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ANTERIOR VIEW

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26.

Skull Mandible Hyoid Bone Cervical Vertebra Clavicle Sternum Costal Cartilage Ribs Scapula Humerus Radius Ulna Carpal Bones Metacarpal Bones Phalanges of Fingers Thoracic Vertebra Lumbar Vertebra Sacrum Os Coxa Femur Patella Tibia Fibula Tarsal Bones Metatarsal Bones Phalanges of Toes

BONES OF THE LEFT FOOT (SUPERIOR ASPECT)

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Calcaneus Talus Navicular Cuboid Cuneiform, First Cuneiform, Second Cuneiform, Third Metatarsal Proximal Phalange Middle Phalange Distal Phalange

BONES OF THE LEFT FOOT (LATERAL ASPECT)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Calcaneus Talus Navicular Cuboid Cuneiform, First Cuneiform, Second Cuneiform, Third Metatarsal

BONES OF THE RIGHT HAND (DORSAL SURFACE)

01. 02. 03. 04. 05. 06. 07.

Styloid Process of Radius Navicular (Scaphoid) Lunate Triquetral Pisiform Trapezium Trapezoid

08. 09. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Capitate Hamate Metacarpal Proximal Phalange Middle Phalange Distal Phalange Styloid Process of Ulna

BONES OF THE RIGHT HAND (PALMAR SURFACE)

01. 02. 03. 04. 05. 06.

Navicular (Scaphoid) Lunate Triquetral Pisiform Trapezium Trapezoid

07. 08. 09. 10. 11. 12.

Capitate Hamate Metacarpal Proximal Phalange Middle Phalange Distal Phalange

Naughty (Navicular), Lovers (Lunate), Try (Triquetral), Positions (Pisiform), That (Trapezium), They (Trapezoid), Can't (Capitate), Handle (Hamate) She (Scaphoid), Looks (Lunate), Too (Triquetral), Pretty (Pisiform), Try (Trapezium), To (Trapezoid), Catch (Capitate), Her (Hamate)

KNEE - ANTERIOR & POSTERIOR ASPECTS

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Tibial Collateral Ligament Medial Condyle of Femur Posterior Cruciate Ligament Anterior Cruciate Ligament Lateral Condyle of Femur Fibular Collateral Ligament Lateral Condyle of Tibia Lateral Meniscus Medial Meniscus Medial Condyle of Tibia Tibia Fibula Transverse Ligament

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN

The vertebral column (also called the backbone, spine, or spinal column) consists of a series of 33 irregularly shaped bones, called vertebrae. These 33 bones are divided into five categories depending on where they are located in the backbone. The first seven vertebrae are called the cervical vertebrae Located at the top of the spinal column, these bones form a flexible framework for the neck and support the head. The first cervical vertebrae is called the atlas and the second is called the axis. The atlas' shape allows the head to nod "yes" and the axis' shape allows the head to shake "no". The next twelve vertebrae are called the thoracic vertebrae. These bones move with the ribs to form the rear anchor of the rib cage. Thoracic vertebrae are larger than cervical vertebrae and increase in size from top to bottom. After the thoracic vertebrae, come the lumber vertebrae. These five bones are the largest vertebrae in the spinal column. These vertebrae support most of the body's weight and are attached to many of the back muscles. The sacrum is a triangular bone located just below the lumbar vertebrae. It consists of four or five sacral vertebrae in a child, which become fused into a single bone after age 26. The sacrum forms the back wall of the pelvic girdle and moves with it. The bottom of the spinal column is called the coccyx or tailbone. It consists of 3-5 bones that are fused together in an adult. Many muscles connect to the coccyx.

These bones compose the vertebral column, resulting in a total of 26 movable parts in an adult. In between the vertebrae are intervertebral discs made of fibrous cartilage that act as shock absorbers and allow the back to move. As a person ages, these discs compress and shrink, resulting in a distinct loss of height (generally between 0.5 and 2.0cm) between the ages of 50 and 55.

When looked at from the side, the spine forms four curves. These curves are called the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and pelvic curves. The cervical curve is located at the top of the spine and is composed of cervical vertebrae. Next come the thoracic and lumbar curves composed of thoracic and lumbar vertebrae respectively. The final curve called the pelvic or sacral curve is formed by the sacrum and coccyx. These curves allow human beings to stand upright and help to maintain the balance of the upper body. The cervical and lumbar curves are not present in an infant. The cervical curves forms around the age of 3 months when an infant begins to hold its head up and the lumbar curve develops when a child begins to walk. In addition to allowing humans to stand upright and maintain their balance, the vertebral column serves several other important functions. It helps to support the head and arms, while permitting freedom of movement. It also provides attachment for many muscles, the ribs, and some of the organs and protects the spinal cord, which controls most bodily functions.

ATLAS

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Superior Articular Surface Transverse Foramen Transverse Process Odontoid (Dens) Facet Vertebral Foramen Inferior Articular Surface

Axis

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Spinous Process Lamina Transverse Process Pedicle Superior Articular Surface Odontoid Process (Dens) Body Vertebral Foramen Inferior Articular Surface

CERVICAL

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Spinous Process Lamina Superior Articular Surface Transverse Foramen Transverse Process Body Pedicle Vertebral Foramen THORACIC

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Spinous Process Lamina Superior Articular Surface Transverse Process Pedicle Body Vertebral Foramen Articular Facet for Rib Inferior Articular Surface

LUMBAR

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Spinous Process Lamina Superior Articular Surface Transverse Process Pedicle Body Vertebral Foramen Inferior Articular Surface

SACRUM

01. 02. 03. 04. 05. 06. 07. 08.

PROMONTORY TRANSVERSE RIDGES COCCYX BODY OF SACRUM SACRAL CANAL SUPERIOR ARTICULAR SURFACE MEDIAN SACRAL CREST SACRUM TO ILIUM ARTICULAR SURFACE

09. DORSAL SACRAL FORAMINA 10. SACRAL HIATUS

ANTERIOR VIEW

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Front al Bone Supra- Orbital Foramen Orbit (Orbit al Cavit y) Superi or Orbit al Fissure Inferi or Orbital Fi ssure Zygomat i c Bone Infra- Orbit al Foramen Maxill a Mandi bl e

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Ment al Foramen Incisive Fossa Symphysi s Vomer Inferi or Nasal Concha Middl e Nasal Concha Perpendi cul ar Plat e of Ethmoi d Nasal Bone Lacri mal Bone

LATERAL VIEW

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Parietal Bone Coronal Suture Frontal Bone Nasal Bone Vomer Lacrimal Bone Orbital Part of Ethmoid Zygomatic Bone Maxilla Body of Mandible Ramus of Mandible Coronoid Process Mandibular Condyle

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Mental Foramen Styloid Process External Acoustic Meatus Mastoid Process Zygomatic Process Temporal Bone Greater Wing of Sphenoid Inferior Temporal Line Superior Temporal Line Squamosal Suture Lambdoidal Suture Occipital Bone

THE HUMAN HEART


The heart is one of the most important organs in the entire human body. It is really nothing more than a pump, composed of muscle which pumps blood throughout the body, beating approximately 72 times per minute of our lives. The heart pumps the blood, which carries all the vital materials which help our bodies function and removes the waste products that we do not need. For example, the brain requires oxygen and glucose, which, if not received continuously, will cause it to loose consciousness. Muscles need oxygen, glucose and amino acids, as well as the proper ratio of sodium, calcium and potassium salts in order to contract normally. The glands need sufficient supplies of raw materials from which to manufacture the specific secretions. If the heart ever ceases to pump blood the body begins to shut down and after a very short period of time will die.

The heart is essentially a muscle(a little larger than the fist). Like any other muscle in the human body, it contracts and expands. Unlike skeletal muscles, however, the heart works on the "All -orNothing Law". That is, each time the heart contracts it does so with all its force. In skeletal muscles, the principle of "gradation" is present. The pumping of the heart is called the Cardiac Cycle, which occurs about 72 times per minute. This means that each cycle lasts about eight-tenths of a second. During this cycle the entire heart actually rests for about four-tenths of a second. The walls of the heart are made up of three layers, while the cavity is divided into four parts. There are two upper chambers, called the right and left atria, and two lower chambers, called the right and left ventricles. The Right Atrium, as it is called, receives blood from the upper and lower body through the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava, respectively, and from the heart muscle itself through the coronary sinus. The right atrium is the larger of the two atria, having very thin walls. The right atrium opens into the right ventricle through the right atrioventicular valve(tricuspid), which only allows the blood to flow from the atria into the ventricle, but not in the reverse direction. The right ventricle pumps the blood to the lungs to be reoxygenated. The left atrium receives blood from the lungs via the four pulmonary veins. It is smaller than the right atrium, but has thicker walls. The valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle, the left atrioventicular valve(bicuspid), is smaller than the tricuspid. It opens into the left ventricle and again is a one way valve. The left ventricle pumps the blood throughout the body. It is the Aorta, the largest artery in the body, which originates from the left ventricle.

The Heart works as a pump moving blood around in our bodies to nourish every cell. Used blood, that is blood that has already been to the cells and has given up its nutrients to them, is drawn from the body by the right half of the heart, and then sent to the lungs to be reoxygenated. Blood that has been reoxygenated by the lungs is drawn into the left side of the heart and then pumped into the blood stream. It is the atria that draw the blood from the lungs and body, and the ventricles that pump it to the lungs and body. The output of each ventricle per beat is about 70 ml, or about 2 tablespoons. In a trained athlete this amount is about double. With the average heart rate of 72 beats per minute the heart will pump about 5 litres per ventricle, or about 10 litres total per minute. This is called the cardiac output. In a trained athlete the total cardiac output is about 20 litres. If we multiply the normal, non-athlete output by the average age of 70 years, we see that the cardiac output of the average human heart over a life time would be about 1 million litres, or about 250,000 gallons(US)!

Make-up of the Heart.