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Journal of Food Processing and Preservation ISSN 1745-4549

COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN HOT AIR AND INFRARED DRYING OF PARBOILED RICE: KINETICS AND QUALITIES ASPECTS
O. BUALUANG1, Y. TIRAWANICHAKUL2 and S. TIRAWANICHAKUL1,3,*
1 2

Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Prince of Songkla University, Hatyai 90112, Songkhla, Thailand Plasma and Energy Technology Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Prince of Songkla University, Hatyai 90112, Songkhla, Thailand

Corresponding author. TEL: +6674287306; FAX: +6674558833; EMAIL: supawan.t@psu.ac.th *Present address: Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, PO Box 15, Hatyai 90112, Songkhla, Thailand. Accepted for Publication June 18, 2012 doi:10.1111/j.1745-4549.2012.00813.x

ABSTRACT
The objectives of this study were to analyze the effects of drying employing three different heat sources on drying kinetics and to evaluate qualities of parboiled rice after drying. Drying temperature was varied between 60 and 100C. Power of infrared (IR) heat source was xed at 1,000 and 1,500 W and air ow rate was xed at 1.0 0.2 m/s. The three drying strategies composed of hot air (HA), IR and combined HA + IR drying. The experimental results were simulated using various equilibrium moisture content models and the mathematical drying model for prediction of drying kinetics and evaluation of effective diffusion coefcient (Deff) followed by Ficks law of diffusion. The results revealed that Deff values of HA and IR drying were in the range of 10-1210-11 m2/s and relatively depended on temperature. For quality evaluation, conclusions reached that head rice yield using HA + IR drying had the highest value, while yellowness and whiteness of the parboiled rice are signicantly affected by drying condition (P > 0.05).

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS
These results suggested that combined hot air and infrared (HA + IR) drying offers a great potential for preserving Leb Nok Pattani parboiled rice. Drying kinetics and quality aspects determined that IR drying is more efcient than the other drying method. However, the color degradation in the grain kernel is an issue for quality measurement. process, starch gelatinization takes place a thermophysical reaction between the starch granules and heat energy in the presence of water. The starch gelatinization brings about changes in the physicochemical properties of the rice (Fan et al. 1999; Islam et al. 2001, 2002). In addition, parboiled rice has lower nutrient loss during milling and cooking corresponding to percentage of ash enrichment and high content of mineral and nutrient matter compared with the milled rice (Rao and Juliano 1970; Wu et al. 2002; Heinemann et al. 2005). In the southern part of Thailand located among the Andaman and Pacic oceans, the rainfalls are frequent so losses during postharvesting period are also high because of the high humidity in the surrounding (Soponronnarit et al. 1998; Sun et al. 2002; Tirawanichakul et al. 2004b; Schluterman and Siebenmorgen 2007). To strive for reduced degradation of rice grain and for
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INTRODUCTION
Rough rice or paddy that is subjected to hydrothermal treatment prior to milling is dened as parboiled rice. Traditional parboiling involves soaking the paddy in cold water, followed by steaming and drying (Bhattacharya 2004). Parboiling is practiced in many parts of the world such as Asia, Europe and America (Pillaiyar 1981; Heinemann et al. 2005). Moreover, parboiled rice products in Thailand tend to increase, especially in health food and green organic products. Parboiled rice has benecial grain kernel because during the parboiling process, the rice grain kernel changes its physical and physicochemical properties due to rice gelatinization and leads to a high milling rice yield (Fan et al. 1999; Bhattacharya 2004; Tirawanichakul et al. 2004a; Soponronnarit et al. 2005). This is because during the parboiling

Journal of Food Processing and Preservation (2012) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

HOT AIR AND INFRARED DRYING OF PARBOILED RICE

O. BUALUANG, Y. TIRAWANICHAKUL and S. TIRAWANICHAKUL

additional rice grain value, rice parboiling process is thus of interest. Leb Nok Pattani, a local medium-grain rice variety, is widely produced in the southern part of Thailand. It is easily broken when its moisture is reduced through hightemperature drying or sun drying on the oor. The parboiling process not only reduces the serious effects of postharvesting but can also enhance the quality of rice kernels. However, few researches have been made in Southeast Asian countries for the optimum rice parboiling process. The parboiling process consists of three steps, namely: soaking, steaming and drying. Some work studied the tempering effect, which could maintain and improve head rice yield (Poomsa-ad et al. 2002; Tirawanichakul et al. 2004a). Drying is most essential because high moisture content of soaked rice (>35% dry-basis) leads to easy degradation because of many effects such as infection by microorganisms, yellowing by nonenzymatic reaction (Soponronnarit et al. 1998), etc. Drying process is an important process affecting product quality, and there are many methods to reduce moisture content such as hot air (HA) drying (Rayaguru et al. 2009), infrared (IR) radiation drying (Delwiche et al. 1996; Das et al. 2004, 2009; Maftoonazad et al. 2009) and microwave (MW) drying (Therdthai and Zhou 2009). The appropriate moisture content of grain kernel for a long shelf life is about 16 1.0% dry basis (Quitco 1982; Soponronnarit 1997; Tirawanichakul et al. 2004b; Soponronnarit et al. 2005). Because there is little published literature on IR drying of parboiled rice (Schroeder and Roseberg 1961; Abe and Afzal 1997; Das et al. 2004), the IR drying for parboiled rice is, thus, an interesting process. This is because the IR heating provides a rapid means of heating and drying. However, the IR drying is attractive only for surface heating applications of biomaterial. Application of combined electromagnetic radiation and HA heating is considered to be more efcient over radiation or HA convective heating alone as it gives the synergistic effect (Umesh Hebbar et al. 2004). So, the objectives of this research were to investigate the effects of drying methods: HA convection, IR and combined HA + IR of Leb Nok Pattani parboiled rice on product kinetics in terms of equilibrium moisture content (EMC) and effective coefcient of diffusion; and qualities in terms of whiteness, yellowness, physicochemical, chemical property, enthalpy property, morphological structure and texture analyses.

cleaned and soaked in warm water at 70 1C for 3 h in order to obtain fully water-saturated paddy kernels. Then, these soaked paddy kernels were steamed at 100 1C for 30 min to provide parboiled rice without white belly and getting high head rice yield (Cnossen et al. 2000, 2003; Sun et al. 2002; Tirawanichakul et al. 2004a). Finally, the parboiled rough rice was dried with three drying strategies (HA convection, IR and combined HA + IR heating).

Experimental Procedure
Drying of soaked paddy was carried out in tray dryer with 0.55 0.55 0.50 m3 dimensions. The drying chamber was made of stainless steel and the drying chamber walls were insulated by microber at sheet of 5 cm thickness. The soaked rice sample was placed in a perforated tray, which was made of stainless steel. This tray drying system consisted of 5 main parts as follows: electric heating unit, four electric infrared heating units (500 W 4), centrifugal blower driven by a 1.5-HP motor, air-recycled duct, drying chamber and a proportional plus integral plus derivative action temperature-controlling unit (TF3-10, Keyence Co. Ltd., Osaka, Japan). The rice samples with a weight of 600 g were uniformly provided on the perforated tray for each experiment; thus, the sample bed depth was about of 0.50 cm. The drying temperature, grain temperature, dryand wet-bulb temperatures, were continuously measured by the K-type thermocouple wires connected to the data logger with an accuracy of 0.5C (Model FX100, Yogokawa, Tokyo, Japan). Sample weights were taken at regular interval throughout the drying time using an electronic balance (Model GF 3000, A&D, Tokyo, Japan) with an accuracy of 0.001 g. The schematic diagram of tray drying system is shown in Fig. 1. The experiments were carried out under the conditions of drying temperature ranging from 60 to 100C, inlet air ow rate of 1.0 0.2 m/s and infrared power of 1,000 and 1,500 W. The moisture contents of the rice samples were evaluated by following the standard Association of Ofcial Agricultural Chemists (AOAC) method (AOAC 2007). The average initial moisture content of the samples was in the range of 54 1% dry-basis and the paddy samples until it reached the nal moisture content at 22 1% dry-basis. The parboiled rice samples were taken out the dryer and were then ventilated by aeration until the moisture content of the paddy was about 16 1% drybasis for prolonging shelf life (Soponronnarit 1997, Tirawanichakul et al. 2004a).

MATERIALS AND METHODS


Material
Local medium-grain Leb Nok Pattani paddy harvested in April 2010 was provided from the Rice Research Institute in Phatthalung Province, Thailand. The fresh paddy was
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Determination of Equilibrium Moisture Content (EMC)


In this study, EMC values were evaluated at the controlled air temperature ranging from 40 to 65C corresponding to the relative humidity (RH) of 1187% using static

Journal of Food Processing and Preservation (2012) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

O. BUALUANG, Y. TIRAWANICHAKUL and S. TIRAWANICHAKUL

HOT AIR AND INFRARED DRYING OF PARBOILED RICE

FIG. 1. TRAY DRYER FOR PARBOILED PADDY DRYING

gravimetric method. The parboiled paddy was put in sealed glass bottles with ve different saturated salt solutions comprising of LiCl, KNO3, NaCl, Mg(NO3)26H2O, and MgCl26H2O. After a few days, the samples were weighed daily until the sample and saturated salt solution was in the equilibrate state. This state was acknowledged when consecutive weight measurement differences are lower than 0.001 g. Then the moisture contents of the parboiled rice samples were determined according to the AOAC standard method (AOAC 2007) The EMC values of the samples were calculated by means of duplication. The experimental EMC values were simulated using the ve selected EMC models. These ve EMC models are Brunauer-EmmettTeller (BET) (Brunauer et al. 1938), GuggenheimAnderson-de Boer (GAB), Henderson (Henderson 1952; Chen 1990), Halsey and Oswin models as shown in Table 1. The EMC value was a function of temperature and RH. The

parameters of these models were determined using nonlinear regression analysis. Criteria for determination of the best tting EMC model was determined by the best value of coefcient of determination (R2) and the lowest root mean square error (RMSE) value. Then the EMC model would be used for calculation of EMC value for moisture ratio in the next section.

Mathematic Drying Modeling and Effective Diffusion Coefcient (Deff)


The evolution of moisture transfer can be explained by the Ficks law of diffusion. Description the transport of water inside the sample surface in terms of diffusivity with the assumption that the water moves out in the directions of radial and axial coordinates and parboiled paddy is an isotropic solid, which means that its structure is in a form of nite cylindrical shape. Additionally, the moisture is transferred by liquid diffusion and the shrinkage is negligible during the drying. The partial differential equation of moisture diffusion for a single grain kernel, which is considered geometrically as a nite cylindrical shape, can be written as shown in Eq. (1).

TABLE 1. MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR PREDICTING EQUILIBRIUM MOISTURE CONTENT OF PARBOILED RICE Model Model equation References

BET

Mm C RH T Meq = (1 RH ) [1+ (C 1) RH ]

Brunauer et al. (1976)

M 1 M 2 M 2 M = Deff 2 + + 2 r r t z r

(1)

GAB

Meq =

C Mm k RH T Chen C (1 k RH ) 1 k RH + k RH (1990) T
1C

ln (1 RH ) Henderson Meq = A (B + T ) A T Meq = ln (RH )


1B

Chen (1990)

Halsey

Halsey (1948)
1C

Oswin

RH Meq = ( A + B T ) 1 RH

Oswin (1967)

Note: Meq is equilibrium moisture content; A, B, C, k and Mm is model parameter; T is temperature in K; RH is relative humidity in decimal. BET, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller; GAB, Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer.

where Deff is the effective moisture diffusion coefcient accounting for the heterogeneous solid in the m2/s; M is moisture content of material in % dry-basis; t is drying time in seconds; r is the radius of the cylinder material in meters; and z is height of the cylindrical material in meters. When the soaked paddy with high moisture content is dried at the beginning, the concentration of water existing at the grain surface is suddenly evaporated and consequently closed to the moisture equilibrium with the drying air. However, the moisture content inside the grain kernel is the most difcult region to be reduced because the complex morphology of kernel limits its mobility, so that the water concentration at the rice center has the highest value throughout drying period. The initial and boundary conditions for paddy drying are given by:
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Journal of Food Processing and Preservation (2012) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

HOT AIR AND INFRARED DRYING OF PARBOILED RICE

O. BUALUANG, Y. TIRAWANICHAKUL and S. TIRAWANICHAKUL

Initial condition:

t = 0, 0 r r0, M = M in
Boundary condition:

Pattani); t is drying time in seconds; lm is the mth root of Bessel (l1 = 2.4048, l2 = 5.5201, l3 = 8.6537, l4 = 11.7915 and l5 = 14.9309). The temperature dependence of the effective diffusivity may be described by an Arrhenius-type relationship as follows in Eq. (4)

l z 1, M = M in

E Deff = D0 exp a RT

(4)

t > 0, r = r0 M = M eq

z = 1 M = M eq M =0 r

t > 0, r = 0

where l is half length of nite cylinder in meters; M is moisture content at any time t in decimal; Min is initial moisture content in decimal; Meq is equilibrium moisture content in decimal; r is co-ordinate along the radius of cylinder in meters; r0 is the radius of the cylinder in meters; t is time in seconds; and z is the length of cylinder in meters. The analytical solution for the moisture inside a single kernel is expressed by the following equation:

where D0 is the pre-exponential factor of the Arrhenius equation as following in unit of m2/s; Ea is the activation energy in kJ/mol; R is the universal gas constant in kJ/mol K; and T is the absolute temperature in K. The parameters of these models (Deff, D0 and Ea) were evaluated using a nonlinear regression analysis. Statistical program was developed by following the Quasi-Newton estimation method and was carried out for best relationship between the moisture ratios and drying time. Finally, suitability of equations was evaluated and compared using R2 and RMSE, which indicate the tting ability of a model to a data set for selecting the best equation to describe the experimental data. Following equations of these two parameters were written in Eqs. (5) and (6), respectively:

R2 = 1

(X (X
N i =1 N i =1

exp exp

X exp )

X pre )

(5)

MR (r , l , t ) =

M (r , l , t ) M eq M in M eq RMSE =
(2)

4 2 r 2 D t = 2 J 0 m exp m 2 eff m =1 m J1( m ) r0 r0

1 N ( X exp X pre ) N i =1

(6)

(1)n

n = 0 2n + 1

cos

(2n + 1) z
2l

2 (2n + 1)2 Deff t exp 4l 2


By the integration of Eq. (2) over the volume of cylinder and dividing by its total volume, the average moisture content can be expressed as:

where Xexp is the measured in the experiment; Xpre the calculated using the models; and X exp is dened as the mean of measured experiment data and N the number of data points.

Quality Analysis
Head Rice Yield (HRY). Determination of the HRY value was performed according to the procedure set by the Rice Research Institute, Phatthalung Province, Thailand. The HRY value is usually expressed as a weight percentage of whole and broken white rice kernels that are longer than three-fourths of the rice kernels length. The HRY value was calculated by dividing the head rice weight by the initial rough rice weight. This value was determined in duplicates. Color Determination. The surface color of the dried parboiled rice was measured using a CIE Lab colorimeter (Chromameter model CR-300, Osaka, Japan). Measurement was based on the CIE Lab system with color values of

MR =

M M eq 8 4 2 D t = 2 2 exp m 2 eff M in M eq m =1 m r0 2 (2n + 1)2 Deff t 1 (2n + 1)2 exp L2 n =0

(3)

Eq. (3) can be expressed by the following equation (Crank 1975; Soponronnarit 1997; Tirawanichakul et al. 2004b), when Deff is the diffusion coefcient in m2s-1, l is grain half length in meters; L is grain length in meters (0.00804 m); r0 is the radius of parboiled rice (0.00141 m for Leb Nok
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O. BUALUANG, Y. TIRAWANICHAKUL and S. TIRAWANICHAKUL

HOT AIR AND INFRARED DRYING OF PARBOILED RICE

brightness (L*), redness value (a*) and yellowness (b*) value. However, the yellowness value of parboiled rice mostly was recognized for evaluation its quality. Whiteness of Parboiled Rice. The whiteness of milled rice samples was measured with a commercial whiteness meter (Model C-300, Kett Electronic Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). This meter measures the whiteness of rice kernels as whiteness (W) in the linear range of 0100, where 0 corresponds to perfect black surface and the 100 corresponds to the whiteness of magnesium oxide fumes. The equipment was calibrated with the provided ceramic plate having a whiteness value of 85.8. Physicochemical Property. The rice kernel samples were used for determination of physicochemical properties, namely, gel consistency (GC), alkali spreading (AS) value and water absorption. The GC and AS values were rst recommended by Little et al. (1958) and Cagampang et al. (1973) also reported in their work as well as some related works (Tirawanichakul 2004; Shubhneet et al. 2011). Water absorption was determined following Juliano (1985) and some previous works (Tirawanichakul et al. 2004b; Tomochika et al. 2008). The AS value is an inverse indicator for evaluation the gelatinization temperature (GT) of milled rice our and is used in some previous related works (Cnossen et al. 2000; Peisong et al. 2004). A 7-point scale used in AS has been reported since 1985, and many previous researches have followed on this scale (Juliano 1985; Khatun et al. 2003; Tirawanichakul et al. 2004b; Shubhneet et al. 2011). AS value corresponded to GT as follows: 12 dened as high (74.580C); 3 dened as high-intermediate; 45 dened as intermediate (7074C); and 67 dened as low (<70C) GT. Additionally, GT is an important property of rice because it is one of the features most closely related to the overall rice cooking behaviors and to the texture of cooked products. During rice cooking, starch granules take up water and swell. Over a critical temperature range, they undergo an irreversible process known as gelatinization, which is characterized by crystalline melting (loss of birefringence) and starch solubilization. Physicochemical properties, in the terms of GC and water absorption, imply the rice eating quality. The GC value measures the tendency of cooked rice to harden when it cools down. Normally, the total acceptability of panelists prefer soft cooked rice, which is correlated to higher GC value (> 60 mm of gel length), compared to hard cooked rice with low GC value (< 60 mm of gel length) (Quito 1982; Tirawanichakul et al. 2004a). In addition, the AS values were conventionally suggested by Little et al. (1958), while this method was reported in many previous works (Juliano 1971; Cagampang et al. 1973; Tirawanichakul 2004; Tirawanichakul et al. 2004a).

Chemical Property. In this present study, chemical property in terms of amylose content (AMC), protein content (PC) and lipid content (LC) was determined. The evaluation of AMC was followed using AOAC standard method (AOAC 2007), which is so-called iodine colorimetric method. The PC was determined using Micro Kjeldahl apparatus and the LC was also determined according to AOAC (2007)). Cooking Time. Cooking time is the time duration to partial starch gelatinization of 90% of the total starch kernels based on visual observation. By the cooking time testing, 10 g of mature rice grain kernels were taken and were boiled in 250 mL of distilled water. After a cooking period of 20 min, the rice sample was taken for visual observation and followed up in every 2 min until the end of the cooked cycle. After that, the 10 grain kernels were removed from the water and placed over a Petri dish and compressed with a spatula in order to visually observe and count the grains that no longer had the opaque core (fully gelatinized kernels). The same procedure was repeated every minute until all the 10 kernels reached complete gelatinization for two successive cooking times. Thermal Property. Thermal property of the rice our was determined using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) (Model 821, Mettler-Toledo, Melbourne, Australia). The starch gelatinization brings about changes in the physicochemical properties of rice (Kimura et al. 1995; Islam et al. 2001, 2002; Miah et al. 2002). Rice our weight of 3.50 0.10 mg dry matter was put into a 15 mL aluminum pan and then distilled water was added by a micro-syringe. The aluminum pan was sealed hermetically. Each sealed pan was allowed to equilibrate the sample at room temperature for 1 h before scanning. Thermographs were obtained from 30 to 120C at a scanning rate of 1C/min while an empty aluminum pan of the same weight was used as a reference sample. The beginning and endpoints of the gelatinization endotherm were obtained from the intersections of the two tangents around the inection point (Sekine et al. 2000). The enthalpy (DH) was estimated by integrating the area between the thermogram and a baseline connecting the beginning and endpoints of melting under the peak, and was expressed in mJ per unit weight of the dry matter (mJ/ mg). The degree of gelatinization of hydrothermally treated rice was also calculated by the following equation (Marshall et al. 1993; Islam et al. 2002; Tirawanichakul 2004).

H parboiled rice Degree of gelatinization (%) = 1 H raw rice

(7)

where DHparboiled rice is the enthalpy of parboiled rice sample and DHraw rice is the enthalpy of untreated rice.
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Journal of Food Processing and Preservation (2012) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

HOT AIR AND INFRARED DRYING OF PARBOILED RICE

O. BUALUANG, Y. TIRAWANICHAKUL and S. TIRAWANICHAKUL

Morphological Study. Morphological study of the dried parboiled rice kernels were characterized with a scanning electron microscope (Model JSM-5800 LV, JEOL, Bangkok, Thailand) at 1020 kV. To prepare the sample for scanning, the parboiled rice kernels were broken out in half. Then, the half rice kernel samples were glued on metal cylinder stubs and the stubs with samples were coated with gold (~30 nm thick) by DC plasma sputtering to act as electrical conductor for electron attachment during scanning. Texture Analysis of Cooked Rice. Texture analysis in terms of hardness, stickiness and adhesiveness of cooked parboiled rice were determined by a bench-top texture analyzer model TA-XT2i (Stable Micro Systems Ltd., New York, NY). In an aluminum cylindrical cup, 30 g of each milled head rice sample was placed. The sample was cooked with distilled water at rice-to-water weight ratio of 1:2. The compression probe was set at the pretest speed, test speed and post-test speed at 1.5, 0.5 and 10 mm/s, respectively. The maximum force required for compressing cooked rice to 90% of the initial height of 20 mm is an indication of the hardness of the cooked rice. The hardness, stickiness and adhesiveness value was presented by means of ve replications (in kg).

FIG. 3. THE BEST FITTING MODEL OF EQUILIBRIUM MOISTURE CONTENT FOR LEB NOK PATTANI PARBOILED PADDY WITH SURROUNDING RELATIVE HUMIDITY OF 1187% AND TEMPERATURE OF 4065C GAB, Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer.

Specic Energy Consumption (SEC)


SEC was dened as the energy required for removing a unit mass of water in drying the parboiled rice from its initial moisture content of 54 1% dry-basis to the nal moisture content of 22 1% dry-basis. The SEC was calculated as follow:

SEC =

3.6 P ( M in M f )Wd

(8)

All experimental results were shown in average values by using one-way analysis of variance (P < 0.05) while the model suitability was determined by the highest value of the R2 and the lowest RMSE value.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


Determination of EMC
Comparisons of EMC models with the experimental data are shown in Fig. 2. Results showed that for the temperature range of 4065C and RH from 11 to 87%, the GABs model yielded the highest correlation coefcient and the lowest value of least RMSE. Hence, the EMC of the GABs model (see in Fig. 3) was found to be the best tting model for predicting EMC experimented values, as shown:
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation (2012) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

FIG. 2. EXPERIMENTAL AND PREDICTED DATA OF EQUILIBRIUM MOISTURE CONTENT FOR LEB NOK PATTANI PARBOILED PADDY WITH SURROUNDING RELATIVE HUMIDITY OF 1187% AND TEMPERATURE OF 40C BET, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller; GAB, Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer.

O. BUALUANG, Y. TIRAWANICHAKUL and S. TIRAWANICHAKUL

HOT AIR AND INFRARED DRYING OF PARBOILED RICE

the drying rate relatively depended on drying temperature. Moreover, the temperature gradient between grain kernels and drying temperature affected to the drying rate of moisture transfer. The Deff has been found to increase when IR intensity increase corresponding to the previous works (Tirawanichakul et al. 2008a; Das et al. 2009).

Rice Qualities
Head Rice Yield (HRY). The HRY of control and parboiled rice under different drying conditions is shown in Table 3. The HRY of reference sample was 50.0% while the HRY of control rice sample was 63.6%. As the results of dried parboiled rice with ve drying strategies, they showed that the HRY value of the parboiled sample was maintained and improved over the reference rice sample about 13.6%. This is because the high moisture content and high temperature from steam condensation on the grain surface in the soaking and steaming processes yielded the occurrence of partial gelatinization in rice starch. The result showed that the degree of gelatinization of paddy was related to the moisture content and drying temperature corresponding to the previous works (Rao and Juliano 1970; Poomsa-ad et al. 2002; Taechapairoj et al. 2003; Tirawanichakul et al. 2004a; Soponronnarit et al. 2005; Swasdisevi et al. 2010). Additionally, because of gelatinization occurrence, the HRY was relatively high compared with the control sample (about of 3.44.0%). explanted that in the gelatinization steps, when high moist paddy is heated up and gain temperature reaches a GT between 65 and 70C, its starch cell swell with loss birefringence. This causes protein degradation, which will then penetrate into the void spaces among the starch granules, resulting in the reduction of ssures within the grain kernels (Atwell et al. 1988; Tirawanichakul et al. 2004a).

FIG. 4. EFFECTIVE DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT OF PARBOILED PADDY WITH VARIOUS DRYING METHOD HA, hot air; IR, infrared.

M eq =

11.804 RH T (1 00.828 RH ) 1 0.828 RH + 210.786 RH T

(9)

where the GABs constant value are Mm = 0.0557; C = 254.572; k = 0.828; and R2 = 0.928.

Deff and Mathematical Model


Deff curves evaluated according to Ficks diffusion law (Crank 1975; Soponronnarit 1997; Tirawanichakul 2004) were illustrated in Fig. 4. The results showed that the Deff of IR drying was slightly high compared with drying with combined HA + IR and HA drying, respectively. This is because infrared waves can penetrate into the interior of the food, where it is converted to thermal energy, providing a rapid heating mechanism. The combined convective and infrared drying gives shorter drying time because of the higher heat and mass transfer coefcients compared with the HA drying. Increase of IR heat ux results in shorter drying time corresponding to the previous work (Mongpraneet et al. 2002; Jaturonglumlert and Kiatsiriroat 2010). Deff equations for individual drying strategies were evaluated and presented in Table 2. The Deff of parboiled drying was in the ranges of 7.89 10-12 to 4.40 10-11 m2/s. As expected,

TABLE 2. EFFECTIVE DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT EQUATIONS OF DIFFERENT DRYING STRATEGIES Drying method HA IR 1,000 W IR 1,500 W HA + IR 1,000 W HA + IR 1,500 W Effective diffusion equation Deff = 3.25 10 exp (-23,032.10/RT) Deff = 2.49 10-7 exp (-26,816.54/RT) Deff = 2.63 10-7 exp (-26,947.60/RT) Deff = 6.69 10-8 exp (-23,477.86/RT) Deff = 1.26 10-7 exp (-24,923.39/RT)
-8

R2 0.9979 0.8259 0.9048 0.9995 0.9853

RMSE 0.0296 0.4417 0.0187 0.0187 0.1209

Note: Deff is effective diffusion coefcient in m2/s; R is the universal gas constant in kJ/mol K; T is drying temperature in K. HA, hot air; IR, infrared-radiation.

Journal of Food Processing and Preservation (2012) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

HOT AIR AND INFRARED DRYING OF PARBOILED RICE

O. BUALUANG, Y. TIRAWANICHAKUL and S. TIRAWANICHAKUL

TABLE 3. WHITENESS, YELLOWNESS AND HEAD RICE YIELD OF DRIED PARBOILED RICE Drying temperature (C) Drying time (min) 87 54 39 54 30 24 43 27 18 54 30 24 48 27 21 Drying rate (kg/h) 0.07 0.11 0.16 0.11 0.21 0.26 0.12 0.24 0.30 0.11 0.21 0.26 0.15 0.24 0.35 Min (Mf) (% dry-basis) 16.0 55.7 54.0 54.0 54.0 54.0 54.0 54.0 54.0 54.0 54.0 54.0 54.0 54.0 54.0 54.0 54.0 (16.0) (16.1) (22.0) (23.0) (22.1) (23.7) (23.1) (22.5) (23.1) (23.1) (23.1) (21.5) (22.3) (23.1) (22.0) (22.4) (22.4) Yellowness CIE Lab b value 12.3d 18.7b 18.2c 18.8b 19.8a 19.2a 19.6a 19.2a 18.9b 18.8b 19.5a 18.5b 19.1a 19.2a 18.7b 18.8a 19.0a

Drying method Reference rice Control rice HA

Whiteness 54.7a 24.8b 22.4c 19.6d 19.9d 19.6c 18.6d 17.8e 21.3c 19.0d 17.7e 23.2c 20.5d 19.4e 23.3c 21.2d 20.0e

HRY (%) 50.0e 63.6d 69.8b 69.6b 70.5a 69.2b 63.7d 66.7c 67.5c 67.3c 67.2c 68.6c 70.4a 70.6a 70.6a 67.0c 70.0a

IR 1,000 W

IR 1,500 W

HA+IR 1,000 W

HA+IR 1,500 W

61.1 78.6 100 61.3 80.9 95.8 62.9 78.4 96.8 61.3 84.3 99.7 60.0 78.1 98.8

Note: Min is initial moisture content (%dry-basis); Mf is nal moisture content (%dry-basis); control rice is parboiled rice which was dried in ambient air; reference rice is raw rice which was not parboiled rice. In a column, means with common superscript letter(s) are not signicantly different at P < 0.05 level based on analysis of variance test. HA, hot air; HRY, head rice yield; IR, infrared-radiation.

Comparative studying of the HRY value in drying strategies, It showed that HRY value of parboiled rice with HA and combined HA + IR method was slightly higher than IR drying. This may be because at the beginning of drying the fast drying rate of IR method causes high stress in grain kernel and takes more cracking in rice grain kernel. Whiteness and Yellowness. The whiteness (W) and yellowness (CIE Lab b* value) of parboiled rice dried with temperatures of 60100C were evaluated and presented in Table 3. The change in the color of parboiled rice has a more serious effect as compared with the reference rice. The main cause of the change in the color is during the soaking and steaming step, the bran covered around the kernel is dissolved and then absorbed by the endosperm. On the other hand, the drying temperature is also an important factor inuencing the degree of whiteness and yellowness; the whiteness decreases while the yellowness increases with the increasing drying temperature (Tirawanichakul et al. 2004a,b; Swasdisevi et al. 2010). The whiteness of the samples which was dried with IR is lower than it was dried with the other sources. This is because IR can penetrate into the rice kernel, which was heated up to a high temperature, thus more browning reaction occurs. This is in accordance with previous works (Rao and Juliano 1970; Pillaiyar 1981; Quitco 1982; Soponronnarit et al. 2005). Yellowness values obtained from all drying strategies showed a pale yellow
8

appearance corresponding to b* value (CIE lab) in the range between 18.5 and 19.6. For whiteness, it was in the range between 17.7 and 23.3. Physicochemical Property. Samples were determined three physicochemical properties, namely, GC, AS value and water absorption. Physicochemical properties of the parboiled rice are shown in Table 4. AS is an inverse indicator, which was used to evaluate the GT of milled rice starch granules (Cnossen et al. 2000). Table 4 shows that the AS of parboiled rice was lower than that of the reference rice, so, the parboiled rice had higher GT and required longer cooking time. AS of parboiled rice was in the range of 3.0 4.0 and can be evaluated that GT would be over 74C and cooking time would be longer than 24 min. As for the reference rice, AS was 4.8, implying a GT in the range of 7074C and cooking time in the range of 2024 min. GC of parboiled rice in the range of 98.584.3 mm decreased with increasing drying temperature. This demonstrated that the rice gel got harder, although all drying conditions produced soft cooked rice. Water absorptions of grain kernels were not signicantly different. So, drying temperature and drying strategy were not important factors inuencing the AS, GC and water absorption of dried parboiled rice among drying temperature of 60100C. Chemical Property. Table 5 illustrates the amount of chemical quality in terms of AMC, PC and LC of parboiled

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HOT AIR AND INFRARED DRYING OF PARBOILED RICE

TABLE 4. ALKALI SPREADING, GEL CONSISTENCY, WATER ABSORPTION AND COOKING TIME OF DRIED PARBOILED RICE Drying temperature (C) Water absorption (kg water/ kg our) 3.64a 2.80d 3.37b 3.22b 3.12c 3.30b 3.34b 3.24b 2.90c 2.79d 2.74d 2.82d 3.11c 2.91d 2.64d 3.08c 2.82d Cooking time (min) 23b 27a 29a 27a 28a 28a 27a 28a 27a 29a 28a 28a 27a 28a 27a 27a 28a

result in the alteration in the molecular conformation, leading to enhancement of the helical form and thereby lowering the solubility of amylose (Raja and Sindhu 2000). Thermal Property. Thermal properties of rice our were studied using a DSC to determine the GT of rice and the percentage of gelatinization. Table 6 shows the degree of gelatinization of rice obtained from DSC. It was found that the onset temperature (To), peak temperature (Tp) and conclusion temperature (Tc) in gelatinization process of parboiled rice were higher than the reference rice. The DH value of the reference rice was higher than that of the parboiled rice. It was indicated that the partial gelatinization occurred in the parboiled rice. It was found that in the results, the parboiled rice had a GT of 79C and cooking time of 27 min while the reference rice was respectively 72C and 23 min. This result is in line with the AS result. The higher GT is due to retrogradation of parboiled rice causing reassociation of starch molecules. Consequently, the reassociated starch structure is resistant to water penetration and thus required more energy for water absorption during the

Drying source Reference rice Control rice HA

AS 4.8a 3.3c 3.8b 3.5c 4.0b 3.5c 4.0b 3.0d 3.8b 3.6b 3.3c 3.0c 3.5b 3.3b 3.3c 4.0b 3.0c

GC (mm) 100.0a 98.5b 92.4c 91.3c 94.2c 97.5c 88.3d 86.5d 97.3b 98.0b 84.3c 98.5b 94.6b 86.1c 95.0c 92.1c 87.3d

IR 1,000 W

IR 1,500 W

HA+IR 1,000 W

HA+IR 1,500 W

61.1 78.6 100 61.3 80.9 95.8 62.9 78.4 96.8 61.3 84.3 99.7 60.0 78.1 98.8

Note: AS is alkali spreading value; GC is gel consistency in mm; Control rice is parboiled rice which was dried in ambient air; Reference rice is raw rice which was not parboiled rice; in a column, means with common superscript letter(s) are not signicantly different at P < 0.05 level based on ANOVA test. AS, alkali spreading; HA, hot air; IR, infrared-radiation.

TABLE 5. LIPID CONTENT, PROTEIN CONTENT AND AMYLOSE CONTET OF PARBOILED RICE DRIED WITH DIFFERENT DRYING STRATEGIES Condition LC (%) 1.05 1.40a
b

PC (%) 6.02 6.00b 6.12b 5.98c 6.20a 6.21a 5.98c 6.06b 5.98b 6.12b 6.44a 6.10b 5.87c 6.17b 6.12b 6.07b 6.33a
b

AMC (%) 25.18a 23.35bc 23.54b 22.87c 23.90b 24.01ab 23.65ab 22.94b 24.12b 23.21ab 23.97ab 22.87b 23.53b 23.68b 22.41c 23.73b 23.50b

rice are shown in. It can be seen that chemical properties of rice are not affected by drying temperature and drying strategy. LC, PC and AMC of parboiled rice are shown in Table 5. The hydrothermal process increased the LC of reference rice because lipid from rice bran dissolved and then diffused in to the rice kernel. PC did not alter between the reference rice and the parboiled rice at any drying condition. It has been reported for rice that, parboiling decreases the extractability of the proteins (Devi et al. 1997). The changes in the composition of the constituent fractions may be due to denaturing of protein bodies and possible formation of protein-tarch and proteinpolyphenols complexes. The hydrothermal treatment changed the amount of amylose value of the parboiled rice. The AMC of the reference rice decreased from 25.18 to 22.4124.12 g/100 g compared with dried parboiled rice. These changes in the composition of amylose may be due to the retrogradation of the soluble component of the amylose (Dharmaraj and Malleshi 2011). These results correspond to the previous work (Ali and Bhattacharya 1972). In addition, the increase in drying temperature yielded a slightly apparent AMC decrease. Because of the part of amylose in starch exists in a bound form with polar lipids, either as inclusion compounds or linkages through hydrogen bonding. Furthermore, the dissociation and reaggregation of amylose chains

Reference rice Control rice HA 61.1 78.6 100.0 IR 1,000 W 61.3 80.9 95.8 IR 1,500 W 62.9 78.4 96.8 HA+IR 1,000 W 61.3 84.3 99.7 HA+IR 1,500 W 60.0 78.1 98.8

1.10ab 1.40a 1.20c 1.10a 1.30ab 1.20ab 1.30b 1.20c 1.40ab 1.36ab 1.50a 1.32b 1.15b 1.35c 1.15a

Note: LC is lipid content in %; PC is protein content in %; AMC is amylose content in %; control rice is parboiled rice which was dried in ambient air; reference rice is raw rice, which was not parboiled rice; in a column, means with common superscript letter(s) are not signicantly different at P < 0.05 level based on analysis of variance test. HA, hot air; IR, infrared-radiation.

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O. BUALUANG, Y. TIRAWANICHAKUL and S. TIRAWANICHAKUL

Gelatinization temperature (C) Condition Reference rice Parboiled rice To 71.61 79.32 Tp 76.33 84.17 Tc 80.97 88.40

Enthalpy energy (J/g) 9.03 1.96

Degree of gelatinization (%) 78.29

TABLE 6. GELATINIZATION TEMPERATURE AND ENTHALPY ENERGY OF REFERENCE AND CONTROL RICE

To, Tp, Tc is onset temperature, peak gelatinization temperature and conclusion temperature in C, respectively; Parboiled rice is the parboiled samples were dried in ambient air; reference rice is fresh rice.

heating period in the DSC test corresponding to the previous work (Soponronnarit et al. 2005; Swasdisevi et al. 2010; Tananuwong and Malila 2011). Morphological Study by SEM. The microstructure of starch granules is shown in Fig. 5. Microstructure of reference rice is shown in Fig. 5a, where starch granules can be seen to spread throughout the cross sectional surface. The particle size of rice starch granules of reference rice was approximately 35 mm which is pentagonal shape as reported by the previous work (Singh et al. 2003). The presence of air spaces and single granule, rather than compound amyloplast, as well as disorganised cellular structure, offers the opportunity for fast diffusion of water in the reference grains during cooking and causes a decrease in cooking

time (Lisle et al. 2000).It can be seen that the starch structure did not occur in control and parboiled samples. In control, or parboiled rice dried in ambient air, the starch granules absorbed surrounding moisture, swelled, and gelatinized, leading to losses in their granular appearance. The rice kernels were thus observed to have smoother appearance as depicted in Fig. 5bg. It was indicated that the degree of gelatinization increased when the samples were soaked at 70 1C for 3 h and steamed at 100 1C for 30 min. It was observed that the starch granules were disappeared at this condition. SEC. The SEC (energy required for drying 1 kg of parboiled paddy) was found to decrease with drying temperature increase at all drying method. Results are shown in

g
FIG. 5. MORPHOLOGY OF REFERENCE AND PARBOILED RICE UNDER DIFFERENT DRYING CONDITION (a) reference rice; (b) control rice; (c) HA 100.0C; (d) IR 1,000 W, 95.8C; (e) IR 1,500 W, 96.8C; (f) HA + IR 1,000 W, 99.7C; and (g) HA + IR 1,500 W, 98.8C. HA, hot air; IR, infrared.

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shown, the hardness of control rice and parboiled rice dried under different drying strategies were signicantly higher than that of the reference rice. One reason is that partial gelatinization in the parboiled rice had led to an increase in strength of the rice. Hardness of the parboiled rice slightly increased with an increase in drying temperature where higher degree of gelatinization occurred. In all drying strategies, hardness of the parboiled rice did not differ much. Stickiness and adhesiveness of the parboiled rice were signicantly lower than that of the reference rice because of the occurred partial gelatinization. Nevertheless, drying temperature and drying strategy did not signicantly affect these two properties.

CONCLUSIONS
The parboiling process in this experiment consisted of a series of activity. i.e., 70C water soaking for 3 h, ambient air tempering for 24 h and steaming for 30 min. The GABs model was the best tting to the experimental results. The products were then dried under three drying strategies; HA, IR and HA + IR. Drying kinetics of the parboiled rice was well explained by the diffusion model. Deffs for the parboiled
TABLE 7. HARDNESS, STICKINESS AND ADHESIVENESS OF PARBOILED RICE DRIED WITH DIFFERENT DRYING STRATEGIES Condition Control rice Reference rice HA 61.1 78.6 100.0 IR 1,000 W 61.3 80.9 95.8 IR 1,500 W 62.9 78.4 96.8 HA+IR 1,000 W 61.3 84.3 99.7 HA+IR 1,500 W 60.0 78.1 98.8 Hardness (kg) 27.15b 25.65a 26.51ab 27.09b 27.21b 28.21cd 27.47bc 28.72d 29.55b 29.25b 29.29b 27.72b 29.75c 29.58c 26.76b 28.15c 28.56d Stickiness (kg) -0.193a -0.881b -0.236b -0.165ab -0.138a -0.215a -0.203a -0.179a -0.245b -0.195ab -0.141a -0.194a -0.166a -0.167a -0.201a -0.177a -0.175a Adhesiveness (kg.s) -0.008a -0.082b -0.012a -0.008a -0.006a -0.007a -0.003a -0.007a -0.011a -0.009a 0.005a -0.012a -0.012a -0.015a -0.008a -0.012a -0.007a

FIG. 6. SPECIFIC ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF PARBOILED RICE DRYING HA, hot air; IR, infrared.

Fig. 6. Higher drying temperature is associated with shorter drying time. Drying time depends slightly on drying air temperature, but is highly dependent on energy source. Results from the three drying conditions indicated that, under drying temperatures ranging of 60100C, IR drying at power inputs of either 1,000 W or 1,500 W rendered lower SEC than HA+IR and HA dryings. This is because infrared waves can penetrate into the interior of the parboiled rice, where it is converted to thermal energy to assist a more rapid heating mechanism. The higher IR power input gave a slightly higher SEC value than the lower. Infrared intensity increasing yielded slightly decrease in SEC this is because increased power of IR lamps increases emission intensity and drying occurs in a shorter period. Though needing least energy compared with other means, IR drying produced undesirable results regarding coloration of the product. Minimum value of SEC observed at 60C of HA drying was 187.60 MJ/kg while the maximum value was observed at 95.8C of IR 1,500 W was 10.59 MJ/kg. The SEC of IR 1,500 W drying decreased 0.991.31 times compared with IR 1,000 W and SEC of HA+IR 1,500 W drying decreased 1.031.06 times compared with HA + IR 1,500 W drying. While, the SEC value of HA + IR 1,500 W and HA drying decreased 4.565.56 and 9.5013.18 times compared with IR 1,500 W drying, respectively. This result was similar to previous works (Das et al. 2004; Sharma et al. 2005; Tirawanichakul et al. 2008b; Motevali et al. 2011). Texture. Results of the hardness and stickiness of the parboiled rice were compared with reference rice in Table 7. As

Note: Control rice is parboiled rice which was dried in ambient air; Reference rice is raw rice which was not parboiled rice; in a column, means with common superscript letter(s) are not signicantly different at P < 0.05 level based on analysis of variance test. HA, hot air; IR, infrared-radiation.

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rice were in the range of 7.89 10-12 to 4.40 10-11 m2/s. In the study of the effects of drying strategy and drying temperature of dried parboiled rice, it was found that HRY employing combined HA + IR drying yielded a higher value than IR drying, while yellowness and whiteness of the rice are signicantly affected by drying temperature and drying strategy. Chemical properties, and hence quality, however, were not affected by any means. The results suggested that combined HA+IR drying is an efcient method to improve HRY while maintaining acceptable whiteness of the rice. Nevertheless, the combined HA + IR drying process takes longer operating time and needs a relatively high energy consumption compared with IR drying. Although drying under IR requires the lowest energy consumption, it creates problem of yellowness.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors would like to thank the Ofce of the Higher Education Commission, Thailand, in providing nancial grant under the program Strategic Scholarships for Frontier Research Network for the Thai Doctoral degree Ph.D. Program. We would like to thank also the Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, the Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and the Graduate School of the Prince of Songkla University for their supports. In addition, we appreciate the Phatthalung Rice Research Center and Agricultural and Seafood Product in allowing us to access her laboratory facilities. REFERENCES
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Journal of Food Processing and Preservation (2012) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.