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_______ is a way of organizing data elements along with the logical relationship between them a) Data b)Information c)data structure d)stack 2. _____ structure is a memory configuration of a data structure a) functions b)storage c)program d)data 3. ______ is a sequence of steps to be followed to execute an operation a) program b)instruction c)algorithm d)function 4. ______ of algorithm requires that an algorithm should concern itself with one specific problem a)Efficiency b)Conciseness c)simplicity d)tracing 5. ______ the algorithm into the appropriate programming language a)Analyze b)Design c)code d)Verify 6. _____ the code to improve performance, but only if necessary a) maintain b)optimize c)repeat d)redefine 7. ______ parameters are used by the function but are not changed by the function a)Input b)output c)In-Out d)local variables 8. ______ are used in the function but not defined in the function a)Global variables b)Local Variables c)Output d)side effect 9. ____ are always passed by reference a)Function b)arrays c)Pointers d)Structures 10. ______ is a list of elements in which an element may be inserted or deleted only at on end called the top. a)Queue b)stack c)arrays d)Expression 11. Stack is based on ____ a)LIFO b)FIFO c)FILO d)None 12. ____ to represent insertion a)push b)pop c)insert d)delete 13. ____ to represent deletion a)push b)pop c)insert d)delete 14. The number of element in an ____ is fixed a)stack b)array c)queue d)Expression 15. _____ is a dynamic object a)stack b)array c)queue d)Expression 16. _____form of expressions will not contain any parenthesis a)postfix b)prefix c)array d)infix 17. _____ form of expressions specify the actual order of operations without any parenthesis a)postfix b)prefix c)array d)infix 18. A stack is a data structure in which all insertions and deletions of entries are made at___ a)top b)front c)rear d)bottom 19. Data types like integer, real, string are called ____ data structure a)int b)float c)primitive d)date 20. Data elements are also called____ a)data items b)data members c)data d)information 21. ______ involves analyzing the time and space requirements of an algorithm a)correctness b)efficiency c)analysis d)simplicity 22. _____ the program precisely and completely

a)build b)design c)Analyze d)code 23. _______ can be divided into phases a)life cycle b)design c)program d)life model 24. _____ the program so that it will meet the changing needs of its users a)refine b)repeat c)maintain d)optimize 25. _____ of the problem is often the most difficult phase of the software life cycle a)Analysis b)code c)verify d)Design 26. A procedure that can repeat itself indefinitely is called____ a)recursion b)processes c)algorithm d)programs 27. _____ procedures work fine in many problems a)processes b)algorithm c)recursive d)programs 28. _____ keys are used to stop the execution of the program a)ctrl+break b)alt+break c)ctrl+home d)ctrl+end 29. ______ statement terminates the execution a)break b)printf c)print d)binary 30. ______ method will involve recomputation a)recursive b)factorial c)process d)analysis 31. Fortran, cobol do not support ___ a)main b)recursion c)fact d)simulation 32. _____ the queue is tedious and hence needs a trick or two a)adding b)moving c)serving d)deleting 33. ____ are also an ordered collection of items a)queues b)rear c)front d)top 34. Insertion is done at one end called ___ a)rear b)front c)top d)bottom 35. ____ function prints the value a)break b)printf c)print d)binary 36. Deleting is done at one end called____ a)front b)rear c)top d)bottom 37. ______ follows FIFO a)stack b)queue c)array d)programs 38. ____ queue holds the elements as a circle a)Circular b)rectangle c)square d)triangle 39. q.front and q.rear are equal then queue is _____ a)empty b)full c)partial d)rear 40. _____ places the jobs in a circular queue a)scheduler b)rear c)front d)os 41. _____ is allowed to run only for a fixed time slice a)queue b)job c)process d)stack 42. A lower integer indicates a _____ priority a)higher b)lower c)top d)bottom 43. _____ queues are serviced in priority basis a)Ascending b)Descending c)insert d)delete 44. ______ priority queue allows deletion of only the largest item a)Ascending b)descending c)insert d)delete 45. _______ hold the elements of a queue

a)stack b)array c)data d)garbage 46. q.front and q.rear _____ when queue is full or empty a)2 b)3 c)1 d)4 47. Rear and front are present in ____ a)stack b)queue c)priority queue d)circular queue 48. _____ function is designed to insert an item at an appropriate place a)delete q b)insert q c)remove q d)list q 49. ______ lists queue items a)delete q b)list q c)remove q d)insert q 50. _____ removes the front item in the queue a)remove q b)list q c)insert q d)delete q 51. A ______ is a very simple organization of data a)list b)array c)queue d)stack 52. ____ are of fixed size a)list b)array c)queue d)stack 53. Each item comes with one link to connect the next item is called___ a)Linear list b)Binary c)Linked list d)array 54. ______ is a series of related data items a)list b)array c)queue d)stack 55. ____ is a series of data items with each item containing a pointer giving the location of the next item in the list a)Linked list b)Linear list c)array d)stack 56. ______ meaning that it does not have a link to other items a)zero b)null c)one d)two 57. _______ refer to the contents of the information field a)next b)info c)pointer d)none 58. _____ refer to the contents of the next address field pointed to by the pointer a)info b)next c)node d)pointer 59. ________ contains information and next address field a)node b)root c)graph d)tree 60. _______ operation can be used to delete a node a)free node(p) b)delete(p) c)pop(p) d)get node(p) 61. _____ operation obtains a node from the pool a)getnode b)freenode c)push d)pop 62. The set of available nodes in memory is called ____ a)available list b)available node c)getnode d)free node 63. _____ in a linked list occupies an extra storage a)tree b)graph c)node d)queue 64. The advantage of linked implementation of stacks is that all the stacks can share the same __ list a)available b)Linked c)Linear d)binary 65. _____ function accepts a pointer to a node and returns that node a)get node b)free node c)delete node d)insert node 66. _____ function will allocate number of bytes a)size of b)malloc c)alloc d)avail 67. _____ operator returns the number of bytes required for the entire structure

a)size of b)getnode() c)freenode() d)malloc() 68. ____ cannot be traversed back from a given node a)Linear list b)linked list c)circular list d)doubly linked list 69. Empty circular list is represented by _____ pointer a)zero b)Null c)one d)four 70. A list with nodes linked together by a single pointer is called ___ a)doubly linked list b)singly linked list c)linear list d)binary list 71. A node in ___ linked list will have two pointers a)single b)double c)one d)circular 72. In a circular list the last node points to the ____ node a)last b)first c)Null d)zero 73. _____ linked list can be traversed in either direction a)doubly b)singly c)Circular d)Linear 74. Array implementation is also known as _____ implementation a)static b)dynamic c)pointer d)circular 75. Pointer implementation is also known as ____ implementation a)static b)dynamic c)circular d)linear 76. ____ is a data structure that represents hierarchical relationships between individual data items a)graph b)tree c)chart d)node 77. ____ component of a binary tree is the forefather of all children a)node b)root c)tree d)graph 78. Going from the leaves to the root is called ___ a)descending b)climbing c)up d)down 79. _____ traversal is also known as depth first traversal a)preorder b)inorder c)post order d)breadth first 80. ____ traversal the root node is visited in between the nodes in left and right subtrees a)Preorder b)inorder c)post order d)Breadth first 81. ____ is also known as post order traversal a)preorder b)inorder c)Breadth first d)Depth first 82. A tree node that has no children is called a ____ node a)leaf b)root c)Binary d)nonleaf 83. The level of the root node of a binary tree is ____ a)zero b)one c)two d)three 84. Leaves are called ___ nodes a)internal b)external c)father d)root 85. _____ traversal will execute more quickly than the non-recursive method a)Recursive b)non recursive c)thread d)stacking 86. ____ of a node is defined as the number of its children a)order b)forest c)degree d)root 87. _____ is a tree in which the nodes are ordered first , second, third and so on a)forest b)ordered c)degree d)root 88. _____ is an ordered collection of ordered trees a)forest b)root c)graph d)tree 89. ________trees find their applications in the playing of games a)Decision b)game c)forest d)ordered

90. _____ is a collection of similar items a)graph b)chart c)set d)root 91. _____ consists of vertices and edges a)graph b)chart c)set d)root 92. If directions are not marked for any edge the graph is called an ___ graph a)directed b)undirected c)digraph d)piechart 93. _____ is a sequence of distinct vertices each adjacent to the next a)adjacent b)incident c)path d)cycle 94. ____ is a path containing at least three vertices such that the last vertex on the path is adjacent to the first a)path b)cycle c)connected d)incident 95. Visiting all the nodes in a graph systematically is called___ a)Traversal b)incident c)adjacent d)cycle 96. Graph with no cycle is called ____ graph a)cyclic b)acyclic c)forest d)path 97. _____ is an empty tree or a tree in which every node has no more than two children a)binary b)linear tree c)acyclic d)cyclic 98. _____ tree of a graph is an undirected tree consisting of only those edges necessary to connect all the nodes in the original path a)binary b)linear c)spanning d)cyclic 99. ______ is a special link created to simplify the traversal on binary trees a)Recursive b)decision c)Thread d)doubly link 100. Algorithm used to create a minimum spanning tree is ____ algorithm a)depth first search b)breadth first c)kruskal d)binary 101. The additional keys used for searching are called____ a)primary key b)secondary key c)Internal key d)External key 102. A successful search is called as ___ a)Retrivel b)sequential c)internal d)External 103. ____ tree is height balanced a)AVL b)VAL c)LAV d)VAC 104. A tree is _____ only when the balance values are -1, 0 or 1 a)Unbalanced b)height balanced c)inserted d)right rotation 105. An insertion or deletion of a node in a balanced tree may make the tree ___ a)balanced b)unbalanced c)inserting d)deleting 106. _____is generally carried out before searching a)sorting b)arranging c)insertion d)deletion 107. _____ is arranging the records in some order a)sorting b)selection c)merging d)Traversing 108. ____ heap is an almost complete binary tree such that the contents of each node is greater than or equal to the content of its father a)ascending b)descending c)shifting d)sorting 109. ____ is the process of combining two or more sorted files into a third sorted file a)arranging b)merging c)heap d)ascending 110. _____ search is slow but robust a)sequential b)binary c)Linear d)Linked

____ sort is a popular algorithm which takes O(nlogn) time on average and O(n2) in the worst case a)quick b)heap c)merge d)bubble 112. _____ sort is well suited for external sorting a)Quick b)bubble c)merge d)heap 113. ____ is not good for linked list a)binary b)linear c)sequential d)quick 114. ____ is used to pass through the file sequentially several times a)bubble b)merge c)quick d)heap 115. ___ of a tree is the maximum level of its leaves a)height b)weight c)balanced d)unbalanced 116. There are atleast ____ ways to organize a collection of records in memory a)2 b)3 c)1 d)4 117. ____ searching refer to searching the records when they are in main memory a)Internal b)External c)sequential d)searching 118. _____ searching refer to searching the records when part of which are in secondary memory a)Internal b)External c)Sequential d)Searching 119. ____ for a successful search of a record may change over time a)complexity b)probability c)efficiency d)searching 120. Sorted file on an average will require ___ comparisons a)n/4 b)n/2 c)n/3 d)n 121. ____ mean locating a desired record and getting a copy of it a)Retrieving b)transposition c)finding d)updating 122. ____ table consists of an array of key indices a)primary b)File c)index d)Secondary 123. ______ function for deleting the node with key a)del tree b)bin tree c)add tree d)Remove tree 124. ______ loops help to traverse down on left braches from the root node a)Do b)While do c)while d)for
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