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Chapter5 TheStructureandFunctionofLarge BiologicalMolecules

MostofthenewandrevisedquestionsinChapter5arebasedontheconceptofmacromoleculesas polymers.Questionsrequirethestudenttorecognizethestructure,formation,properties,andfunction ofcarbohydrates,lipids,proteins,andnucleicacids.Mostquestionsareatthe Knowledge/Comprehensionlevel,butwhereverpossible,Application/Analysisquestionsareutilized.

Multiple-ChoiceQuestions
1) Forthispairofitems,choosetheoptionthatbestdescribestheirrelationship. (A)Thenumberofalphaglucose1-4linkagesincellulose (B)Thenumberofalphaglucose1-4linkagesinstarch A) Item(A)isgreaterthanitem(B). B) Item(A)islessthanitem(B). C) Item(A)isexactlyorveryapproximatelyequal toitem(B). D) Item(A)maystandinmorethanoneoftheaboverelationstoitem(B). Answer: B
Topic: Concept5.1 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

2) Forthispairofitems,choosetheoptionthatbestdescribestheirrelationship. (A)Theprobabilityoffindingchitininfungalcellwalls (B)Theprobabilityoffindingchitininarthropodexoskeletons A) Item(A)isgreaterthanitem(B). B) Item(A)islessthanitem(B). C) Item(A)isexactlyorveryapproximatelyequal toitem(B). D) Item(A)maystandinmorethanoneoftheaboverelationstoitem(B). Answer: C


Topic: Concept5.2 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

3) Forthispairofitems,choosetheoptionthatbestdescribestheirrelationship. (A)Thenumberofcisdoublebondsinsaturatedfattyacids (B)Thenumberofcisdoublebondsinunsaturatedfattyacids A) Item(A)isgreaterthanitem(B). B) Item(A)islessthanitem(B). C) Item(A)isexactlyorveryapproximatelyequal toitem(B). D) Item(A)maystandinmorethanoneoftheaboverelationstoitem(B). Answer: B


Topic: Concept5.3 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

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4) Forthispairofitems,choosetheoptionthatbestdescribestheirrelationship. (A)Theprobabilitythataminoacidswithnonpolarsidechainsarehydrophobic. (B)Theprobabilitythataminoacidswithsidechainscontainingacarboxylgroupare hydrophobic. A) Item(A)isgreaterthanitem(B). B) Item(A)islessthanitem(B). C) Item(A)isexactlyorveryapproximatelyequal toitem(B). D) Item(A)maystandinmorethanoneoftheaboverelationstoitem(B). Answer: A
Topic: Concept5.4 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

5) Forthispairofitems,choosetheoptionthatbestdescribestheirrelationship. (A)ThenumberofpurinesintheDNAstrand5-AAGAGGAGAAA-3 (B)ThenumberofpyrimidinesintheDNAstrand5-AAGAGGAGAAA-3 A) Item(A)isgreaterthanitem(B). B) Item(A)islessthanitem(B). C) Item(A)isexactlyorveryapproximatelyequal toitem(B). D) Item(A)maystandinmorethanoneoftheaboverelationstoitem(B). Answer: A


Topic: Concept5.5 Skill: Application/Analysis

6) Whichofthefollowingisnotapolymer? A) glucose B) starch C) cellulose D) chitin E) DNA Answer: A


Topic: Concept5.1 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

7) Whatisthechemicalmechanismbywhichcellsmakepolymersfrommonomers? A) phosphodiesterlinkages B) hydrolysis C) dehydrationreactions D) ionicbondingofmonomers E) theformationofdisulfidebridgesbetweenmonomers Answer: C


Topic: Concept5.1 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

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8) Howmanymoleculesofwaterareneededtocompletelyhydrolyzeapolymerthatis11 monomerslong? A) 12 B) 11 C) 10 D) 9 E) 8 Answer: C


Topic: Concept5.1 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

9) Whichofthefollowingbestsummarizestherelationshipbetweendehydrationreactions andhydrolysis? A) Dehydrationreactionsassemblepolymers,andhydrolysisreactionsbreakdown polymers. B) Macromolecularsynthesisoccursthroughtheremovalofwateranddigestionoccurs throughtheadditionofwater. C) Dehydrationreactionscanoccuronlyafterhydrolysis. D) Hydrolysiscreatesmonomers,anddehydrationreactionsbreakdownpolymers. E) AandBarecorrect. Answer: E
Topic: Concept5.1 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

10) Whichofthefollowingpolymerscontainnitrogen? A) starch B) glycogen C) cellulose D) chitin E) amylopectin Answer: D


Topic: Concept5.2 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

11) ThemolecularformulaforglucoseisC 6 H12O6 .Whatwouldbethemolecularformulafora moleculemadebylinkingthreeglucosemoleculestogetherbydehydrationreactions? A) C18H36O18 B) C18H30O15 C) C6 H10O5 D) C18H10O15 E) C3 H6 O3 Answer: B
Topic: Concept5.2 Skill: Application/Analysis

84Chapter5,TheStructureandFunctionofLargeBiologicalMolecules

12) Theenzymeamylasecanbreakglycosidiclinkagesbetweenglucosemonomersonlyifthe monomersaretheform.Whichofthefollowingcouldamylasebreakdown? A) glycogen B) cellulose C) chitin D) AandBonly E) A,B,andC Answer: A


Topic: Concept5.2 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

13) Onfoodpackages,towhatdoestheterminsolublefiberrefer? A) cellulose B) polypeptides C) starch D) amylopectin E) chitin Answer: A


Topic: Concept5.2 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

14) AmoleculewiththechemicalformulaC 6 H12O6isprobablya A) carbohydrate. B) lipid. C) monosaccharide D) AandBonly. E) A,B,andC. Answer: E


Topic: Concept5.2 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

Figure5.1 15) If2moleculesofthegeneraltypeshowninFigure5.1werelinkedtogether,carbon1ofone moleculetocarbon4oftheother,thesinglemoleculethatwouldresultwouldbe A) maltose. B) fructose. C) glucose. D) galactose. E) sucrose. Answer: A
Topic: Concept5.2 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

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16) WhichofthefollowingdescriptorsistrueofthemoleculeshowninFigure5.1? A) hexose B) fructose C) glucose D) AandBonly E) AandConly Answer: E


Topic: Concept5.2 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

17) Lactose,asugarinmilk,iscomposedofoneglucosemoleculejoinedbyaglycosidic linkagetoonegalactosemolecule.Howislactoseclassified? A) asapentose B) asahexose C) asamonosaccharide D) asadisaccharide E) asapolysaccharide Answer: D


Topic: Concept5.2 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

18) Allofthefollowingarepolysaccharidesexcept A) glycogen B) starch C) chitin D) cellulose E) amylopectin Answer: A


Topic: Concept5.2 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

19) Whichofthefollowingistrueofbothstarchandcellulose? A) Theyarebothpolymersofglucose. B) Theyaregeometricisomersofeachother. C) Theycanbothbedigestedbyhumans. D) Theyarebothusedforenergystorageinplants. E) Theyarebothstructuralcomponentsoftheplantcellwall. Answer: A


Topic: Concept5.2 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

20) Whichofthefollowingistrueofcellulose? A) Itisapolymercomposedofsucrosemonomers. B) Itisastoragepolysaccharideforenergyinplantcells. C) Itisastoragepolysaccharideforenergyinanimalcells. D) Itisamajorstructuralcomponentofplantcellwalls. E) Itisamajorstructuralcomponentofanimalcellplasmamembranes. Answer: D


Topic: Concept5.2 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

86Chapter5,TheStructureandFunctionofLargeBiologicalMolecules

21) Humanscandigeststarchbutnotcellulosebecause A) themonomerofstarchisglucose,whilethemonomerofcelluloseisgalactose. B) humanshaveenzymesthatcanhydrolyzethebeta()glycosidiclinkagesofstarch butnotthealpha()glycosidiclinkagesofcellulose. C) humanshaveenzymesthatcanhydrolyzethealpha()glycosidiclinkagesofstarch butnotthebeta()glycosidiclinkagesofcellulose. D) humansharborstarch-digestingbacteriainthedigestivetract. E) themonomerofstarchisglucose,whilethemonomerofcelluloseismaltose. Answer: C
Topic: Concept5.2 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

22) Allofthefollowingstatementsconcerningsaturated fatsaretrueexcept A) Theyaremorecommoninanimalsthaninplants. B) Theyhavemultipledoublebondsinthecarbonchainsoftheirfattyacids. C) Theygenerallysolidifyatroomtemperature. D) Theycontainmorehydrogenthansaturatedfatshavingthesamenumberofcarbon atoms. E) Theyareoneofseveralfactorsthatcontributetoatherosclerosis. Answer: B
Topic: Concept5.3 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

23) AmoleculewiththeformulaC 18H36O2 isprobablya A) carbohydrate. B) fattyacid. C) protein. D) nucleicacid. E) hydrocarbon. Answer: B
Topic: Concept5.3 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

24) Whichofthefollowingstatementsisfalse fortheclassofbiologicalmoleculesknownas lipids? A) Theyaresolubleinwater. B) Theyareanimportantconstituentofcellmembranes. C) Theycontainmoreenergythanproteinsandcarbohydrates. D) Theyarenottruepolymers. E) Theycontainwaxesandsteroids. Answer: A
Topic: Concept5.3 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

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25) Whatisatriacylglycerol? A) aproteinwithtertiarystructure B) alipidmadewiththreefattyacidsandglycerol C) alipidthatmakesupmuchoftheplasmamembrane D) amoleculeformedfromthreealcoholsbydehydrationreactions E) acarbohydratewiththreesugarsjoinedtogetherbyglycosidiclinkages Answer: B


Topic: Concept5.3 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

26) Whichofthefollowingistrueregardingsaturatedfattyacids? A) Theyarethepredominantfattyacidincornoil. B) Theyhavedoublebondsbetweencarbonatomsofthefattyacids. C) Theyaretheprincipalmoleculesinlardandbutter. D) Theyareusuallyliquidatroomtemperature. E) Theyareusuallyproducedbyplants. Answer: C


Topic: Concept5.3 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

Figure5.2 27) WhichofthefollowingstatementsistrueregardingthemoleculeillustratedinFigure5.2? A) Itisasaturatedfattyacid. B) Adietrichinthismoleculemaycontributetoatherosclerosis. C) Moleculesofthistypeareusuallyliquidatroomtemperature. D) AandBonly E) A,BandC Answer: D


Topic: Concept5.3 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

88Chapter5,TheStructureandFunctionofLargeBiologicalMolecules

Figure5.3 28) WhichofthefollowingstatementsistrueregardingthemoleculeillustratedinFigure5.3? A) Itisasaturatedfattyacid. B) Adietrichinthismoleculemaycontributetoatherosclerosis. C) Moleculesofthistypeareusuallyliquidatroomtemperature. D) AandBonly E) A,BandC Answer: C


Topic: Concept5.3 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

29) ThemoleculeshowninFigure5.3isa A) polysaccharide. B) polypeptide. C) saturatedfattyacid. D) triacylglycerol. E) unsaturatedfattyacid. Answer: E


Topic: Concept5.3 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

30) Largeorganicmoleculesareusuallyassembledbypolymerizationofafewkindsofsimple subunits.Whichofthefollowingisanexceptiontothisstatement? A) asteroid B) cellulose C) DNA D) anenzyme E) acontractileprotein Answer: A


Topic: Concepts5.1-5.3 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

31) Thehydrogenationofvegetableoilresultsinwhichofthefollowing? A) saturatedfatsandunsaturatedfatswithtrans doublebonds B) anincreasedcontributiontoartherosclerosis C) theoil(fat)beingasolidatroomtemperature D) AandConly E) A,B,andC Answer: E


Topic: Concept5.3 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

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Figure5.4 32) WhatisthestructureshowninFigure5.4? A) starchmolecule B) proteinmolecule C) steroidmolecule D) cellulosemolecule E) phospholipidmolecule Answer: C


Topic: Concept5.3 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

33) Whyarehumansexhormonesconsideredtobelipids? A) Theyareessentialcomponentsofcellmembranes. B) Theyaresteroids,whicharenotsolubleinwater. C) Theyaremadeoffattyacids. D) Theyarehydrophiliccompounds. E) Theycontributetoatherosclerosis. Answer: B


Topic: Concept5.3 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

34) Allofthefollowingcontainaminoacidsexcept A) hemoglobin. B) cholesterol. C) antibodies. D) enzymes. E) insulin. Answer: B


Topic: Concepts5.3,5.4 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

35) Thebondingoftwoaminoacidmoleculestoformalargermoleculerequires A) thereleaseofawatermolecule. B) thereleaseofacarbondioxidemolecule. C) theadditionofanitrogenatom. D) theadditionofawatermolecule. E) bothBandC Answer: A


Topic: Concept5.4 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

90Chapter5,TheStructureandFunctionofLargeBiologicalMolecules

36) Thereare20differentaminoacids.Whatmakesoneaminoaciddifferentfromanother? A) differentcarboxylgroupsattachedtoanalpha()carbon B) differentaminogroupsattachedtoanalpha()carbon C) differentsidechains(Rgroups)attachedtoanalpha()carbon D) differentalpha()carbons E) differentasymmetriccarbons Answer: C


Topic: Concept5.4 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

Figure5.5 37) Whichofthefollowingstatementsis/aretrueregardingthechemicalreactionillustratedin Figure5.5? A) Itisahydrolysisreaction. B) Itresultsinapeptidebond. C) Itjoinstwofattyacidstogether. D) AandBonly E) A,B,andC Answer: B
Topic: Concept5.4 Skill: Application/Analysis

38) Thebondingoftwoaminoacidmoleculestoformalargermoleculerequireswhichofthe following? A) removalofawatermolecule B) additionofawatermolecule C) formationofanionicbond D) formationofahydrogenbond E) bothAandC Answer: A


Topic: Concept5.4 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

39) Polysaccharides,lipids,andproteinsaresimilarinthatthey A) aresynthesizedfrommonomersbytheprocessofhydrolysis. B) aresynthesizedfrommonomersbydehydrationreactions. C) aresynthesizedasaresultofpeptidebondformationbetweenmonomers. D) aredecomposedintotheirsubunitsbydehydrationreactions. E) allcontainnitrogenintheirmonomerbuildingblocks. Answer: B


Topic: Concepts5.1-5.4 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

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40) Dehydrationreactionsareusedinformingwhichofthefollowingcompounds? A) triacylglycerides B) polysaccharides C) proteins D) AandConly E) A,B,andC Answer: E


Topic: Concepts5.1-5.4 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

41) Uponchemicalanalysis,aparticularpolypeptidewasfoundtocontain100aminoacids. Howmanypeptidebondsarepresentinthisprotein? A) 101 B) 100 C) 99 D) 98 E) 97 Answer: C


Topic: Concept5.4 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

RefertoFigure5.6toanswerthefollowingquestions.

Figure5.6 42) Atwhichbondwouldwaterneedtobeaddedtoachievehydrolysisofthepeptide,backto itscomponentaminoacid? Answer: C


Topic: Concept5.4 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

43) Whichbondisapeptidebond? Answer: C


Topic: Concept5.4 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

44) WhichbondisclosesttotheN-terminusofthemolecule? Answer: A


Topic: Concept5.4 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

92Chapter5,TheStructureandFunctionofLargeBiologicalMolecules

Chapter8 AnIntroductiontoMetabolism
Newquestionsinthischapteraddresspreviouslyuntestedmaterialandincludesomehigher -level questions.Anefforthasbeenmadetousesomequestionstolinkconceptsfromthischapterwiththose fromotherchapters,e.g.,onmembranes.

Multiple-ChoiceQuestions
1) Whichtermmostpreciselydescribesthecellularprocessofbreakingdownlargemolecules intosmallerones? A) catalysis B) metabolism C) anabolism D) dehydration E) catabolism Answer: E
Topic: Concept8.1 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

2) Whichofthefollowingis(are)true foranabolicpathways? A) Theydonotdependonenzymes. B) Theyareusuallyhighlyspontaneouschemicalreactions. C) Theyconsumeenergytobuilduppolymersfrommonomers. D) Theyreleaseenergyastheydegradepolymerstomonomers. Answer: C


Topic: Concept8.1 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

3) Whichofthefollowingisastatementofthefirstlawofthermodynamics? A) Energycannotbecreatedordestroyed. B) Theentropyoftheuniverseisdecreasing. C) Theentropyoftheuniverseisconstant. D) Kineticenergyisstoredenergythatresultsfromthespecificarrangementofmatter. E) Energycannotbetransferredortransformed. Answer: A


Topic: Concept8.1 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

4) Forlivingorganisms,whichofthefollowingisanimportantconsequenceofthefirstlawof thermodynamics? A) Theenergycontentofanorganismisconstant. B) Theorganismultimatelymustobtainallofthenecessaryenergyforlifefromits environment. C) Theentropyofanorganismdecreaseswithtimeastheorganismgrowsincomplexity. D) Organismsareunabletotransformenergy. E) Lifedoesnotobeythefirstlawofthermodynamics. Answer: B


Topic: Concept8.1 Skill: Synthesis/Evaluation

150

5) Livingorganismsincreaseincomplexityastheygrow,resultinginadecreaseinthe entropyofanorganism.Howdoesthisrelatetothesecondlawofthermodynamics? A) Livingorganismsdonotobeythesecondlawofthermodynamics,whichstatesthat entropymustincreasewithtime. B) Lifeobeysthesecondlawofthermodynamicsbecausethedecreaseinentropyasthe organismgrowsisbalancedbyanincreaseintheentropyoftheuniverse. C) Livingorganismsdonotfollowthelawsofthermodynamics. D) Asaconsequenceofgrowing,organismscreatemoredisorderintheirenvironment thanthedecreaseinentropyassociatedwiththeirgrowth. E) Livingorganismsareabletotransformenergyintoentropy. Answer: D
Topic: Concept8.1 Skill: Synthesis/Evaluation

6) Wheneverenergyistransformed,thereisalwaysanincreaseinthe A) freeenergyofthesystem. B) freeenergyoftheuniverse. C) entropyofthesystem. D) entropyoftheuniverse. E) enthalpyoftheuniverse. Answer: D


Topic: Concept8.1 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

7) Whichofthefollowingstatementsisalogicalconsequenceofthesecondlawof thermodynamics? A) Iftheentropyofasystemincreases,theremustbeacorrespondingdecreaseinthe entropyoftheuniverse. B) Ifthereisanincreaseintheenergyofasystem,theremustbeacorresponding decreaseintheenergyoftherestoftheuniverse. C) Everyenergytransferrequiresactivationenergyfromtheenvironment. D) Everychemicalreactionmustincreasethetotalentropyoftheuniverse. E) Energycanbetransferredortransformed,butitcannotbecreatedordestroyed. Answer: D
Topic: Concept8.1 Skill: Synthesis/Evaluation

8) Whichofthefollowingstatementsisrepresentativeofthesecondlawofthermodynamics? A) Conversionofenergyfromoneformtoanotherisalwaysaccompaniedbysomegain offreeenergy. B) Heatrepresentsaformofenergythatcanbeusedbymostorganismstodowork. C) Withoutaninputofenergy,organismswouldtendtowarddecreasingentropy. D) Cellsrequireaconstantinputofenergytomaintaintheirhighleveloforganization. E) Everyenergytransformationbyacelldecreasestheentropyoftheuniverse. Answer: D


Topic: Concept8.1 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

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9) Whichofthefollowingtypesofreactionswoulddecreasetheentropywithinacell? A) dehydrationreactions B) hydrolysis C) respiration D) digestion E) catabolism Answer: A


Topic: Concept8.1 Skill: Application/Analysis

10) Theorganizationoforganismshasbecomeincreasinglycomplexwithtime.Thisstatement A) isconsistentwiththesecondlawofthermodynamics. B) requiresthatduetoevolution,theentropyoftheuniverseincreased. C) isbasedonthefactthatorganismsfunctionasclosedsystems. D) AandBonly E) A,B,andC Answer: A


Topic: Concept8.1 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

11) Whichofthefollowingisanexampleofpotentialratherthankineticenergy? A) aboymowinggrass B) waterrushingoverNiagaraFalls C) afireflyusinglightflashestoattractamate D) afoodmoleculemadeupofenergy-richmacromolecules E) aninsectforagingforfood Answer: D


Topic: Concept8.1 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

12) Whichofthefollowingisconsideredanopensystem? A) anorganism B) liquidinacorkedbottle C) asealedterrarium D) foodcookinginapressurecooker Answer: A


Topic: Concept8.1 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

13) Whichofthefollowingistrueofmetabolisminitsentirety? A) Metabolismdependsonaconstantsupplyofenergyfromfood B) Metabolismdependsonanorganismsadequatehydration C) Metabolismutilizesallofanorganismsresources D) Metabolismisapropertyoforganismallife E) Metabolismmanagestheincreaseofentropyinanorganism Answer: D


Topic: Concepts8.1,8.5 Skill: Synthesis/Evaluation

152Chapter8,AnIntroductiontoMetabolism

14) Themathematicalexpressionforthechangeinfreeenergyofasystemis G=H-TS. Whichofthefollowingis(are)correct? A) Sisthechangeinenthalpy,ameasureofrandomness. B) Histhechangeinentropy,theenergyavailabletodowork. C) Gisthechangeinfreeenergy. D) TisthetemperatureindegreesCelsius. Answer: C


Topic: Concept8.2 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

15) Whatisthechangeinfreeenergyofasystematchemicalequilibrium? A) slightlyincreasing B) greatlyincreasing C) slightlydecreasing D) greatlydecreasing E) nonetchange Answer: E


Topic: Concept8.2 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

16) Whichofthefollowingistrue forallexergonicreactions? A) Theproductshavemoretotalenergythanthereactants. B) Thereactionproceedswithanetreleaseoffreeenergy. C) Somereactantswillbeconvertedtoproducts. D) Anetinputofenergyfromthesurroundingsisrequiredforthereactionstoproceed. E) Thereactionsarenonspontaneous. Answer: B


Topic: Concept8.2 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

17) Chemicalequilibriumisrelativelyrareinlivingcells.Whichofthefollowingcouldbean exampleofareactionatchemicalequilibriuminacell? A) areactioninwhichthefreeenergyatequilibriumishigherthantheenergycontentat anypointawayfromequilibrium B) achemicalreactioninwhichtheentropychangeinthereactionisjustbalancedbyan oppositeentropychangeinthecellssurroundings C) anendergonicreactioninanactivemetabolicpathwaywheretheenergyforthat reactionissuppliedonlybyheatfromtheenvironment D) achemicalreactioninwhichboththereactantsandproductsareonlyusedina metabolicpathwaythatiscompletelyinactive E) Thereisnopossibilityofhavingchemicalequilibriuminanylivingcell. Answer: D
Topic: Concept8.2 Skill: Synthesis/Evaluation

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18) Whichofthefollowingshowsthecorrectchangesinthermodynamicpropertiesfora chemicalreactioninwhichaminoacidsarelinkedtoformaprotein? A) +H,+S,+G B) +H,-S,-G C) +H,-S,+G D) -H,-S,+G E) -H,+S,+G Answer: C


Topic: Concept8.2 Skill: Application/Analysis

19) Whenglucosemonomersarejoinedtogetherbyglycosidiclinkagestoformacellulose polymer,thechangesinfreeenergy,totalenergy,andentropyareasfollows: A) +G,+H,+S B) +G,+H,-S C) +G,-H,-S D) -G,+H,+S E) -G,-H,-S Answer: B


Topic: Concept8.2 Skill: Application/Analysis

20) AchemicalreactionthathasapositiveG iscorrectlydescribedas A) endergonic. B) endothermic. C) enthalpic. D) spontaneous. E) exothermic. Answer: A


Topic: Concept8.2 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

21) Whichofthefollowingbestdescribesenthalpy(H)? A) thetotalkineticenergyofasystem B) theheatcontentofachemicalsystem C) thesystemsentropy D) thecellsenergyequilibrium E) theconditionofacellthatisnotabletoreact Answer: B


Topic: Concept8.2 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

154Chapter8,AnIntroductiontoMetabolism

22) WhyisATPanimportantmoleculeinmetabolism? A) Itshydrolysisprovidesaninputoffreeenergyforexergonicreactions. B) Itprovidesenergycouplingbetweenexergonicandendergonicreactions. C) Itsterminalphosphategroupcontainsastrongcovalentbondthatwhenhydrolyzed releasesfreeenergy. D) Itsterminalphosphatebondhashigherenergythantheothertwo. E) A,B,C,andD Answer: B


Topic: Concept8.3 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

23) When10,000moleculesofATParehydrolyzedtoADPandPiinatesttube,abouttwiceas muchheatisliberatedaswhenacellhydrolyzesthesameamountofATP.Whichofthe followingisthebestexplanationforthisobservation? A) Cellsareopensystems,butatesttubeisaclosedsystem. B) Cellsarelessefficientatheatproductionthannonlivingsystems. C) ThehydrolysisofATPinacellproducesdifferentchemicalproductsthandoesthe reactioninatesttube. D) Thereactionincellsmustbecatalyzedbyenzymes,butthereactioninatesttube doesnotneedenzymes. E) Reactantandproductconcentrationsarenotthesame Answer: E
Topic: Concept8.3 Skill: Application/Analysis

24) WhichofthefollowingismostsimilarinstructuretoATP? A) ananabolicsteroid B) aDNAhelix C) anRNAnucleotide D) anaminoacidwiththreephosphategroupsattached E) aphospholipid Answer: C


Topic: Concept8.3 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

25) Whattermisusedtodescribethetransferoffreeenergyfromcatabolicpathwaysto anabolicpathways? A) feedbackregulation B) bioenergetics C) energycoupling D) entropy E) cooperativity Answer: C


Topic: Concept8.3 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

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26) Whichofthefollowingstatementsistrue concerningcatabolicpathways? A) Theycombinemoleculesintomoreenergy-richmolecules. B) Theyareusuallycoupledwithanabolicpathwaystowhichtheysupplyenergyinthe formofATP. C) Theyareendergonic. D) Theyarespontaneousanddonotneedenzymecatalysis. E) Theybuildupcomplexmoleculessuchasproteinfromsimplercompounds. Answer: B
Topic: Concept8.3 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

27) Whenchemical,transport,ormechanicalworkisdonebyanorganism,whathappensto theheatgenerated? A) Itisusedtopoweryetmorecellularwork. B) ItisusedtostoreenergyasmoreATP. C) ItisusedtogenerateADPfromnucleotideprecursors. D) Itislosttotheenvironment. E) Itistransportedtospecificorganssuchasthebrain. Answer: D


Topic: Concept8.3 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

28) WhenATPreleasessomeenergy,italsoreleasesinorganicphosphate.Whatpurposedoes thisserve(ifany)inthecell? A) Itisreleasedasanexcretorywaste. B) ItcanonlybeusedtoregeneratemoreATP. C) Itcanbeaddedtowaterandexcretedasaliquid. D) Itcanbeaddedtoothermoleculesinordertoactivatethem. E) Itcanenterthenucleustoaffectgeneexpression. Answer: D


Topic: Concept8.3 Skill: Application/Analysis

29) AnumberofsystemsforpumpingacrossmembranesarepoweredbyATP.Such ATP-poweredpumpsareoftencalledATPasesalthoughtheydontoftenhydrolyzeATP unlesstheyaresimultaneouslytransportingions.Smallincreasesincalciumionsinthe cytosoltriggeranumberofdifferentintracellularreactions,sothecellsmustkeepthe calciumconcentrationquitelow.Musclecellsalsotransportcalciumfromthecytosolinto themembranoussystemcalledthesarcoplasmicreticulum(SR).Ifamusclecellcytosolhas afreecalciumionconcentrationof10-7 inarestingcell,whiletheconcentrationintheSR canbe10-2 ,thenhowistheATPaseacting? A) TheATPmustbepoweringaninflowofcalciumfromtheoutsideofthecellintothe SR. B) ATPmustbetransferringPitotheSRtoenablethistooccur. C) ATPaseactivitymustbepumpingcalciumfromthecytosoltotheSRagainstthe concentrationgradient. D) ThecalciumionsmustbediffusingbackintotheSRalongtheconcentrationgradient. E) TherouteofcalciumionsmustbefromSRtothecytosol,tothecellsenvironment. Answer: C
Topic: Concept8.3 Skill: Synthesis/Evaluation

156Chapter8,AnIntroductiontoMetabolism

30) Whatmustbethedifference(ifany)betweenthestructureofATPandthestructureofthe precursoroftheAnucleotideinDNAandRNA? A) Thesugarmoleculeisdifferent. B) Thenitrogen-containingbaseisdifferent. C) Thenumberofphosphatesisthreeinsteadofone. D) Thenumberofphosphatesisthreeinsteadoftwo. E) Thereisnodifference. Answer: E


Topic: Concept8.3 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

31) Whichofthefollowingstatementsis(are)true aboutenzyme-catalyzedreactions? A) Thereactionisfasterthanthesamereactionintheabsenceoftheenzyme. B) Thefreeenergychangeofthereactionisoppositefromthereactionintheabsenceof theenzyme. C) Thereactionalwaysgoesinthedirectiontowardchemicalequilibrium. D) AandBonly E) A,B,andC Answer: A
Topic: Concept8.4 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

32) Howcanoneincreasetherateofachemicalreaction? A) Increasetheactivationenergyneeded. B) Coolthereactants. C) Decreasetheconcentrationofthereactants. D) Addacatalyst. E) Increasetheentropyofthereactants. Answer: D


Topic: Concept8.4 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

33) Sucroseisadisaccharide,composedofthemonosaccharidesglucoseandfructose.The hydrolysisofsucrosebytheenzymesucraseresultsin A) bringingglucoseandfructosetogethertoformsucrose. B) thereleaseofwaterfromsucroseasthebondbetweenglucoseandfructoseisbroken. C) breakingthebondbetweenglucoseandfructoseandformingnewbondsfromthe atomsofwater. D) productionofwaterfromthesugarasbondsarebrokenbetweentheglucose monomers. E) utilizationofwaterasacovalentbondisformedbetweenglucoseandfructoseto formsucrase. Answer: C
Topic: Concept8.4 Skill: Application/Analysis

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34) Reactantscapableofinteractingtoformproductsinachemicalreactionmustfirst overcomeathermodynamicbarrierknownasthereactions A) entropy. B) activationenergy. C) endothermiclevel. D) heatcontent. E) free-energycontent. Answer: B


Topic: Concept8.4 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

35) Asolutionofstarchatroomtemperaturedoesnotreadilydecomposetoformasolutionof simplesugarsbecause A) thestarchsolutionhaslessfreeenergythanthesugarsolution. B) thehydrolysisofstarchtosugarisendergonic. C) theactivationenergybarrierforthisreactioncannotbesurmounted. D) starchcannotbehydrolyzedinthepresenceofsomuchwater. E) starchhydrolysisisnonspontaneous. Answer: C


Topic: Concept8.4 Skill: Application/Analysis

36) Whichofthefollowingstatementsregardingenzymesistrue? A) Enzymesdecreasethefreeenergychangeofareaction. B) Enzymesincreasetherateofareaction. C) Enzymeschangethedirectionofchemicalreactions. D) Enzymesarepermanentlyalteredbythereactionstheycatalyze. E) Enzymespreventchangesinsubstrateconcentrations. Answer: B


Topic: Concept8.4 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

37) Duringalaboratoryexperiment,youdiscoverthatanenzyme -catalyzedreactionhasaG of-20kcal/mol.Ifyoudoubletheamountofenzymeinthereaction,whatwillbethe G forthenewreaction? A) -40kcal/mol B) -20kcal/mol C) 0kcal/mol D) +20kcal/mol E) +40kcal/mol Answer: B
Topic: Concept8.4 Skill: Application/Analysis

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38) Theactivesiteofanenzymeistheregionthat A) bindsallostericregulatorsoftheenzyme. B) isinvolvedinthecatalyticreactionoftheenzyme. C) bindstheproductsofthecatalyticreaction. D) isinhibitedbythepresenceofacoenzymeoracofactor. Answer: B


Topic: Concept8.4 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

39) Accordingtotheinducedfithypothesisofenzymecatalysis,whichofthefollowingis correct? A) Thebindingofthesubstratedependsontheshapeoftheactivesite. B) Someenzymeschangetheirstructurewhenactivatorsbindtotheenzyme. C) Acompetitiveinhibitorcanoutcompetethesubstratefortheactivesite. D) Thebindingofthesubstratechangestheshapeoftheenzymesactivesite. E) Theactivesitecreatesamicroenvironmentidealforthereaction. Answer: D


Topic: Concept8.4 Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

Chapter8,AnIntroductiontoMetabolism159

RefertoFigure8.1toanswerthefollowingquestions.

Figure8.1 40) Whichcurverepresentsthebehaviorofanenzymetakenfromabacteriumthatlivesinhot springsattemperaturesof70Corhigher? A) curve1 B) curve2 C) curve3 D) curve4 E) curve5 Answer: C
Topic: Concept8.4 Skill: Application/Analysis

41) Whichcurvewasmostlikelygeneratedfromanalysisofanenzymefromahumanstomach whereconditionsarestronglyacid? A) curve1 B) curve2 C) curve3 D) curve4 E) curve5 Answer: D


Topic: Concept8.4 Skill: Application/Analysis

160Chapter8,AnIntroductiontoMetabolism