037
-0.041
-0.045
-0.049
-0.052
-0.056
-0.060
-0.063
-0.067
-0.070
-0.074
-0.077
-0.080
-0.083
-0.086
-0.089
-0.092
-0.094
-0.097
-0.099
-0.101
-0.103
-0.106
-0.107
-0.109
-0.111
-0.112
-0.114
-0.115
-0.116
-0.117
-0.118
-0.118
-0.119
-0.119
-0.119
-0.119

090/(270)
092/(268)
094/(266)
096/(264)
098/(262)
100/(260)
102/(258)
104/(256)
106/(254)
108/(252)
110/(250)
112/(248)
114/(246)
116/(244)
118/(242)
120/(240)
122/(238)
124/(236)
126/(234)
128/(232)
130/(230)
132/(228)
134/(226)
136/(224)
138/(222)
140/(220)
142/(218)
144/(216)
146/(214)
148/(212)
150/(210)
152/(208)
154/(206)
156/(204)
158/(202)
160/(200)
162/(198)
164/(196)
166/(194)
168/(192)
170/(190)
172/(188)
174/(186)
176/(184)
178/(182)
180/(180)

6.289
6.268
6.239
6.203
6.160
6.109
6.051
5.986
5.915
5.836
5.751
5.660
5.562
5.458
5.348
5.233
5.111
4.985
4.853
4.716
4.575
4.428
4.277
4.122
3.963
3.799
3.632
3.462
3.288
3.111
2.931
2.748
2.562
2.375
2.184
1.992
1.798
1.603
1.406
1.207
1.008
0.807
0.606
0.404
0.202
0.000

1.327
1.326
1.324
1.320
1.314
1.307
1.298
1.288
1.276
1.262
1.247
1.230
1.212
1.193
1.172
1.149
1.125
1.100
1.074
1.046
1.017
0.986
0.955
0.922
0.888
0.853
0.817
0.780
0.742
0.703
0.663
0.623
0.582
0.540
0.497
0.454
0.410
0.366
0.321
0.276
0.230
0.185
0.139
0.093
0.046
0.000

-0.044
-0.090
-0.136
-0.181
-0.226
-0.270
-0.313
-0.354
-0.394
-0.432
-0.468
-0.501
-0.533
-0.562
-0.589
-0.613
-0.633
-0.651
-0.666
-0.678
-0.687
-0.692
-0.695
-0.693
-0.689
-0.682
-0.671
-0.657
-0.640
-0.620
-0.596
-0.571
-0.542
-0.511
-0.477
-0.441
-0.404
-0.364
-0.322
-0.279
-0.235
-0.189
-0.143
-0.095
-0.048
-0.000

-2.075
-2.073
-2.067
-2.060
-2.050
-2.037
-2.022
-2.004
-1.984
-1.962
-1.937
-1.910
-1.881
-1.850
-1.816
-1.780
-1.742
-1.702
-1.660
-1.616
-1.570
-1.522
-1.473
-1.422
-1.369
-1.314
-1.258
-1.201
-1.142
-1.082
-1.020
-0.958
-0.894
-0.829
-0.764
-0.697
-0.630
-0.561
-0.493
-0.423
-0.354
-0.283
-0.213
-0.142
-0.071
-0.000

-0.119
-0.119
-0.119
-0.119
-0.118
-0.118
-0.117
-0.116
-0.115
-0.114
-0.112
-0.111
-0.109
-0.107
-0.106
-0.103
-0.101
-0.099
-0.097
-0.094
-0.092
-0.089
-0.086
-0.083
-0.080
-0.077
-0.074
-0.070
-0.067
-0.063
-0.060
-0.056
-0.052
-0.049
-0.045
-0.041
-0.037
-0.033
-0.029
-0.025
-0.021
-0.017
-0.012
-0.008
-0.004
-0.000

¯ − MM,
Table 41: Anomalies of the lunar-solar elongation. The common argument corresponds to MM, 2D
¯
¯
D, MS, and 2FM for the case of q1, q2, q3, q4, and q5, respectively. If the argument is in parenthesies then
the anomalies are minus the values shown in the table.
101

7 LUNAR-SOLAR SYZYGIES AND ECLIPSES
01/1/1900
20/1/1901
09/1/1902
28/1/1903
17/1/1904
05/1/1905
24/1/1906
14/1/1907
03/1/1908
22/1/1909
11/1/1910
30/1/1911
19/1/1912
07/1/1913
26/1/1914
15/1/1915
05/1/1916
23/1/1917
12/1/1918
02/1/1919
21/1/1920
09/1/1921
28/1/1922
17/1/1923
06/1/1924
24/1/1925
14/1/1926
03/1/1927
22/1/1928
11/1/1929
29/1/1930
18/1/1931
07/1/1932
25/1/1933
15/1/1934
05/1/1935
24/1/1936
12/1/1937
01/1/1938
20/1/1939
09/1/1940
27/1/1941
16/1/1942
06/1/1943
25/1/1944
14/1/1945
03/1/1946
22/1/1947
11/1/1948
29/1/1949

2415021.07
2415405.10
2415759.37
2416143.18
2416497.16
2416851.26
2417235.21
2417589.74
2417944.40
2418328.50
2418682.98
2419066.89
2419420.95
2419774.94
2420158.78
2420513.10
2420867.69
2421251.81
2421606.44
2421960.84
2422344.71
2422698.72
2423082.50
2423436.61
2423791.03
2424175.10
2424529.77
2424884.35
2425268.33
2425622.50
2426006.29
2426360.28
2426714.48
2427098.46
2427453.06
2427807.72
2428191.80
2428546.18
2428900.28
2429284.06
2429638.09
2430021.96
2430376.39
2430731.02
2431115.14
2431469.71
2431824.00
2432207.84
2432561.83
2432945.62

18/1/1950
07/1/1951
26/1/1952
15/1/1953
05/1/1954
24/1/1955
13/1/1956
01/1/1957
19/1/1958
09/1/1959
28/1/1960
16/1/1961
06/1/1962
25/1/1963
14/1/1964
02/1/1965
21/1/1966
10/1/1967
29/1/1968
18/1/1969
07/1/1970
26/1/1971
16/1/1972
04/1/1973
23/1/1974
12/1/1975
01/1/1976
19/1/1977
09/1/1978
28/1/1979
17/1/1980
06/1/1981
25/1/1982
14/1/1983
03/1/1984
21/1/1985
10/1/1986
29/1/1987
19/1/1988
07/1/1989
26/1/1990
15/1/1991
04/1/1992
22/1/1993
11/1/1994
01/1/1995
20/1/1996
09/1/1997
28/1/1998
17/1/1999

2433299.83
2433654.33
2434038.42
2434393.09
2434747.59
2435131.53
2435485.62
2435839.60
2436223.43
2436577.73
2436961.75
2437316.39
2437671.03
2438055.06
2438409.35
2438763.37
2439147.16
2439501.26
2439885.18
2440239.70
2440594.36
2440978.45
2441332.94
2441687.14
2442070.95
2442424.94
2442779.11
2443163.08
2443517.66
2443901.76
2444256.39
2444610.80
2444994.69
2445348.71
2445702.73
2446086.61
2446441.01
2446825.06
2447179.72
2447534.31
2447918.30
2448272.48
2448626.47
2449010.28
2449364.46
2449718.95
2450103.02
2450457.68
2450841.75
2451196.14

06/1/2000
24/1/2001
13/1/2002
02/1/2003
21/1/2004
10/1/2005
29/1/2006
19/1/2007
08/1/2008
26/1/2009
15/1/2010
04/1/2011
23/1/2012
11/1/2013
01/1/2014
20/1/2015
10/1/2016
27/1/2017
17/1/2018
06/1/2019
24/1/2020
13/1/2021
02/1/2022
21/1/2023
11/1/2024
29/1/2025
18/1/2026
07/1/2027
26/1/2028
14/1/2029
04/1/2030
23/1/2031
12/1/2032
01/1/2033
20/1/2034
09/1/2035
28/1/2036
16/1/2037
05/1/2038
24/1/2039
14/1/2040
02/1/2041
21/1/2042
11/1/2043
30/1/2044
18/1/2045
07/1/2046
26/1/2047
15/1/2048
04/1/2049

2451550.25
2451934.05
2452288.07
2452642.34
2453026.37
2453381.00
2453765.09
2454119.66
2454473.97
2454857.81
2455211.80
2455565.88
2455949.82
2456304.31
2456658.97
2457043.05
2457397.56
2457781.49
2458135.58
2458489.57
2458873.41
2459227.70
2459582.26
2459966.36
2460321.00
2460705.02
2461059.31
2461413.34
2461797.14
2462151.23
2462505.61
2462889.67
2463244.33
2463598.93
2463982.91
2464337.11
2464720.92
2465074.91
2465429.07
2465813.06
2466167.63
2466522.30
2466906.36
2467260.77
2467644.65
2467998.68
2468352.69
2468736.58
2469090.97
2469445.59

23/1/2050
12/1/2051
02/1/2052
19/1/2053
08/1/2054
27/1/2055
16/1/2056
05/1/2057
24/1/2058
14/1/2059
03/1/2060
21/1/2061
10/1/2062
29/1/2063
18/1/2064
06/1/2065
25/1/2066
15/1/2067
05/1/2068
23/1/2069
12/1/2070
01/1/2071
20/1/2072
08/1/2073
27/1/2074
16/1/2075
06/1/2076
24/1/2077
14/1/2078
03/1/2079
22/1/2080
10/1/2081
28/1/2082
18/1/2083
07/1/2084
25/1/2085
15/1/2086
04/1/2087
23/1/2088
11/1/2089
30/1/2090
19/1/2091
09/1/2092
27/1/2093
16/1/2094
06/1/2095
25/1/2096
13/1/2097
02/1/2098
21/1/2099

2469829.70
2470184.29
2470538.61
2470922.45
2471276.44
2471660.25
2472014.42
2472368.90
2472753.00
2473107.66
2473462.19
2473846.12
2474200.23
2474584.01
2474938.03
2475292.30
2475676.33
2476030.96
2476385.61
2476769.64
2477123.96
2477478.00
2477861.78
2478215.85
2478599.77
2478954.26
2479308.92
2479693.03
2480047.54
2480401.77
2480785.57
2481139.55
2481523.38
2481877.65
2482232.21
2482616.33
2482970.97
2483325.41
2483709.30
2484063.34
2484447.11
2484801.19
2485155.56
2485539.63
2485894.29
2486248.90
2486632.90
2486987.11
2487341.11
2487724.89

Table 42: Dates and fractional Julian day numbers of the first new moons of the years 1900–2099 CE.
102

7 LUNAR-SOLAR SYZYGIES AND ECLIPSES

Arg. (◦ )

δβ1 ( ′ )

δβ2 ( ′ )

δβ3 ( ′ )

Arg. (◦ )

000/360
002/358
004/356
006/354
008/352
010/350
012/348
014/346
016/344
018/342
020/340
022/338
024/336
026/334
028/332
030/330
032/328
034/326
036/324
038/322
040/320
042/318
044/316
046/314
048/312
050/310
052/308
054/306
056/304
058/302
060/300
062/298
064/296
066/294
068/292
070/290
072/288
074/286
076/284
078/282
080/280
082/278
084/276
086/274
088/272
090/270

3.128
3.126
3.120
3.111
3.097
3.080
3.059
3.035
3.007
2.975
2.939
2.900
2.857
2.811
2.762
2.709
2.652
2.593
2.530
2.465
2.396
2.324
2.250
2.173
2.093
2.010
1.926
1.838
1.749
1.657
1.564
1.468
1.371
1.272
1.172
1.070
0.967
0.862
0.757
0.650
0.543
0.435
0.327
0.218
0.109
0.000

0.856
0.855
0.854
0.851
0.847
0.843
0.837
0.830
0.822
0.814
0.804
0.793
0.782
0.769
0.755
0.741
0.726
0.709
0.692
0.674
0.655
0.636
0.615
0.594
0.573
0.550
0.527
0.503
0.478
0.453
0.428
0.402
0.375
0.348
0.321
0.293
0.264
0.236
0.207
0.178
0.149
0.119
0.089
0.060
0.030
0.000

0.267
0.267
0.267
0.266
0.265
0.263
0.261
0.259
0.257
0.254
0.251
0.248
0.244
0.240
0.236
0.231
0.227
0.222
0.216
0.211
0.205
0.199
0.192
0.186
0.179
0.172
0.165
0.157
0.149
0.142
0.134
0.125
0.117
0.109
0.100
0.091
0.083
0.074
0.065
0.056
0.046
0.037
0.028
0.019
0.009
0.000

(180)/(180)
(178)/(182)
(176)/(184)
(174)/(186)
(172)/(188)
(170)/(190)
(168)/(192)
(166)/(194)
(164)/(196)
(162)/(198)
(160)/(200)
(158)/(202)
(156)/(204)
(154)/(206)
(152)/(208)
(150)/(210)
(148)/(212)
(146)/(214)
(144)/(216)
(142)/(218)
(140)/(220)
(138)/(222)
(136)/(224)
(134)/(226)
(132)/(228)
(130)/(230)
(128)/(232)
(126)/(234)
(124)/(236)
(122)/(238)
(120)/(240)
(118)/(242)
(116)/(244)
(114)/(246)
(112)/(248)
(110)/(250)
(108)/(252)
(106)/(254)
(104)/(256)
(102)/(258)
(100)/(260)
(098)/(262)
(096)/(264)
(094)/(266)
(092)/(268)
(090)/(270)

Table 43: Lunar-solar eclipse functions. The arguments of δβ1, δβ2, and δβ3 are MM, MM, and MS,
respectively. δβ1, δβ2, and δβ3 take minus the values shown in the table if their arguments are in parenthesies.
103

8 THE SUPERIOR PLANETS

8 The Superior Planets
Figure 25 compares and contrasts heliocentric and geocentric models of the motion of a superior planet
(i.e., a planet which is further from the sun than the earth), P, as seen from the earth, G. The sun is at S. In
the heliocentric model, we can write the earth-planet displacement vector, P, as the sum of the earth-sun
displacement vector, S, and the sun-planet displacement vector, P ′ . The geocentric model, which is entirely
equivalent to the heliocentric model as far as the relative motion of the planet with respect to the earth is
concerned, and is much more convenient, relies on the simple vector identity
P = S + P ′ ≡ P ′ + S.

(141)

In other words, we can get from the earth to the planet by one of two different routes. The first route
corresponds to the heliocentric model, and the second to the geocentric model. In the latter model, P ′
gives the displacement of the so-called guide-point, G ′ , from the earth. Since P ′ is also the displacement of
the planet, P, from the sun, S, it is clear that G ′ executes a Keplerian orbit about the earth whose elements
are the same as those of the orbit of the planet about the sun. The ellipse traced out by G ′ is termed the
deferent. The vector S gives the displacement of the planet from the guide-point. However, S is also the
displacement of the sun from the earth. Hence, it is clear that the planet, P, executes a Keplerian orbit
about the guide-point, G ′ , whose elements are the same as the sun’s apparent orbit about the earth. The
ellipse traced out by P about G ′ is termed the epicycle.

deferent

planetary orbit

S

G
S
P′

P

P′

G

epicycle

P

G′
P

Earth’s orbit

Heliocentric

P

S

Geocentric

Figure 25: Heliocentric and geocentric models of the motion of a superior planet. Here, S is the sun, G the
earth, and P the planet. View is from the northern ecliptic pole.
Figure 26 illustrates in more detail how the deferent-epicycle model is used to determine the ecliptic
longitude of a superior planet. The planet P orbits (counterclockwise) on a small Keplerian orbit Π ′ PA ′
about guide-point G ′ , which, in turn, orbits the earth, G, (counterclockwise) on a large Keplerian orbit
ΠG ′ A. As has already been mentioned, the small orbit is termed the epicycle, and the large orbit the
deferent. Both orbits are assumed to lie in the plane of the ecliptic. This approximation does not introduce
104

8 THE SUPERIOR PLANETS

P
a′
A′

C′

T ′ Π′
̟′
G′
Υ

a
G

A

C
ea

T
Π

̟

Υ

Figure 26: Planetary longitude model. View is from northern ecliptic pole.
a large error into our calculations because the orbital inclinations of the visible planets to the ecliptic
plane are all fairly small. Let C, A, Π, a, e, ̟, and T denote the geometric center, apocenter (i.e., the
point of furthest distance from the central object), pericenter (i.e., the point of closest approach to the
central object), major radius, eccentricity, longitude of the pericenter, and true anomaly of the deferent,
respectively. Let C ′ , A ′ , Π ′ , a ′ , e ′ , ̟ ′ , and T ′ denote the corresponding quantities for the epicycle.

P

r′ sin µ

r′
µ

θ
G′

G

B
r′ cos µ

r

Figure 27: The triangle GBP.
Let the line GG ′ be produced, and let the perpendicular PB be dropped to it from P, as shown in Fig. 27.
The angle µ ≡ PG ′ B is termed the epicyclic anomaly (see Fig. 28), and takes the form
µ = T ′ + ̟ ′ − T − ̟ = ¯λ ′ + q ′ − ¯λ − q,
105

(142)

8 THE SUPERIOR PLANETS
where ¯λ and q are the mean longitude and equation of center for the deferent, whereas ¯λ ′ and q ′ are the
corresponding quantities for the epicycle—see Sect. 5. The epicyclic anomaly is generally written in the
range 0◦ to 360◦ . The angle θ ≡ PGG ′ is termed the equation of the epicycle, and is usually written in the
range −180◦ to +180◦ . It is clear from the figure that
tan θ =

sin µ
,
+ cos µ

(143)

r/r ′

where r ≡ GG ′ and r ′ ≡ G ′ P are the radial polar coordinates for the deferent and epicycle, respectively.
Moreover, according to Equation (22), r/r ′ = (a/a ′ ) z, where
1−ζ
,
1 − ζ′

z=

(144)

and
ζ = e cos M − e 2 sin2 M,
ζ

= e cos M − e

′2

2

sin M

(145)

(146)

are termed radial anomalies. Finally, the ecliptic longitude of the planet is given by (see Fig. 28)
λ = ¯λ + q + θ.

(147)

Now,
θ(µ, z) ≡ tan

−1 

sin µ

(a/a ) z + cos µ 

(148)

is a function of two variables, µ and z. It is impractical to tabulate such a function directly. Fortunately,
whilst θ(µ, z) has a strong dependence on µ, it only has a fairly weak dependence on z. In fact, it is easily
seen that z varies between zmin = z¯ − δz and zmax = z¯ + δz, where
1 + e e′
,
1 − e′ 2
e + e′
δz =
.
1 − e′ 2
z¯ =

(149)
(150)

Let us define

z¯ − z
.
(151)
δz
This variable takes the value −1 when z = zmax , the value 0 when z = z¯, and the value +1 when z = zmin .
Thus, using quadratic interpolation, we can write
ξ=

¯
θ(µ, z) ≃ Θ−(ξ) δθ−(µ) + θ(µ)
+ Θ+(ξ) δθ+(µ),

(152)

where
¯
θ(µ)
= θ(µ, z¯),

(153)

δθ−(µ) = θ(µ, z¯) − θ(µ, zmax ),

(154)

δθ+(µ) = θ(µ, zmin ) − θ(µ, z¯),

(155)

106

8 THE SUPERIOR PLANETS
and
Θ−(ξ) = −(1/2) ξ (ξ − 1),

(156)

Θ+(ξ) = +(1/2) ξ (ξ + 1).

(157)

This scheme allows us to avoid having to tabulate a two-dimensional function, whilst ensuring that the
exact value of θ(µ, z) is obtained when z = z¯, zmin , or zmax . The above interpolation scheme is very similar
to that adopted by Ptolemy in the Almagest.
Our procedure for determining the ecliptic longitude of a superior planet is described below. It is
assumed that the ecliptic longitude, λS, and the radial anomaly, ζS, of the sun have already been calculated.
The latter quantity is tabulated as a function of the solar mean anomaly in Table 33. In the following, a, e,
n, n
˜ , ¯λ0, and M0 represent elements of the orbit of the planet in question about the sun, and eS represents
the eccentricity of the sun’s apparent orbit about the earth. (In general, the subscript S denotes the sun.)
In particular, a is the major radius of the planetary orbit in units in which the major radius of the sun’s
apparent orbit about the earth is unity. The requisite elements for all of the superior planets at the J2000
epoch (t0 = 2 451 545.0 JD) are listed in Table 30. The ecliptic longitude of a superior planet is specified
by the following formulae:
¯λ = ¯λ0 + n (t − t0),

(158)

M = M0 + n
˜ (t − t0),

(159)
2

q = 2 e sin M + (5/4) e sin 2M,

(160)

ζ = e cos M − e2 sin2 M,

(161)

µ = λS − ¯λ − q,
θ¯ = θ(µ, z¯) ≡ tan−1

(162) 

sin µ
,
a z¯ + cos µ 

(163)

δθ− = θ(µ, z¯) − θ(µ, zmax ),

(164)

δθ+ = θ(µ, zmin ) − θ(µ, z¯),

(165)

1−ζ
,
1 − ζS
z¯ − z
ξ =
,
δz
θ = Θ−(ξ) δθ− + θ¯ + Θ+(ξ) δθ+,
z =

λ = ¯λ + q + θ.

(166)
(167)
(168)
(169)

Here, z¯ = (1 + e eS)/(1 − eS2), δz = (e + eS)/(1 − eS2), zmin = z¯ − δz, and zmax = z¯ + δz. The constants
z¯, δz, zmin , and zmax for each of the superior planets are listed in Table 44. Finally, the functions Θ± are
tabulated in Table 45.
For the case of Mars, the above formulae are capable of matching NASA ephemeris data during the
years 1995–2006 CE with a mean error of 3 ′ and a maximum error of 14 ′ . For the case of Jupiter, the
mean error is 1.6 ′ and the maximum error 4 ′ . Finally, for the case of Saturn, the mean error is 0.5 ′ and the
maximum error 1 ′ .
107

8 THE SUPERIOR PLANETS
The ecliptic longitude of Mars can be determined with the aid of Tables 46–48. Table 46 allows the
mean longitude, ¯λ, and the mean anomaly, M, of Mars to be calculated as functions of time. Next, Table 47
permits the equation of center, q, and the radial anomaly, ζ, to be determined as functions of the mean
¯ and δθ+ to be calculated as functions of the
anomaly. Finally, Table 48 allows the quantities δθ−, θ,
epicyclic anomaly, µ.
The procedure for using the tables is as follows:
1. Determine the fractional Julian day number, t, corresponding to the date and time at which the
ecliptic longitude is to be calculated with the aid of Tables 1–3. Form ∆t = t − t0, where t0 =
2 451 545.0 is the epoch.
2. Calculate the ecliptic longitude, λS, and radial anomaly, ζS, of the sun using the procedure set out in
Sect. 5.
3. Enter Table 46 with the digit for each power of 10 in ∆t and take out the corresponding values of ∆¯λ
and ∆M. If ∆t is negative then the corresponding values are also negative. The value of the mean
longitude, ¯λ, is the sum of all the ∆¯λ values plus the value of ¯λ at the epoch. Likewise, the value of
the mean anomaly, M, is the sum of all the ∆M values plus the value of M at the epoch. Add as
many multiples of 360◦ to ¯λ and M as is required to make them both fall in the range 0◦ to 360◦ .
Round M to the nearest degree.
4. Enter Table 47 with the value of M and take out the corresponding value of the equation of center,
q, and the radial anomaly, ζ. It is necessary to interpolate if M is odd.
5. Form the epicyclic anomaly, µ = λS − ¯λ − q. Add as many multiples of 360◦ to µ as is required to
make it fall in the range 0◦ to 360◦ . Round µ to the nearest degree.
¯ and δθ+. If
6. Enter Table 48 with the value of µ and take out the corresponding values of δθ−, θ,


◦ −µ) =
¯
µ > 180 then it is necessary to make use of the identities δθ± (360 −µ) = −δθ± (µ) and θ(360
¯
−θ(µ).
7. Form z = (1 − ζ)/(1 − ζS).
8. Obtain the values of z¯ and δz from Table 44. Form ξ = (¯
z − z)/δz.
9. Enter Table 45 with the value of ξ and take out the corresponding values of Θ− and Θ+. If ξ < 0
then it is necessary to use the identities Θ+(ξ) = −Θ−(−ξ) and Θ−(ξ) = −Θ+(−ξ).
10. Form the equation of the epicycle, θ = Θ− δθ− + θ¯ + Θ+ δθ+.
11. The ecliptic longitude, λ, is the sum of the mean longitude, ¯λ, the equation of center, q, and the
equation of the epicycle, θ. If necessary convert λ into an angle in the range 0◦ to 360◦ . The decimal
fraction can be converted into arc minutes using Table 31. Round to the nearest arc minute. The
final result can be written in terms of the signs of the zodiac using the table in Sect. 4.6.
Two examples of this procedure are given below.

108

8 THE SUPERIOR PLANETS
Example 1: May 5, 2005 CE, 00:00 UT:
From Sect. 5, t − t0 = 1 950.5 JD, λS = 44.602◦ , MS ≃ 120◦ . Hence, it follows from Table 33 that
ζS(MS) = −8.56 × 10−3. Making use of Table 46, we find:
t(JD)

¯λ(◦ )

M(◦ )

+1000
+900
+50
+.5
Epoch

164.071
111.664
26.204
0.262
355.460
657.661
297.661

164.021
111.619
26.201
0.262
19.388
321.491
321.491

Modulus

Given that M ≃ 321◦ , Table 47 yields
q(321◦ ) = −7.345◦ ,

ζ(321◦ ) = 6.912 × 10−2.

Thus,
µ = λS − ¯λ − q = 44.602 − 297.661 + 7.345 = 114.286 ≃ 114◦ ,
where we have rounded the epicylic anomaly to the nearest degree. It follows from Table 48 that
δθ−(114◦ ) = 3.853◦ ,


¯
θ(114
) = 39.209◦ ,

δθ+(114◦ ) = 4.612◦ .

Now,
z = (1 − ζ)/(1 − ζS) = (1 − 6.912 × 10−2)/(1 + 8.56 × 10−3) = 0.9230.
However, from Table 44, z¯ = 1.00184 and δz = 0.11014, so
ξ = (¯
z − z)/δz = (1.00184 − 0.9230)/0.11014 ≃ 0.72.
According to Table 45,
Θ−(0.72) = 0.101,

Θ+(0.72) = 0.619,

so
θ = Θ− δθ− + θ¯ + Θ+ δθ+ = 0.101 × 3.853 + 39.209 + 0.619 × 4.612 = 42.453◦ .
Finally,
λ = ¯λ + q + θ = 297.661 − 7.345 + 42.453 = 332.769 ≃ 332◦ 46 ′ .
Thus, the ecliptic longitude of Mars at 00:00 UT on May 5, 2005 CE was 2PI46.
Example 2: December 25, 1800 CE, 00:00 UT:
From Sect. 5, t − t0 = −72, 690.5 JD, λS = 273.055◦ , MS ≃ 354◦ . Hence, it follows from Table 33
that ζS(MS) = 1.662 × 10−2. Making use of Table 46, we find:

109

8 THE SUPERIOR PLANETS

t(JD)

¯λ(◦ )

M(◦ )

-70,000
-2,000
-600
-90
-.5
Epoch

−324.983
−328.142
−314.443
−47.166
−0.262
355.460
−659.536
60.464

−321.453
−328.042
−314.412
−47.162
−0.262
19.388
−991.943
88.057

Modulus

Given that M ≃ 88◦ , Table 47 yields
q(88◦ ) = 10.739◦ ,

ζ(88◦ ) = −5.45 × 10−3,

so
µ = λS − ¯λ − q = 273.055 − 60.464 − 10.739 = 201.852 ≃ 202◦ .
It follows from Table 48 that
δθ−(202◦ ) = −5.980◦ ,


¯
θ(202
) = −32.007◦ ,

δθ+(202◦ ) = −8.955◦ .

Now,
z = (1 − ζ)/(1 − ζS) = (1 + 5.45 × 10−3)/(1 − 1.662 × 10−2) = 1.02244,
so
ξ = (¯
z − z)/δz = (1.00184 − 1.02244)/0.11014 ≃ −0.19.
According to Table 45,
Θ−(−0.19) = −0.113,

Θ+(−0.19) = −0.077,

so
θ = Θ− δθ− + θ¯ + Θ+ δθ+ = −0.113 × 5.980 − 32.007 − 0.077 × 8.955 = −30.642◦ .
Finally,
λ = ¯λ + q + θ = 60.464 + 10.739 − 30.642 = 40.561 ≃ 40◦ 34 ′ .
Thus, the ecliptic longitude of Mars at 00:00 UT on December 25, 1800 CE was 10TA34.
Figure 28 shows the geocentric orbit of a superior planet. Recall that the vector G ′ P is always parallel
to the vector connecting the earth to the sun. It follows that a so-called conjunction, at which the sun lies
directly between the planet and the earth, occurs whenever the epicyclic anomaly, µ, takes the value 0◦ .
At a conjunction, the planet is furthest from the earth, and has the same ecliptic longitude as the sun,
and is, therefore, invisible. Conversely, a so-called opposition, at which the earth lies directly between the
planet and the sun, occurs whenever µ = 180◦ . At an opposition, the planet is closest to the earth, and also
directly opposite the sun in the sky, and, therefore, at its brightest. Now, a superior planet rotates around
the epicycle at a faster angular velocity than its guide-point rotates around the deferent. Moreover, both
the planet and guide-point rotate in the same direction. It follows that the planet is traveling backward in
the sky (relative to the direction of its mean motion) at opposition. This phenomenon is called retrograde
110

8 THE SUPERIOR PLANETS

P

µ
G′

θ
¯+q
λ

Υ

G

Figure 28: The geocentric orbit of a superior planet. Here, G, G ′ , P, µ, θ, ¯λ, q, and Υ represent the earth,
guide-point, planet, epicyclic anomaly, equation of the epicycle, mean longitude, equation of center, and spring
equinox, respectively. View is from northern ecliptic pole. Both G ′ and P orbit counterclockwise.
motion. The period of retrograde motion begins and ends at stations—so-called because when the planet
reaches them it appears to stand still in the sky for a few days whilst it reverses direction.
Tables 46–48 can be used to determine the dates of the conjunctions, oppositions, and stations of Mars.
Consider the first conjunction after the epoch (January 1, 2000 CE). We can estimate the time at which
this event occurs by approximating the epicyclic anomaly as the so-called mean epicyclic anomaly:
µ≃µ
¯ = ¯λS − ¯λ = ¯λ0S − ¯λ0 + (nS − n) (t − t0) = 284.998 + 0.46157617 (t − t0).
We obtain
t ≃ t0 + (360 − 284.998)/0.46157617 ≃ t0 + 162 JD.
A calculation of the epicyclic anomaly at this time, using Tables 46–48, yields µ = −9.583◦ . Now, the actual
conjunction occurs when µ = 0◦ . Hence, our next estimate is
t ≃ t0 + 162 + 9.583/0.46157617 ≃ t0 + 183 JD.
A calculation of the epicyclic anomaly at this time gives 0.294◦ . Thus, our final estimate is
t = t0 + 183 − 0.294/0.461557617 = t0 + 182.4 JD,
which corresponds to July 1, 2000 CE.
Consider the first opposition of Mars after the epoch. Our first estimate of the time at which this event
takes place is
t ≃ t0 + (540 − 284.998)/0.46157617 ≃ t0 + 552 JD.
111

8 THE SUPERIOR PLANETS
A calculation of the epicyclic anomaly at this time yields µ = 188.649◦ . Now, the actual opposition occurs
when µ = 180◦ . Hence, our second estimate is
t ≃ t0 + 552 − 8.649/0.46157617 ≃ t0 + 533 JD.
A calculation of the epicyclic anomaly at this time gives 181.455◦ . Thus, our third estimate is
t ≃ t0 + 533 − 1.455/0.46157617 ≃ t0 + 530 JD.
A calculation of the epicyclic anomaly at this time yields 180.244◦ . Hence, our final estimate is
t = t0 + 530 − 0.244/0.46157617 = t0 + 529.5 JD,
which corresponds to June 13, 2001 CE. Incidentally, it is clear from the above analysis that the mean time
period between successive conjunctions, or oppositions, of Mars is 360/0.46157617 = 779.9 JD, which is
equivalent to 2.14 years.
Let us now consider the stations of Mars. We can approximate the ecliptic longitude of a superior planet
as
¯
λ ≃ ¯λ + θ,
where
θ¯ = tan−1 

(170)

sin µ
¯
,
a
¯ + cos µ
¯ 

(171)

and a
¯ = a z¯. Note that d¯λ/dt = n and d¯
µ/dt = nS − n. It follows that

≃n+
dt 

a
¯ cos µ
¯+1
(nS − n).
1 + 2a
¯ cos µ
¯+a
¯2 

(172)

Now, a station corresponds to dλ/dt = 0 (i.e., a local maximum or minimum of λ), which gives
cos µ
¯≃−


a2 + nS/n)
.
a
¯ (1 + nS/n)

(173)

For the case of Mars, we find that µ
¯ ≃ 163.3◦ or 196.7◦ . The first solution corresponds to the so-called
retrograde station, at which the planet switches from direct to retrograde motion. The second solution corresponds to the so-called direct station, at which the planet switches from retrograde to direct motion. The
mean time interval between a retrograde station and the following opposition, or between an opposition
and the following direct station, is (180 − 163.3)/0.46157617 ≃ 36 JD. Unfortunately, the only option for
accurately determining the dates at which the stations occur is to calculate the ecliptic longitude of Mars
over a range of days centered 36 days before and after its opposition.
Table 49 shows the conjunctions, oppositions, and stations of Mars for the years 2000–2020 CE, calculated using the techniques described above.
The ecliptic longitude of Jupiter can be determined with the aid of Tables 50–52. Table 50 allows
the mean longitude, ¯λ, and the mean anomaly, M, of Jupiter to be calculated as functions of time. Next,
Table 51 permits the equation of center, q, and the radial anomaly, ζ, to be determined as functions of the
¯ and δθ+ to be calculated as functions of the
mean anomaly. Finally, Table 52 allows the quantities δθ−, θ,
112

8 THE SUPERIOR PLANETS
epicyclic anomaly, µ. The procedure for using the tables is analogous to the previously described procedure
for using the Mars tables. One example of this procedure is given below.
Example: May 5, 2005 CE, 00:00 UT:
From before, t − t0 = 1 950.5 JD, λS = 44.602◦ , MS ≃ 120◦ , and ζS = −8.56 × 10−3. Making use of
Table 50, we find:
t(JD)

¯λ(◦ )

M(◦ )

+1000
+900
+50
+.5
Epoch

83.125
74.813
4.156
0.042
34.365
196.501
196.501

83.081
74.773
4.154
0.042
19.348
181.398
181.398

Modulus

Given that M ≃ 181◦ , Table 51 yields
q(181◦ ) = −0.091◦ ,

ζ(181◦ ) = −4.838 × 10−2.

Thus,
µ = λS − ¯λ − q = 44.602 − 196.501 + 0.091 = −151.808 ≃ 208◦ ,
where we have rounded the epicylic anomaly to the nearest degree. It follows from Table 52 that
δθ−(208◦ ) = −0.447◦ ,


¯
θ(208
) = −6.194◦ ,

δθ+(208◦ ) = −0.522◦ .

Now,
z = (1 − ζ)/(1 − ζS) = (1 + 4.838 × 10−2)/(1 + 8.56 × 10−3) = 1.0395.
However, from Table 44, z¯ = 1.00109 and δz = 0.06512, so
ξ = (¯
z − z)/δz = (1.00109 − 1.0395)/0.06512 ≃ −0.59.
According to Table 45,
Θ−(−0.59) = −0.469,

Θ+(−0.59) = −0.121,

so
θ = Θ− δθ− + θ¯ + Θ+ δθ+ = 0.469 × 0.447 − 6.194 + 0.121 × 0.522 = −5.921◦ .
Finally,
λ = ¯λ + q + θ = 196.501 − 0.091 − 5.921 = 190.489 ≃ 190◦ 29 ′ .
Thus, the ecliptic longitude of Jupiter at 00:00 UT on May 5, 2005 CE was 10LI29.
The conjunctions, oppositions, and stations of Jupiter can be investigated using analogous methods to
those employed earlier to examine the conjunctions, oppositions, and stations of Mars. We find that the
mean time period between successive oppositions or conjunctions of Jupiter is 1.09 yr. Furthermore, on
average, the retrograde and direct stations of Jupiter occur when the epicyclic anomaly takes the values
113

8 THE SUPERIOR PLANETS
µ = 125.6◦ and 234.4◦ , respectively. Finally, the mean time period between a retrograde station and the following opposition, or between the opposition and the following direct station, is 60 JD. The conjunctions,
oppositions, and stations of Jupiter during the years 2000–2010 CE are shown in Table 53.
The ecliptic longitude of Saturn can be determined with the aid of Tables 54–56. Table 54 allows the
mean longitude, ¯λ, and the mean anomaly, M, of Saturn to be calculated as functions of time. Next,
Table 55 permits the equation of center, q, and the radial anomaly, ζ, to be determined as functions of the
¯ and δθ+ to be calculated as functions of the
mean anomaly. Finally, Table 56 allows the quantities δθ−, θ,
epicyclic anomaly, µ. The procedure for using the tables is analogous to the previously described procedure
for using the Mars tables. One example of this procedure is given below.
Example: May 5, 2005 CE, 00:00 UT:
From before, t − t0 = 1 950.5 JD, λS = 44.602◦ , MS ≃ 120◦ , and ζS = −8.56 × 10−3. Making use of
Table 54, we find:
t(JD)

¯λ(◦ )

M(◦ )

+1000
+900
+50
+.5
Epoch

33.508
30.157
1.675
0.017
50.059
115.416
115.416

33.482
30.133
1.674
0.017
317.857
383.163
23.163

Modulus

Given that M ≃ 23◦ , Table 55 yields
q(23◦ ) = 2.561◦ ,

ζ(23◦ ) = 4.913 × 10−2.

Thus,
µ = λS − ¯λ − q = 44.602 − 115.416 − 2.561 = −73.375 ≃ 287◦ ,
where we have rounded the epicylic anomaly to the nearest degree. It follows from Table 56 that
δθ−(287◦ ) = −0.353◦ ,


¯
θ(287
) = −5.551◦ ,

δθ+(287◦ ) = −0.405◦ .

Now,
z = (1 − ζ)/(1 − ζS) = (1 − 4.913 × 10−2)/(1 + 8.56 × 10−3) = 0.9428.
However, from Table 44, z¯ = 1.00118 and δz = 0.07059, so
ξ = (¯
z − z)/δz = (1.00118 − 0.9428)/0.07059 ≃ 0.83.
According to Table 45,
Θ−(0.83) = 0.071,

Θ+(0.83) = 0.759,

so
θ = Θ− δθ− + θ¯ + Θ+ δθ+ = −0.071 × 0.353 − 5.551 − 0.759 × 0.405 = −5.883◦ .
114

8 THE SUPERIOR PLANETS
Finally,
λ = ¯λ + q + θ = 115.416 + 2.561 − 5.883 = 112.094 ≃ 112◦ 06 ′ .
Thus, the ecliptic longitude of Saturn at 00:00 UT on May 5, 2005 CE was 22CN06.
The conjunctions, oppositions, and stations of Saturn can be investigated using analogous methods to
those employed earlier to examine the conjunctions, oppositions, and stations of Mars. We find that the
mean time period between successive oppositions or conjunctions of Saturn is 1.035 yr. Furthermore, on
average, the retrograde and direct stations of Saturn occur when the epicyclic anomaly takes the values
µ = 114.5◦ and 245.5◦ , respectively. Finally, the mean time period between a retrograde station and the following opposition, or between the opposition and the following direct station, is 69 JD. The conjunctions,
oppositions, and stations of Saturn during the years 2000–2010 CE are shown in Table 57.

115

8 THE SUPERIOR PLANETS

Planet
Mercury
Venus
Mars
Jupiter
Saturn

δz

zmin

zmax

1.04774
1.00016
1.00184
1.00109
1.00118

0.23216
0.02349
0.11014
0.06512
0.07059

0.81558
0.97667
0.89170
0.93597
0.93059

1.27990
1.02365
1.11198
1.06602
1.07177

Table 44: Constants associated with the epicycles of the inferior and superior planets.

ξ

Θ−

Θ+

ξ

Θ−

Θ+

ξ

Θ−

Θ+

ξ

Θ−

Θ+

0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.11
0.12
0.13
0.14
0.15
0.16
0.17
0.18
0.19
0.20
0.21
0.22
0.23
0.24
0.25

0.000
0.005
0.010
0.015
0.019
0.024
0.028
0.033
0.037
0.041
0.045
0.049
0.053
0.057
0.060
0.064
0.067
0.071
0.074
0.077
0.080
0.083
0.086
0.089
0.091
0.094

0.000
0.005
0.010
0.015
0.021
0.026
0.032
0.037
0.043
0.049
0.055
0.061
0.067
0.073
0.080
0.086
0.093
0.099
0.106
0.113
0.120
0.127
0.134
0.141
0.149
0.156

0.25
0.26
0.27
0.28
0.29
0.30
0.31
0.32
0.33
0.34
0.35
0.36
0.37
0.38
0.39
0.40
0.41
0.42
0.43
0.44
0.45
0.46
0.47
0.48
0.49
0.50

0.094
0.096
0.099
0.101
0.103
0.105
0.107
0.109
0.111
0.112
0.114
0.115
0.117
0.118
0.119
0.120
0.121
0.122
0.123
0.123
0.124
0.124
0.125
0.125
0.125
0.125

0.156
0.164
0.171
0.179
0.187
0.195
0.203
0.211
0.219
0.228
0.236
0.245
0.253
0.262
0.271
0.280
0.289
0.298
0.307
0.317
0.326
0.336
0.345
0.355
0.365
0.375

0.50
0.51
0.52
0.53
0.54
0.55
0.56
0.57
0.58
0.59
0.60
0.61
0.62
0.63
0.64
0.65
0.66
0.67
0.68
0.69
0.70
0.71
0.72
0.73
0.74
0.75

0.125
0.125
0.125
0.125
0.124
0.124
0.123
0.123
0.122
0.121
0.120
0.119
0.118
0.117
0.115
0.114
0.112
0.111
0.109
0.107
0.105
0.103
0.101
0.099
0.096
0.094

0.375
0.385
0.395
0.405
0.416
0.426
0.437
0.447
0.458
0.469
0.480
0.491
0.502
0.513
0.525
0.536
0.548
0.559
0.571
0.583
0.595
0.607
0.619
0.631
0.644
0.656

0.75
0.76
0.77
0.78
0.79
0.80
0.81
0.82
0.83
0.84
0.85
0.86
0.87
0.88
0.89
0.90
0.91
0.92
0.93
0.94
0.95
0.96
0.97
0.98
0.99
1.00

0.094
0.091
0.089
0.086
0.083
0.080
0.077
0.074
0.071
0.067
0.064
0.060
0.057
0.053
0.049
0.045
0.041
0.037
0.033
0.028
0.024
0.019
0.015
0.010
0.005
0.000

0.656
0.669
0.681
0.694
0.707
0.720
0.733
0.746
0.759
0.773
0.786
0.800
0.813
0.827
0.841
0.855
0.869
0.883
0.897
0.912
0.926
0.941
0.955
0.970
0.985
1.000

Table 45: Epicyclic interpolation coefficients. Note that Θ± (ξ) = −Θ∓ (−ξ).

116

8 THE SUPERIOR PLANETS

∆t(JD)

∆¯λ(◦ )

∆M(◦ )

∆¯F(◦ )

∆t(JD)

∆¯λ(◦ )

∆M(◦ )

∆¯F(◦ )

10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
60,000
70,000
80,000
90,000

200.712
41.424
242.135
82.847
283.559
124.271
324.983
165.694
6.406

200.208
40.415
240.623
80.830
281.038
121.246
321.453
161.661
1.868

200.409
40.819
241.228
81.638
282.047
122.456
322.866
163.275
3.685

1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000

164.071
328.142
132.214
296.285
100.356
264.427
68.498
232.569
36.641

164.021
328.042
132.062
296.083
100.104
264.125
68.145
232.166
36.187

164.041
328.082
132.123
296.164
100.205
264.246
68.287
232.328
36.368

100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900

52.407
104.814
157.221
209.628
262.036
314.443
6.850
59.257
111.664

52.402
104.804
157.206
209.608
262.010
314.412
6.815
59.217
111.619

52.404
104.808
157.212
209.616
262.020
314.425
6.829
59.233
111.637

10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90

5.241
10.481
15.722
20.963
26.204
31.444
36.685
41.926
47.166

5.240
10.480
15.721
20.961
26.201
31.441
36.681
41.922
47.162

5.240
10.481
15.721
20.962
26.202
31.442
36.683
41.923
47.164

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

0.524
1.048
1.572
2.096
2.620
3.144
3.668
4.193
4.717

0.524
1.048
1.572
2.096
2.620
3.144
3.668
4.192
4.716

0.524
1.048
1.572
2.096
2.620
3.144
3.668
4.192
4.716

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9

0.052
0.105
0.157
0.210
0.262
0.314
0.367
0.419
0.472

0.052
0.105
0.157
0.210
0.262
0.314
0.367
0.419
0.472

0.052
0.105
0.157
0.210
0.262
0.314
0.367
0.419
0.472

Table 46: Mean motion of Mars. Here, ∆t = t − t0, ∆¯λ = ¯λ − ¯λ0, ∆M = M − M0, and ∆¯F = ¯F − ¯F0. At epoch
(t0 = 2 451 545.0 JD), ¯λ0 = 355.460◦ , M0 = 19.388◦ , and ¯F0 = 305.796◦ .

117

8 THE SUPERIOR PLANETS

M(◦ )

q(◦ )

100 ζ

M(◦ )

q(◦ )

100 ζ

M(◦ )

q(◦ )

100 ζ

M(◦ )

q(◦ )

100 ζ

0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
70
72
74
76
78
80
82
84
86
88
90

0.000
0.417
0.833
1.249
1.662
2.072
2.479
2.882
3.281
3.674
4.062
4.443
4.817
5.184
5.542
5.892
6.233
6.564
6.885
7.195
7.494
7.782
8.059
8.323
8.575
8.814
9.040
9.252
9.452
9.637
9.809
9.967
10.111
10.241
10.357
10.458
10.546
10.619
10.678
10.722
10.753
10.770
10.773
10.763
10.739
10.702

9.339
9.333
9.312
9.279
9.232
9.171
9.098
9.011
8.911
8.799
8.674
8.537
8.388
8.227
8.054
7.870
7.675
7.470
7.254
7.029
6.794
6.550
6.297
6.036
5.768
5.491
5.208
4.919
4.623
4.322
4.016
3.705
3.389
3.071
2.749
2.424
2.097
1.768
1.438
1.107
0.776
0.444
0.114
-0.217
-0.545
-0.872

90
92
94
96
98
100
102
104
106
108
110
112
114
116
118
120
122
124
126
128
130
132
134
136
138
140
142
144
146
148
150
152
154
156
158
160
162
164
166
168
170
172
174
176
178
180

10.702
10.652
10.589
10.514
10.426
10.326
10.214
10.091
9.957
9.811
9.655
9.489
9.313
9.127
8.932
8.727
8.514
8.293
8.064
7.827
7.583
7.332
7.074
6.810
6.540
6.264
5.983
5.696
5.405
5.110
4.810
4.506
4.199
3.889
3.575
3.259
2.940
2.619
2.296
1.971
1.645
1.317
0.989
0.660
0.330
0.000

-0.872
-1.197
-1.519
-1.839
-2.155
-2.468
-2.776
-3.081
-3.380
-3.675
-3.964
-4.248
-4.527
-4.799
-5.065
-5.324
-5.576
-5.822
-6.060
-6.292
-6.515
-6.731
-6.939
-7.139
-7.331
-7.515
-7.690
-7.857
-8.015
-8.165
-8.306
-8.438
-8.562
-8.676
-8.782
-8.878
-8.966
-9.044
-9.113
-9.173
-9.224
-9.265
-9.298
-9.321
-9.335
-9.339

180
182
184
186
188
190
192
194
196
198
200
202
204
206
208
210
212
214
216
218
220
222
224
226
228
230
232
234
236
238
240
242
244
246
248
250
252
254
256
258
260
262
264
266
268
270

0.000
-0.330
-0.660
-0.989
-1.317
-1.645
-1.971
-2.296
-2.619
-2.940
-3.259
-3.575
-3.889
-4.199
-4.506
-4.810
-5.110
-5.405
-5.696
-5.983
-6.264
-6.540
-6.810
-7.074
-7.332
-7.583
-7.827
-8.064
-8.293
-8.514
-8.727
-8.932
-9.127
-9.313
-9.489
-9.655
-9.811
-9.957
-10.091
-10.214
-10.326
-10.426
-10.514
-10.589
-10.652
-10.702

-9.339
-9.335
-9.321
-9.298
-9.265
-9.224
-9.173
-9.113
-9.044
-8.966
-8.878
-8.782
-8.676
-8.562
-8.438
-8.306
-8.165
-8.015
-7.857
-7.690
-7.515
-7.331
-7.139
-6.939
-6.731
-6.515
-6.292
-6.060
-5.822
-5.576
-5.324
-5.065
-4.799
-4.527
-4.248
-3.964
-3.675
-3.380
-3.081
-2.776
-2.468
-2.155
-1.839
-1.519
-1.197
-0.872

270
272
274
276
278
280
282
284
286
288
290
292
294
296
298
300
302
304
306
308
310
312
314
316
318
320
322
324
326
328
330
332
334
336
338
340
342
344
346
348
350
352
354
356
358
360

-10.702
-10.739
-10.763
-10.773
-10.770
-10.753
-10.722
-10.678
-10.619
-10.546
-10.458
-10.357
-10.241
-10.111
-9.967
-9.809
-9.637
-9.452
-9.252
-9.040
-8.814
-8.575
-8.323
-8.059
-7.782
-7.494
-7.195
-6.885
-6.564
-6.233
-5.892
-5.542
-5.184
-4.817
-4.443
-4.062
-3.674
-3.281
-2.882
-2.479
-2.072
-1.662
-1.249
-0.833
-0.417
-0.000

-0.872
-0.545
-0.217
0.114
0.444
0.776
1.107
1.438
1.768
2.097
2.424
2.749
3.071
3.389
3.705
4.016
4.322
4.623
4.919
5.208
5.491
5.768
6.036
6.297
6.550
6.794
7.029
7.254
7.470
7.675
7.870
8.054
8.227
8.388
8.537
8.674
8.799
8.911
9.011
9.098
9.171
9.232
9.279
9.312
9.333
9.339

Table 47: Deferential anomalies of Mars.

118

8 THE SUPERIOR PLANETS
µ
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

δθ−

θ¯

0.000

0.000
0.396
0.792
1.187
1.583
1.979
2.374
2.770
3.165
3.560
3.955
4.350
4.745
5.140
5.534
5.928
6.322
6.716
7.110
7.503
7.896
8.288
8.680
9.072
9.464
9.855
10.246
10.636
11.026
11.415
11.804
12.192
12.580
12.968
13.354
13.741
14.126
14.511
14.896
15.279
15.662
16.045
16.426
16.807
17.187
17.566

0.025
0.049
0.074
0.099
0.123
0.148
0.173
0.197
0.222
0.247
0.272
0.297
0.322
0.347
0.372
0.397
0.422
0.447
0.472
0.497
0.523
0.548
0.573
0.599
0.625
0.650
0.676
0.702
0.728
0.754
0.780
0.806
0.833
0.859
0.886
0.913
0.939
0.966
0.994
1.021
1.048
1.076
1.103
1.131
1.159

δθ+

µ

δθ−

θ¯

δθ+

µ

δθ−

θ¯

δθ+

µ

δθ−

¯
θ

δθ+

0.000

45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90

1.159

17.566
17.945
18.322
18.699
19.075
19.450
19.824
20.196
20.568
20.939
21.309
21.677
22.045
22.411
22.776
23.139
23.502
23.863
24.222
24.581
24.938
25.293
25.647
25.999
26.349
26.698
27.045
27.390
27.734
28.075
28.415
28.753
29.088
29.421
29.752
30.081
30.408
30.732
31.054
31.373
31.689
32.003
32.314
32.622
32.927
33.228

1.329

90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135

2.679

33.228
33.527
33.822
34.114
34.403
34.688
34.969
35.246
35.519
35.788
36.053
36.313
36.568
36.819
37.065
37.306
37.541
37.771
37.996
38.214
38.426
38.632
38.831
39.023
39.209
39.386
39.556
39.718
39.872
40.017
40.153
40.279
40.396
40.502
40.598
40.683
40.756
40.816
40.864
40.899
40.920
40.926
40.918
40.893
40.851
40.793

3.125

135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180

5.180

40.793
40.716
40.619
40.503
40.366
40.206
40.024
39.817
39.584
39.325
39.038
38.721
38.373
37.992
37.577
37.126
36.638
36.110
35.541
34.929
34.271
33.567
32.813
32.007
31.149
30.235
29.265
28.236
27.146
25.996
24.783
23.506
22.167
20.764
19.299
17.774
16.189
14.549
12.857
11.116
9.333
7.513
5.662
3.788
1.898
0.000

6.547

0.028
0.056
0.084
0.113
0.141
0.169
0.197
0.226
0.254
0.282
0.311
0.339
0.368
0.396
0.425
0.453
0.482
0.511
0.540
0.568
0.597
0.626
0.656
0.685
0.714
0.744
0.773
0.803
0.833
0.863
0.893
0.923
0.953
0.984
1.014
1.045
1.076
1.107
1.138
1.169
1.201
1.233
1.265
1.297
1.329

1.187
1.216
1.244
1.273
1.302
1.331
1.360
1.390
1.419
1.449
1.479
1.510
1.540
1.571
1.602
1.633
1.665
1.696
1.728
1.761
1.793
1.826
1.859
1.893
1.927
1.961
1.995
2.030
2.065
2.100
2.136
2.172
2.209
2.246
2.283
2.321
2.359
2.397
2.436
2.475
2.515
2.555
2.596
2.637
2.679

1.362
1.394
1.427
1.461
1.494
1.528
1.562
1.596
1.630
1.665
1.700
1.735
1.771
1.807
1.843
1.879
1.916
1.953
1.991
2.029
2.067
2.106
2.145
2.184
2.224
2.264
2.305
2.346
2.387
2.429
2.472
2.515
2.558
2.602
2.647
2.692
2.737
2.784
2.830
2.878
2.926
2.975
3.024
3.074
3.125

2.721
2.764
2.807
2.851
2.895
2.940
2.985
3.031
3.078
3.125
3.173
3.221
3.270
3.320
3.370
3.421
3.472
3.525
3.578
3.631
3.686
3.741
3.796
3.853
3.910
3.968
4.026
4.086
4.146
4.206
4.268
4.330
4.393
4.456
4.520
4.584
4.649
4.715
4.780
4.847
4.913
4.980
5.047
5.113
5.180

3.176
3.228
3.281
3.335
3.390
3.445
3.501
3.558
3.616
3.675
3.735
3.796
3.857
3.920
3.984
4.049
4.115
4.182
4.251
4.321
4.391
4.464
4.537
4.612
4.688
4.765
4.844
4.925
5.007
5.091
5.176
5.262
5.351
5.441
5.533
5.626
5.721
5.818
5.917
6.018
6.120
6.224
6.330
6.438
6.547

5.246
5.312
5.378
5.442
5.506
5.568
5.628
5.687
5.744
5.797
5.848
5.895
5.938
5.976
6.009
6.036
6.056
6.069
6.072
6.066
6.050
6.022
5.980
5.925
5.854
5.766
5.660
5.535
5.389
5.221
5.030
4.815
4.576
4.311
4.021
3.707
3.368
3.005
2.621
2.217
1.796
1.360
0.913
0.458
0.000

6.658
6.771
6.885
7.001
7.118
7.235
7.354
7.474
7.594
7.714
7.833
7.952
8.069
8.184
8.297
8.405
8.509
8.607
8.698
8.780
8.852
8.911
8.955
8.982
8.988
8.972
8.929
8.855
8.747
8.601
8.411
8.174
7.886
7.541
7.138
6.673
6.145
5.553
4.899
4.186
3.420
2.608
1.760
0.886
0.000

◦ − µ) = −θ(µ),
¯
¯
Table 48: Epicyclic anomalies of Mars. All quantities are in degrees. Note that θ(360
and

δθ± (360 − µ) = −δθ± (µ).

119

8 THE SUPERIOR PLANETS

Event
Conjunction
Station (R)
Opposition
Station (D)
Conjunction
Station (R)
Opposition
Station (D)
Conjunction
Station (R)
Opposition
Station (D)
Conjunction
Station (R)
Opposition
Station (D)
Conjunction
Station (R)
Opposition
Station (D)
Conjunction
Station (R)
Opposition
Station (D)
Conjunction
Station (R)
Opposition
Station (D)
Conjunction
Station (R)
Opposition
Station (D)
Conjunction
Station (R)
Opposition
Station (D)
Conjunction
Station (R)
Opposition
Station (D)

Date
01/07/2000
12/05/2001
13/06/2001
19/07/2001
10/08/2002
29/07/2003
28/08/2003
27/09/2003
15/09/2004
02/10/2005
07/11/2005
09/12/2005
23/10/2006
15/11/2007
24/12/2007
31/01/2008
05/12/2008
20/12/2009
29/01/2010
10/03/2010
04/02/2011
24/01/2012
03/03/2012
14/04/2012
17/04/2013
01/03/2014
08/04/2014
20/05/2014
14/06/2015
17/04/2016
22/05/2016
29/06/2016
27/07/2017
27/06/2018
27/07/2018
27/08/2018
02/09/2019
10/09/2020
13/10/2020
13/11/2020

λ
10CN13
29SG00
22SG44
15SG02
18LE05
10PI20
05PI03
29AQ55
23VI06
23TA31
15TA06
08TA24
29LI44
12CN36
02CN45
24GE15
14SG08
19LE35
09LE45
00LE20
15AQ42
23VI01
13VI42
03VI51
28AR06
27LI31
19LI00
09LI04
23GE28
08SG45
01SG43
22SC55
04LE11
09AQ35
04AQ22
28CP43
09VI43
28AR08
20AR59
15AR05

Table 49: The conjunctions, oppositions, and stations of Mars during the years 2000–2020 CE. (R) indicates
a retrograde station, and (D) a direct station.

120

8 THE SUPERIOR PLANETS

∆t(JD)

∆¯λ(◦ )

∆M(◦ )

∆¯F(◦ )

∆t(JD)

∆¯λ(◦ )

∆M(◦ )

∆¯F(◦ )

10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
60,000
70,000
80,000
90,000

111.251
222.501
333.752
85.003
196.253
307.504
58.755
170.006
281.256

110.810
221.620
332.430
83.240
194.050
304.860
55.670
166.480
277.290

110.812
221.624
332.437
83.249
194.061
304.873
55.685
166.498
277.310

1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000

83.125
166.250
249.375
332.500
55.625
138.750
221.875
305.001
28.126

83.081
166.162
249.243
332.324
55.405
138.486
221.567
304.648
27.729

83.081
166.162
249.244
332.325
55.406
138.487
221.569
304.650
27.731

100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900

8.313
16.625
24.938
33.250
41.563
49.875
58.188
66.500
74.813

8.308
16.616
24.924
33.232
41.541
49.849
58.157
66.465
74.773

8.308
16.616
24.924
33.232
41.541
49.849
58.157
66.465
74.773

10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90

0.831
1.663
2.494
3.325
4.156
4.988
5.819
6.650
7.481

0.831
1.662
2.492
3.323
4.154
4.985
5.816
6.646
7.477

0.831
1.662
2.492
3.323
4.154
4.985
5.816
6.646
7.477

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

0.083
0.166
0.249
0.333
0.416
0.499
0.582
0.665
0.748

0.083
0.166
0.249
0.332
0.415
0.498
0.582
0.665
0.748

0.083
0.166
0.249
0.332
0.415
0.498
0.582
0.665
0.748

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9

0.008
0.017
0.025
0.033
0.042
0.050
0.058
0.067
0.075

0.008
0.017
0.025
0.033
0.042
0.050
0.058
0.066
0.075

0.008
0.017
0.025
0.033
0.042
0.050
0.058
0.066
0.075

Table 50: Mean motion of Jupiter. Here, ∆t = t − t0, ∆¯λ = ¯λ − ¯λ0, ∆M = M − M0, and ∆¯F = ¯
F−¯
F0. At



¯
¯
epoch (t0 = 2 451 545.0 JD), λ0 = 34.365 , M0 = 19.348 , and F0 = 293.660 .

121

8 THE SUPERIOR PLANETS

M(◦ )

q(◦ )

100 ζ

M(◦ )

q(◦ )

100 ζ

M(◦ )

q(◦ )

100 ζ

M(◦ )

q(◦ )

100 ζ

0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
70
72
74
76
78
80
82
84
86
88
90

0.000
0.205
0.410
0.614
0.818
1.020
1.221
1.420
1.617
1.812
2.004
2.194
2.380
2.563
2.742
2.918
3.089
3.256
3.419
3.576
3.729
3.877
4.019
4.156
4.287
4.413
4.532
4.645
4.752
4.853
4.947
5.035
5.116
5.190
5.257
5.318
5.372
5.419
5.459
5.492
5.518
5.537
5.549
5.554
5.553
5.545

4.839
4.835
4.826
4.810
4.787
4.758
4.723
4.681
4.633
4.579
4.519
4.453
4.382
4.304
4.221
4.132
4.038
3.938
3.834
3.724
3.610
3.491
3.368
3.240
3.108
2.973
2.834
2.691
2.545
2.396
2.244
2.089
1.932
1.773
1.611
1.448
1.283
1.117
0.950
0.782
0.613
0.444
0.274
0.105
-0.065
-0.234

90
92
94
96
98
100
102
104
106
108
110
112
114
116
118
120
122
124
126
128
130
132
134
136
138
140
142
144
146
148
150
152
154
156
158
160
162
164
166
168
170
172
174
176
178
180

5.545
5.530
5.508
5.479
5.444
5.403
5.355
5.301
5.241
5.175
5.102
5.024
4.941
4.851
4.757
4.657
4.551
4.441
4.326
4.207
4.082
3.954
3.821
3.684
3.543
3.399
3.251
3.100
2.945
2.787
2.627
2.464
2.298
2.131
1.961
1.789
1.615
1.439
1.263
1.085
0.905
0.725
0.545
0.363
0.182
0.000

-0.234
-0.403
-0.571
-0.737
-0.903
-1.067
-1.230
-1.391
-1.550
-1.707
-1.862
-2.014
-2.163
-2.310
-2.454
-2.595
-2.732
-2.867
-2.997
-3.124
-3.248
-3.367
-3.482
-3.594
-3.701
-3.803
-3.902
-3.995
-4.085
-4.169
-4.249
-4.324
-4.394
-4.459
-4.519
-4.574
-4.624
-4.669
-4.709
-4.743
-4.772
-4.796
-4.815
-4.828
-4.836
-4.839

180
182
184
186
188
190
192
194
196
198
200
202
204
206
208
210
212
214
216
218
220
222
224
226
228
230
232
234
236
238
240
242
244
246
248
250
252
254
256
258
260
262
264
266
268
270

0.000
-0.182
-0.363
-0.545
-0.725
-0.905
-1.085
-1.263
-1.439
-1.615
-1.789
-1.961
-2.131
-2.298
-2.464
-2.627
-2.787
-2.945
-3.100
-3.251
-3.399
-3.543
-3.684
-3.821
-3.954
-4.082
-4.207
-4.326
-4.441
-4.551
-4.657
-4.757
-4.851
-4.941
-5.024
-5.102
-5.175
-5.241
-5.301
-5.355
-5.403
-5.444
-5.479
-5.508
-5.530
-5.545

-4.839
-4.836
-4.828
-4.815
-4.796
-4.772
-4.743
-4.709
-4.669
-4.624
-4.574
-4.519
-4.459
-4.394
-4.324
-4.249
-4.169
-4.085
-3.995
-3.902
-3.803
-3.701
-3.594
-3.482
-3.367
-3.248
-3.124
-2.997
-2.867
-2.732
-2.595
-2.454
-2.310
-2.163
-2.014
-1.862
-1.707
-1.550
-1.391
-1.230
-1.067
-0.903
-0.737
-0.571
-0.403
-0.234

270
272
274
276
278
280
282
284
286
288
290
292
294
296
298
300
302
304
306
308
310
312
314
316
318
320
322
324
326
328
330
332
334
336
338
340
342
344
346
348
350
352
354
356
358
360

-5.545
-5.553
-5.554
-5.549
-5.537
-5.518
-5.492
-5.459
-5.419
-5.372
-5.318
-5.257
-5.190
-5.116
-5.035
-4.947
-4.853
-4.752
-4.645
-4.532
-4.413
-4.287
-4.156
-4.019
-3.877
-3.729
-3.576
-3.419
-3.256
-3.089
-2.918
-2.742
-2.563
-2.380
-2.194
-2.004
-1.812
-1.617
-1.420
-1.221
-1.020
-0.818
-0.614
-0.410
-0.205
-0.000

-0.234
-0.065
0.105
0.274
0.444
0.613
0.782
0.950
1.117
1.283
1.448
1.611
1.773
1.932
2.089
2.244
2.396
2.545
2.691
2.834
2.973
3.108
3.240
3.368
3.491
3.610
3.724
3.834
3.938
4.038
4.132
4.221
4.304
4.382
4.453
4.519
4.579
4.633
4.681
4.723
4.758
4.787
4.810
4.826
4.835
4.839

Table 51: Deferential anomalies of Jupiter.

122

8 THE SUPERIOR PLANETS
µ

δθ−

¯
θ

δθ+

µ

δθ−

¯
θ

δθ+

µ

δθ−

θ¯

δθ+

µ

δθ−

θ¯

δθ+

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

0.000

0.000
0.161
0.322
0.483
0.644
0.805
0.965
1.126
1.286
1.446
1.606
1.766
1.925
2.084
2.242
2.400
2.558
2.715
2.872
3.028
3.184
3.339
3.494
3.648
3.801
3.954
4.106
4.257
4.407
4.557
4.705
4.853
5.000
5.146
5.292
5.436
5.579
5.721
5.862
6.002
6.141
6.278
6.415
6.550
6.684
6.816

0.000

45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90

0.366

6.816
6.948
7.077
7.206
7.333
7.459
7.583
7.705
7.826
7.946
8.063
8.180
8.294
8.407
8.517
8.626
8.734
8.839
8.942
9.044
9.143
9.240
9.336
9.429
9.520
9.609
9.696
9.780
9.862
9.942
10.019
10.094
10.167
10.237
10.304
10.369
10.431
10.491
10.548
10.602
10.654
10.702
10.748
10.791
10.831
10.868

0.410

90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135

0.649

10.868
10.902
10.933
10.961
10.986
11.008
11.026
11.041
11.053
11.062
11.067
11.069
11.068
11.063
11.054
11.042
11.027
11.008
10.985
10.959
10.929
10.895
10.858
10.817
10.772
10.723
10.671
10.614
10.554
10.490
10.422
10.350
10.274
10.194
10.110
10.023
9.931
9.835
9.736
9.632
9.524
9.413
9.297
9.178
9.055
8.927

0.736

135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180

0.616

8.927
8.796
8.661
8.522
8.380
8.233
8.083
7.929
7.771
7.610
7.445
7.276
7.104
6.929
6.750
6.568
6.383
6.194
6.003
5.808
5.610
5.410
5.206
5.000
4.792
4.581
4.367
4.151
3.933
3.713
3.491
3.267
3.041
2.814
2.585
2.354
2.123
1.890
1.656
1.421
1.185
0.949
0.712
0.475
0.238
0.000

0.713

0.008
0.017
0.025
0.033
0.042
0.050
0.058
0.067
0.075
0.083
0.092
0.100
0.108
0.116
0.125
0.133
0.141
0.149
0.158
0.166
0.174
0.182
0.191
0.199
0.207
0.215
0.223
0.231
0.239
0.248
0.256
0.264
0.272
0.280
0.288
0.296
0.304
0.311
0.319
0.327
0.335
0.343
0.351
0.358
0.366

0.009
0.019
0.028
0.037
0.046
0.056
0.065
0.074
0.084
0.093
0.102
0.111
0.121
0.130
0.139
0.148
0.158
0.167
0.176
0.185
0.194
0.204
0.213
0.222
0.231
0.240
0.249
0.258
0.268
0.277
0.286
0.295
0.304
0.313
0.322
0.331
0.339
0.348
0.357
0.366
0.375
0.384
0.392
0.401
0.410

0.374
0.381
0.389
0.396
0.404
0.411
0.419
0.426
0.434
0.441
0.448
0.455
0.462
0.470
0.477
0.484
0.490
0.497
0.504
0.511
0.517
0.524
0.531
0.537
0.543
0.550
0.556
0.562
0.568
0.574
0.580
0.585
0.591
0.596
0.602
0.607
0.612
0.617
0.622
0.627
0.632
0.636
0.641
0.645
0.649

0.418
0.427
0.436
0.444
0.453
0.461
0.470
0.478
0.486
0.495
0.503
0.511
0.519
0.527
0.535
0.543
0.551
0.559
0.567
0.574
0.582
0.590
0.597
0.605
0.612
0.619
0.626
0.633
0.640
0.647
0.654
0.661
0.667
0.674
0.680
0.686
0.692
0.698
0.704
0.710
0.715
0.721
0.726
0.731
0.736

0.653
0.657
0.661
0.664
0.668
0.671
0.674
0.677
0.680
0.682
0.684
0.686
0.688
0.690
0.692
0.693
0.694
0.695
0.695
0.696
0.696
0.696
0.695
0.695
0.694
0.693
0.691
0.690
0.688
0.686
0.683
0.680
0.677
0.674
0.670
0.666
0.662
0.657
0.652
0.647
0.641
0.636
0.629
0.623
0.616

0.741
0.746
0.750
0.755
0.759
0.763
0.766
0.770
0.773
0.777
0.780
0.782
0.785
0.787
0.789
0.791
0.793
0.794
0.795
0.796
0.796
0.797
0.797
0.796
0.796
0.795
0.794
0.792
0.790
0.788
0.786
0.783
0.780
0.776
0.772
0.768
0.764
0.759
0.753
0.748
0.742
0.735
0.728
0.721
0.713

0.609
0.601
0.593
0.585
0.576
0.567
0.558
0.548
0.538
0.528
0.517
0.506
0.495
0.484
0.472
0.459
0.447
0.434
0.421
0.407
0.393
0.379
0.365
0.350
0.336
0.320
0.305
0.289
0.274
0.258
0.241
0.225
0.208
0.192
0.175
0.158
0.140
0.123
0.106
0.088
0.071
0.053
0.035
0.018
0.000

0.705
0.697
0.688
0.679
0.669
0.659
0.649
0.638
0.627
0.615
0.603
0.590
0.577
0.564
0.550
0.536
0.522
0.507
0.492
0.476
0.460
0.444
0.427
0.410
0.393
0.375
0.357
0.339
0.321
0.302
0.283
0.264
0.244
0.225
0.205
0.185
0.165
0.145
0.124
0.104
0.083
0.062
0.042
0.021
0.000

◦ − µ) = −θ(µ),
¯
¯
Table 52: Epicyclic anomalies of Jupiter. All quantities are in degrees. Note that θ(360
and

δθ± (360 − µ) = −δθ± (µ).

123

8 THE SUPERIOR PLANETS

Event
Conjunction
Station (R)
Opposition
Station (D)
Conjunction
Station (R)
Opposition
Station (D)
Conjunction
Station (R)
Opposition
Station (D)
Conjunction
Station (R)
Opposition
Station (D)
Conjunction
Station (R)
Opposition
Station (D)
Conjunction
Station (R)
Opposition
Station (D)
Conjunction
Station (R)
Opposition
Station (D)
Conjunction
Station (R)
Opposition
Station (D)
Conjunction
Station (R)
Opposition
Station (D)
Conjunction
Station (R)
Opposition
Station (D)

Date
08/05/2000
29/09/2000
28/11/2000
25/01/2001
14/06/2001
02/11/2001
01/01/2002
01/03/2002
20/07/2002
04/12/2002
02/02/2003
04/04/2003
22/08/2003
04/01/2004
04/03/2004
05/05/2004
22/09/2004
02/02/2005
03/04/2005
05/06/2005
22/10/2005
04/03/2006
04/05/2006
06/07/2006
22/11/2006
06/04/2007
06/06/2007
07/08/2007
23/12/2007
09/05/2008
09/07/2008
08/09/2008
24/01/2009
15/06/2009
14/08/2009
13/10/2009
28/02/2010
23/07/2010
21/09/2010
18/11/2010

λ
17TA53
11GE13
06GE08
01GE10
23GE30
15CN41
10CN37
05CN37
27CN11
18LE06
13LE06
08LE03
28LE55
18VI54
13VI58
08VI55
29VI21
18LI53
14LI00
08LI58
29LI16
18SC54
14SC03
09SC02
29SC34
19SG49
14SG57
09SG58
01CP03
22CP23
17CP30
12CP33
04AQ23
27AQ01
22AQ04
17AQ10
09PI43
03AR20
28PI19
23PI26

Table 53: The conjunctions, oppositions, and stations of Jupiter during the years 2000–2010 CE. (R) indicates
a retrograde station, and (D) a direct station.

124

8 THE SUPERIOR PLANETS

∆t(JD)

∆¯λ(◦ )

∆M(◦ )

∆¯F(◦ )

∆t(JD)

∆¯λ(◦ )

∆M(◦ )

∆¯F(◦ )

10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
60,000
70,000
80,000
90,000

335.083
310.166
285.249
260.332
235.415
210.498
185.581
160.664
135.747

334.815
309.630
284.446
259.261
234.076
208.891
183.706
158.522
133.337

334.779
309.559
284.338
259.118
233.897
208.677
183.456
158.236
133.015

1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000

33.508
67.017
100.525
134.033
167.541
201.050
234.558
268.066
301.575

33.482
66.963
100.445
133.926
167.408
200.889
234.371
267.852
301.334

33.478
66.956
100.434
133.912
167.390
200.868
234.346
267.824
301.302

100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900

3.351
6.702
10.052
13.403
16.754
20.105
23.456
26.807
30.157

3.348
6.696
10.044
13.393
16.741
20.089
23.437
26.785
30.133

3.348
6.696
10.043
13.391
16.739
20.087
23.435
26.782
30.130

10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90

0.335
0.670
1.005
1.340
1.675
2.010
2.346
2.681
3.016

0.335
0.670
1.004
1.339
1.674
2.009
2.344
2.679
3.013

0.335
0.670
1.004
1.339
1.674
2.009
2.343
2.678
3.013

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

0.034
0.067
0.101
0.134
0.168
0.201
0.235
0.268
0.302

0.033
0.067
0.100
0.134
0.167
0.201
0.234
0.268
0.301

0.033
0.067
0.100
0.134
0.167
0.201
0.234
0.268
0.301

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9

0.003
0.007
0.010
0.013
0.017
0.020
0.023
0.027
0.030

0.003
0.007
0.010
0.013
0.017
0.020
0.023
0.027
0.030

0.003
0.007
0.010
0.013
0.017
0.020
0.023
0.027
0.030

Table 54: Mean motion of Saturn. Here, ∆t = t − t0, ∆¯λ = ¯λ − ¯λ0, ∆M = M − M0, and ∆¯F = ¯
F−¯
F0. At



¯
¯
epoch (t0 = 2 451 545.0 JD), λ0 = 50.059 , M0 = 317.857 , and F0 = 296.482 .

125

8 THE SUPERIOR PLANETS

M(◦ )

q(◦ )

100 ζ

M(◦ )

q(◦ )

100 ζ

M(◦ )

q(◦ )

100 ζ

M(◦ )

q(◦ )

100 ζ

0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
70
72
74
76
78
80
82
84
86
88
90

0.000
0.230
0.459
0.688
0.916
1.143
1.368
1.591
1.811
2.029
2.245
2.456
2.665
2.869
3.070
3.266
3.457
3.644
3.825
4.002
4.172
4.337
4.495
4.648
4.793
4.933
5.065
5.191
5.310
5.421
5.525
5.622
5.711
5.793
5.867
5.933
5.992
6.043
6.086
6.122
6.149
6.169
6.182
6.186
6.183
6.172

5.386
5.383
5.372
5.354
5.328
5.296
5.256
5.209
5.156
5.095
5.027
4.953
4.873
4.785
4.692
4.592
4.486
4.375
4.257
4.134
4.006
3.873
3.735
3.591
3.444
3.292
3.136
2.976
2.813
2.646
2.476
2.302
2.127
1.949
1.768
1.586
1.402
1.217
1.030
0.842
0.654
0.465
0.276
0.087
-0.102
-0.290

90
92
94
96
98
100
102
104
106
108
110
112
114
116
118
120
122
124
126
128
130
132
134
136
138
140
142
144
146
148
150
152
154
156
158
160
162
164
166
168
170
172
174
176
178
180

6.172
6.154
6.128
6.095
6.055
6.007
5.953
5.891
5.823
5.748
5.666
5.578
5.484
5.384
5.277
5.165
5.048
4.924
4.796
4.662
4.524
4.380
4.232
4.080
3.923
3.763
3.598
3.430
3.259
3.084
2.906
2.725
2.542
2.356
2.168
1.977
1.785
1.591
1.396
1.199
1.001
0.802
0.602
0.402
0.201
0.000

-0.290
-0.478
-0.664
-0.850
-1.034
-1.217
-1.397
-1.576
-1.753
-1.927
-2.098
-2.267
-2.433
-2.596
-2.755
-2.911
-3.063
-3.211
-3.356
-3.496
-3.632
-3.764
-3.892
-4.015
-4.133
-4.246
-4.354
-4.458
-4.556
-4.649
-4.737
-4.820
-4.897
-4.969
-5.035
-5.095
-5.150
-5.200
-5.243
-5.281
-5.313
-5.339
-5.360
-5.374
-5.383
-5.386

180
182
184
186
188
190
192
194
196
198
200
202
204
206
208
210
212
214
216
218
220
222
224
226
228
230
232
234
236
238
240
242
244
246
248
250
252
254
256
258
260
262
264
266
268
270

0.000
-0.201
-0.402
-0.602
-0.802
-1.001
-1.199
-1.396
-1.591
-1.785
-1.977
-2.168
-2.356
-2.542
-2.725
-2.906
-3.084
-3.259
-3.430
-3.598
-3.763
-3.923
-4.080
-4.232
-4.380
-4.524
-4.662
-4.796
-4.924
-5.048
-5.165
-5.277
-5.384
-5.484
-5.578
-5.666
-5.748
-5.823
-5.891
-5.953
-6.007
-6.055
-6.095
-6.128
-6.154
-6.172

-5.386
-5.383
-5.374
-5.360
-5.339
-5.313
-5.281
-5.243
-5.200
-5.150
-5.095
-5.035
-4.969
-4.897
-4.820
-4.737
-4.649
-4.556
-4.458
-4.354
-4.246
-4.133
-4.015
-3.892
-3.764
-3.632
-3.496
-3.356
-3.211
-3.063
-2.911
-2.755
-2.596
-2.433
-2.267
-2.098
-1.927
-1.753
-1.576
-1.397
-1.217
-1.034
-0.850
-0.664
-0.478
-0.290

270
272
274
276
278
280
282
284
286
288
290
292
294
296
298
300
302
304
306
308
310
312
314
316
318
320
322
324
326
328
330
332
334
336
338
340
342
344
346
348
350
352
354
356
358
360

-6.172
-6.183
-6.186
-6.182
-6.169
-6.149
-6.122
-6.086
-6.043
-5.992
-5.933
-5.867
-5.793
-5.711
-5.622
-5.525
-5.421
-5.310
-5.191
-5.065
-4.933
-4.793
-4.648
-4.495
-4.337
-4.172
-4.002
-3.825
-3.644
-3.457
-3.266
-3.070
-2.869
-2.665
-2.456
-2.245
-2.029
-1.811
-1.591
-1.368
-1.143
-0.916
-0.688
-0.459
-0.230
-0.000

-0.290
-0.102
0.087
0.276
0.465
0.654
0.842
1.030
1.217
1.402
1.586
1.768
1.949
2.127
2.302
2.476
2.646
2.813
2.976
3.136
3.292
3.444
3.591
3.735
3.873
4.006
4.134
4.257
4.375
4.486
4.592
4.692
4.785
4.873
4.953
5.027
5.095
5.156
5.209
5.256
5.296
5.328
5.354
5.372
5.383
5.386

Table 55: Deferential anomalies of Saturn.

126

8 THE SUPERIOR PLANETS
µ

δθ−

¯
θ

δθ+

µ

δθ−

¯
θ

δθ+

µ

δθ−

¯
θ

δθ+

µ

δθ−

θ¯

δθ+

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

0.000

0.000
0.095
0.190
0.284
0.379
0.474
0.568
0.662
0.757
0.851
0.945
1.038
1.132
1.225
1.318
1.410
1.502
1.594
1.686
1.777
1.868
1.958
2.048
2.138
2.227
2.315
2.403
2.490
2.577
2.663
2.749
2.834
2.918
3.002
3.085
3.167
3.248
3.329
3.409
3.488
3.566
3.644
3.720
3.796
3.871
3.944

0.000

45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90

0.242

3.944
4.017
4.089
4.160
4.230
4.299
4.367
4.433
4.499
4.564
4.627
4.689
4.750
4.810
4.869
4.926
4.982
5.037
5.091
5.143
5.194
5.243
5.292
5.338
5.384
5.428
5.470
5.511
5.551
5.589
5.625
5.660
5.694
5.726
5.756
5.784
5.811
5.837
5.861
5.883
5.903
5.922
5.939
5.954
5.967
5.979

0.276

90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135

0.391

5.979
5.989
5.997
6.004
6.008
6.011
6.012
6.011
6.008
6.004
5.997
5.989
5.979
5.966
5.952
5.937
5.919
5.899
5.877
5.854
5.828
5.801
5.772
5.740
5.707
5.672
5.635
5.596
5.555
5.512
5.467
5.421
5.372
5.322
5.270
5.215
5.159
5.101
5.042
4.980
4.917
4.851
4.784
4.716
4.645
4.573

0.450

135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180

0.322

4.573
4.499
4.423
4.346
4.267
4.186
4.104
4.020
3.935
3.848
3.760
3.670
3.578
3.486
3.392
3.296
3.199
3.101
3.002
2.901
2.800
2.697
2.593
2.488
2.382
2.275
2.167
2.059
1.949
1.839
1.727
1.616
1.503
1.390
1.276
1.162
1.047
0.932
0.816
0.700
0.584
0.467
0.351
0.234
0.117
0.000

0.375

0.006
0.011
0.017
0.023
0.028
0.034
0.040
0.045
0.051
0.057
0.062
0.068
0.074
0.079
0.085
0.090
0.096
0.102
0.107
0.113
0.118
0.124
0.129
0.134
0.140
0.145
0.151
0.156
0.161
0.167
0.172
0.177
0.182
0.188
0.193
0.198
0.203
0.208
0.213
0.218
0.223
0.228
0.233
0.238
0.242

0.006
0.013
0.019
0.026
0.032
0.039
0.045
0.052
0.058
0.064
0.071
0.077
0.084
0.090
0.096
0.103
0.109
0.115
0.122
0.128
0.134
0.141
0.147
0.153
0.159
0.165
0.171
0.178
0.184
0.190
0.196
0.202
0.208
0.214
0.219
0.225
0.231
0.237
0.243
0.248
0.254
0.260
0.265
0.271
0.276

0.247
0.252
0.256
0.261
0.265
0.270
0.274
0.279
0.283
0.287
0.292
0.296
0.300
0.304
0.308
0.312
0.316
0.320
0.323
0.327
0.330
0.334
0.337
0.341
0.344
0.347
0.350
0.353
0.356
0.359
0.362
0.365
0.367
0.370
0.372
0.375
0.377
0.379
0.381
0.383
0.385
0.387
0.388
0.390
0.391

0.282
0.287
0.292
0.298
0.303
0.308
0.313
0.318
0.323
0.328
0.333
0.338
0.343
0.347
0.352
0.356
0.361
0.365
0.370
0.374
0.378
0.382
0.386
0.390
0.394
0.398
0.401
0.405
0.408
0.412
0.415
0.418
0.421
0.424
0.427
0.430
0.433
0.435
0.438
0.440
0.442
0.444
0.446
0.448
0.450

0.393
0.394
0.395
0.396
0.397
0.397
0.398
0.399
0.399
0.399
0.399
0.399
0.399
0.399
0.399
0.398
0.397
0.397
0.396
0.395
0.394
0.392
0.391
0.389
0.387
0.386
0.384
0.381
0.379
0.377
0.374
0.371
0.368
0.365
0.362
0.359
0.355
0.352
0.348
0.344
0.340
0.336
0.331
0.327
0.322

0.452
0.453
0.454
0.456
0.457
0.458
0.459
0.459
0.460
0.460
0.461
0.461
0.461
0.460
0.460
0.460
0.459
0.458
0.457
0.456
0.455
0.454
0.452
0.450
0.448
0.446
0.444
0.442
0.439
0.437
0.434
0.431
0.427
0.424
0.420
0.417
0.413
0.409
0.404
0.400
0.395
0.390
0.386
0.380
0.375

0.318
0.313
0.308
0.302
0.297
0.292
0.286
0.280
0.274
0.269
0.262
0.256
0.250
0.243
0.237
0.230
0.223
0.216
0.209
0.202
0.195
0.187
0.180
0.172
0.165
0.157
0.149
0.142
0.134
0.126
0.118
0.109
0.101
0.093
0.085
0.076
0.068
0.060
0.051
0.043
0.034
0.026
0.017
0.009
0.000

0.370
0.364
0.358
0.352
0.346
0.340
0.333
0.327
0.320
0.313
0.306
0.299
0.292
0.284
0.276
0.269
0.261
0.253
0.244
0.236
0.228
0.219
0.210
0.202
0.193
0.184
0.175
0.166
0.156
0.147
0.138
0.128
0.118
0.109
0.099
0.089
0.080
0.070
0.060
0.050
0.040
0.030
0.020
0.010
0.000

◦ − µ) = −θ(µ),
¯
¯
Table 56: Epicyclic anomalies of Saturn. All quantities are in degrees. Note that θ(360
and

δθ± (360 − µ) = −δθ± (µ).

127

8 THE SUPERIOR PLANETS

Event
Conjunction
Station (R)
Opposition
Station (D)
Conjunction
Station (R)
Opposition
Station (D)
Conjunction
Station (R)
Opposition
Station (D)
Conjunction
Station (R)
Opposition
Station (D)
Conjunction
Station (R)
Opposition
Station (D)
Conjunction
Station (R)
Opposition
Station (D)
Conjunction
Station (R)
Opposition
Station (D)
Conjunction
Station (R)
Opposition
Station (D)
Conjunction
Station (R)
Opposition
Station (D)
Conjunction
Station (R)
Opposition
Station (D)
Conjunction

Date
10/05/2000
12/09/2000
19/11/2000
24/01/2001
25/05/2001
26/09/2001
03/12/2001
08/02/2002
09/06/2002
11/10/2002
17/12/2002
22/02/2003
24/06/2003
25/10/2003
31/12/2003
07/03/2004
08/07/2004
08/11/2004
13/01/2005
22/03/2005
23/07/2005
22/11/2005
27/01/2006
05/04/2006
07/08/2006
06/12/2006
10/02/2007
19/04/2007
22/08/2007
19/12/2007
24/02/2008
03/05/2008
04/09/2008
31/12/2008
08/03/2009
17/05/2009
17/09/2009
13/01/2010
22/03/2010
30/05/2010
01/10/2010

λ
20TA26
00GE59
27TA29
24TA03
04GE22
14GE59
11GE29
08GE02
18GE28
29GE06
25GE36
22GE08
02CN39
13CN15
09CN46
06CN17
16CN50
27CN21
23CN52
20CN23
00LE56
11LE19
07LE51
04LE22
14LE51
25LE04
21LE38
18LE09
28LE32
08VI34
05VI10
01VI41
11VI56
21VI46
18VI23
14VI56
25VI01
04LI40
01LI18
27VI51
07LI46

Table 57: The conjunctions, oppositions, and stations of Saturn during the years 2000–2010 CE. (R) indicates
a retrograde station, and (D) a direct station.

128

9 THE INFERIOR PLANETS

9 The Inferior Planets
Figure 29 compares and contrasts heliocentric and geocentric models of the motion of an inferior planet
(i.e., a planet which is closer to the sun than the earth), P, as seen from the earth, G. The sun is at S.
As before, in the heliocentric model the earth-planet displacement vector, P, is the sum of the earth-sun
displacement vector, S, and the sun-planet displacement vector, P ′ . On the other hand, in the geocentric
model S gives the displacement of the guide-point, G ′ , from the earth. Since S is also the displacement of
the sun, S, from the earth, G, it is clear that G ′ executes a Keplerian orbit about the earth whose elements
are the same as those of the apparent orbit of the sun about the earth. This implies that the sun is coincident
with G ′ . The ellipse traced out by G ′ is termed the deferent. The vector P ′ gives the displacement of the
planet, P, from the guide-point, G ′ . Since P ′ is also the displacement of the planet, P, from the sun, S, it is
clear that P executes a Keplerian orbit about the guide-point whose elements are the same as those of the
orbit of the planet about the sun. The ellipse traced out by P about G ′ is termed the epicycle.

Earth’s orbit P

P

deferent

G

P′

P
S

P′

P

S

S
planetary orbit

epicycle

Heliocentric

G

G′

Geocentric

Figure 29: Heliocentric and geocentric models of the motion of an inferior planet. Here, S is the sun, G the
earth, and P the planet. View is from the northern ecliptic pole.
As we have seen, the deferent of a superior planet has the same elements as the planet’s orbit about
the sun, whereas the epicycle has the same elements as the sun’s apparent orbit about the earth. On the
other hand, the deferent of an inferior planet has the same elements as the sun’s apparent orbit about the
earth, whereas the epicycle has the same elements as the planet’s orbit about the sun. It follows that we
can formulate a procedure for determining the ecliptic longitude of an inferior planet by simply taking
the procedure used in the previous section for determining the ecliptic longitude of a superior planet and
exchanging the roles of the sun and the planet.
Our procedure is described below. As before, it is assumed that the ecliptic longitude, λS, and the radial
anomaly, ζS, of the sun have already been calculated. In the following, a, e, n, n
˜ , ¯λ0, and M0 represent
elements of the orbit of the planet in question about the sun, whereas eS is the eccentricity of the sun’s
apparent orbit about the earth. Again, a is the major radius of the planetary orbit in units in which the

129

9 THE INFERIOR PLANETS
major radius of the sun’s apparent orbit about the earth is unity. The requisite elements for all of the
inferior planets at the J2000 epoch (t0 = 2 451 545.0 JD) are listed in Table 30. The ecliptic longitude of
an inferior planet is specified by the following formulae:
¯λ = ¯λ0 + n (t − t0),

(174)

M = M0 + n
˜ (t − t0),

(175)
2

q = 2 e sin M + (5/4) e sin 2M,

(176)

ζ = e cos M − e 2 sin2 M,

(177)

µ = ¯λ + q − λS,
θ¯ = θ(µ, z¯) ≡ tan−1

(178) 

sin µ
,
cos µ

a−1 z¯ + 

(179)

δθ− = θ(µ, z¯) − θ(µ, zmax ),

(180)

δθ+ = θ(µ, zmin ) − θ(µ, z¯),

(181)

1 − ζS
,
1−ζ
z¯ − z
ξ =
,
δz
θ = Θ−(ξ) δθ− + θ¯ + Θ+(ξ) δθ+,
z =

(182)
(183)
(184)
(185)

λ = λS + θ.

Here, z¯ = (1 + e eS)/(1 − e 2), δz = (e + eS)/(1 − e 2), zmin = z¯ − δz, and zmax = z¯ + δz. The constants z¯, δz,
zmin , and zmax for each of the inferior planets are listed in Table. 8. Finally, the functions Θ± are tabulated
in Table 20.
For the case of Venus, the above formulae are capable of matching NASA ephemeris data during the
years 1995–2006 CE with a mean error of 2 ′ and a maximum error of 10 ′ . For the case of Mercury, given
its relatively large eccentricity of 0.205636, it is necessary to modify the formulae slightly by expressing q
and ζ to third-order in the eccentricity:
q = [2 e − (1/4) e3] sin M + (5/4) e2 sin 2M + (13/12) e3 sin 3M,

(186)

ζ = −(1/2) e2 + [e − (3/8) e3] cos M + (1/2) e2 cos 2M + (3/8) e3 cos 3M.

(187)

With this modification, the mean error is 6 ′ and the maximum error 28 ′ .
The ecliptic longitude of Venus can be determined with the aid of Tables 58–60. Table 58 allows the
mean longitude, ¯λ, and the mean anomaly, M, of Venus to be calculated as functions of time. Next,
Table 59 permits the equation of center, q, and the radial anomaly, ζ, to be determined as functions of the
¯ and δθ+ to be calculated as functions of the
mean anomaly. Finally, Table 60 allows the quantities δθ−, θ,
epicyclic anomaly, µ.
The procedure for using the tables is as follows:
1. Determine the fractional Julian day number, t, corresponding to the date and time at which the
130

9 THE INFERIOR PLANETS
ecliptic longitude is to be calculated with the aid of Tables 1–3. Form ∆t = t − t0, where t0 =
2 451 545.0 is the epoch.
2. Calculate the ecliptic longitude, λS, and radial anomaly, ζS, of the sun using the procedure set out in
Sect. 5.
3. Enter Table 58 with the digit for each power of 10 in ∆t and take out the corresponding values of ∆¯λ
and ∆M. If ∆t is negative then the corresponding values are also negative. The value of the mean
longitude, ¯λ, is the sum of all the ∆¯λ values plus value of ¯λ at the epoch. Likewise, the value of the
mean anomaly, M, is the sum of all the ∆M values plus the value of M at the epoch. Add as many
multiples of 360◦ to ¯λ and M as is required to make them both fall in the range 0◦ to 360◦ . Round M
to the nearest degree.
4. Enter Table 59 with the value of M and take out the corresponding value of the equation of center,
q, and the radial anomaly, ζ. It is necessary to interpolate if M is odd.
5. Form the epicyclic anomaly, µ = ¯λ + q − λS. Add as many multiples of 360◦ to µ as is required to
make it fall in the range 0◦ to 360◦ . Round µ to the nearest degree.
¯ and δθ+. If
6. Enter Table 60 with the value of µ and take out the corresponding values of δθ−, θ,


◦ −µ) =
¯
µ > 180 then it is necessary to make use of the identities δθ± (360 −µ) = −δθ± (µ) and θ(360
¯
−θ(µ).
7. Form z = (1 − ζS)/(1 − ζ).
8. Obtain the values of z¯ and δz from Table 8. Form ξ = (¯
z − z)/δz.
9. Enter Table 20 with the value of ξ and take out the corresponding values of Θ− and Θ+. If ξ < 0
then it is necessary to use the identities Θ+(ξ) = −Θ−(−ξ) and Θ−(ξ) = −Θ+(−ξ).
10. Form the equation of the epicycle, θ = Θ− δθ− + θ¯ + Θ+ δθ+.
11. The ecliptic longitude, λ, is the sum of the ecliptic longitude of the sun, λS, and the equation of the
epicycle, θ. If necessary convert λ into an angle in the range 0◦ to 360◦ . The decimal fraction can be
converted into arc minutes using Table 31. Round to the nearest arc minute. The final result can be
written in terms of the signs of the zodiac using the table in Sect. 4.6.
Two examples of this procedure are given below.
Example 1: May 5, 2005 CE, 00:00 UT:
From Sect. 8, t − t0 = 1 950.5 JD, λS = 44.602◦ , and ζS = −8.56 × 10−3. Making use of Table 58, we
find:

131

9 THE INFERIOR PLANETS

t(JD)

¯λ(◦ )

M(◦ )

+1000
+900
+50
+.5
Epoch

162.169
1.952
80.108
0.801
181.973
427.003
67.003

162.130
1.917
80.107
0.801
49.237
294.192
294.192

Modulus

Given that M ≃ 294◦ , Table 59 yields
q(294◦ ) = −0.712◦ ,

ζ(294◦ ) = 2.72 × 10−3,

so
µ = ¯λ + q − ¯λS = 67.003 − 0.712 − 44.602 = 21.689 ≃ 22◦ .
It follows from Table 60 that
δθ−(22◦ ) = 0.126◦ ,

¯ ◦ ) = 9.212◦ ,
θ(22

δθ+(22◦ ) = 0.129◦ .

Now,
z = (1 − ζS)/(1 − ζ) = (1 + 8.56 × 10−3)/(1 − 2.72 × 10−3) = 1.01131.
However, from Table 8, z¯ = 1.00016 and δz = 0.02349, so
ξ = (¯
z − z)/δz = (1.00016 − 1.01131)/0.02349 ≃ −0.48.
According to Table 20,
Θ−(−0.48) = −0.355,

Θ+(−0.48) = −0.125,

so
θ = Θ− δθ− + θ¯ + Θ+ δθ+ = −0.355 × 0.126 + 9.212 − 0.125 × 0.129 = 9.151◦ .
Finally,
λ = ¯λS + θ = 44.602 + 9.151 = 53.753 ≃ 53◦ 45 ′ .
Thus, the ecliptic longitude of Venus at 00:00 UT on May 5, 2005 CE was 23TA45.
Example 2: December 25, 1800 CE, 00:00 UT:
From Sect. 8, t − t0 = −72 690.5 JD, λS = 273.055◦ , and ζS = 1.662 × 10−2. Making use of Table 58,
we find:

132

9 THE INFERIOR PLANETS

t(JD)

¯λ(◦ )

M(◦ )

-70,000
-2,000
-600
-90
-.5
Epoch

−191.810
−324.337
−241.301
−144.195
−0.801
181.973
−720.471
359.529

−189.128
−324.261
−241.278
−144.192
−0.801
49.237
−850.423
229.577

Modulus

Given that M ≃ 230◦ , Table 59 yields
q(230◦ ) = −0.592◦ ,

ζ(230◦ ) = −4.38 × 10−3,

so
µ = ¯λ + q − ¯λS = 359.529 − 0.592 − 273.055 = 85.882 ≃ 86◦ .
It follows from Table 60 that
δθ−(86◦ ) = 0.589◦ ,

¯ ◦ ) = 34.482◦ ,
θ(86

δθ+(86◦ ) = 0.607◦ .

Now,
z = (1 − ζS)/(1 − ζ) = (1 − 1.662 × 10−2)/(1 + 4.38 × 10−3) = 0.97909,
so
ξ = (¯
z − z)/δz = (1.00016 − 0.97909)/0.02349 ≃ 0.90.
According to Table 20,
Θ−(0.90) = 0.045,

Θ+(0.90) = 0.855,

so
θ = Θ− δθ− + θ¯ + Θ+ δθ+ = 0.045 × 0.589 + 34.482 + 0.855 × 0.607 = 35.027◦ .
Finally,
λ = ¯λS + θ = 273.055 + 35.027 = 308.082 ≃ 308◦ 5 ′ .
Thus, the ecliptic longitude of Venus at 00:00 UT on December 25, 1800 CE was 8AQ5.
The geocentric orbit of an inferior planet is similar to that of the superior planet shown in Fig. 28,
except for the fact that the sun is coincident with guide-point G ′ in the former case. It follows that it
is impossible for an inferior planet to have an opposition with the sun (i.e, for the earth to lie directly
between the planet and the sun). However, inferior planets do have two different kinds of conjunctions
with the sun. A superior conjuction takes place when the sun lies directly between the planet and the earth.
Conversely, an inferior conjunction takes place when the planet lies directly between the sun and the earth.
It is clear from Fig. 28 that a superior conjunction corresponds to µ = 0◦ , and an inferior conjunction to
µ = 180◦ . Now, the equation of the epicycle, θ, measures the angular separation between the planet and
the sun (since the sun lies at the guide-point). It is evident from Figure 28 that θ attains a maximum and
a minimum value each time the planet revolves around its epicycle. In other words, there is a limit to how
133

9 THE INFERIOR PLANETS
large the angular separation between an inferior planet and the sun can become. The maximum value is
termed the greatest eastern elongation of the planet, whereas the modulus of the minimum value is termed
the greatest western elongation.
Tables 58–60 can be used to determine the dates of the conjunctions and greatest elongations of Venus.
Consider the first superior conjunction after the epoch (January 1, 2000 CE). We can estimate the time at
which this event occurs by approximating the epicyclic anomaly as the mean epicyclic anomaly:
µ≃µ
¯ = ¯λ − ¯λS = ¯λ0 − ¯λ0S + (n − nS) (t − t0) = 261.515 + 0.61652137 (t − t0).
Thus,
t ≃ t0 + (360 − 261.515)/0.61652137 ≃ t0 + 160 JD.
A calculation of the epicyclic anomaly at this time, using Tables 58–60, yields µ = −1.267◦ . Now, the actual
conjunction takes place when µ = 0◦ . Hence, our final estimate is
t = t0 + 160 + 1.267/0.61652137 = t0 + 162.1 JD,
which corresponds to June 11, 2000 CE.
Consider the first inferior conjunction of Venus after the epoch. Our first estimate of the time at which
this event takes place is
t ≃ t0 + (540 − 261.515)/0.61652137 ≃ t0 + 452 JD.
A calculation of the epicyclic anomaly at this time yields µ = 178.900◦ . Now, the actual conjunction takes
place when µ = 180◦ . Hence, our final estimate is
t = t0 + 452 + 1.100/0.61652137 = t0 + 453.8 JD,
which corresponds to March 30, 2001 CE. Incidentally, it is clear from the above analysis that the mean
time period between successive superior, or inferior, conjunctions of Venus is 360/0.61652137 = 583.9 JD,
which is equivalent to 1.60 years.
Consider the greatest elongations of Venus. We can approximate the equation of the epicycle as
θ ≃ θ¯ = tan−1 

sin µ
¯
,
−1
a
¯ + cos µ
¯ 

(188)

where µ
¯ is the mean epicyclic anomaly, and a
¯ = a/¯
z. It follows that
dθ¯
a
¯−1 cos µ
¯+1
=
.
−1

µ
1 + 2a
¯ cos µ
¯+a
¯−2

(189)

¯ µ = 0: i.e., when
Now, θ¯ attains its maximum or minimum value when dθ/d¯
µ
¯ = cos−1(−¯
a).

(190)

For the case of Venus, we obtain µ
¯ = 136.3◦ or 223.7◦ . The first solution corresponds to the greatest eastern
elongation, and the second to the greatest western elongation. Substituting back into Eq. (188), we find
134

9 THE INFERIOR PLANETS
that θ¯ = ±46.3◦ . Hence, the mean value of the greatest eastern or western elongation of Venus is 46.3◦ . The
mean time period between a greatest eastern elongation and the following inferior conjunction, or between
an inferior conjunction and the following greatest western elongation, is (180 − 136.3)/0.61652137 ≃ 71
JD. Unfortunately, the only option for accurately determining the dates at which the greatest elongations
occur is to calculate the equation of the epicycle of Venus over a range of days centered 71 days before and
after an inferior conjunction.
Table 61 shows the conjunctions, and greatest elongations of Venus for the years 2000–2015 CE, calculated using the techniques described above.
The ecliptic longitude of Mercury can be determined with the aid of Tables 62–64. Table 62 allows
the mean longitude, ¯λ, and the mean anomaly, M, of Mercury to be calculated as functions of time. Next,
Table 63 permits the equation of center, q, and the radial anomaly, ζ, to be determined as functions of the
¯ and δθ+ to be calculated as functions of the
mean anomaly. Finally, Table 64 allows the quantities δθ−, θ,
epicyclic anomaly, µ. The procedure for using the tables is analogous to the previously described procedure
for using the Venus tables. One example of this procedure is given below.
Example: May 5, 2005 CE, 00:00 UT:
From Sect. 8, t − t0 = 1 950.5 JD, λS = 44.602◦ , and ζS = −8.56 × 10−3. Making use of Table 62, we
find:
t(JD)

¯λ(◦ )

M(◦ )

+1000
+900
+50
+.5
Epoch

132.377
83.139
204.619
2.046
252.087
647.268
314.268

132.334
83.101
204.617
2.046
174.693
596.791
236.791

Modulus

Given that M ≃ 237◦ , Table 63 yields
q(237◦ ) = −16.974◦ ,

ζ(237◦ ) = −1.367 × 10−1,

so
µ = ¯λ + q − ¯λS = 314.268 − 16.974 − 44.602 = 252.692 ≃ 253◦ .
It follows from Table 64 that
δθ−(253◦ ) = −4.005◦ ,


¯
θ(253
) = −21.609◦ ,

δθ+(253◦ ) = −6.182◦ .

Now,
z = (1 − ζS)/(1 − ζ) = (1 + 8.56 × 10−3)/(1 + 1.367 × 10−1) = 0.8873.
However, from Table 8, z¯ = 1.04774 and δz = 0.23216, so
ξ = (¯
z − z)/δz = (1.04774 − 0.8873)/0.23216 ≃ 0.69.
135

9 THE INFERIOR PLANETS
According to Table 20,
Θ−(0.69) = 0.107,

Θ+(0.69) = 0.583,

so
θ = Θ− δθ− + θ¯ + Θ+ δθ+ = −0.107 × 4.005 − 21.609 − 0.583 × 6.182 = −25.642◦ .
Finally,
λ = ¯λS + θ = 44.602 − 25.642 = 18.960 ≃ 18◦ 58 ′ .
Thus, the ecliptic longitude of Mercury at 00:00 UT on May 5, 2005 CE was 18AR58.
The conjunctions and elongations of Mercury can be investigated using analogous methods to those
employed earlier to examine the conjunctions and elongations of Venus. We find that the mean time
period between successive superior, or inferior, conjunctions of Mercury is 116 days. On average, the
greatest eastern and western elongations of Mercury occur when the epicyclic anomaly takes the values
µ = 111.7◦ and 248.3◦ , respectively. Furthermore, the mean value of the greatest eastern or western
elongation is 21.7◦ . Finally, the mean time period between a greatest eastern elongation and the following
inferior conjunction, or between the inferior conjunction and the following greatest western elongation, is
22 JD. The conjunctions and elongations of Mercury during the years 2000–2002 CE are shown in Table 65.

136

9 THE INFERIOR PLANETS

∆t(JD)

∆¯λ(◦ )

∆M(◦ )

∆¯F(◦ )

∆t(JD)

∆¯λ(◦ )

∆M(◦ )

∆¯F(◦ )

10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
60,000
70,000
80,000
90,000

181.687
3.374
185.062
6.749
188.436
10.123
191.810
13.498
195.185

181.304
2.608
183.912
5.216
186.520
7.824
189.128
10.432
191.736

181.381
2.761
184.142
5.523
186.904
8.284
189.665
11.046
192.426

1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000

162.169
324.337
126.506
288.675
90.844
253.012
55.181
217.350
19.518

162.130
324.261
126.391
288.522
90.652
252.782
54.913
217.043
19.174

162.138
324.276
126.414
288.552
90.690
252.828
54.966
217.105
19.243

100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900

160.217
320.434
120.651
280.867
81.084
241.301
41.518
201.735
1.952

160.213
320.426
120.639
280.852
81.065
241.278
41.491
201.704
1.917

160.214
320.428
120.641
280.855
81.069
241.283
41.497
201.710
1.924

10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90

16.022
32.043
48.065
64.087
80.108
96.130
112.152
128.173
144.195

16.021
32.043
48.064
64.085
80.107
96.128
112.149
128.170
144.192

16.021
32.043
48.064
64.086
80.107
96.128
112.150
128.171
144.192

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

1.602
3.204
4.807
6.409
8.011
9.613
11.215
12.817
14.420

1.602
3.204
4.806
6.409
8.011
9.613
11.215
12.817
14.419

1.602
3.204
4.806
6.409
8.011
9.613
11.215
12.817
14.419

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9

0.160
0.320
0.481
0.641
0.801
0.961
1.122
1.282
1.442

0.160
0.320
0.481
0.641
0.801
0.961
1.121
1.282
1.442

0.160
0.320
0.481
0.641
0.801
0.961
1.121
1.282
1.442

Table 58: Mean motion of Venus. Here, ∆t = t − t0, ∆¯λ = ¯λ − ¯λ0, ∆M = M − M0, and ∆¯F = ¯F − ¯F0. At epoch
(t0 = 2 451 545.0 JD), ¯λ0 = 181.973◦ , M0 = 49.237◦ , and ¯F0 = 105.253◦ .

137

9 THE INFERIOR PLANETS

M(◦ )

q(◦ )

100 ζ

M(◦ )

q(◦ )

100 ζ

M(◦ )

q(◦ )

100 ζ

M(◦ )

q(◦ )

100 ζ

0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
70
72
74
76
78
80
82
84
86
88
90

0.000
0.027
0.055
0.082
0.109
0.136
0.163
0.189
0.216
0.242
0.268
0.293
0.318
0.343
0.367
0.391
0.414
0.437
0.460
0.481
0.502
0.523
0.543
0.562
0.580
0.598
0.615
0.631
0.647
0.662
0.675
0.688
0.701
0.712
0.722
0.732
0.741
0.748
0.755
0.761
0.766
0.770
0.773
0.775
0.776
0.777

0.678
0.677
0.676
0.674
0.671
0.667
0.663
0.657
0.651
0.644
0.636
0.628
0.618
0.608
0.597
0.586
0.573
0.560
0.547
0.532
0.517
0.502
0.485
0.468
0.451
0.433
0.414
0.395
0.376
0.356
0.335
0.315
0.293
0.272
0.250
0.228
0.205
0.183
0.160
0.137
0.113
0.090
0.066
0.043
0.019
-0.005

90
92
94
96
98
100
102
104
106
108
110
112
114
116
118
120
122
124
126
128
130
132
134
136
138
140
142
144
146
148
150
152
154
156
158
160
162
164
166
168
170
172
174
176
178
180

0.777
0.776
0.774
0.772
0.768
0.764
0.758
0.752
0.745
0.737
0.728
0.718
0.707
0.695
0.683
0.670
0.656
0.641
0.625
0.609
0.592
0.574
0.555
0.536
0.516
0.496
0.475
0.453
0.431
0.409
0.385
0.362
0.338
0.313
0.289
0.263
0.238
0.212
0.186
0.160
0.134
0.107
0.080
0.054
0.027
0.000

-0.005
-0.028
-0.052
-0.075
-0.099
-0.122
-0.145
-0.168
-0.191
-0.214
-0.236
-0.258
-0.279
-0.301
-0.322
-0.342
-0.362
-0.382
-0.401
-0.420
-0.438
-0.456
-0.473
-0.490
-0.506
-0.521
-0.536
-0.550
-0.563
-0.576
-0.588
-0.599
-0.610
-0.620
-0.629
-0.637
-0.645
-0.652
-0.658
-0.663
-0.668
-0.671
-0.674
-0.676
-0.677
-0.678

180
182
184
186
188
190
192
194
196
198
200
202
204
206
208
210
212
214
216
218
220
222
224
226
228
230
232
234
236
238
240
242
244
246
248
250
252
254
256
258
260
262
264
266
268
270

0.000
-0.027
-0.054
-0.080
-0.107
-0.134
-0.160
-0.186
-0.212
-0.238
-0.263
-0.289
-0.313
-0.338
-0.362
-0.385
-0.409
-0.431
-0.453
-0.475
-0.496
-0.516
-0.536
-0.555
-0.574
-0.592
-0.609
-0.625
-0.641
-0.656
-0.670
-0.683
-0.695
-0.707
-0.718
-0.728
-0.737
-0.745
-0.752
-0.758
-0.764
-0.768
-0.772
-0.774
-0.776
-0.777

-0.678
-0.677
-0.676
-0.674
-0.671
-0.668
-0.663
-0.658
-0.652
-0.645
-0.637
-0.629
-0.620
-0.610
-0.599
-0.588
-0.576
-0.563
-0.550
-0.536
-0.521
-0.506
-0.490
-0.473
-0.456
-0.438
-0.420
-0.401
-0.382
-0.362
-0.342
-0.322
-0.301
-0.279
-0.258
-0.236
-0.214
-0.191
-0.168
-0.145
-0.122
-0.099
-0.075
-0.052
-0.028
-0.005

270
272
274
276
278
280
282
284
286
288
290
292
294
296
298
300
302
304
306
308
310
312
314
316
318
320
322
324
326
328
330
332
334
336
338
340
342
344
346
348
350
352
354
356
358
360

-0.777
-0.776
-0.775
-0.773
-0.770
-0.766
-0.761
-0.755
-0.748
-0.741
-0.732
-0.722
-0.712
-0.701
-0.688
-0.675
-0.662
-0.647
-0.631
-0.615
-0.598
-0.580
-0.562
-0.543
-0.523
-0.502
-0.481
-0.460
-0.437
-0.414
-0.391
-0.367
-0.343
-0.318
-0.293
-0.268
-0.242
-0.216
-0.189
-0.163
-0.136
-0.109
-0.082
-0.055
-0.027
-0.000

-0.005
0.019
0.043
0.066
0.090
0.113
0.137
0.160
0.183
0.205
0.228
0.250
0.272
0.293
0.315
0.335
0.356
0.376
0.395
0.414
0.433
0.451
0.468
0.485
0.502
0.517
0.532
0.547
0.560
0.573
0.586
0.597
0.608
0.618
0.628
0.636
0.644
0.651
0.657
0.663
0.667
0.671
0.674
0.676
0.677
0.678

Table 59: Deferential anomalies of Venus.

138

9 THE INFERIOR PLANETS
µ
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

δθ−

θ¯

0.000

0.000
0.420
0.839
1.259
1.679
2.098
2.518
2.937
3.357
3.776
4.195
4.614
5.033
5.452
5.870
6.289
6.707
7.125
7.543
7.960
8.378
8.795
9.212
9.628
10.045
10.461
10.876
11.292
11.707
12.121
12.536
12.950
13.363
13.776
14.189
14.601
15.013
15.424
15.834
16.245
16.654
17.063
17.472
17.880
18.287
18.694

0.006
0.011
0.017
0.023
0.028
0.034
0.040
0.045
0.051
0.057
0.062
0.068
0.074
0.079
0.085
0.091
0.097
0.102
0.108
0.114
0.120
0.126
0.131
0.137
0.143
0.149
0.155
0.161
0.167
0.173
0.179
0.185
0.191
0.197
0.203
0.209
0.216
0.222
0.228
0.234
0.241
0.247
0.254
0.260
0.267

δθ+

µ

δθ−

θ¯

δθ+

µ

δθ−

θ¯

δθ+

µ

δθ−

¯
θ

δθ+

0.000

45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90

0.267

18.694
19.100
19.505
19.910
20.314
20.717
21.119
21.521
21.921
22.321
22.720
23.119
23.516
23.912
24.308
24.702
25.095
25.487
25.879
26.269
26.658
27.045
27.432
27.817
28.201
28.583
28.964
29.344
29.722
30.099
30.474
30.847
31.219
31.589
31.958
32.324
32.689
33.052
33.412
33.771
34.127
34.482
34.834
35.183
35.530
35.875

0.274

90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135

0.629

35.875
36.217
36.557
36.893
37.227
37.558
37.886
38.210
38.531
38.849
39.164
39.474
39.781
40.084
40.383
40.677
40.968
41.253
41.534
41.810
42.081
42.346
42.606
42.860
43.108
43.349
43.585
43.813
44.034
44.248
44.453
44.651
44.840
45.021
45.191
45.353
45.503
45.644
45.772
45.889
45.994
46.085
46.163
46.226
46.274
46.305

0.649

135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180

1.344

46.305
46.320
46.317
46.294
46.252
46.188
46.102
45.992
45.857
45.695
45.505
45.284
45.032
44.745
44.422
44.060
43.657
43.210
42.716
42.173
41.577
40.923
40.210
39.433
38.587
37.669
36.675
35.599
34.437
33.186
31.840
30.396
28.850
27.200
25.442
23.577
21.604
19.526
17.347
15.071
12.707
10.266
7.760
5.202
2.610
0.000

1.408

0.006
0.012
0.017
0.023
0.029
0.035
0.041
0.046
0.052
0.058
0.064
0.070
0.076
0.082
0.087
0.093
0.099
0.105
0.111
0.117
0.123
0.129
0.135
0.141
0.147
0.153
0.159
0.165
0.172
0.178
0.184
0.190
0.196
0.203
0.209
0.215
0.222
0.228
0.235
0.241
0.248
0.254
0.261
0.267
0.274

0.273
0.280
0.286
0.293
0.300
0.307
0.313
0.320
0.327
0.334
0.341
0.348
0.355
0.363
0.370
0.377
0.385
0.392
0.400
0.407
0.415
0.423
0.431
0.439
0.447
0.455
0.463
0.471
0.480
0.488
0.497
0.506
0.514
0.523
0.532
0.541
0.551
0.560
0.569
0.579
0.589
0.599
0.609
0.619
0.629

0.281
0.288
0.294
0.301
0.308
0.315
0.322
0.329
0.336
0.344
0.351
0.358
0.366
0.373
0.381
0.388
0.396
0.404
0.411
0.419
0.427
0.435
0.443
0.452
0.460
0.468
0.477
0.485
0.494
0.503
0.512
0.521
0.530
0.539
0.548
0.558
0.567
0.577
0.587
0.597
0.607
0.617
0.628
0.638
0.649

0.640
0.650
0.661
0.672
0.683
0.694
0.706
0.718
0.729
0.742
0.754
0.766
0.779
0.792
0.805
0.818
0.832
0.846
0.860
0.874
0.889
0.904
0.919
0.934
0.950
0.966
0.983
1.000
1.017
1.034
1.052
1.070
1.089
1.108
1.127
1.147
1.167
1.188
1.209
1.230
1.252
1.275
1.297
1.321
1.344

0.660
0.671
0.682
0.693
0.705
0.717
0.729
0.741
0.753
0.766
0.779
0.792
0.805
0.818
0.832
0.846
0.860
0.875
0.890
0.905
0.920
0.936
0.952
0.968
0.985
1.002
1.019
1.037
1.055
1.074
1.093
1.112
1.132
1.152
1.173
1.194
1.216
1.238
1.260
1.284
1.307
1.331
1.356
1.382
1.408

1.369
1.393
1.418
1.444
1.470
1.496
1.523
1.550
1.577
1.605
1.632
1.660
1.688
1.715
1.742
1.769
1.795
1.820
1.844
1.867
1.888
1.906
1.921
1.933
1.942
1.945
1.943
1.934
1.918
1.893
1.859
1.814
1.758
1.688
1.604
1.505
1.391
1.261
1.116
0.956
0.783
0.598
0.404
0.204
0.000

1.434
1.461
1.489
1.517
1.546
1.575
1.605
1.636
1.667
1.698
1.730
1.762
1.794
1.827
1.859
1.892
1.924
1.955
1.986
2.015
2.043
2.069
2.092
2.112
2.128
2.140
2.146
2.145
2.137
2.119
2.091
2.050
1.996
1.926
1.840
1.735
1.612
1.468
1.305
1.123
0.922
0.707
0.478
0.242
0.000

◦ − µ) = −θ(µ),
¯
¯
Table 60: Epicyclic anomalies of Venus. All quantities are in degrees. Note that θ(360
and

δθ± (360 − µ) = −δθ± (µ).

139

9 THE INFERIOR PLANETS

Event
Superior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation
Inferior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation
Superior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation
Inferior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation
Superior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation
Inferior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation
Superior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation
Inferior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation
Superior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation
Inferior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation
Superior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation
Inferior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation
Superior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation
Inferior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation
Superior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation
Inferior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation
Superior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation
Inferior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation
Superior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation
Inferior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation

Date
11/06/2000
17/01/2001
30/03/2001
08/06/2001
14/01/2002
22/08/2002
31/10/2002
11/01/2003
18/08/2003
29/03/2004
08/06/2004
17/08/2004
31/03/2005
03/11/2005
13/01/2006
25/03/2006
27/10/2006
09/06/2007
18/08/2007
28/10/2007
09/06/2008
14/01/2009
27/03/2009
05/06/2009
11/01/2010
19/08/2010
29/10/2010
08/01/2011
16/08/2011
27/03/2012
06/06/2012
15/08/2012
28/03/2013
01/11/2013
11/01/2014
23/03/2014
25/10/2014
06/06/2015
15/08/2015
26/10/2015

λ
20GE46
14PI23
09AR36
01TA39
23CP59
15LI08
07SC58
03SG31
25LE20
25TA04
17GE52
09CN29
10AR33
28SG27
23CP36
18AQ07
04SC13
03LE20
24LE45
18VI19
18GE41
12PI03
07AR19
29AR25
21CP24
12LI49
05SC34
01SG06
23LE13
22TA50
15GE43
07CN18
08AR12
26SG02
21CP08
15AQ44
01SC51
01LE09
22LE33
16VI02

Elongation
47.1◦ E
45.8◦ W
46.0◦ E
47.0◦ W
46.0◦ E
45.8◦ W
47.1◦ E
46.5◦ W
45.4◦ E
46.5◦ W
47.1◦ E
45.8◦ W
46.0◦ E
47.0◦ W
46.0◦ E
45.8◦ W
47.1◦ E
46.5◦ W
45.4◦ E
46.4◦ W

Table 61: The conjunctions and greatest elongations of Venus during the years 2000–2015 CE.

140

9 THE INFERIOR PLANETS

∆t(JD)

∆¯λ(◦ )

∆M(◦ )

∆¯F(◦ )

∆t(JD)

∆¯λ(◦ )

∆M(◦ )

∆¯F(◦ )

10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
60,000
70,000
80,000
90,000

243.770
127.541
11.311
255.081
138.852
22.622
266.392
150.162
33.933

243.344
126.688
10.032
253.376
136.720
20.063
263.407
146.751
30.095

243.422
126.844
10.266
253.688
137.110
20.533
263.955
147.377
30.799

1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000

132.377
264.754
37.131
169.508
301.885
74.262
206.639
339.016
111.393

132.334
264.669
37.003
169.338
301.672
74.006
206.341
338.675
111.010

132.342
264.684
37.027
169.369
301.711
74.053
206.395
338.738
111.080

100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900

49.238
98.475
147.713
196.951
246.189
295.426
344.664
33.902
83.139

49.233
98.467
147.700
196.934
246.167
295.401
344.634
33.868
83.101

49.234
98.468
147.703
196.937
246.171
295.405
344.640
33.874
83.108

10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90

40.924
81.848
122.771
163.695
204.619
245.543
286.466
327.390
8.314

40.923
81.847
122.770
163.693
204.617
245.540
286.463
327.387
8.310

40.923
81.847
122.770
163.694
204.617
245.541
286.464
327.387
8.311

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

4.092
8.185
12.277
16.370
20.462
24.554
28.647
32.739
36.831

4.092
8.185
12.277
16.369
20.462
24.554
28.646
32.739
36.831

4.092
8.185
12.277
16.369
20.462
24.554
28.646
32.739
36.831

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9

0.409
0.818
1.228
1.637
2.046
2.455
2.865
3.274
3.683

0.409
0.818
1.228
1.637
2.046
2.455
2.865
3.274
3.683

0.409
0.818
1.228
1.637
2.046
2.455
2.865
3.274
3.683

Table 62: Mean motion of Mercury. Here, ∆t = t − t0, ∆¯λ = ¯λ − ¯λ0, ∆M = M − M0, and ∆¯F = ¯
F−¯
F0. At



¯
¯
epoch (t0 = 2 451 545.0 JD), λ0 = 252.087 , M0 = 174.693 , and F0 = 204.436 .

141

9 THE INFERIOR PLANETS

M(◦ )

q(◦ )

100 ζ

M(◦ )

q(◦ )

100 ζ

M(◦ )

q(◦ )

100 ζ

M(◦ )

q(◦ )

100 ζ

0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
70
72
74
76
78
80
82
84
86
88
90

0.000
1.086
2.169
3.247
4.316
5.376
6.422
7.454
8.467
9.460
10.431
11.377
12.298
13.190
14.052
14.882
15.680
16.443
17.171
17.862
18.517
19.133
19.710
20.249
20.748
21.208
21.629
22.010
22.353
22.656
22.922
23.150
23.342
23.497
23.617
23.703
23.755
23.775
23.764
23.723
23.652
23.553
23.428
23.276
23.100
22.900

20.564
20.544
20.487
20.391
20.257
20.085
19.876
19.631
19.350
19.035
18.685
18.303
17.889
17.445
16.971
16.469
15.941
15.388
14.811
14.212
13.593
12.954
12.299
11.628
10.942
10.245
9.536
8.818
8.091
7.359
6.621
5.880
5.137
4.392
3.648
2.905
2.165
1.429
0.697
-0.030
-0.750
-1.463
-2.168
-2.864
-3.551
-4.229

90
92
94
96
98
100
102
104
106
108
110
112
114
116
118
120
122
124
126
128
130
132
134
136
138
140
142
144
146
148
150
152
154
156
158
160
162
164
166
168
170
172
174
176
178
180

22.900
22.677
22.433
22.168
21.884
21.580
21.259
20.920
20.566
20.195
19.809
19.409
18.996
18.569
18.129
17.677
17.212
16.737
16.250
15.752
15.243
14.724
14.196
13.657
13.109
12.552
11.985
11.410
10.827
10.236
9.637
9.030
8.417
7.796
7.170
6.538
5.900
5.257
4.610
3.959
3.304
2.647
1.987
1.326
0.663
0.000

-4.229
-4.896
-5.552
-6.197
-6.831
-7.452
-8.062
-8.659
-9.243
-9.815
-10.373
-10.918
-11.450
-11.969
-12.473
-12.964
-13.441
-13.904
-14.353
-14.787
-15.207
-15.613
-16.004
-16.380
-16.741
-17.087
-17.418
-17.733
-18.032
-18.316
-18.583
-18.835
-19.070
-19.288
-19.490
-19.675
-19.842
-19.993
-20.126
-20.242
-20.340
-20.420
-20.483
-20.528
-20.555
-20.564

180
182
184
186
188
190
192
194
196
198
200
202
204
206
208
210
212
214
216
218
220
222
224
226
228
230
232
234
236
238
240
242
244
246
248
250
252
254
256
258
260
262
264
266
268
270

0.000
-0.663
-1.326
-1.987
-2.647
-3.304
-3.959
-4.610
-5.257
-5.900
-6.538
-7.170
-7.796
-8.417
-9.030
-9.637
-10.236
-10.827
-11.410
-11.985
-12.552
-13.109
-13.657
-14.196
-14.724
-15.243
-15.752
-16.250
-16.737
-17.212
-17.677
-18.129
-18.569
-18.996
-19.409
-19.809
-20.195
-20.566
-20.920
-21.259
-21.580
-21.884
-22.168
-22.433
-22.677
-22.900

-20.564
-20.555
-20.528
-20.483
-20.420
-20.340
-20.242
-20.126
-19.993
-19.842
-19.675
-19.490
-19.288
-19.070
-18.835
-18.583
-18.316
-18.032
-17.733
-17.418
-17.087
-16.741
-16.380
-16.004
-15.613
-15.207
-14.787
-14.353
-13.904
-13.441
-12.964
-12.473
-11.969
-11.450
-10.918
-10.373
-9.815
-9.243
-8.659
-8.062
-7.452
-6.831
-6.197
-5.552
-4.896
-4.229

270
272
274
276
278
280
282
284
286
288
290
292
294
296
298
300
302
304
306
308
310
312
314
316
318
320
322
324
326
328
330
332
334
336
338
340
342
344
346
348
350
352
354
356
358
360

-22.900
-23.100
-23.276
-23.428
-23.553
-23.652
-23.723
-23.764
-23.775
-23.755
-23.703
-23.617
-23.497
-23.342
-23.150
-22.922
-22.656
-22.353
-22.010
-21.629
-21.208
-20.748
-20.249
-19.710
-19.133
-18.517
-17.862
-17.171
-16.443
-15.680
-14.882
-14.052
-13.190
-12.298
-11.377
-10.431
-9.460
-8.467
-7.454
-6.422
-5.376
-4.316
-3.247
-2.169
-1.086
-0.000

-4.229
-3.551
-2.864
-2.168
-1.463
-0.750
-0.030
0.697
1.429
2.165
2.905
3.648
4.392
5.137
5.880
6.621
7.359
8.091
8.818
9.536
10.245
10.942
11.628
12.299
12.954
13.593
14.212
14.811
15.388
15.941
16.469
16.971
17.445
17.889
18.303
18.685
19.035
19.350
19.631
19.876
20.085
20.257
20.391
20.487
20.544
20.564

Table 63: Deferential anomalies of Mercury.

142

9 THE INFERIOR PLANETS
µ
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

δθ−

θ¯

0.000

0.000
0.270
0.540
0.809
1.079
1.348
1.618
1.887
2.156
2.425
2.693
2.961
3.229
3.497
3.764
4.031
4.298
4.564
4.829
5.094
5.359
5.622
5.886
6.148
6.410
6.672
6.932
7.192
7.451
7.709
7.967
8.223
8.479
8.734
8.987
9.240
9.491
9.742
9.991
10.240
10.487
10.732
10.977
11.220
11.462
11.702

0.038
0.075
0.113
0.150
0.188
0.225
0.263
0.301
0.338
0.376
0.414
0.451
0.489
0.527
0.564
0.602
0.640
0.678
0.716
0.753
0.791
0.829
0.867
0.905
0.943
0.981
1.019
1.057
1.095
1.133
1.172
1.210
1.248
1.286
1.325
1.363
1.402
1.440
1.479
1.517
1.556
1.594
1.633
1.672
1.711

δθ+

µ

δθ−

θ¯

δθ+

µ

δθ−

θ¯

δθ+

µ

δθ−

¯
θ

δθ+

0.000

45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90

1.711

11.702
11.941
12.179
12.415
12.650
12.882
13.114
13.343
13.571
13.797
14.021
14.244
14.464
14.683
14.899
15.113
15.326
15.536
15.743
15.949
16.152
16.353
16.551
16.747
16.940
17.131
17.319
17.504
17.686
17.865
18.042
18.215
18.385
18.552
18.716
18.876
19.033
19.186
19.336
19.482
19.625
19.763
19.898
20.029
20.155
20.277

2.403

90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135

3.450

20.277
20.395
20.509
20.618
20.722
20.822
20.917
21.007
21.091
21.171
21.246
21.315
21.378
21.436
21.488
21.534
21.575
21.609
21.636
21.658
21.673
21.681
21.682
21.676
21.663
21.643
21.616
21.580
21.538
21.487
21.428
21.361
21.286
21.202
21.109
21.008
20.898
20.778
20.649
20.511
20.363
20.206
20.038
19.861
19.673
19.475

5.113

135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180

4.257

19.475
19.267
19.048
18.818
18.578
18.326
18.064
17.791
17.506
17.210
16.903
16.585
16.255
15.914
15.561
15.197
14.822
14.436
14.039
13.630
13.211
12.780
12.339
11.888
11.426
10.955
10.474
9.983
9.483
8.974
8.457
7.932
7.399
6.859
6.312
5.759
5.200
4.636
4.067
3.494
2.917
2.337
1.755
1.171
0.586
0.000

7.325

0.052
0.104
0.156
0.208
0.260
0.313
0.365
0.417
0.469
0.521
0.574
0.626
0.678
0.731
0.783
0.836
0.889
0.941
0.994
1.047
1.100
1.153
1.206
1.259
1.312
1.366
1.419
1.473
1.526
1.580
1.634
1.688
1.742
1.796
1.851
1.905
1.960
2.015
2.070
2.125
2.180
2.236
2.291
2.347
2.403

1.749
1.788
1.827
1.866
1.905
1.944
1.983
2.022
2.061
2.100
2.139
2.178
2.217
2.257
2.296
2.335
2.374
2.413
2.453
2.492
2.531
2.570
2.609
2.649
2.688
2.727
2.766
2.805
2.844
2.882
2.921
2.960
2.999
3.037
3.075
3.114
3.152
3.190
3.227
3.265
3.302
3.340
3.377
3.413
3.450

2.459
2.515
2.572
2.628
2.685
2.742
2.799
2.857
2.914
2.972
3.030
3.088
3.146
3.205
3.263
3.322
3.381
3.441
3.500
3.560
3.620
3.680
3.740
3.801
3.862
3.923
3.984
4.045
4.107
4.169
4.231
4.293
4.355
4.417
4.480
4.543
4.606
4.669
4.732
4.795
4.859
4.922
4.986
5.049
5.113

3.486
3.522
3.557
3.592
3.627
3.662
3.696
3.729
3.762
3.795
3.827
3.858
3.889
3.919
3.949
3.977
4.005
4.032
4.059
4.084
4.109
4.132
4.155
4.176
4.197
4.216
4.233
4.250
4.265
4.278
4.291
4.301
4.310
4.317
4.322
4.326
4.327
4.326
4.323
4.318
4.311
4.301
4.289
4.274
4.257

5.177
5.241
5.305
5.368
5.432
5.496
5.559
5.623
5.686
5.749
5.812
5.874
5.937
5.999
6.060
6.121
6.182
6.242
6.301
6.360
6.418
6.475
6.532
6.587
6.641
6.695
6.747
6.797
6.846
6.894
6.940
6.984
7.026
7.067
7.105
7.140
7.173
7.204
7.231
7.256
7.277
7.295
7.309
7.319
7.325

4.237
4.214
4.188
4.159
4.127
4.092
4.053
4.011
3.966
3.917
3.865
3.809
3.749
3.686
3.619
3.548
3.473
3.394
3.311
3.224
3.133
3.039
2.940
2.838
2.732
2.622
2.508
2.391
2.271
2.147
2.019
1.889
1.756
1.620
1.481
1.340
1.197
1.052
0.905
0.756
0.607
0.456
0.304
0.152
0.000

7.327
7.324
7.317
7.304
7.286
7.262
7.233
7.197
7.155
7.106
7.050
6.986
6.915
6.836
6.749
6.654
6.549
6.436
6.314
6.182
6.041
5.890
5.729
5.558
5.377
5.186
4.985
4.774
4.554
4.324
4.084
3.835
3.578
3.312
3.038
2.757
2.469
2.174
1.875
1.570
1.261
0.949
0.634
0.317
0.000

◦ − µ) = −θ(µ),
¯
¯
Table 64: Epicyclic anomalies of Mercury. All quantities are in degrees. Note that θ(360
and

δθ± (360 − µ) = −δθ± (µ).

143

9 THE INFERIOR PLANETS

Event
Superior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation
Inferior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation
Superior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation
Inferior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation
Superior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation
Inferior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation
Superior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation
Inferior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation
Superior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation
Inferior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation
Superior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation
Inferior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation
Superior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation
Inferior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation
Superior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation
Inferior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation
Superior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation
Inferior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation
Superior Conjunction
Greatest Elongation

Date
15/01/2000
15/02/2000
01/03/2000
28/03/2000
09/05/2000
09/06/2000
06/07/2000
27/07/2000
22/08/2000
06/10/2000
30/10/2000
15/11/2000
25/12/2000
28/01/2001
13/02/2001
11/03/2001
23/04/2001
22/05/2001
16/06/2001
09/07/2001
05/08/2001
19/09/2001
14/10/2001
29/10/2001
04/12/2001
12/01/2002
27/01/2002
21/02/2002
07/04/2002
04/05/2002
27/05/2002
21/06/2002
21/07/2002
01/09/2002
27/09/2002
13/10/2002
14/11/2002
26/12/2002

λ
25CP08
13PI44
11PI23
10PI35
18TA59
13CN27
14CN39
15CN03
29LE16
09SC17
06SC58
04SC02
04CP18
27AQ07
24AQ23
23AQ05
03TA22
24GE13
25GE26
26GE18
13LE32
22LI50
20LI51
17LI50
12SG45
10AQ33
07AQ42
05AQ55
17AR27
04GE54
05GE48
07GE04
28CN06
06LI10
04LI35
01LI44
21SC39
24CP01

Elongation
18.1◦ E
27.9◦ W
24.2◦ E
19.7◦ W
25.6◦ E
19.3◦ W
18.4◦ E
27.5◦ W
22.6◦ E
21.1◦ W
26.6◦ E
18.5◦ W
18.9◦ E
26.6◦ W
21.0◦ E
22.8◦ W
27.3◦ E
18.0◦ W
19.8◦ E

Table 65: The conjunctions and greatest elongations of Mercury during the years 2000–2002 CE.

144

10 PLANETARY LATITUDES

10

Planetary Latitudes

Up to now, we have neglected the fact that the orbits of the five visible planets about the sun are all slightly
inclined to the plane of the ecliptic. Of course, these inclinations cause the ecliptic latitudes of the said
planets to take small, but non-zero, values. In the following, we shall outline a model which is capable of
predicting these values.
Figure 30 shows a top view of the orbit of a superior planet. As we have already mentioned, the
deferent and epicycle of such a planet have the same elements as the orbit of the planet in question around
the sun, and the apparent orbit of the sun around the earth, respectively. It follows that the deferent and
epicycle of a superior planet are, respectively, inclined and parallel to the ecliptic plane. (Recall that the
ecliptic plane corresponds to the plane of the sun’s apparent orbit about the earth.) Let the plane of the
deferent cut the ecliptic plane along the line NGN ′ . Here, N is the point at which the deferent passes
through the plane of the ecliptic from south to north, in the direction of the mean planetary motion. This
point is called the ascending node. Note that the line NGN ′ must pass through point G, since the earth is
common to the plane of the deferent and the ecliptic plane. Now, it follows from simple geometry that the
elevation of the guide-point G ′ above of the ecliptic plane satisfies v = r sin i sin F, where r is the length
GG ′ , i the fixed inclination of the planetary orbit (and, hence, of the deferent) to the ecliptic plane, and F
the angle NGG ′ . The angle F is termed the argument of latitude. We can write (see Sect. 8)
F = ¯F + q,

(191)

F increases
where ¯F is the mean argument of latitude, and q the equation of center of the deferent. Note that ¯
uniformly in time: i.e.,
¯F = ¯F0 + n
˘ (t − t0).
(192)
Now, since the epicycle is parallel to the ecliptic plane, the elevation of the planet above the said plane
is the same as that of the guide-point. Hence, from simple geometry, the ecliptic latitude of the planet
satisfies
v
β = ′′ ,
(193)
r
where r ′′ is the length GP, and we have used the small angle approximation. However, it is apparent from
Fig. 27 that
r ′′ = (r2 + 2 r r ′ cos µ + r ′ 2)1/2,
(194)
where r ′ the length G ′ P, and µ the equation of the epicycle. But, according to the analysis in Sect. 8,
r/r ′ = a z, where a is the planetary major radius in units in which the major radius of the sun’s apparent
orbit about the earth is unity, and z is defined in Eq. (144). Thus, we obtain
β = h β0,

(195)

β0(F) = sin i sin F

(196)

where
is termed the deferential latitude, and
i−1/2

h

h(µ, z) = 1 + 2 (a z)−1 cos µ + (a z)−2
145

(197)

10 PLANETARY LATITUDES

P
G′

F

N

G

N′

Figure 30: Orbit of a superior planet. Here, G, G ′ , P, N, N ′ , and F represent the earth, guide-point, planet,
ascending node, descending node, and argument of latitude, respectively. View is from northern ecliptic pole.
the epicyclic latitude correction factor.
In the following, a, e, n, n
˜, n
˘ , ¯λ0, M0, F¯0, and i are elements of the orbit of the planet in question
about the sun, and eS, ζS, and λS are elements of the sun’s apparent orbit about the earth. The requisite
elements for all of the superior planets at the J2000 epoch (t0 = 2 451 545.0 JD) are listed in Tables 30
and 66. Employing a quadratic interpolation scheme to represent F(µ, z) (see Sect. 8), our procedure for
determining the ecliptic latitude of a superior planet is summed up by the following formuale:
¯λ = ¯λ0 + n (t − t0),

(198)

M = M0 + n
˜ (t − t0),

(199)

¯
F = ¯
F0 + n
˘ (t − t0),

(200)

q = 2 e sin M + (5/4) e2 sin 2M,

(201)

2

ζ = e cos M − e2 sin M,

(202)

F = ¯
F + q,

(203)

β0 = sin i sin F,

(204)

µ = λS − ¯λ − q,

(205)

h

i−1/2

¯ = h(µ, z¯) ≡ 1 + 2 (a z¯)−1 cos µ + (a z¯)−2
h
δh− = h(µ, z¯) − h(µ, zmax ),
δh+ = h(µ, zmin ) − h(µ, z¯),
z =

1−ζ
,
1 − ζS

,

(206)
(207)
(208)
(209)

146

10 PLANETARY LATITUDES
z¯ − z
,
δz
¯ + Θ+(ξ) δ h+,
h = Θ−(ξ) δh− + h
ξ =

(210)
(211)
(212)

β = h β0.

Here, z¯ = (1 + e eS)/(1 − eS2), δz = (e + eS)/(1 − eS2), zmin = z¯ − δz, and zmax = z¯ + δz. The constants
z¯, δz, zmin , and zmax for each of the superior planets are listed in Table 44. Finally, the functions Θ± are
tabulated in Table 45.
For the case of Mars, the above formulae are capable of matching NASA ephemeris data during the
years 1995–2006 CE with a mean error of 0.3 ′ and a maximum error of 1.5 ′ . For the case of Jupiter, the
mean error is 0.2 ′ and the maximum error 0.5 ′ . Finally, for the case of Saturn, the mean error is 0.05 ′ and
the maximum error 0.08 ′ .
The ecliptic latitude of Mars can be determined with the aid of Tables 46, 67, and 68. Table 46 allows
the mean argument of latitude, ¯
F, of Mars to be calculated as a function of time. Next, Table 67 permits
the deferential latitude, β0, to be determined as a function of the true argument of latitude, F. Finally,
¯ and δh+ to be calculated as functions of the epicyclic anomaly, µ.
Table 68 allows the quantities δh−, h,
The procedure for using the tables is as follows:
1. Determine the fractional Julian day number, t, corresponding to the date and time at which the
ecliptic latitude is to be calculated with the aid of Tables 1–3. Form ∆t = t−t0, where t0 = 2 451 545.0
is the epoch.
2. Calculate the planetary equation of center, q, ecliptic anomaly, µ, and interpolation parameters Θ+
and Θ− using the procedure set out in Sect. 8.
3. Enter Table 46 with the digit for each power of 10 in ∆t and take out the corresponding values of ∆¯
F.
If ∆t is negative then the corresponding values are also negative. The value of the mean argument
F values plus the value of ¯F at the epoch.
F, is the sum of all the ∆¯
of latitude, ¯
4. Form the true argument of latitude, F = ¯F + q. Add as many multiples of 360◦ to F as is required to
make it fall in the range 0◦ to 360◦ . Round F to the nearest degree.
5. Enter Table 67 with the value of F and take out the corresponding value of the deferential latitude,
β0. It is necessary to interpolate if F is odd.
¯ and δh+. If
6. Enter Table 68 with the value of µ and take out the corresponding values of δh−, h,


◦ − µ) =
¯
µ > 180 then it is necessary to make use of the identities δh± (360 − µ) = δh± (µ) and h(360
¯
h(µ).
¯ + Θ+ δh+.
7. Form the epicyclic latitude correction factor, h = Θ− δh− + h
8. The ecliptic latitude, β, is the product of the deferential latitude, β0, and the epicyclic latitude
correction factor, h. The decimal fraction can be converted into arc minutes using Table 31. Round
to the nearest arc minute.

147

10 PLANETARY LATITUDES
One example of this procedure is given below.
Example: May 5, 2005 CE, 00:00 UT:
From Sect. 8, t − t0 = 1 950.5 JD, q = −7.345◦ , µ = 114.286◦ , Θ− = 0.101, and Θ+ = 0.619. Making
use of Table 46, we find:
t(JD)

¯
F(◦ )

+1000
+900
+50
+.5
Epoch

164.041
111.637
26.202
0.262
305.796
607.938
247.938

Modulus
Thus,

F=¯
F + q = 247.938 − 7.345 = 240.593 ≃ 241◦ .
It follows from Table 67 that
β0(241◦ ) = −1.615◦ .
Since µ ≃ 114◦ , Table 68 yields
δh−(114◦ ) = −0.017,


¯
h(114
) = 1.056,

δh+(114◦ ) = −0.027,

so
¯ + Θ+ δh+ = −0.101 × 0.017 + 1.056 − 0.619 × 0.027 = 1.038.
h = Θ− δh− + h
Finally,
β = h β0 = −1.038 × 1.615 = −1.676 ≃ −1◦ 41 ′ .
Thus, the ecliptic latitude of Mars at 00:00 UT on May 5, 2005 CE was −1◦ 41 ′ .
The ecliptic latitude of Jupiter can be determined with the aid of Tables 50, 69, and 70. Table 50 allows
the mean argument of latitude, ¯
F, of Jupiter to be calculated as a function of time. Next, Table 69 permits
the deferential latitude, β0, to be determined as a function of the true argument of latitude, F. Finally,
¯ and δh+ to be calculated as functions of the epicyclic anomaly, µ.
Table 70 allows the quantities δh−, h,
The procedure for using these tables is analogous to the previously described procedure for using the Mars
tables. One example of this procedure is given below.
Example: May 5, 2005 CE, 00:00 UT:
From Sect. 8, t − t0 = 1 950.5 JD, q = −0.091◦ , µ = 208.192◦ , Θ− = −0.469, and Θ+ = −0.121. Making use
of Table 50, we find:

148

10 PLANETARY LATITUDES

t(JD)

¯
F(◦ )

+1000
+900
+50
+.5
Epoch

83.081
74.773
4.154
0.042
293.660
455.710
95.710

Modulus
Thus,

F=¯
F + q = 95.710 − 0.091 = 95.619 ≃ 96◦ .
It follows from Table 69 that
β0(96◦ ) = 1.297◦ .
Since µ ≃ 208◦ , Table 70 yields
δh−(208◦ ) = 0.014,


¯
h(208
) = 1.197,

δh+(208◦ ) = 0.016,

so
¯ + Θ+ δh+ = −0.469 × 0.014 + 1.197 − 0.121 × 0.016 = 1.188.
h = Θ− δh− + h
Finally,
β = h β0 = 1.188 × 1.297 = 1.541 ≃ 1◦ 32 ′ .
Thus, the ecliptic latitude of Jupiter at 00:00 UT on May 5, 2005 CE was 1◦ 32 ′ .
The ecliptic latitude of Saturn can be determined with the aid of Tables 54, 71, and 72. Table 54 allows
the mean argument of latitude, ¯
F, of Saturn to be calculated as a function of time. Next, Table 71 permits
the deferential latitude, β0, to be determined as a function of the true argument of latitude, F. Finally,
¯ and δh+ to be calculated as functions of the epicyclic anomaly, µ.
Table 72 allows the quantities δh−, h,
The procedure for using these tables is analogous to the previously described procedure for using the Mars
tables. One example of this procedure is given below.
Example: May 5, 2005 CE, 00:00 UT:
From Sect. 8, t − t0 = 1 950.5 JD, q = 2.561◦ , µ = 286.625◦ , Θ− = 0.071, and Θ+ = 0.759. Making
use of Table 54, we find:
t(JD)

¯
F(◦ )

+1000
+900
+50
+.5
Epoch

33.478
30.130
1.674
0.017
296.482
361.781
1.781

Modulus

149

10 PLANETARY LATITUDES
Thus,
F=¯
F + q = 1.781 + 2.561 = 4.342 ≃ 4◦ .
It follows from Table 71 that
β0(4◦ ) = 0.173◦ .
Since µ ≃ 287◦ , Table 72 yields
δh−(287◦ ) = −0.002,


¯
h(287
) = 0.966,

δh+(287◦ ) = −0.003,

so
¯ + Θ+ δh+ = −0.071 × 0.002 + 0.966 − 0.759 × 0.003 = 0.964.
h = Θ− δh− + h
Finally,
β = h β0 = 0.964 × 0.173 = 0.167 ≃ 0◦ 10 ′ .
Thus, the ecliptic latitude of Saturn at 00:00 UT on May 5, 2005 CE was 0◦ 10 ′ .

P
N′

F
G

N

G

Figure 31: Orbit of an inferior planet. Here, G, G ′ , P, N, N ′ , and F represent the earth, guide-point, planet,
ascending node, descending node, and argument of latitude, respectively. View is from northern ecliptic pole.
Figure 31 shows a top view of the orbit of an inferior planet. As we have already mentioned, the
epicycle and deferent of such a planet have the same elements as the orbit of the planet in question around
the sun, and the apparent orbit of the sun around the earth, respectively. It follows that the epicycle and
deferent of an inferior planet are, respectively, inclined and parallel to the ecliptic plane. Let the plane of
the epicycle cut the ecliptic plane along the line NG ′ N ′ . Here, N is the point at which the epicycle passes
through the plane of the ecliptic from south to north, in the direction of the mean planetary motion. This
point is called the ascending node. Note that the line NG ′ N ′ must pass through the guide-point, G ′ , since
the sun (which is coincident with the guide-point) is common to the plane of the planetary orbit and the
ecliptic plane. Now, it follows from simple geometry that the elevation of the planet P above the guidepoint, G ′ , satisfies v = r ′ sin i sin F, where r ′ is the length G ′ P, i the fixed inclination of the planetary
150

10 PLANETARY LATITUDES
orbit (and, hence, of the epicycle) to the ecliptic plane, and F the angle NG ′ P. The angle F is termed the
argument of latitude. We can write (see Sect. 9)
F = ¯F + q,

(213)

where ¯F is the mean argument of latitude, and q the equation of center of the epicycle. Note that ¯
F
increases uniformly in time: i.e.,
¯F = ¯F0 + n
˘ (t − t0).
(214)
Now, since the deferent is parallel to the ecliptic plane, the elevation of the planet above the said plane is
the same as that of the planet above the guide-point. Hence, from simple geometry, the ecliptic latitude of
the planet satisfies
v
(215)
β = ′′ ,
r
where r ′′ is the length GP, and we have used the small angle approximation. However, it is apparent from
Fig. 27 that
r ′′ = (r2 + 2 r r ′ cos µ + r ′ 2)1/2,
(216)
where r the length GG ′ , and µ the equation of the epicycle. But, according to the analysis in Sect. 9,
r ′ /r = a/z, where a is the planetary major radius in units in which the major radius of the sun’s apparent
orbit about the earth is unity, and z is defined in Eq. (182). Thus, we obtain
β = h β0,

(217)

β0(F) = a sin i sin F

(218)

where
is termed the epicyclic latitude, and
i−1/2

h

h(µ, z) = z2 + 2 a z cos µ + a2
the deferential latitude correction factor.

(219)

In the following, a, e, n, n
˜, n
˘ , ¯λ0, M0, ¯F0, and i are elements of the orbit of the planet in question
about the sun, and eS, ζS, and λS are elements of the sun’s apparent orbit about the earth. The requisite
elements for all of the superior planets at the J2000 epoch (t0 = 2 451 545.0 JD) are listed in Tables 30
and 66. Employing a quadratic interpolation scheme to represent F(µ, z) (see Sect. 8), our procedure for
determining the ecliptic latitude of a superior planet is summed up by the following formuale:
¯λ = ¯λ0 + n (t − t0),

(220)

M = M0 + n
˜ (t − t0),

(221)

¯
F = ¯
F0 + n
˘ (t − t0),

(222)
2

q = 2 e sin M + (5/4) e sin 2M,
2

2

(223)

ζ = e cos M − e sin M,

(224)

F = ¯
F + q,

(225)

β0 = a sin i sin F,

(226)
151

10 PLANETARY LATITUDES
µ = ¯λ + q − ¯λS,

(227)

h

i−1/2

¯ = h(µ, z¯) ≡ z¯2 + 2 a z¯ cos µ + a2
h
δh− = h(µ, z¯) − h(µ, zmax ),
δh+ = h(µ, zmin ) − h(µ, z¯),
1 − ζS
,
1−ζ
z¯ − z
ξ =
,
δz
¯ + Θ+(ξ) δ h+,
h = Θ−(ξ) δh− + h
z =

,

(228)
(229)
(230)
(231)
(232)
(233)
(234)

β = h β0.

Here, z¯ = (1 + e eS)/(1 − e2), δz = (e + eS)/(1 − e2), zmin = z¯ − δz, and zmax = z¯ + δz. The constants z¯, δz,
zmin , and zmax for each of the inferior planets are listed in Table 44. Finally, the functions Θ± are tabulated
in Table 45.
For the case of Venus, the above formulae are capable of matching NASA ephemeris data during the
years 1995–2006 CE with a mean error of 0.7 ′ and a maximum error of 1.8 ′ . For the case of Mercury, with
the augmentations to the theory described in Sect. 9, the mean error is 1.6 ′ and the maximum error 5 ′ .
The ecliptic latitude of Venus can be determined with the aid of Tables 58, 73, and 74. Table 58 allows
the mean argument of latitude, ¯
F, of Venus to be calculated as a function of time. Next, Table 73 permits the
epicyclic latitude, β0, to be determined as a function of the true argument of latitude, F. Finally, Table 74
¯ and δh+ to be calculated as functions of the epicyclic anomaly, µ.
allows the quantities δh−, h,
The procedure for using the tables is as follows:
1. Determine the fractional Julian day number, t, corresponding to the date and time at which the
ecliptic latitude is to be calculated with the aid of Tables 1–3. Form ∆t = t−t0, where t0 = 2 451 545.0
is the epoch.
2. Calculate the planetary equation of center, q, ecliptic anomaly, µ, and interpolation parameters Θ+
and Θ− using the procedure set out in Sect. 9.
F.
3. Enter Table 58 with the digit for each power of 10 in ∆t and take out the corresponding values of ∆¯
If ∆t is negative then the corresponding values are also negative. The value of the mean argument
of latitude, ¯
F, is the sum of all the ∆¯F values plus the value of ¯F at the epoch.
4. Form the true argument of latitude, F = ¯F + q. Add as many multiples of 360◦ to F as is required to
make it fall in the range 0◦ to 360◦ . Round F to the nearest degree.
5. Enter Table 73 with the value of F and take out the corresponding value of the epicyclic latitude, β0.
It is necessary to interpolate if F is odd.
¯ and δh+. If
6. Enter Table 74 with the value of µ and take out the corresponding values of δh−, h,
◦ − µ) =
¯
µ > 180◦ then it is necessary to make use of the identities δh± (360◦ − µ) = δh± (µ) and h(360
¯
h(µ).
152

10 PLANETARY LATITUDES
¯ + Θ+ δh+.
7. Form the deferential latitude correction factor, h = Θ− δh− + h
8. The ecliptic latitude, β, is the product of the epicyclic latitude, β0, and the deferential latitude
correction factor, h. The decimal fraction can be converted into arc minutes using Table 31. Round
to the nearest arc minute.
One example of this procedure is given below.
Example: May 5, 2005 CE, 00:00 UT:
From Sect. 9, t − t0 = 1 950.5 JD, q = −0.712◦ , µ = 21.689◦ , Θ− = −0.355, and Θ+ = −0.125. Making use of Table 58, we find:
t(JD)

¯
F(◦ )

+1000
+900
+50
+.5
Epoch

162.138
1.924
80.107
0.801
105.253
350.223
350.223

Modulus
Thus,

F=¯
F + q = 350.223 − 0.712 = 349.511 ≃ 350◦ .
It follows from Table 73 that
β0(350◦ ) = −0.423◦ .
Since µ ≃ 22◦ , Table 74 yields
δh−(22◦ ) = 0.008,

¯ ◦ ) = 0.591,
h(22

δh+(22◦ ) = 0.008,

so
¯ + Θ+ δh+ = −0.355 × 0.008 + 0.591 − 0.125 × 0.008 = 0.587.
h = Θ− δh− + h
Finally,
β = h β0 = −0.587 × 0.423 = −0.248 ≃ −0◦ 15 ′ .
Thus, the ecliptic latitude of Venus at 00:00 UT on May 5, 2005 CE was −0◦ 15 ′ .
The ecliptic latitude of Mercury can be determined with the aid of Tables 62, 75, and 76. Table 62
allows the mean argument of latitude, ¯
F, of Mercury to be calculated as a function of time. Next, Table 75
permits the epicyclic latitude, β0, to be determined as a function of the true argument of latitude, F. Finally,
¯ and δh+ to be calculated as functions of the epicyclic anomaly, µ.
Table 76 allows the quantities δh−, h,
The procedure for using the tables is analogous to the previously described procedure for using the Venus
tables. One example of this procedure is given below.
Example: May 5, 2005 CE, 00:00 UT:

153

10 PLANETARY LATITUDES
From Sect. 9, t − t0 = 1 950.5 JD, q = −16.974◦ , µ = 252.692◦ , Θ− = 0.107, and Θ+ = 0.583. Making use of Table 62, we find:
t(JD)

¯
F(◦ )

+1000
+900
+50
+.5
Epoch

132.342
83.108
204.617
2.046
204.436
626.549
266.549

Modulus
Thus,

F=¯
F + q = 266.549 − 16.974 = 249.575 ≃ 250◦ .
It follows from Table 75 that
β0(250◦ ) = −2.511◦ .
Since µ ≃ 253◦ , Table 76 yields
δh−(253◦ ) = 0.184,


¯
h(253
) = 1.037,

δh+(253◦ ) = 0.272,

so
¯ + Θ+ δh+ = 0.107 × 0.184 + 1.037 + 0.583 × 0.272 = 1.215.
h = Θ− δh− + h
Finally,
β = h β0 = −1.215 × 2.511 = −3.051 ≃ −3◦ 03 ′ .
Thus, the ecliptic latitude of Mercury at 00:00 UT on May 5, 2005 CE was −3◦ 03 ′ .

154

10 PLANETARY LATITUDES

Object
Mercury
Venus
Mars
Jupiter
Saturn

i(◦ )
6.9190
3.3692
1.8467
1.3044
2.4860

n
˘ (◦ /day)
4.09234221
1.60213807
0.52404094
0.08308122
0.03347795

¯F0 (◦ )
204.436
105.253
305.796
293.660
296.482

Table 66: Additional Keplerian orbital elements for the five visible planets at the J2000 epoch (i.e., 12:00 UT,
January 1, 2000 CE, which corresponds to t0 = 2 451 545.0 JD). The elements are optimized for use in the
time period 1800 CE to 2050 CE. Source: Jet Propulsion Laboratory (NASA), http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/.

155

10 PLANETARY LATITUDES

F(◦ )

β0 (◦ )

F(◦ )

000/180
002/178
004/176
006/174
008/172
010/170
012/168
014/166
016/164
018/162
020/160
022/158
024/156
026/154
028/152
030/150
032/148
034/146
036/144
038/142
040/140
042/138
044/136
046/134
048/132
050/130
052/128
054/126
056/124
058/122
060/120
062/118
064/116
066/114
068/112
070/110
072/108
074/106
076/104
078/102
080/100
082/098
084/096
086/094
088/092
090/090

0.000
0.064
0.129
0.193
0.257
0.321
0.384
0.447
0.509
0.571
0.631
0.692
0.751
0.809
0.867
0.923
0.978
1.032
1.085
1.137
1.187
1.235
1.283
1.328
1.372
1.414
1.455
1.494
1.531
1.566
1.599
1.630
1.660
1.687
1.712
1.735
1.756
1.775
1.792
1.806
1.818
1.828
1.836
1.842
1.845
1.846

(180)/(360)
(182)/(358)
(184)/(356)
(186)/(354)
(188)/(352)
(190)/(350)
(192)/(348)
(194)/(346)
(196)/(344)
(198)/(342)
(200)/(340)
(202)/(338)
(204)/(336)
(206)/(334)
(208)/(332)
(210)/(330)
(212)/(328)
(214)/(326)
(216)/(324)
(218)/(322)
(220)/(320)
(222)/(318)
(224)/(316)
(226)/(314)
(228)/(312)
(230)/(310)
(232)/(308)
(234)/(306)
(236)/(304)
(238)/(302)
(240)/(300)
(242)/(298)
(244)/(296)
(246)/(294)
(248)/(292)
(250)/(290)
(252)/(288)
(254)/(286)
(256)/(284)
(258)/(282)
(260)/(280)
(262)/(278)
(264)/(276)
(266)/(274)
(268)/(272)
(270)/(270)

Table 67: Deferential ecliptic latitude of Mars. The latitude is minus the value shown in the table if the
argument is in parenthesies.

156

10 PLANETARY LATITUDES
µ

δh−

¯
h

δh+

µ

δh−

¯
h

δh+

µ

δh−

¯
h

δh+

µ

δh−

¯
h

δh+

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

-0.025

0.604
0.604
0.604
0.604
0.605
0.605
0.605
0.605
0.606
0.606
0.606
0.607
0.607
0.608
0.609
0.609
0.610
0.611
0.611
0.612
0.613
0.614
0.615
0.616
0.617
0.618
0.619
0.621
0.622
0.623
0.625
0.626
0.627
0.629
0.631
0.632
0.634
0.636
0.637
0.639
0.641
0.643
0.645
0.647
0.649
0.652

-0.028

45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90

-0.025

0.652
0.654
0.656
0.659
0.661
0.664
0.666
0.669
0.672
0.674
0.677
0.680
0.683
0.686
0.689
0.693
0.696
0.699
0.703
0.706
0.710
0.714
0.718
0.722
0.726
0.730
0.734
0.738
0.743
0.747
0.752
0.757
0.762
0.767
0.772
0.777
0.782
0.788
0.793
0.799
0.805
0.811
0.817
0.823
0.830
0.836

-0.029

90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135

-0.025

0.836
0.843
0.850
0.857
0.865
0.872
0.880
0.888
0.896
0.904
0.912
0.921
0.930
0.939
0.948
0.958
0.968
0.978
0.988
0.999
1.010
1.021
1.032
1.044
1.056
1.069
1.082
1.095
1.108
1.122
1.137
1.151
1.167
1.182
1.198
1.215
1.232
1.249
1.267
1.286
1.305
1.325
1.345
1.366
1.388
1.410

-0.031

135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180

0.015

1.410
1.433
1.457
1.482
1.507
1.533
1.560
1.588
1.616
1.646
1.676
1.708
1.740
1.773
1.807
1.843
1.879
1.916
1.955
1.994
2.034
2.075
2.117
2.160
2.203
2.247
2.292
2.337
2.382
2.427
2.472
2.517
2.560
2.603
2.644
2.683
2.721
2.755
2.787
2.816
2.840
2.861
2.878
2.890
2.897
2.899

0.003

-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025

-0.028
-0.028
-0.028
-0.028
-0.028
-0.028
-0.028
-0.028
-0.028
-0.028
-0.028
-0.028
-0.028
-0.028
-0.028
-0.028
-0.028
-0.028
-0.028
-0.028
-0.028
-0.028
-0.028
-0.028
-0.029
-0.029
-0.029
-0.029
-0.029
-0.029
-0.029
-0.029
-0.029
-0.029
-0.029
-0.029
-0.029
-0.029
-0.029
-0.029
-0.029
-0.029
-0.029
-0.029
-0.029

-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.026
-0.026
-0.026
-0.026
-0.026
-0.026
-0.026
-0.026
-0.026
-0.026
-0.026
-0.026
-0.026
-0.026
-0.026
-0.026
-0.026
-0.026
-0.026
-0.026
-0.026
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025
-0.025

-0.029
-0.029
-0.029
-0.029
-0.030
-0.030
-0.030
-0.030
-0.030
-0.030
-0.030
-0.030
-0.030
-0.030
-0.030
-0.030
-0.030
-0.030
-0.030
-0.030
-0.030
-0.030
-0.030
-0.031
-0.031
-0.031
-0.031
-0.031
-0.031
-0.031
-0.031
-0.031
-0.031
-0.031
-0.031
-0.031
-0.031
-0.031
-0.031
-0.031
-0.031
-0.031
-0.031
-0.031
-0.031

-0.025
-0.024
-0.024
-0.024
-0.024
-0.024
-0.024
-0.023
-0.023
-0.023
-0.023
-0.022
-0.022
-0.022
-0.021
-0.021
-0.021
-0.020
-0.020
-0.019
-0.019
-0.018
-0.018
-0.017
-0.016
-0.015
-0.015
-0.014
-0.013
-0.012
-0.011
-0.010
-0.008
-0.007
-0.006
-0.004
-0.003
-0.001
0.001
0.003
0.005
0.007
0.010
0.012
0.015

-0.031
-0.031
-0.031
-0.031
-0.031
-0.031
-0.031
-0.031
-0.031
-0.030
-0.030
-0.030
-0.030
-0.030
-0.030
-0.029
-0.029
-0.029
-0.029
-0.028
-0.028
-0.027
-0.027
-0.027
-0.026
-0.025
-0.025
-0.024
-0.023
-0.023
-0.022
-0.021
-0.020
-0.019
-0.017
-0.016
-0.015
-0.013
-0.011
-0.009
-0.007
-0.005
-0.003
-0.000
0.003

0.018
0.021
0.025
0.028
0.032
0.037
0.041
0.046
0.051
0.057
0.063
0.069
0.076
0.084
0.092
0.100
0.109
0.118
0.128
0.139
0.151
0.163
0.175
0.189
0.202
0.217
0.232
0.248
0.264
0.280
0.297
0.314
0.331
0.348
0.364
0.380
0.395
0.408
0.421
0.432
0.442
0.449
0.455
0.458
0.459

0.006
0.009
0.013
0.017
0.021
0.026
0.031
0.036
0.043
0.049
0.056
0.064
0.073
0.083
0.093
0.104
0.117
0.130
0.145
0.161
0.178
0.197
0.218
0.240
0.265
0.291
0.319
0.349
0.382
0.416
0.453
0.491
0.530
0.571
0.612
0.654
0.694
0.734
0.770
0.804
0.833
0.857
0.874
0.885
0.889

◦ − µ) = h(µ),
¯
¯
Table 68: Epicyclic latitude correction factor for Mars. µ is in degrees. Note that h(360
and

δh± (360 − µ) = δh± (µ).

157

10 PLANETARY LATITUDES

F(◦ )

β0 (◦ )

F(◦ )

000/180
002/178
004/176
006/174
008/172
010/170
012/168
014/166
016/164
018/162
020/160
022/158
024/156
026/154
028/152
030/150
032/148
034/146
036/144
038/142
040/140
042/138
044/136
046/134
048/132
050/130
052/128
054/126
056/124
058/122
060/120
062/118
064/116
066/114
068/112
070/110
072/108
074/106
076/104
078/102
080/100
082/098
084/096
086/094
088/092
090/090

0.000
0.046
0.091
0.136
0.182
0.226
0.271
0.316
0.360
0.403
0.446
0.489
0.531
0.572
0.612
0.652
0.691
0.729
0.767
0.803
0.838
0.873
0.906
0.938
0.969
0.999
1.028
1.055
1.081
1.106
1.130
1.152
1.172
1.192
1.209
1.226
1.240
1.254
1.266
1.276
1.284
1.292
1.297
1.301
1.303
1.304

(180)/(360)
(182)/(358)
(184)/(356)
(186)/(354)
(188)/(352)
(190)/(350)
(192)/(348)
(194)/(346)
(196)/(344)
(198)/(342)
(200)/(340)
(202)/(338)
(204)/(336)
(206)/(334)
(208)/(332)
(210)/(330)
(212)/(328)
(214)/(326)
(216)/(324)
(218)/(322)
(220)/(320)
(222)/(318)
(224)/(316)
(226)/(314)
(228)/(312)
(230)/(310)
(232)/(308)
(234)/(306)
(236)/(304)
(238)/(302)
(240)/(300)
(242)/(298)
(244)/(296)
(246)/(294)
(248)/(292)
(250)/(290)
(252)/(288)
(254)/(286)
(256)/(284)
(258)/(282)
(260)/(280)
(262)/(278)
(264)/(276)
(266)/(274)
(268)/(272)
(270)/(270)

Table 69: Deferential ecliptic latitude of Jupiter. The latitude is minus the value shown in the table if the
argument is in parenthesies.

158

10 PLANETARY LATITUDES
µ

δh−

¯
h

δh+

µ

δh−

¯
h

δh+

µ

δh−

¯
h

δh+

µ

δh−

¯
h

δh+

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

-0.008

0.839
0.839
0.839
0.839
0.839
0.839
0.840
0.840
0.840
0.840
0.841
0.841
0.841
0.842
0.842
0.843
0.843
0.844
0.845
0.845
0.846
0.847
0.847
0.848
0.849
0.850
0.851
0.852
0.853
0.854
0.855
0.856
0.857
0.858
0.859
0.860
0.861
0.863
0.864
0.865
0.867
0.868
0.870
0.871
0.873
0.874

-0.009

45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90

-0.007

0.874
0.876
0.877
0.879
0.881
0.883
0.884
0.886
0.888
0.890
0.892
0.894
0.896
0.898
0.900
0.902
0.904
0.906
0.909
0.911
0.913
0.916
0.918
0.920
0.923
0.925
0.928
0.930
0.933
0.935
0.938
0.941
0.944
0.946
0.949
0.952
0.955
0.958
0.961
0.964
0.967
0.970
0.973
0.976
0.979
0.982

-0.008

90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135

-0.002

0.982
0.985
0.988
0.992
0.995
0.998
1.002
1.005
1.008
1.012
1.015
1.019
1.022
1.026
1.029
1.033
1.036
1.040
1.044
1.047
1.051
1.055
1.058
1.062
1.066
1.069
1.073
1.077
1.080
1.084
1.088
1.092
1.095
1.099
1.103
1.107
1.110
1.114
1.118
1.121
1.125
1.129
1.132
1.136
1.140
1.143

-0.003

135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180

0.009

1.143
1.147
1.150
1.154
1.157
1.160
1.164
1.167
1.170
1.173
1.177
1.180
1.183
1.186
1.189
1.192
1.194
1.197
1.200
1.202
1.205
1.207
1.210
1.212
1.214
1.216
1.218
1.220
1.222
1.224
1.225
1.227
1.228
1.230
1.231
1.232
1.233
1.234
1.235
1.236
1.236
1.237
1.237
1.237
1.238
1.238

0.010

-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.007
-0.007
-0.007
-0.007
-0.007
-0.007
-0.007
-0.007

-0.009
-0.009
-0.009
-0.009
-0.009
-0.009
-0.009
-0.009
-0.009
-0.009
-0.009
-0.009
-0.009
-0.009
-0.009
-0.009
-0.009
-0.009
-0.009
-0.009
-0.009
-0.009
-0.009
-0.009
-0.009
-0.009
-0.009
-0.009
-0.009
-0.009
-0.009
-0.009
-0.009
-0.009
-0.009
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008

-0.007
-0.007
-0.007
-0.007
-0.007
-0.007
-0.007
-0.007
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.004
-0.004
-0.004
-0.004
-0.004
-0.004
-0.004
-0.004
-0.003
-0.003
-0.003
-0.003
-0.003
-0.003
-0.002
-0.002
-0.002

-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.008
-0.007
-0.007
-0.007
-0.007
-0.007
-0.007
-0.007
-0.007
-0.007
-0.007
-0.007
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.004
-0.004
-0.004
-0.004
-0.004
-0.004
-0.003
-0.003
-0.003
-0.003
-0.003
-0.003

-0.002
-0.002
-0.002
-0.001
-0.001
-0.001
-0.001
-0.001
-0.000
-0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.009
0.009

-0.002
-0.002
-0.002
-0.002
-0.001
-0.001
-0.001
-0.001
-0.001
-0.000
-0.000
0.000
0.000
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.010
0.010
0.010

0.009
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.011
0.011
0.011
0.012
0.012
0.012
0.012
0.013
0.013
0.013
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.016
0.016
0.016
0.016
0.016
0.016
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.018
0.018
0.018
0.018
0.018
0.018
0.018

0.011
0.011
0.011
0.012
0.012
0.012
0.013
0.013
0.013
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.016
0.016
0.016
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.018
0.018
0.018
0.018
0.019
0.019
0.019
0.019
0.019
0.020
0.020
0.020
0.020
0.020
0.020
0.020
0.021
0.021
0.021
0.021
0.021
0.021
0.021

◦ − µ) = h(µ),
¯
¯
Table 70: Epicyclic latitude correction factor for Jupiter. µ is in degrees. Note that h(360
and

δh± (360 − µ) = δh± (µ).

159

10 PLANETARY LATITUDES

F(◦ )

β0 (◦ )

F(◦ )

000/180
002/178
004/176
006/174
008/172
010/170
012/168
014/166
016/164
018/162
020/160
022/158
024/156
026/154
028/152
030/150
032/148
034/146
036/144
038/142
040/140
042/138
044/136
046/134
048/132
050/130
052/128
054/126
056/124
058/122
060/120
062/118
064/116
066/114
068/112
070/110
072/108
074/106
076/104
078/102
080/100
082/098
084/096
086/094
088/092
090/090

0.000
0.087
0.173
0.260
0.346
0.432
0.517
0.601
0.685
0.768
0.850
0.931
1.011
1.089
1.167
1.243
1.317
1.390
1.461
1.530
1.597
1.663
1.726
1.788
1.847
1.904
1.958
2.011
2.060
2.108
2.152
2.194
2.234
2.270
2.304
2.335
2.364
2.389
2.411
2.431
2.447
2.461
2.472
2.479
2.484
2.485

(180)/(360)
(182)/(358)
(184)/(356)
(186)/(354)
(188)/(352)
(190)/(350)
(192)/(348)
(194)/(346)
(196)/(344)
(198)/(342)
(200)/(340)
(202)/(338)
(204)/(336)
(206)/(334)
(208)/(332)
(210)/(330)
(212)/(328)
(214)/(326)
(216)/(324)
(218)/(322)
(220)/(320)
(222)/(318)
(224)/(316)
(226)/(314)
(228)/(312)
(230)/(310)
(232)/(308)
(234)/(306)
(236)/(304)
(238)/(302)
(240)/(300)
(242)/(298)
(244)/(296)
(246)/(294)
(248)/(292)
(250)/(290)
(252)/(288)
(254)/(286)
(256)/(284)
(258)/(282)
(260)/(280)
(262)/(278)
(264)/(276)
(266)/(274)
(268)/(272)
(270)/(270)

Table 71: Deferential ecliptic latitude of Saturn. The latitude is minus the value shown in the table if the
argument is in parenthesies.

160

10 PLANETARY LATITUDES
µ

δh−

¯
h

δh+

µ

δh−

¯
h

δh+

µ

δh−

¯
h

δh+

µ

δh−

¯
h

δh+

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

-0.006

0.905
0.905
0.905
0.905
0.905
0.905
0.906
0.906
0.906
0.906
0.906
0.907
0.907
0.907
0.908
0.908
0.908
0.909
0.909
0.909
0.910
0.910
0.911
0.911
0.912
0.913
0.913
0.914
0.914
0.915
0.916
0.916
0.917
0.918
0.919
0.920
0.920
0.921
0.922
0.923
0.924
0.925
0.926
0.927
0.928
0.929

-0.006

45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90

-0.005

0.929
0.930
0.931
0.932
0.933
0.934
0.935
0.937
0.938
0.939
0.940
0.942
0.943
0.944
0.945
0.947
0.948
0.949
0.951
0.952
0.954
0.955
0.957
0.958
0.960
0.961
0.963
0.964
0.966
0.967
0.969
0.971
0.972
0.974
0.975
0.977
0.979
0.981
0.982
0.984
0.986
0.987
0.989
0.991
0.993
0.995

-0.005

90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135

-0.001

0.995
0.996
0.998
1.000
1.002
1.004
1.006
1.007
1.009
1.011
1.013
1.015
1.017
1.019
1.020
1.022
1.024
1.026
1.028
1.030
1.032
1.034
1.036
1.037
1.039
1.041
1.043
1.045
1.047
1.049
1.050
1.052
1.054
1.056
1.058
1.060
1.061
1.063
1.065
1.067
1.068
1.070
1.072
1.073
1.075
1.077

-0.001

135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180

0.005

1.077
1.078
1.080
1.081
1.083
1.084
1.086
1.087
1.089
1.090
1.091
1.093
1.094
1.095
1.097
1.098
1.099
1.100
1.101
1.103
1.104
1.105
1.106
1.107
1.107
1.108
1.109
1.110
1.111
1.111
1.112
1.113
1.113
1.114
1.114
1.115
1.115
1.116
1.116
1.116
1.116
1.117
1.117
1.117
1.117
1.117

0.006

-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005

-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.006
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005

-0.004
-0.004
-0.004
-0.004
-0.004
-0.004
-0.004
-0.004
-0.004
-0.004
-0.004
-0.004
-0.004
-0.004
-0.004
-0.003
-0.003
-0.003
-0.003
-0.003
-0.003
-0.003
-0.003
-0.003
-0.003
-0.003
-0.003
-0.002
-0.002
-0.002
-0.002
-0.002
-0.002
-0.002
-0.002
-0.002
-0.002
-0.001
-0.001
-0.001
-0.001
-0.001
-0.001
-0.001
-0.001

-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.005
-0.004
-0.004
-0.004
-0.004
-0.004
-0.004
-0.004
-0.004
-0.004
-0.004
-0.004
-0.004
-0.003
-0.003
-0.003
-0.003
-0.003
-0.003
-0.003
-0.003
-0.003
-0.003
-0.002
-0.002
-0.002
-0.002
-0.002
-0.002
-0.002
-0.002
-0.001
-0.001
-0.001
-0.001
-0.001
-0.001

-0.001
-0.000
-0.000
-0.000
-0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005

-0.001
-0.001
-0.000
-0.000
-0.000
-0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006

0.005
0.005
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009

0.006
0.006
0.006
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010

◦ − µ) = h(µ),
¯
¯
Table 72: Epicyclic latitude correction factor for Saturn. µ is in degrees. Note that h(360
and

δh± (360 − µ) = δh± (µ).

161

10 PLANETARY LATITUDES

F(◦ )

β0 (◦ )

F(◦ )

000/180
002/178
004/176
006/174
008/172
010/170
012/168
014/166
016/164
018/162
020/160
022/158
024/156
026/154
028/152
030/150
032/148
034/146
036/144
038/142
040/140
042/138
044/136
046/134
048/132
050/130
052/128
054/126
056/124
058/122
060/120
062/118
064/116
066/114
068/112
070/110
072/108
074/106
076/104
078/102
080/100
082/098
084/096
086/094
088/092
090/090

0.000
0.085
0.170
0.255
0.339
0.423
0.506
0.589
0.671
0.753
0.833
0.912
0.991
1.068
1.143
1.218
1.291
1.362
1.432
1.500
1.566
1.630
1.692
1.752
1.810
1.866
1.919
1.970
2.019
2.066
2.109
2.151
2.189
2.225
2.258
2.289
2.316
2.341
2.363
2.382
2.399
2.412
2.422
2.430
2.434
2.436

(180)/(360)
(182)/(358)
(184)/(356)
(186)/(354)
(188)/(352)
(190)/(350)
(192)/(348)
(194)/(346)
(196)/(344)
(198)/(342)
(200)/(340)
(202)/(338)
(204)/(336)
(206)/(334)
(208)/(332)
(210)/(330)
(212)/(328)
(214)/(326)
(216)/(324)
(218)/(322)
(220)/(320)
(222)/(318)
(224)/(316)
(226)/(314)
(228)/(312)
(230)/(310)
(232)/(308)
(234)/(306)
(236)/(304)
(238)/(302)
(240)/(300)
(242)/(298)
(244)/(296)
(246)/(294)
(248)/(292)
(250)/(290)
(252)/(288)
(254)/(286)
(256)/(284)
(258)/(282)
(260)/(280)
(262)/(278)
(264)/(276)
(266)/(274)
(268)/(272)
(270)/(270)

Table 73: Epicyclic ecliptic latitude of Venus. The latitude is minus the value shown in the table if the argument
is in parenthesies.

162

10 PLANETARY LATITUDES
µ
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

δh−

¯
h

0.008

0.580
0.580
0.580
0.580
0.580
0.581
0.581
0.581
0.582
0.582
0.582
0.583
0.583
0.584
0.584
0.585
0.586
0.586
0.587
0.588
0.589
0.590
0.591
0.592
0.593
0.594
0.595
0.596
0.597
0.599
0.600
0.601
0.603
0.604
0.606
0.608
0.609
0.611
0.613
0.614
0.616
0.618
0.620
0.622
0.624
0.627

0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009

δh+

µ

δh−

¯
h

δh+

µ

δh−

¯
h

δh+

µ

δh−

¯
h

δh+

0.008

45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90

0.009

0.627
0.629
0.631
0.633
0.636
0.638
0.641
0.643
0.646
0.649
0.652
0.655
0.658
0.661
0.664
0.667
0.670
0.674
0.677
0.681
0.684
0.688
0.692
0.696
0.700
0.704
0.708
0.712
0.717
0.721
0.726
0.730
0.735
0.740
0.745
0.751
0.756
0.761
0.767
0.773
0.778
0.784
0.791
0.797
0.803
0.810

0.009

90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135

0.012

0.810
0.817
0.824
0.831
0.838
0.846
0.854
0.861
0.870
0.878
0.886
0.895
0.904
0.913
0.923
0.933
0.943
0.953
0.964
0.975
0.986
0.997
1.009
1.021
1.034
1.047
1.060
1.074
1.088
1.103
1.118
1.133
1.149
1.166
1.183
1.200
1.219
1.237
1.257
1.277
1.298
1.319
1.342
1.365
1.389
1.413

0.013

135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180

0.032

1.413
1.439
1.466
1.493
1.522
1.552
1.583
1.615
1.648
1.683
1.719
1.756
1.795
1.836
1.878
1.922
1.968
2.016
2.065
2.117
2.170
2.226
2.283
2.343
2.405
2.469
2.535
2.603
2.673
2.744
2.816
2.890
2.964
3.037
3.111
3.182
3.252
3.318
3.380
3.436
3.486
3.529
3.564
3.589
3.604
3.609

0.033

0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009

0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.011
0.011
0.011
0.011
0.011
0.011
0.011
0.011
0.011
0.012
0.012
0.012
0.012
0.012
0.012
0.012

0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.011
0.011
0.011
0.011
0.011
0.011
0.011
0.011
0.011
0.011
0.012
0.012
0.012
0.012
0.012
0.012
0.012
0.012
0.013

0.013
0.013
0.013
0.013
0.013
0.013
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.016
0.016
0.016
0.016
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.018
0.018
0.019
0.019
0.019
0.020
0.020
0.021
0.021
0.022
0.022
0.023
0.024
0.024
0.025
0.026
0.026
0.027
0.028
0.029
0.030
0.031
0.032

0.013
0.013
0.013
0.013
0.013
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.016
0.016
0.016
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.018
0.018
0.019
0.019
0.019
0.020
0.020
0.021
0.021
0.022
0.022
0.023
0.023
0.024
0.025
0.025
0.026
0.027
0.028
0.029
0.030
0.031
0.032
0.033

0.033
0.034
0.036
0.037
0.039
0.040
0.042
0.044
0.046
0.048
0.050
0.053
0.055
0.058
0.061
0.065
0.068
0.072
0.076
0.081
0.086
0.091
0.097
0.103
0.110
0.117
0.125
0.133
0.142
0.151
0.161
0.172
0.183
0.194
0.205
0.217
0.228
0.239
0.249
0.258
0.267
0.273
0.278
0.281
0.282

0.034
0.035
0.037
0.038
0.040
0.041
0.043
0.045
0.047
0.049
0.052
0.054
0.057
0.060
0.063
0.067
0.071
0.075
0.080
0.085
0.090
0.096
0.102
0.109
0.117
0.125
0.134
0.144
0.155
0.166
0.178
0.191
0.204
0.218
0.232
0.247
0.262
0.276
0.290
0.302
0.313
0.322
0.329
0.333
0.334

◦ − µ) = h(µ),
¯
¯
Table 74: Deferential latitude correction factor for Venus. µ is in degrees. Note that h(360
and

δh± (360 − µ) = δh± (µ).

163

10 PLANETARY LATITUDES

F(◦ )

β0 (◦ )

F(◦ )

000/180
002/178
004/176
006/174
008/172
010/170
012/168
014/166
016/164
018/162
020/160
022/158
024/156
026/154
028/152
030/150
032/148
034/146
036/144
038/142
040/140
042/138
044/136
046/134
048/132
050/130
052/128
054/126
056/124
058/122
060/120
062/118
064/116
066/114
068/112
070/110
072/108
074/106
076/104
078/102
080/100
082/098
084/096
086/094
088/092
090/090

0.000
0.093
0.186
0.279
0.372
0.464
0.556
0.646
0.736
0.826
0.914
1.001
1.087
1.171
1.254
1.336
1.416
1.494
1.570
1.645
1.717
1.788
1.856
1.922
1.986
2.047
2.105
2.162
2.215
2.266
2.314
2.359
2.401
2.441
2.477
2.511
2.541
2.568
2.592
2.613
2.631
2.646
2.657
2.665
2.670
2.672

(180)/(360)
(182)/(358)
(184)/(356)
(186)/(354)
(188)/(352)
(190)/(350)
(192)/(348)
(194)/(346)
(196)/(344)
(198)/(342)
(200)/(340)
(202)/(338)
(204)/(336)
(206)/(334)
(208)/(332)
(210)/(330)
(212)/(328)
(214)/(326)
(216)/(324)
(218)/(322)
(220)/(320)
(222)/(318)
(224)/(316)
(226)/(314)
(228)/(312)
(230)/(310)
(232)/(308)
(234)/(306)
(236)/(304)
(238)/(302)
(240)/(300)
(242)/(298)
(244)/(296)
(246)/(294)
(248)/(292)
(250)/(290)
(252)/(288)
(254)/(286)
(256)/(284)
(258)/(282)
(260)/(280)
(262)/(278)
(264)/(276)
(266)/(274)
(268)/(272)
(270)/(270)

Table 75: Epicyclic ecliptic latitude of Mercury. The latitude is minus the value shown in the table if the
argument is in parenthesies.

164

10 PLANETARY LATITUDES
µ
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

δh−

¯
h

0.099

0.719
0.719
0.719
0.719
0.719
0.720
0.720
0.720
0.720
0.721
0.721
0.722
0.722
0.723
0.723
0.724
0.725
0.725
0.726
0.727
0.728
0.729
0.730
0.731
0.732
0.733
0.734
0.735
0.737
0.738
0.739
0.741
0.742
0.743
0.745
0.747
0.748
0.750
0.752
0.754
0.755
0.757
0.759
0.761
0.763
0.765

0.099
0.099
0.099
0.099
0.099
0.099
0.099
0.099
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.100
0.101
0.101
0.101
0.101
0.101
0.101
0.102
0.102
0.102
0.102
0.103
0.103
0.103
0.104
0.104
0.104
0.105
0.105
0.105
0.106
0.106
0.106
0.107
0.107
0.108
0.108
0.109
0.109
0.110

δh+

µ

δh−

¯
h

δh+

µ

δh−

¯
h

δh+

µ

δh−

¯
h

δh+

0.137

45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90

0.110

0.765
0.768
0.770
0.772
0.774
0.777
0.779
0.782
0.784
0.787
0.790
0.793
0.795
0.798
0.801
0.804
0.807
0.811
0.814
0.817
0.820
0.824
0.827
0.831
0.835
0.838
0.842
0.846
0.850
0.854
0.858
0.862
0.866
0.871
0.875
0.880
0.884
0.889
0.894
0.899
0.904
0.909
0.914
0.919
0.924
0.930

0.152

90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135

0.152

0.930
0.935
0.941
0.946
0.952
0.958
0.964
0.970
0.976
0.983
0.989
0.996
1.002
1.009
1.016
1.023
1.030
1.037
1.044
1.052
1.059
1.067
1.074
1.082
1.090
1.098
1.107
1.115
1.123
1.132
1.141
1.149
1.158
1.167
1.176
1.185
1.195
1.204
1.214
1.223
1.233
1.243
1.253
1.263
1.273
1.283

0.217

135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180

0.274

1.283
1.293
1.303
1.313
1.324
1.334
1.344
1.355
1.365
1.375
1.386
1.396
1.406
1.417
1.427
1.437
1.447
1.457
1.467
1.476
1.486
1.495
1.504
1.513
1.522
1.530
1.538
1.546
1.554
1.561
1.568
1.575
1.581
1.587
1.592
1.597
1.602
1.606
1.610
1.613
1.615
1.618
1.619
1.621
1.621
1.622

0.451

0.137
0.137
0.137
0.137
0.137
0.137
0.137
0.137
0.137
0.138
0.138
0.138
0.138
0.138
0.138
0.139
0.139
0.139
0.139
0.140
0.140
0.140
0.141
0.141
0.141
0.142
0.142
0.142
0.143
0.143
0.144
0.144
0.145
0.145
0.146
0.146
0.147
0.147
0.148
0.149
0.149
0.150
0.151
0.151
0.152

0.110
0.111
0.111
0.112
0.112
0.113
0.113
0.114
0.115
0.115
0.116
0.117
0.117
0.118
0.119
0.120
0.120
0.121
0.122
0.123
0.124
0.124
0.125
0.126
0.127
0.128
0.129
0.130
0.131
0.132
0.133
0.135
0.136
0.137
0.138
0.139
0.141
0.142
0.143
0.145
0.146
0.147
0.149
0.150
0.152

0.153
0.154
0.154
0.155
0.156
0.157
0.158
0.159
0.160
0.161
0.162
0.163
0.164
0.165
0.166
0.167
0.168
0.169
0.170
0.172
0.173
0.174
0.176
0.177
0.179
0.180
0.182
0.183
0.185
0.186
0.188
0.190
0.192
0.193
0.195
0.197
0.199
0.201
0.203
0.206
0.208
0.210
0.212
0.215
0.217

0.153
0.155
0.157
0.158
0.160
0.162
0.164
0.165
0.167
0.169
0.171
0.173
0.175
0.178
0.180
0.182
0.184
0.187
0.189
0.192
0.194
0.197
0.199
0.202
0.205
0.208
0.210
0.213
0.216
0.219
0.223
0.226
0.229
0.232
0.236
0.239
0.243
0.246
0.250
0.254
0.258
0.262
0.265
0.269
0.274

0.220
0.222
0.225
0.228
0.231
0.234
0.237
0.240
0.243
0.246
0.250
0.253
0.257
0.261
0.264
0.268
0.272
0.276
0.281
0.285
0.290
0.294
0.299
0.304
0.309
0.315
0.320
0.326
0.331
0.337
0.343
0.350
0.356
0.363
0.370
0.377
0.384
0.392
0.400
0.408
0.416
0.424
0.433
0.442
0.451

0.278
0.282
0.286
0.290
0.295
0.299
0.304
0.308
0.313
0.317
0.322
0.326
0.331
0.335
0.340
0.345
0.349
0.354
0.358
0.363
0.367
0.371
0.376
0.380
0.384
0.388
0.392
0.396
0.399
0.403
0.406
0.409
0.412
0.415
0.417
0.420
0.422
0.424
0.425
0.427
0.428
0.429
0.429
0.430
0.430

0.461
0.471
0.481
0.491
0.501
0.512
0.523
0.534
0.546
0.558
0.570
0.582
0.594
0.607
0.620
0.633
0.646
0.659
0.672
0.686
0.699
0.713
0.726
0.739
0.753
0.766
0.779
0.791
0.804
0.816
0.827
0.838
0.849
0.858
0.868
0.876
0.884
0.891
0.897
0.903
0.907
0.911
0.913
0.914
0.915

◦ − µ) = h(µ),
¯
¯
Table 76: Deferential latitude correction factor for Mercury. µ is in degrees. Note that h(360

and δh± (360 − µ) = δh± (µ).

165

Glossary
Altitude: The angle subtended at the observer by the radius vector connecting a celestial object to an observer on
the earth’s surface, and the vector’s projection onto the horizontal plane. Object’s above/below the horizon
have positive/negative altitudes.
Altitude Circle: A great circle on the celestial sphere which passes through the local zenith at a given observation
site on the earth’s surface.
Anomaly: Any deviation in an orbit from uniform circular motion which is concentric with the central body. Anomaly
is also used as another word for angle.
Apocenter: Point on a Keplerian orbit which is furthest from the central body. If the central body is the sun, then
the apocenter is generally termed the aphelion. Likewise, if the central body is the earth, then the apocenter is
termed the apogee.
Arctic Circles: Two latitude circles on the earth’s surface which are equidistant from the equator. Above the arctic
circles, the sun never sets for part of the year, and never rises for part of the year.
Argument of Latitude: Angle subtended at the central body by the radius vectors connecting the central body to
the orbiting body, and the central body to the ascending node, in a Keplerian orbit.
Ascendent: Point on ecliptic circle which is ascending at any given time on the eastern horizon.
Ascending Node: Point on a Keplerian orbit at which the orbital plane crosses the ecliptic plane from south to
north in the direction of motion of the orbiting body.
Autumnal Equinox: The point at which the ecliptic circle crosses the celestial equator from north to south (in the
direction of the sun’s apparent motion along the ecliptic).
Azimuth: Angle subtended at the observer by the projection of the vector connecting a celestial object to an observer
on the earth’s surface onto the horizontal plane, and the vector connecting the north compass point to the
observer. Azimuth increases clockwise (i.e., from the north to the east) looking at the horizontal plane from
above.
Celestial Axis: An imaginary extension of the earth’s axis of rotation which pierces the celestial sphere at the two
celestial poles. The sphere’s diurnal motion is about this axis.
Celestial Coordinates: Angular coordinate system whose fundamental plane is the celestial plane, and whose poles
are the celestial poles. The polar and azimuthal angles in this system are called declination and right
ascension, respectively.
Celestial Equator: The intersection of the imagined extension of the earth’s equatorial plane with the celestial
sphere.
Celestial Plane: The plane containing the earth’s equator.
Celestial Poles: The two points at which the celestial axis pierces the celestial sphere. The north celestial pole lies
to the north of the celestial plane, whereas the south celestial pole lies to the south. The celestial poles are
the only two points on the celestial sphere whose positions are unaffected by diurnal motion.
Celestial Sphere: An imaginary sphere of infinite radius which is concentric with the earth. All objects in the sky
are thought of as attached to this sphere.
Compass Points: At a given observation site on the earth’s surface, the north, east, south, and west compass points
lie on the local horizon due north, east, south, and west, respectively, of the observer.
Conjunction: Two celestial objects are said to be in conjunction when they have the same ecliptic longitude. For
an inferior planet in conjunction with the sun, the conjunction is said to be superior if the planet is further
from the earth than the sun, and inferior if the sun is further from the earth than the planet.

166

Culmination: A celestial object is said to culminate on a given day when it attains its maximum altitude in the sky.
Declination: Angle subtended at the earth’s center by the radius vector connecting a celestial object to the earth’s
center, and the vector’s projection onto the celestial plane. Object’s to the north/south of the celestial equator
have positive/negative declinations.
Deferent: Large circle centered on the sun about which the guide point rotates in a geocentric planetary orbit.
Deferential Latitude: Ecliptic latitude a superior planet has by virtue of the inclination of its deferent.
Deferential Latitude Correction Factor: Correction to the ecliptic latitude of an inferior planet due to the finite
size of its deferent.
Diurnal Motion: Daily rotation of the celestial sphere, and the objects attached to it, from east to west (looking
south in the earth’s northern hemisphere) about the celestial axis.
Eccentricity: Measure of the displacement along the major axis of the central body from the geometric center in a
Keplerian orbit.
Ecliptic Axis: Normal to the ecliptic plane which passes through the center of the earth.
Ecliptic Circle: Apparent path traced out by the sun on the celestial sphere during the course of a year.
Ecliptic Coordinates: Angular coordinate system whose fundamental plane is the ecliptic plane, and whose poles
are the ecliptic poles.
Ecliptic Latitude: Angle subtended at the earth’s center by the radius vector connecting a celestial object to the
earth’s center, and the vector’s projection onto the ecliptic plane. Objects to the north/south of the ecliptic
circle have positive/ecliptic latitudes.
Ecliptic Longitude: Angle subtended at the earth’s center by the projection of the vector connecting a celestial
object to the earth’s center onto the ecliptic plane, and the vector connecting the vernal equinox to the
earth’s center. Ecliptic longitude increases counter-clockwise (i.e., from the west to the east) looking at the
ecliptic plane from the north.
Ecliptic Plane: Plane containing the mean orbit of the earth about the sun.
Ecliptic Poles: The two points at which the ecliptic axis pierces the celestial sphere. The north ecliptic pole lies to
the north of the ecliptic plane, whereas the south ecliptic pole lies to the south.
Elongation: Difference in ecliptic longitude between two celestial objects.
Epicycle: Small circle, centered on the guide point, about which a planet rotates in a geocentric planetary orbit.
Epicyclic Anomaly: Angle subtended between the radius vectors connecting the earth to the guide-point, and the
guide-point to the planet, in a geocentric planetary orbit.
Epicyclic Latitude: Ecliptic latitude an inferior planet has by virtue of the inclination of its epicycle.
Epicyclic Latitude Correction Factor: Correction to the ecliptic latitude of a superior planet due to the finite size
of its epicycle.
Epoch: Standard time at which the orbital elements of an orbiting body in the solar system are specified.
Equant: Point about which the orbiting body appears to rotate uniformly in a Keplerian orbit of low eccentricity.
The equant is diagrammatically opposite the central body with respect to the geometric center of the orbit.
Equation of Center: Difference between the true anomaly and the mean anomaly in a Keplerian orbit.
Equation of Epicycle: Elongation of a planet from its guide-point in a geocentric planetary orbit.
Equation of Time: Time interval between local noon and mean local noon.

167

Equinoxes: The two opposite points on the ecliptic circle which the sun reaches on the days of the year that day
and night are equally long.
Evection: An anomaly of the moon’s orbit about the earth which is associated with the perturbing influence of the
sun.
Geocentric Planetary Orbit: An orbit in which a planet rotates about a guide point in a small circle called an
epicycle, and the guide point rotates about the earth in a large circle called a deferent.
Great Circle: Circle on the surface of a sphere produced by the intersection of a plane which bisects the sphere.
Greatest Elongation: Greatest elongation of an inferior planet from the sun. If the planet is to the east/west of the
sun then the elongation is called the greatest eastern/western elongation.
Guide-Point: Center of an epicycle in a geocentric planetary orbit.
Horizon: Tangent plane to the earth’s surface, at a given observation site, which divides the celestial sphere into
visible and invisible hemispheres.
Horizontal Coordinates: Angular coordinate system whose fundamental plane is the horizontal plane, and whose
poles are the zenith and nadir.
Horizontal Plane: Plane containing the local horizon.
Horoscope: Point on the ecliptic circle which is ascending at a given time on the eastern horizon.
Inclination: Maximum angle subtended between the plane of a Keplerian orbit and the ecliptic plane.
Inclination of Ecliptic: Inclination of the ecliptic plane to the equatorial plane.
Inferior Planet: A planet which is closer to the sun than the earth.
Julian Day Number: Number ascribed to a particular day in a scheme in which days are numbered consecutively
from January 1, 4713 BCE, which is designated day zero. Julian days start at 12:00 UT.
Keplerian Orbit: Ellipse which is confocal with the central object. The radius vector connecting the central and
orbiting bodies sweeps out equal areas in equal time intervals.
Local Mean Noon: Instant in time at which the mean sun attains its upper transit.
Local Noon: Instant in time at which the sun attains its upper transit.
Longitude of Ascending Node: Angle subtended at the central body by the radius vectors connecting the central
body to the ascending node, and the central body to the vernal equinox, in a Keplerian orbit.
Longitude of Pericenter: Angle subtended at the central body by the radius vectors connecting the central body to
the pericenter, and the central body to the vernal equinox, in a Keplerian orbit.
Major Axis: Longest diameter which passes through the geometric center of a Keplerian orbit.
Major Radius: Half the length of the major axis of a Keplerian orbit.
Mean Anomaly: Angle which would be subtended at the central body by the radius vectors connecting the central
body to the orbiting body, and the central body to the pericenter, in a Keplerian orbit, if the orbiting body
were to rotate about the central body with a uniform angular velocity.
Mean Argument of Latitude: Value the argument of latitude would have if the orbiting body in a Keplerian orbit
were to rotate about the central body at a fixed angular velocity.
Mean Argument of Latitude at Epoch: Value of the mean argument of latitude of a Keplerian orbit at the epoch.
Mean (Ecliptic) Longitude: Value the ecliptic longitude would have if the orbiting body in a Keplerian orbit were
to rotate about the central body at a fixed angular velocity.

168

Mean (Ecliptic) Longitude at Epoch: Value of the mean longitude of a Keplerian orbit at the epoch.
Mean Solar Day: Time interval between successive local mean noons.
Mean Solar Time: Time calculated using the mean sun.
Mean Sun: Fictitious body which travels around the celestial equator (from west to east looking south in the earth’s
northern hemisphere) at a uniform rate, and completes one orbit every tropical year.
Meridian Plane: Plane passing through the zenith and the north and south compass points at a given observation
site on the earth’s surface.
Minor Axis: The minor axis of a Keplerian orbit is the shortest diameter which passes through the geometric center.
Minor Radius: The minor radius of a Keplerian orbit is half the length of the minor axis.
Nadir: Point on the celestial sphere which is directly underfoot at a given observation site on the earth’s surface.
Opposition: Two celestial objects are said to be in opposition when their ecliptic longitudes differ by 180◦ .
Orbital Elements: Eight quantities which completely specify a Keplerian orbit: i.e., major radius, eccentricity,
rate of motion of mean longitude, rate of motion of mean anomaly, mean longitude at epoch, mean
anomaly at epoch, inclination, rate of motion in mean argument of latitude, mean argument of latitude
at epoch.
Parallactic Angle: Angle subtended between the ecliptic circle and an altitude circle.
Parallax: Apparent change in position of a nearby celestial object in the sky when it is viewed at different points on
the earth’s surface.
Pericenter: Point on a Keplerian orbit which is closest to the central body. If the central body is the sun, then the
pericenter is generally termed the perihelion. Likewise, if the central body is the earth, then the pericenter is
termed the perigee.
Precession of Equinoxes: A slow movement of the vernal equinox relative to the fixed stars.
Prograde Motion: Motion of a superior planet in the sky in the same direction to that of its mean motion.
Radial Anomaly: Difference between the length of the radius vector connecting the central body to the orbiting
body, in a Keplerian orbit, and the major radius.
Rate of Motion in Mean Anomaly: Time derivative of the mean anomaly of a Keplerian orbit.
Rate of Motion in Mean Argument of Latitude: Time derivative of the mean argument of latitude of a Keplerian
orbit.
Rate of Motion in Mean Longitude: Time derivative of the mean longitude of a Keplerian orbit.
Retrograde Motion: Motion of a superior planet in the sky in the opposite direction to that of its mean motion.
Right Ascension: Angle subtended at the earth’s center by the projection of the vector connecting a celestial body to
the earth’s center onto the celestial plane, and the vector connecting the vernal equinox to the earth’s center.
Right ascension increases counter-clockwise (i.e., from the west to the east) looking at the celestial plane from
the north.
Seasons: Spring is the time interval between the vernal equinox and the summer solstice, summer the interval
between the summer solstice and the autumnal equinox, autumn the interval between the autumnal equinox
and the winter solstice, and winter the interval between the winter solstice and the next spring equinox.
Sidereal Day: Time interval between successive upper transits of a fixed star.
Sidereal Time: Time calculated using the fixed stars.

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Solar Day: Time interval between successive local noons.
Solar Time: Time calculated using the sun.
Solstices: The two opposite points on the ecliptic circle which the sun reaches on the longest and shortest days of
the year.
Station: Point in the orbit of a superior planet at which it switches from prograde to retrograde motion, or vice
versa. The former station is called a retrograde station, whereas the latter is called a prograde station.
Summer Solstice: Most northerly point on the ecliptic circle.
Superior Planet: A planet further from the sun than the earth.
Synodic Month: Mean time interval between successive new moons.
Syzygy: Conjunction or opposition of the sun and the moon.
Transit: On a given day, and at a given observation site on the earth’s surface, a celestial object is said to transit
when it crosses the meridian plane. The object simultaneously attains either its highest or lowest altitude in
the sky. The transit is called an upper/lower transit when the object attains its highest/lowest altitude.
True Anomaly: Angle subtended at the central body by the radius vectors connecting the central body to the orbiting
body, and the central body to the pericenter, in a Keplerian orbit.
Tropical Year: Time interval between successive vernal equinoxes.
Tropics: Two latitude circles on the earth’s surface which are equidistant from the equator. Between the tropics the
sun culminates both to the north and south of the zenith during the course of a year. Outside the tropics, the
sun culminates either only to the north or only to the south of the zenith.
Universal Time: Time defined such that mean local noon coincides with 12:00 UT every day at an observation site
of terrestrial longitude 0◦ .
Vernal Equinox: Point at which the ecliptic circle crosses the celestial equator from south to north (in the direction
of the sun’s apparent motion along the ecliptic).
Winter Solstice: Most southerly point on the ecliptic circle.
Zenith: Point on the celestial sphere which is directly overhead at a given observation site on the earth’s surface.
Zodiac: The signs of the zodiac are conventional names given to 30◦ segments of the ecliptic circle.

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Index of Symbols

MS : mean anomaly of sun.
µ: epicyclic anomaly, parallactic angle.

A: azimuth.

n: rate of motion in mean longitude.

a: major radius, altitude.

n
˜ : rate of motion in mean anomaly.

aS : major radius of sun.

n
˘ : rate of motion in mean argument of latitude.

α: right ascension.

q: equation of center.

α
¯ : right ascension of mean sun.

qi : lunar anomalies.

b: minor radius.

RE : radius of earth.

β: ecliptic latitude.

RM : radius of moon.

D: lunar-solar elongation.

RS : radius of sun.

¯ mean lunar-solar elongation.
D:

r: radial distance.

˜ semi-mean lunar-solar elongation.
D:

ρS : angular radius of sun.

δ: declination.

ρM : angular radius of moon.

δM : parallax of moon.

ρU : angular radius of earth’s umbra.

e: eccentricity.

t: time.

eM : eccentricity of moon.

t0 : epoch.

eS : eccentricity of sun.

T : true anomaly.

ǫ: inclination of ecliptic.

τ: orbital period.

E: elliptic anomaly.

̟: longitude of perigee.

ζ: radial anomaly.

Ω: longitude of ascending node.

θ: equation of epicycle.
F: argument of latitude.
¯
F: mean argument of latitude.
¯
F0 : mean argument of latitude at epoch.
¯
FM : mean argument of latitude of moon.
λ: ecliptic longitude.
λS : ecliptic longitude of sun.
¯λ: mean longitude.
¯λ0 : mean longitude at epoch.
¯λM : mean longitude of moon.
¯λS : mean longitude of sun.
L: terrestrial latitude.
M: mean anomaly.
M0 : mean anomaly at epoch.
MM : mean anomaly of moon.

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Bibliograpy
Primary Sources:
The Almagest, C. Ptolemy, tr. G.J. Toomer (Princeton University Press, 1998).
On the Revolutions: Nicholas Copernicus Complete Works, N. Copernicus, tr. E. Rosen (The Johns Hopkins
University Press, 1992).
Selections From Kepler’s Astronomia Nova, J. Kepler, tr. W.H. Donahue (Green Lion Press, 2005).

Secondary Sources:
The Exact Sciences in Antiquity, O. Neugebauer (Dover, 1969).
A Survey of the Almagest, O. Pedersen (Univ Press of Southern Denmark, 1974).
The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy, J. Evans (Oxford University Press, 1998).
The Eye of Heaven: Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler, O. Gingerich (American Institute of Physics, 1993).
Astronomical Algorithms, J. Meeus (Willmann-Bell, 1998).
The Discovery of Dynamics: A Study from a Machian Point of View of the Discovery and the Structure of
Dynamical Theories, J. Barbour (Oxford University Press, 2001).

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