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PREPOSICIONES en expresiones de tiempo at six oclock (hora) night Christmas the weekend in in in in in in in in 2007 (ao) the morning the

afternoon the evening December (meses del ao) summer (estaciones) two weeks time (en X tiempo) last night / week / year two weeks ago on on Saturday (das de la semana) on Monday morning on Christmas Day (fecha especfica) on January 18

at at at at

sin preposicin yesterday the day before yesterday

VERB PATTERNS (patrones) Hay 4 patrones para usar ms de un verbo en una oracin simple: 1. verbo + to + infinitivo They want to buy a new car. verbos que siguen este patrn: choose, decide, forget, promise, need, help, hope, try, want, would like, would love 2. verbo + _ing We love going to parties. verbos que siguen este patrn: like, love, enjoy, hate, finish, stop 3. verbo + _ing / to + infinitive (sin cambio de significado) It started to rain / raining . verbos que siguen este patrn: begin, start, continue 4. verbo + preposicin + _ing We are thinkining of moving house. verbos que siguen este patrn: think of, look forward to
IMPORTANTE: like y love expresan disfrute general. Me gusta bailar con l.

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form (infinitive or _ing). 1. Juliet enjoys ........................................ (play) the guitar. 2. He started ........................................ (drive) when he was 17 years old. 3. I wanted ........................................ (take) my dog to the park yesterday. 4. I can't ........................................ (travel) to Australia alone. 5. He likes ................. .......... (do) jigsaw puzzles. 6. I finished ........................................ (eat) breakfast an hour ago. 7. Fiona hopes ........................................ (buy) a new car soon. 8. Sam would love ........................................ (finish) this jigsaw puzzle. 9. I love animals. Im thinking of ........................................ (become) a vet. 10. Mum promised ........................................ (prepare) spaghettis for tonight. ADJETIVOS (comparativo y superlativo)

would like y would love expresan disfrute en un momento especfico. Me encantara bailar con l.

comparativo superlativo adjetivos de una slaba cheap cheaper the cheapest small smaller the smallest big* bigger the biggest adjetivos de dos funny funnier the funniest slabas que terminan early earlier the earliest en _y heavy heavier the heaviest adjetivos con 2 ms careful more careful the most careful slabas boring more boring the most boring expensive more expensive the most expensive adjetivos irregulares far further the furthest good better the best bad worse the worst * adjetivos de una slaba terminados en consonante-vocal-consonante se dobla la ltima consonante. - Cuando se comparan dos cosas o personas dentro de la misma oracin, se usa than. I am younger than Barbara. - Para dar nfasis a la comparacin se usa much delante del comparativo. She is much nicer than her sister. Is Tokyo much more modern than London? - Siempre se usa the delante de los superlativos. He is the funniest boy in the class. - Para expresar que dos personas o cosas son iguales se usa asas. Jim is as tall as Peter. - Para expresar que dos personas o cosas no son iguales se usa not asas / not soas. Sally is not as intelligent as Mary. My car was not so expensive as yours.

Fill in the superlative form as in the example. Sarah is ....................................... person in my family. (young) That is ....................................... dress I have ever seen. (horrible) Roses are the flowers which have ................................................. smell. (nice) January is ....................................... month of the year. (cold) That was ....................................... joke I've ever heard. (funny) She is ...................................................... woman I've ever met. (beautiful) Mrs Green is ........................................... person I know. (interesting) This is ....................................... song I've ever heard. (bad) Put the adjectives in brackets into the positive, comparative or superlative form. Use than or the where necessary. 1. I am ...................................... my brother. (young) 2. That is ...................................... programme on television. (good) 3. That was ..................................... meal I've ever had. (delicious) 4. My Maths teacher is very ................................ .(clever) 5. The old train is ............................. the new train. (slow) 6. This is ................ tree in the forest. (tall) 7. The music is very ................................. . (loud) 8. The watch is very ............................ . (expensive) 9. Chris is ...................................... his cousin. (intelligent) - Para pedir que se describa a alguien o algo se usa la pregunta What + verb be + subject+ like? What is your teacher like ? She is very nice. What were your holidays like? It was great. I had a great time.

IMPORTANTE: Cuando se responde a esta pregunta no se usa like en la respuesta. En este contexto like no tiene nada que ver con el verbo gustar. Observa la diferencia entre las siguientes preguntas:

What is Jim like? Jim is intelligent. What does Jim like? Jim likes listening to music. How is Jim? Jim is very well.

(descripcin) (gusto) (estado de salud)

HAVE / HAS TO

have to expresa obligacin externa, por ley, reglas en el cole o el trabajo o porque alguien de autoridad dice que tienes que hacerlo. I have to start work at 8 oclock. (reglas de la compaa) The doctor said Peter has to do more exercise. (el doctor es una autoridad) dont have to expresa la ausencia de obligacin, que algo no es necesario. She doesnt have to work on Saturday. You dont have to wash the dishes. I have a dishwasher.
Oraciones afirmativas: sujeto + have / has to + verbo (infinitive) + complemento Oraciones negativas: sujeto + dont / doesnt + have to + verbo (infinitive) + complemento Oraciones interrogativas: Do you have to get up early? Does Mary have to work on Monday? auxiliary + sujeto + have to + verbo (infinitive) + complemento En pasado se usa had en afirmativas y did en negativas e interrogativas. They had to paint their bedroom. They didnt have to paint their bedroom. Did they have to paint their bedroom?

VERBOS MODALES Estas reglas se cumplen con todo los verbos modales que se explican posteriormente. Siempre van con otro verbo NO llevan _s para la tercera persona del singular

Funcionan como auxiliar, por lo que no se usa do/does/did en oraciones interrogativas Tampoco se usa dont/ doesnt/didnt en oraciones negativas. La mayora de los verbos modales se refieren al presente y al futuro. solamente can tiene pasado (could ) Los verbos modales que ms se usan son can, could, must shall, should, will, would.

Veamos algunos de ellos:

CAN / COULD Se usa can y could para hablar de las habilidades de la gente para hacer algo. Negativas: cannot = cant / could not = couldnt Robert can play the guitar very well.
Tambin se usa can para pedir permiso para hacer algo. Can I go to the toilet?

SHOULD Se usa para expresar lo que el hablante cree que est bien, o considera es lo mejor que se debe hacer. Se usa para expresar la opinin del hablante. Tambin para dar consejo. Bob should do more exercise. (Bob debera hacer ms ejercicios)
Negativas : shouldnt . Se usa para expresar consejo negativo. You shouldnt tell lies. (No deberas decir mentiras)

MUST Expresa obligacin interna, expresa lo que el hablante considera necesario. I must get my hair cut. (tengo que cortarme el cabello)
Tambin implica obligacin moral; la forma negativa: mustnt expresa que algo es prohibido o no permitido. You mustnt steal. (No debes robar)

MIGHT Se usa para expresar posibilidad futura en la opinin del hablante. England might win the match.
Negativa: might not (para expresar que no crees que algo suceda) It might not rain this afternoon. = I dont think it will rain this afternoon. Interrogativa: no se suele hacer preguntas con might ; en su lugar se pregunta Do you think + will ? Do you think it will rain? Complete with can / cant or could / couldnt 1. This question's too difficult. I ...................................... answer it. 2. ...................................... you play the guitar three years ago? 3. I had a terrible stomachache last night. I ...................................... do my homework. 4. Sarah loves foreign languages. She .................................. speak German, Spanish and Arabic. 5. I ...................................... open the door because I didn't have the key. 6. I'm very busy. I ...................................... help you. 7. Jill was ill. She ...................................... come to the party last night. 8. Have you seen my bag? I...................................... find it. 9. Mr Smith ...................................... see you now. He's busy. 10. Emma loves reading. She ...................................... read when she was four.

Complete with must or had to . 1. The windows are dirty. We ...................................... clean them. 2. We couldn't stay last night. We ...................................... go home early. 3. This film is great! You ...................................... see it. 4. I couldn't come with you last night. I ...................................... to finish my homework. 5. It's getting late. We ...................................... go now. 6. Jack was really tired. He ...................................... leave early. 7. She didn't feel very well so we ...................................... call a doctor. Fill in must or mustn't . 1 I haven't got any money. I ...................................... go to the bank. 2 It's raining. You ...................................... go out without you, umbrella. 3 The road is busy. You ...................................... look carefully before you cross it. 4 You ...................................... play football in the house, Jack. 5 My tooth hurts. I ...................................... go to the dentist. Correct the mistakes. 1 I must having a bath. 2 You can't to go out tonight. 3 Susan shoulds water the flowers this afternoon 4 He must studies hard for his exams. 5 She must helping her mother today. 6 They dont have to stay here any more. 7 I can't do puzzles when I was four years old. Complete with might / might not and a verb from the list. List: be buy go (x2) have know need pass rain I We...................................... to the concert. The tickets are very expensive. 2 I ...................................... that dress. I haven't got enough money. 3 Take an umbrella with you. It...................................... 4 He ...................................... the test. He doesn't work hard enough. 5 I ...................................... a bit late. I'm sorry. 6 Let's ask Mrs. Robins. She ...................................... the answer. 7 I...................................... to the party. I have a headache. 8 Take this with you. You...................................... it. 9 I'll try to finish this report today, but I ...................................... enough time. 10 They ...................................... in England. They might move to France.

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