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To study the Market Share & CONSUMER of GE CAPITAL


RASHMEEN Roll No.: 02213401911 BBA (CAM)-III Sem. UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF: External Supervisor Ms. Mridu Thareja GE CAPITAL Ghaziabad Internal Supervisor Ms. Shweta Faculty IIMT Karkardooma, Delhi

IDEAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY Plot No. 16x, Karkardooma Industrial Area, Delhi-110092


Topic of study: A comprehensive study of Training & Development programs that has been carried out by GE Capital

Rational behind the study: Training plays a vital role in effective functioning of any company. The efficiency and productivity of worker working in an organization not only depends upon the skills they possesses or working environment, they are working in, but also depends upon the policy of the company of providing training to the employees according to the demand of the job. There remains a gap between the demand of the job and skills of the worker. This gap can be patch up by delivering effective training and development programs. The workers get the better opportunity to improve themselves and as a result to enhancement of the productivity of the organization. 2

So it is most important for every organization to provide such training to the employees for development of their skills as well as knowledge related to the job, that will fulfill his own requirement of learning and the requirement of the organization and achieve the organization goal too.

Objective of the study: The main objective is to study the training and development activities carried by the GE Capital To study the training procedures provided by the company. To evaluate the effectiveness of training programs.

Methodology of data collection: Going through the records:

I would like to go through relevant files and the company has carried out documents from where can get an idea about the different types of training and development that. Preliminary discussion: In this regard at the outset, I would like to talk about the training and development in charge to enquire for the identify the needs of training and development programs at present scenario.
Feedback from the employees through the interview and written questionnaire.

For evaluation the effectiveness of training and development programs I would like to take feedback from employees that how much they get benefit from that programs. At last I would like to take suggestion for future improvement.

Successful candidates placed on the job need training to perform their duties effectively Workers must be trained to operate machines, reduce scrap and avoid accidents It is not only workers but executives and supervisors who need training as well in order to enable them to acquire maturity of thought and action Training and development constitute an ongoing process in any organization Training thus means to turn members into productive insiders It is the second step after recruitment, screening and selection The principles of learning make training work ,thus how a person learns should be the guiding principle in explaining how a person should be trained Thus training requires Practice Feedback Motivation to learn Thus training is systematic and intentional basically involving the felicitation of the learning process Further training enhances three broad classes of skills Motor skills: manipulation of physical environment based on certain patterns of bodily movements Cognitive skills: acqusitional of mental and attitudinal functions Interpersonal skills: enhancing interactions with other people

No organization has unlimited resources, so training has to be done on the basis of identified resources in three phases : 1. PRE TRAINING -Clear understanding of the situation that calls for more effective behavior 2. TRAINING- Implementing the effectiveness in behavior 3. POST TRAINING-The management has to handle a person who is more confident, post training A lot of adjustment is needed on both sides


At GE Capital India, we are more than just a provider of finance. As a part of the GE Capital and GE family of companies, we leverage GEs global knowledge edge to provide smart financing solutions to help our local customers build and grow. We understand your business, your industry, your assets and your opportunities. What you're building requires not just capital, but also knowledge and expertise to grow. This is where we help.

GE Capital offers consumers and businesses around the globe an array of financial products and services. For over 1 million businesses, it provides real estate, equipment and inventory financing; fleet services; working capital; and funds for corporate acquisitions, re-financings and restructurings. For its 130 million consumer customers globally, GE Capital offers credit cards, retail sales finance programs, home, car and personal loans and credit insurance. GE Capital is a leading provider of specialist finance throughout the world and focuses on sectors where it can share GE's 130+ year heritage with customers - energy, healthcare, media, transportation and industrial.

In India we provide a wide range of non-banking financial services to corporate and consumer customers. Investing in sectors we understand best, we bring global insight and local expertise to every relationship. We help customers to build more, sell more and grow more. Over nearly two decades, we have served more than 10 million corporate and consumer finance customers in India. Our business has received an AAA rating from Indian agencies - CRISIL and Fitch.

Products & Services Offered

Corporate Lending

GE Capital India helps Indian businesses to maximize liquidity through innovative and flexible lending solutions. We work with a wide variety of mid-size businesses, multinationals and private equity sponsors. We are one of the largest providers of assetbased, cash flow and structured loans in India. We work closely with our customers to provide business capital for purchasing equipment, corporate acquisitions, refinancing and restructuring. Leasing GE Capital India provides leasing products to help enhance liquidity, productivity, and gain a competitive edge. Our global asset expertise combined with local understanding helps us understand and serve your equipment financing needs that are critical to your business. We also provide corporate auto-leasing services and vendor and dealer financing programs that comprise rental solutions, operating leases and finance leases to meet the unique financial requirements of customers. 7

Corporate Aviation Finance GE Capital is a leading provider of corporate aircraft financing solutions. With a global portfolio of over 2000 aircraft, we understand legal and regulatory environments and bring an ability to leverage a worldwide affiliate network. We offer cross-border financing solutions for corporate aviation aligned with unique business requirements. Our product offerings include leases and secured loans on medium to large size corporate jets, helicopters and turbo jets. Energy Investing GE Capital invests in electric power generation, power transmission and distribution, oil field services, coal mining and waste water treatment with a long-term view. Backed by more than 30 years of global experience in financing energy projects, we combine GEs technical knowledge, technology innovation and risk management expertise to invest in assets across the capital spectrum. Our product offerings include structured and common equity, leveraged leases, asset backed revolvers, and second & third stage venture equity. Healthcare Finance

GE Capital brings an unparalleled track-record of serving the unique needs of the Indian healthcare industry through innovation, speed and superior customer service. GE Capital understands the needs of the Indian healthcare industry and combines its in-depth manufacturing knowledge with local execution experience to deliver a wide range of healthcare financing solutions in India. We offer solutions unique to the needs of superspecialty hospitals, diagnostic centers, nursing homes, healthcare practitioners and doctors.The company is organized into three business groups viz. Power Systems, Industrial Systems, Consumer Products. Nearly, two-thirds of it's turnover accrues from products lines in which it enjoys a leadership position. Presently, the company is offering wide range of products such as power & industrial transformers, HT circuit breakers, LT & HT motors, DC motors, traction motors, alternators/ generators, railway signaling equipments, lighting products, fans, pumps and public switching, transmission and access products. In addition to offering broad range of products, the company undertakes turnkey projects from concept to commissioning. Apart from this, CG exports it's 8

products to more than 60 countries worldwide, which includes the emerging South-East Asian and Latin American markets.

Thus, the company addresses all the segments of the power industry from complex industrial solutions to basic household requirements. The fans and lighting businesses acquired "Superbrand" status in January 2004. It is a unique recognition amongst the country's 134 selected brands by "Superbrands", UK. Manufacturing, Marketing & Servicing Network.

CG's business operations consist of 22 manufacturing divisions spread across in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka, supported by well knitted marketing and service network through 14 branches in various states under overall management of four regional sales offices located in Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai. The company has a large customer base, which includes State Electricity Boards, Government bodies and large companies in private and public sectors. Future Outlook.

The quality of households is enhanced when their money is invested into products such as fans and lighting for basic comforts. Their lives are literally touched by delight. Similarly, GE Capital helps electricity boards and other utilities to reach electricity to the last home and factory. Therefore, every individual in India who uses electricity can be considered as GE Capital customer. Hence, the company continues to further and consolidate the initiatives that Colonel GE Capital set into motion by focusing on meeting increasing customer demands for products that are eco-friendly, energy efficient and with intelligent monitoring and control systems.

All economic indicators point towards the manufacturing sector being the future driver of 9

India's economic growth. India is today preferred destination for sourcing various engineering goods not only due to low cost but also due to high quality of products. Although, the climate for the manufacturing sector is bright, the concern is the threat of imminent competition from global players who are already in the process of setting up manufacturing facilities in India. The market is expected to remain competition with an added element of competition from imported products.

However, several measures that the company has already taken and it's plans for the future, together with business impact of the Pauwels acquisition, will equip the company to respond in adequate measure to this competitive pressure.

Business Description GE Capital The Group's principal activities are broadly classified into four strategic business units: Power Systems; Consumer products; Industrial Systems and Other. The Power System consists of designing, manufacturing and servicing electrical products such as transformers, switchgears, capacitors and engineering projects. Consumer Products consist of fans, luminaires, light sources and agricultural and domestic pumps. Industrial Systems consists of manufacturing electric motors including fractional horse power motors, LT motors, alternators, DC Machines and rail transportation motors. Other includes telecommunication products, transmission products, access products and terminal equipment. The plants are located in Maharashtra, Goa, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Punjab and Kolkata



Why training is important

Every company should be fully committed to the continuous development of its staff, in the same ways as we continuously develop our services. This will be achieved by helping all staff identify and meet their own job and business related development needs. This policy will ensure that we have the adaptability and flexibility to thrive and succeed as a business. To do this, all line managers, through the Performance Review process, will

Ensure that staff have a level of knowledge and skill to fully perform their role Encourage staff to develop within their current role Look for potential, and find ways for staff to demonstrate potential Recognize and reward staff development (utilizing it wherever possible) Create a learning culture by providing opportunities for learning

Equal opportunities

All staff are entitled to and can expect to receive training they need to carry out their current role. This includes seconded, fixed-term contract or short-term contract staff.

Permanent employees can expect to benefit from further commitment for each individual to devote at least 5 days a year towards training and development. First priority will be towards job-related training, but we will also encourage individuals to undertake personal development training. This may entail taking professional qualifications; undertaking research into a particular field of interest or experiencing a particular aspect of another job in order to gain an insight into the role and fuller understanding of the work.


Training should not be viewed purely as attending a training course. There are a variety of different methods that can be used to help train and develop individuals and Personnel Services will be happy to help individuals and managers select the most appropriate method. For example, using open learning materials; computer-based

packages; videos or CD-ROMs; e-learning; and reading literature, to name but a few.

Shared responsibilities

It is recognizes the need for everyone to learn and develop their skills on a continuous basis and will support individuals to help them achieve this. Equally, the company expects individuals to take on some responsibility for their own self-development. For example, identifying suitable training activities (with the help of line managers and Personnel Services) and adopting a flexible and positive approach to any training and development that is identified with them.

Identifying training & development needs

Identifying training and development needs, and helping individuals to improve their performance, are key responsibilities for line managers, so they are expected to be actively involved in their teams training and development. Line managers are also responsible for measuring the effectiveness of any training and development undertaken by team members, with assistance from Personnel Services.

The skills and knowledge that will be needed for the future success of the company will become apparent as each years business (corporate) plan is drafted and communicated to teams within the company and individual performance objectives agreed. Where

individual skills, knowledge or the development of competencies are needed to achieve our business objectives, these should be recorded on the Development Needs Assessment plan, which forms part of our Performance Review process.


Setting and evaluating learning objectives/outcomes

The company has a number of key business objectives that it needs to achieve. These objectives can be achieved only through harnessing the abilities and skills of everyone in the company and by releasing potential and maximizing opportunities for development. If individuals need to learn in order to achieve business objectives, it is important that any training and development in which we invest has a relationship to our business objectives, so we can demonstrate the contribution learning makes towards overall organizational success.

To demonstrate this contribution, individuals will agree with their line managers, prior to undertaking a learning activity, learning objectives. Learning objectives will be the means by which managers and company can measure how effective training and development has been towards achieving our business objectives or performance. Setting learning objectives will therefore provide a benefit for everyone:

For individuals, objectives give a better understanding of what is expected of them; where priorities lie; where their contribution fits into the organization and how they are progressing.

For managers, objectives provide a basis for allocating responsibility to individuals for achieving certain results; monitoring the achievement of results and providing solid evidence, which is less subjective, for assessing an individuals performance.

For the organization, objectives give a greater likelihood of strategic and corporate plans being achieved.

Once someone has experienced a training and development activity or learning, we will measure its impact and effectiveness on individual performance and the organization. Again, line managers are expected to be part of this process by defining the performance standards (or measures) when setting objectives and deciding on the methods that they 13

will use to evaluate the learning.

(Personnel Services will of course be available

throughout the process to provide guidance and support).

There are three key stages that will be used to evaluate training and development:

Reaction: At this level, evaluation provides information on the attitudes of a participant to learning, but it does not measure how much they have actually learned. That being said, if a participant has a positive reaction to the learning experience they are more likely to implement what they have learned. Evaluation at this level will be measured by a

post-learning questionnaire, which will be completed immediately after the learning activity has taken place. Normally, Personnel Services will be responsible for issuing this type of questionnaire.

Performance: Evaluation at this level looks at the impact of a learning experience on individual performance at work. Key to this area of evaluation will be the need to have established smart learning objectives prior to the learning experience so that when evaluation takes place there are measures to use. For example, an important learning objective for a junior secretary attending a Word training course may be to produce typed correspondence with no spelling or typographical errors. In this example, a manager would be able to evaluate the secretarys performance using a measure of no spelling or typographical errors. Ideally, evaluation on performance should take place approximately 3 4 months after the learning activity. Line managers should undertake this evaluation and send a copy of the results to Personnel Services.

Organizational impact: At this level evaluation assesses the impact of learning on organizational effectiveness, and whether or not it is cost-effective in organizational terms. Personnel Services will undertake this evaluation as part of a wider training and development evaluation process.

In summary then, Personnel Services will evaluate training and development at the reaction and organizational levels, and line managers will be responsible for evaluating 14

the effectiveness of training and development at the performance level. However, there will be some types of learning activities, for example attending conferences or seminars, where it may not be appropriate to undertake any evaluation. If any doubt, please contact Personnel Services.

To assist line managers, there are a variety of methods that can be used to measure the effectiveness of the learning. Some of these include:

Participant self-assessment Written or practical tests Structured interviews Questionnaires Feedback for example, internally from colleagues, peers, and managers and/or externally from partners, customers or clients Qualifications obtained

Line managers should contact Personnel Services, who will be pleased to help set-up an evaluation method to use to measure the effectiveness of a training activity.

Funding Funding for training and development will be paid from a central training budget, therefore the Head of Personnel Services must approve any training and development that involves a financial cost before any financial commitment is made. Details of how to apply for a training and development are explained under the section headed Selecting a training provider and applying for training.

In addition to job-related training and development, company also recognises the need to help individuals to improve within their chosen career path by encouraging individuals to gain professional/vocational/academic qualifications. With this in mind, company has established a company sponsorship scheme whereby full or partial sponsorship will be



Information about the scheme can be found under the section headed

Company sponsorship.

Time off to attend training courses

Where an individual needs to attend a training course funded by company, time off during working hours will be given to attend the course. Individuals are expected to travel to and from a training venue within the normal course of the day. Where company is providing sponsorship towards a professional qualification, time off to attend lectures/workshops/summer school will be agreed on an individual basis, taking account of the business needs. The Head of Personnel Services will approve any such requests, in full consultation with line managers.

Non-training course learning activities Typically, a training course is designed to transfer new skills or knowledge to an individual. Invariably new skills and knowledge will be developed over time to improve performance. However, not all learning has to be addressed through a training course. There is a wide range of development methods available that can be used without leaving the office. For example, being coached by a fellow colleague or manager; using a computer aided training package; on-the job training; reading books; undertaking research or practising a particular skill.

Finding out about training courses or alternative learning methods Personnel Services is building up a range of literature from training suppliers and a selection of books/videos/computer discs available for individual use. To find out more, please contact Personnel Services.

Selecting a training provider and applying for training Before booking a training event, individuals should research the costs and course availability with possible training providers. Personnel Services will be happy to help as 16

they keep details of various training providers, so please contact them for information/advice.

Company organised training programmes, for example Customer Service Training, Team Building training, will be co-ordinated through Personnel Services (so individuals do not have to complete any forms). All other training and development activities must be authorised by Personnel Services before any training is booked.

Company sponsorship Company recognises the need for continuous professional development and are pleased to be able to offer a sponsorship scheme to all permanent and fixed-term employees (whose contracts are for at least one year). The scheme covers professional, academic or NVQ (or equivalent) qualifications. The following guidelines are designed to give

individuals an idea of the sort of funding that may be available and how individuals may apply.




Training is often included as an essential element of an organizations strategy to gain a competitive advantage. Regulatory agencies require that employees be trained certain topics and personal development/career paths often specify skill and knowledge areas which must be mastered. These are the factors that influence an organizations overall training program. With all these sometimes-divergent factors competing for resources training systems can become stressed, ineffective, inefficient and fragmented. Organizations need a structure approach when developing/improving their training system.

For purposes of this discussion we will divide the training process into three phases: (1) needs identification (2) Training Systems (courses, modules, training aids, presentation, instructors, records) (3) Evaluation PHASE ONE: Needs Identification The first phase is the identification and analysis of an organization's training needs. As a minimum, the organization should be able to accomplish the following four things: 1. Systematic review of each trade, occupation or process by a team of knowledgeable individuals 2. Conduct verbal and/or written surveys of managers, supervisors, leaders, technicians and workers 3. Conduct a complete review of legislated training requirements 4. Review the results of Hazard Analyses, Occupational Health surveys and other survey or process analyses.


Identification of training needs (ITN) Identification of training needs (ITN), if done properly, provides the basis on which all other training activities can be considered. Also requiring careful thought and analysis, it is a process that needs to be carried out with sensitivity: peoples learning important to them, and the success or the organization may by to stake. It is important to know exactly what you are doing, and why, when undertaking ITN. This is the reason we have included material to help you make considered decision and take thoughtful action. You will find, however, that the return on the investment you make in fully understanding what ITN is all about will make it well worth while.



In GE Capital across training is customized product wise. If any defect comes in a product or process, a training session is initiated to eradicate root cause. There are normally two work stations in production, Critical station Normal station

At critical work station an efficient worker should produce 5000 to 6000 units in one shift. At this work station minor job is done.

At normal work station an efficient worker should be produce 8000 to 10000 units in one shift in normal circumstances.

In this company there are two types of worker are working. Permanent worker Temporary worker

A worker get the permanent job after the good and consistent performance in the company, these people are well experienced in their relative jobs. Temporary worker is a layman. They dont know any thing about the work, so these types of people require training. When a new person joins the company, he got the training about the safety and maintenance. For getting these training he is send in technical training cell (TTC). In TTC he has to go some basic knowledge and instruction, which is given by the just senior boss. That person is called line in charge. During the training a person gets the job. He is watched by the line in charge. At any point the line in charged found any fault in the work, the line in charge instructed at that time, so that the worker does the job in a proper way and come out with zero-defect product.


After the TTC training employees are divided among various teams and send to the different operations, on the different operations. A line-in charge is there, who will watch each and every steps during the work. If any fault in the work is found, he takes that serious and instructs to remove the fault immediately.

After some experience the worker is transferred from one operation to another operation area. Where same procedure is performed. He works and if get any confusion regarding the job, he may ask the line in charge or if line in charge see any fault during the operation, he educates the worker to do the job better. This process is repeated on each and every operation. This is how each and every employee is familiarized to the job . The main advantage of this job rotation is, if any worker does not come on the particular day, that place can be filled by any other worker and the works progress without any interruption.

After job rotation and getting experienced the entire worker divided into three groups, Highly efficient Efficient Adequate If a person can handle all the machines related to any particular job. That worker is called highly efficient worker. After getting training 40% out of them became as highly efficient worker. These workers are very efficient and can handle any situation during the work. He can work on any machine at any time without any problem. These people can take decision at the critical point of time. So that these type of worker are called highly efficient worker. After highly efficient the second category is called efficient. In this category those type of person are master in their job. He is master in one job. In this category 50% worker comes. These types of people are well known people in their particular job. They are not able to handle the different machines. They feel problem in some job.


After that the third category comes, that is called adequate. This type is not beneficial for the company. So that they are not acceptable. They have less knowledge and not will to work.

Highly efficient person is well-known about their job. He can handle any situation. So that this type of people doesnt require training.

Efficient people are master of just on job. So that they need training to be highly efficient worker.

Company is giving training to the efficient worker. For them there are three types of training; Counseling Give the opportunity to work with highly efficient worker. Give the expert knowledge about the work.

In counseling the instructor or line in charge counsel the worker. A line in charge tries to motivate the worker to do their job in proper way. This is a verbal communication. With the help of words a senior person tries to make them as effective as highly efficient worker. The second option provide them opportunity to work with highly efficient people helps those people to learn. During the work he can watch how the highly efficient people work? How can they handle the situation? They got the idea about the problem, which may be arising during the work. They also get the idea about dealing those types of problems. This way an efficient worker is developed to be highly efficient worker.

Before start working every worker should get the knowledge about the job profile. Without proper knowledge no one can perform better. There must be some defective in the product due to less knowledge about the production process. So specific knowledge is


essential for zero-defect product. This is the duty of management to educate them and provide full knowledge about the production process and quality control.

For adequate people company has some other way for giving them training. The work pressure is the best way for make them work. Under this the adequate person is send to work between two highly efficient workers. Highly efficient people can work faster than adequate person. So from both sides he faces the pressure for work faster and effectively. This way an adequate worker can be the efficient and highly efficient worker for company. In any company some factor effect the training: Strategies changes Technical changes Matter of cost saving

If the top management of the company want to change their strategies. Here company wants trained people for work. So firstly company looked for the experienced people, but it is very difficult to get trained people. So they hired semi- skilled people and after joining them they give them training. So that this can work effectively and according to the requirement of the company.

If company wants some technical change in product, they also require trained people for work. Technical change requires more technical people. If company wants to retain the same people who are working form last some times then company has to give them training. After getting training a worker can adjust in any environment and work effectively. Todays era is the cost cutting era. In the intensive competition cost of the product is very important. We cant survive in the market with high cost. So we need to cut the cost of the product. For cutting the cost we need more trained worker who can work faster and quickly. So that the production time can be reduced. At lastly we can get the low price product. 23

So that in every area we need trained people. For getting trained people we have to make them trained by giving training.



The objective of the project is to study training and development in company. As we know that training is an important factor for growing because growth is lifeline for the company.

The main motto of this project was to know, how company conducts training program. What are the basic requirements during this process? How does the company come to know that some body needs training? After providing them training analysis is required. Analysis makes the management aware of the workers or staffs whosoever had gone through the training. Development is the main objective of any training. If there is no any development, the objective of training is not achieved. So for achieving the objective, development is very much required.

The way of analyzing of the training should be carefully developed. Because a good analysis reflects the true figure of the development of trainees. How the company analyses the training is a subject to be learnt.

So the ultimate goal of this project is to study the way of providing training as well as the way of measure the development of trainees in GE Capital



Research works involve a systematic process. There must be well-defined procedure for each and every research work, which always need a set of methodologies.

The methodology for any research work constitutes the selection of representative sample from the whole of the universe (or population) and also, applying appropriate tools and techniques of research.

This research work was carried out in two stages :-

Firstly, an intense Literature Survey was done from the GE Capital Training Manuals and;

Secondly, the research was carried out by means of filling up of questionnaires. For the purpose of data collection, two sets of questionnaires were prepared. One for the trainees and other for their reporting officers.

After preparing the questionnaire on the basis of research design, it was firstly tested on six respondents. After getting the responses, certain modifications were done to make it more focused and also, free-flowing. The sampling was Disproportionate Stratified Random Sampling, departments like : PE Hydro, PE Civil, PE Electrical, PE Mechanical, Water System Group, SG Group, Cost Engineering, CSD, New Project Group, etc., were covered to look for the respondents who have completed their 3 to 5 months back.

Research Instrument :26

The research instrument was structured questionnaire with the choice of open-ended and close-ended questions.

Field data :-

The field data has been collected by personally administering the questionnaire of the topic.

Sampling Plan :-

Sampling Unit :-

Each respondent was considered as a single unit in the whole research work.

Sampling size :-

The sampling size or the universe of the research work was 100 trainees & 15 reporting officers.

Sampling procedure :To obtain the representation samples, Disproportionate Stratified Random Sampling was used. This means that respondents were selected randomly without any well defined proportions from various departments of the organization.

Information sources :-


The information sources were as follows:

1) Primary Information Sources :-

Survey of the employees who underwent training programs 3-5 months back by giving them Questionnaires and collecting their feedback.

b) Survey of the Reporting Officers of the trainees.

2) Secondary Information Sources :-

Training Calendar of GE Capital.

Participants List.

Various books at GE Capital Library.


There is various methodology of training. No single technique is always best. The best method depends on Cost effectiveness Desired program content Learning principles Appropriateness of the facilities Trainee preferences and capabilities Trainer preferences and capabilities There is a range of teaching methods available to trainer. The choice of a method is a matter of experience and competence of the instructor and his judgment of how much and what a particular group of trainees would learn from using one method or another.

Factors which affect the choice of training method:

The choice of methods depends on the knowledge and experience of the teacher or trainer. The choice of the methods should take into consideration the intellectual level and educational background of the participants and the participants age practical experience. Some methods are more effective than others in achieving certain objective. Choice methods depend on the social and cultural factors in the environment. Now many participative methods are accepted and used in management training. It also depends on the time and the availability of resources and infrastructural facilities. Types of training Job instruction training Job rotation Apprenticeships Coaching Vestibule training 29

Induction or Orientation training: Induction or orientation may be defined as a process of guiding and counseling the employee to familiarize him with job situations. The induction process accomplishes several objectives including formation of a favorable impression and attitude, development of the feeling of belongingness and facilitation of learning and teamwork on the part of the employees. The content of the induction program should be predetermined in the form of a checklist specifying the topics to be covered. Attempts are to be made to follow-up and assess the program by interviewing the new employees as a measure to correct the gaps in the knowledge and attitude of the employees.

Rank-and-File job training: This is based on similarities in training on several specific jobs. This type of training can be imparted in a classroom or on the job. It is performed by a foreman or a group leader. Its advantages arise in so far as it is realistic and economical and does not hamper production as well as necessitate from classroom to job situations. Limitations of rank-and-file job training: The trainer may be an incompetent teacher The shop floor may be busy There may arise heavy production losses.

Supervisory training: Supervisory training needs reveal utmost divergence in view of divergent duties of supervisors. Employee attitude surveys help in identifying area of supervisory training. Likewise, supervisors themselves may be requested to indicate the areas where they need training. Frequently, these surveys indicate that supervisors need training in human relations, production control, company policies and how to instruct. Supervisory courses consist of job methods training (JMT) and job relations training (JRT). The JMT helps the supervisors to improve methods in their departments, while the JRT helps them in handling human relations problems in their departments.


ON THE JOB TRAINING: On the fob techniques are conducted in the real job settings. On the job methods usually involve training in the total job. These methods are typically conducted by individuals, workers, supervisors. The main advantage is that the trainees learn while actually performing their work, which may minimize the training cost. They also learn in the same physical and social environment in which they will be working once the formal training period is completed.

Types of on the job techniques: Job instruction training Job rotation Apprenticeship Coaching Vestibule training

Job instruction training: Job instruction training (JIT) is received directly on the job and so it is called on the job training it is used primarily to teach workers how to do their current jobs. The worker learns to master the operation involved on the actual job situation under the supervision of his immediate boss who has to carry the primary burden of conducting the training. Usually no special equipment or space is needed, since now employees are trained at the actual job location.

Steps of job instruction training: The trainee receives an overview of the job, its purpose and its desired outcomes with an emphasis on the relevance of the training. Since the employee is shown the action that the job requires, the training is transferable to the job. The employee is allowed to mimic the trainers example. Demonstration by the trainer and practice by the trainee are repeated until the job is mastered. Repeated demonstrations and practice provide repetition and feedback. Finally the employee


performs the job without supervision, although the trainer may visit the employee to see if there are any lingering questions.

Advantages: Easy organized Realistic Stimulates high motivation Speeds up workers adjustment Less costly

Disadvantages: The disadvantage of this method is that the assigned instructor may be a poor teacher. The worker may haste for immediate production, so the actual cost may increase.

JOB ROTATION: Some trainers move a trainee from job to job. Each worker move normally is preceded by job instruction training. This is a method of training wherein workers rotate through a variety of jobs. Thereby providing them a wide exposure. Trainees are placed in different jobs in different parts of the organization for a specified period of time. They may spend several days or even years in different company locations. In this way they get an overall perspective of the organization. It is used with both blue-collar production workers and white collar managers and it has many organizational benefits. Job rotation creates flexibility, during manpower shortages, workers have the skills to step in and fill open slots. The method also provides new and different work on a systematic basis, giving employees a variety of experiences and challenges. Employees also increase their flexibility and marketability because they can perform a wide array of tasks.

Limitation of job rotation: The major drawback of this, it is time consuming and expensive too.

Apprenticeship: 32

An apprentice is a worker who is learning a trade but who has not reached the state where he is competent to work without supervision. It is particularly common in the skilled trades. In organization a new worker is tutored by an established worker for a long period of time. An apprenticeship lasts from two to five years. Each apprentice is usually given a workbook consisting of reading materials, tests to be taken and practice problem to be solved. This training is used in such trades, crafts and technical fields in which proficiency can be acquired after a relatively long period of time in direct association with the work and under the direct supervision of experts. Training is intense, lengthy and usually on a one to one basis.

Increasing national attention is being paid to workforce preparation in the United States. This stems from the growing realization that America's ability to occupy a leading competitive position in the emerging global economy hinges, to a large degree, on assuring that the nation's workforce is second to none. Today, unfortunately, this is not the case. Employers frequently report that significant numbers of young people and adults alike exhibit serious educational deficiencies and are ill-equipped to perform effectively in the workplace. As a consequence, leaders from industry, labor, education, and government are all grappling with how to design educational reforms and education/training strategies that will improve the skills of America's current and future workforce. In the spirit of this reform, one particular training strategy -- apprenticeship -- has captured the interest of many policy makers, educators, and others who are involved in the national reform movement. Its growing appeal comes as no surprise and, perhaps, is long overdue. Experience both in the U.S. and growing abroad has repeatedly demonstrated that apprenticeship is a highly effective strategy for preparing people for work. The bulk of apprenticeship programs offered in the U.S. and its territories are in the building trades and manufacturing industries, but there is significant potential to develop apprenticeship programs in a variety of other industries.


The rush to embrace apprenticeship, however, is leading to efforts that could undermine the very pillars of its value. For example, in some instances, apprenticeship is being viewed as a generic concept -- one that can be loosely applied to a variety of learning situations. Likewise, others have coined such terms as "youth apprenticeship" to characterize various school-to-work transition programs. Such thinking, while understandable in an environment that begs for creativity and innovation, may be more harmful than helpful to the cause. What Apprenticeship Is: The Essential Components Apprenticeship is a training strategy that a) combines supervised, structured on-the-job training with related theoretical instruction and b) is sponsored by employers or labor. Management groups that have the ability to hire and train in a work environment. Apprenticeship is a training strategy that prepares people for skilled employment by conducting a training in a bona fide and documented employment settings. The content of training, both on-the-job and related instruction, is defined and dictated by the needs of the industry, which refers to all types of business/workplace settings. The length of training is determined by the needs of the specific occupation within an industry. In the building trades, for example, some apprenticeship programs are as long as five years with up to 240 hours of related instruction per year. Apprenticeship is a training strategy with requirements that are clearly delineated in Federal and State laws and regulations. The National Apprenticeship Act of 1937 (also known as the Fitzgerald Act) and numerous State laws provide the basis for the operation of formal apprenticeship training programs in the U.S.; regulations that implement these laws are in force today. These laws and regulations establish minimum requirements for protecting the welfare of the apprentice such as the length of training, the type and amount of related instruction, supervision of the apprentice, appropriate ratios of apprentices to journeypersons, apprentice selection and recruitment procedures, wage progression, safety, etc.


Apprenticeship is a training strategy that by virtue of a legal contract (indenture) leads to a Certificate of Completion and official journeyperson status. These credentials have explicit meaning, recognition and respect in the eyes of Federal and State governments and relevant industries. Apprenticeship is a training strategy that involves tangible and generally sizable investment on the part of the employer or labor/management program sponsor. Apprenticeship is a training strategy that pays wages to its participants at least during the on-the-job training phase of their apprenticeship and that increases these wages throughout the training program in accordance with a predefined wage progression scale. Apprenticeship is a training strategy that involves a written agreement and an implicit social obligation between the program sponsor and the apprentice. The written agreement, which is signed by both the apprentice and the program sponsor and is ratified by government, details the roles and responsibilities of each party. The implicit social obligation gives employers or program sponsors the right to expect to employ the apprentice upon completion of training given the investment in training and gives the apprentice a reasonable right to expect such employment. Labor market conditions should guide the size of training programs to enable each party to maintain his or her side of the obligation. What Apprenticeship Is Not Unless they conform to the essential components described previously, apprenticeship is no cooperative education, vocational education, tech prep, two plus two (three or four), summer or part-time work experiences or any other myriad training strategies that many are promoting as ways to assure adequate workforce preparation. Such strategies undoubtedly have value in their own right, but they are not apprenticeship. What distinguishes apprenticeship from most of these other approaches are such fundamental qualities as training program sponsorship and location, the skills required, the value attached to the credential earned, curricula content that is defined exclusively by the workplace, wage requirements, the written agreement, and the implicit social contract 35

that exists between program sponsors and their participants. No other training strategy provides for this unique combination of characteristics. When a person completes a registered apprenticeship program, he or she is prepared to go to work as a fully trained, competent journeyperson whose skills enable him or her to perform effectively in the workplace. Few, if any, other types of educational programs can make this claim.

A Policy Recommendation As the education and training system in this country undergoes its restructuring, how apprenticeship fits in must be considered. Some may argue that the definition of apprenticeship should be boarded to encompass some or all of the previously described alternative training strategies. Unfortunately, this could have the practical effect of seriously undermining a tried and true training strategy -- on that, ironically, exhibits all ten qualities that reformers are striving to achieve in new training designs. Of particular concern is the possibility that an expanded definition could significantly dilute the value and meaning attached to the apprenticeship credential. Today, an apprentice who earns a Certificate of Completion and attains journey worker status from a registered apprenticeship program knows that he or she has acquired industry-defined skills at industry-accepted standards of performance and can reasonably expect to be gainfully employed in his or her occupational area. If alternative training strategies (ones that do not fully conform to the essential components) are also permitted to call themselves "apprenticeship," the apprenticeship credential stands to become devalued. Such a step makes little sense at a time when other credentials -- such as high school diplomas -- have lost much of their meaning.

Thus, we conclude that their term "apprenticeship" should be reserved only for those programs that adhere to the eight essential components described previously. Other strategies may seek to adopt designs that conform to all the essential components, in which case they may be called apprenticeship. But to call any other types of programs "apprenticeship" is to do a major disservice to the participants in such programs. Whether intentional or not, the participants may be misled into thinking that completion of these 36

programs will allow them to reap the benefits accorded to graduates of true apprenticeship programs.

Clearly, we are on the verge of a major revolution with respect to how America prepares its workforce. As a new national training system emerges in the coming years, considerable thought should be given to the role of true apprenticeship in that new system. One on hand, apprenticeship could be the locomotive that drives this training system. Under this scenario, apprenticeship programs would serve as the principal form of training for preparing the majority of the nation's workforce. Alternatively, apprenticeship may become one of several cars on a train that provides a variety of training options to existing and future workers. This choice requires further study and broader deliberation, but, whatever the outcome, the integrity of the term "apprenticeship" should not be jeopardized or compromised.

Coaching: At management levels Coaching of immediate subordinates by their managers is common. A coach attempts to provide a model for the trainee to copy it tends to be less formal than an apprenticeship program. Coaching is almost always handled by the supervisor or manager. It is likely not to be as directive approaches such as nondirective counseling or sensitivity training. If the trainees shortcomings are emotional or personal. Coaching will be ineffective if relations between trainee and coach are ambiguous in that the trainee cannot trust the coach. Coaching thrives in a climate of confidence, a climate in which subordinates respect the integrity and capability of their superiors.

Vestibule training: Vestibule training is a type of instruction often found in production work. A vestibule consists of training equipment that is set up a short distance from the actual production line. Trainees can practice in the vestibule without getting in the way or slowing down


the production line. These special training areas are usually used for skilled and semiskilled jobs, particularly those involving technical equipment. Vestibule is small, so relatively few people can be trained at the same time. The method is good for promoting practice a learning principle involving the repetition of behavior.

OFF-THE JOB TRAINING: Off the job method are those training and development programs that take place away from the daily pressures of the job and conducted by highly competent outside resource people who often serve as trainers, which is one of the main advantages of this method. The major drawback of this is the transfer problem.

Types of off the job training: Lectures consist of meeting in which one small number of those present actually plays an active part. The lecture method is a popular form of instruction in educational institution. The lecturer may be a member of the company or a guest speaker. Before preparing the lecture some points should be considered. Who is your audience? What is your audience? What is the time available? What is the subject mater?

The lecture should be brief and to the point, presenting the theme of the subject in a manner that arouses the interest of the audience from the start. The speaker should be poised, courteous and sincere. The action should be spontaneous. The role of a lecturer is make difficult things simple, not the reverse.

Limitation of the lecture method: It gives very little opportunity for active practice, development, over learning, knowledge or results or transfer of learning. In this method trainee himself or herself have to understand and personalize the content of the lecture. It is not suitable for courses where people with work experience are participating. This method involves one-way 38

communication, which is not interaction of the audience. This method cant readily adopt itself to individual differences, which may arise farthest from reality.

Audio-visual techniques: Audio-visual techniques covers an array of tainting techniques, such as films, slides and videotapes. It allows seeing while listening and is usually quite good at capturing their interests. These methods allow a trainers message to be uniformly given to numerous organizational locations at one time and to be reused as often a required.

Available devices used in lecture techniques: Blackboard Flip chart Magnetic board Flannel board Overhead projector Conference or discussion method: This method encourages the participation of all members of the group in an exchange of opinions, ideas and criticisms. It is a small group discussion in which the leader plays a neutral role providing guidance and feedback. Inspite of the intention to encourage general participation the conferences are frequently dominated by a few, with the majority no more active than they would be at a lecture. It is more effective than the lecture in changing adult behavior and also modifying attitudes. The conference method can draw on the learning principles of motivation and feedback. It is used to enhance knowledge or attitudinal development.

Main objectives of conference method: Developing the decision making and problem solving skills of personnel Changing or modifying attitudes Presenting new and sometimes complicated material

Role playing 39

Active participation rather than passive reception facilitate learnings. Role-playing believes in active participation. This is a training method often aimed at enhancing either human relations skills or sales techniques. Role-playing can be defined as an educational or therapeutic technique in which some problems involving human interaction, real or imaginary is presented and then spontaneously acted out. Participants suggest how the problem should be handled more effectively in the future. This acting out is followed by discussion and analysis to determine what happened and why and, if necessary, how the problem could be better handled in future.

Role-playing is less tightly structured than acting, where performers have to say set lines on sue. Participants are assigned roles in the scenario to be enacted, so , in this way, it is a device that forces trainees to assume different identities. Usually participants exaggerate each others behavior. Ideally, they get to see themselves as others see them.

The typical Role Involves Three Phases The Warm Up : the objective of the warm-up is to get the trainees participate in a constructive manner with minimum anxiety and maximum motivation. The trainers introduction to the session should be such that it would arouse interest of trainees. The Enactment: before conducting the role-play-enactment, the trainer should carry out the following:Read aloud generation information, (B) Those who have volunteered to role play are given briefing sheets and sent out of the room with the instruction not to communicate amongst themselves, (C) The instructor should clarify all the doubts that role player might have, (D) Role players take their positions facing the class, (E) To begin the role play, the trainer sets the scene by restating the identify of the roles being enacted and making a brief statement about what has just happened when the action began. Post Enactment Discussion: in conducting post enactment discussion, reaction to role play should be obtained form the people who have acted a role play. Role playing has been shown to be effective (I)in studying small group leadership skills,(ii) increasing sensitivity to the motivation of others, (iii)improving interviewing 40

skills, (iv) enhancing ability to develop innovative solutions to human relation problems, and (v) modifying attitudes.

Case Study By studying a case situation, trainees learn about real of hypothetical circumstances and the actions others take under those circumstances. Beside learning from the content of the case, a person can develop decision making skills. Case method is an excellent medium for developing analytical skills. Cases are usually organized around one or more problems or issues that are confronted by an organization. Cases can range from one page to over fifty pages.

Feedback and repetition, are usually lacking. One inherent difficulty is personal bias. This method calls for skills with language. But many people are sent to case study courses primarily because they lack communication skills.

When cases are meaningful an similar to work related situations, there is some transference. There also is the advantage of participation through discussion of the case. It improves participants skills in problem analysis, communication and particularly brings home to the participant that nothing is absolutely right or wrong in the field of human behavior. Survey results indicate that the case method is considered by training directors to be the best methods of developing problem solving skills.

Simulation Simulation is an approach that replicates certain essential characteristics of the real world organization so that the trainees can react to it as if it were the real thing and then consequently transfer what has been learned to their job. Simulation training is based on a reproduction of some aspect of job reality. Simulation usually enhance cognitive skills, particularly decision making. A very popular training technique for higher level hobs in which the employee must process large amounts of information.


Simulations have many forms- some use expensive, technical equipment, while others are far less costly. Some simulations need only one participant, others may involve as many as 15-20 people working together as a team. Simulations are a broad based training techniques that can be adapted to suit a companys need. By using the equipment simulators, workers can practice new behaviors and operate certain complex equipments free of danger to themselves. Equipment simulators can range from simple mock-ups to computer based simulations of complete environments. Some of them are utilized to train a single individual and the others are used for team training. Programmed instruction is a training approach which makes the advantages of private tutoring available to large groups of students beings trained in new skills. Programmed instruction is one of the innovations in teaching technology developed in recent years. The methods involves an actual piece of equipment, usually called Teaching machine, of a specially constructed paper booklet.

The participants are active in the training process. In fact they determine their own learning pace. What is to be learned involves many discrete pieces of material, and the participants get immediate feedback on whether they have learned each piece.

The major advantage of programmed instruction is that is reduces the training time. The learning takes place at the students own pace. Participants get immediate feedback. The participants are active learners, there is constant exchange of information between themselves and the programme. Fast learners do not have to wait for slow ones to catch up. Administrative simplicity and increased productivity in training result in lower training cost per student.

The biggest disadvantage of this method is the absence of a teacher. The book becomes the teacher. Hence it is absolutely essential that the trainee is highly motivated to continue learning. The material has to be broken down into a logical sequence, since there may be several correct ways to perform the task. This methods does not appear to


improve training performance in terms of immediate learning of retention over a time compares with conventional methods.

Computer Assisted instruction It is one of the newest developments in instructional methodology. It is a logical extension of programmed instruction and shares many of its benefits. C. A. I. Has the advantage of individual pace instruction and a considerably wider range of application. It requires less time to teach the same amount of information than any conventional method. Trainees also react favorably to this method. The computer is capable of assessing the progress of the trainee and can also adapt to his/her need by virtue of its storage and memory capacities. This method offers advantages of standard presentation of materials to all trainees standard, structured practices, and instant, specific feed back. The major drawback to C. A. I. For most organizations probably is the initial expense.

Syndicate Method Working in small group to achieve a particular purpose is described as a syndicate method. The essence of this method is that participants learn from each other and contribute their own experience to the fullest. The syndicate method is designed to provide the participant an environment that would help him to reflect critically on his own work and experience; to update his knowledge of new concepts and techniques with the help of other co-participants; to develop sound judgement through greater insight into human behavior. This method is suitable for training and development students, without any experience. The participants are divided into groups consisting of about eight to ten participants. These groups are called syndicates. Each syndicate functions as a team that can represent various functional as well as interest areas. The syndicates are given assignments which have to be finished and a report submitted by a specified date and time. By rotation each member of the syndicate becomes the leader for completing a specific task. Each assignment to a syndicate is given in the form of a Brief. This is a carefully prepared document by the faculty. Generally, each syndicate is required to submit a report which is circulated to other syndicates for critical evaluation. 43

The advantages of this method is that it secures a very high level of involvement from the participants. Their own experience is the starting point in this method. It is a process of self business and development for participants. This method also gives the participant a practice in communicating with his colleagues and understanding them.

If the syndicate is not structured properly, it should lead to a lot of wastage of time and cause frustration. In the absence of proper pressure on the participants by trainers or participants themselves, some participants might start dragging their feet. Differences of opinion or viewpoint may be ignored to avoid action.

Behavior Modeling According to social learning theory, most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling. When social learning theory is applied in industrial training programmes, it is commonly referred to as behavior modeling. Used behavior modelling to improve the interpersonal and communication skills of supervisors in dealing with their employees. The topic was first introduction by the trainers after which a film was shown to the trainees which depicted a supervisor model effectively handing a situation, followed by a set of three to six learning parts that were shown in the film immediately before and after the model was presented. A group discussion is them held in which the effectiveness of the method is discussed. After this, the practice session starts in which one of the trainee assumes the role of an employee. And then, feedback from the training class is given on the effectiveness of each trainee in demonstrating the desired behavior. At the end of each training session, the trainees are given copies of the learning points and are asked to try and apply them to their jobs during the following week. It has been found that this programme has had desirable effects on learning, behavior and performance criteria.

There creation of the behavior may be videotaped so that the trainer and the trainee can review and critique it. When watching the ideal behavior, the trainee also gets to see the 44

negative consequences that befall someone who does not use it as recommended. By observing the positive and negative consequences, the employee receives vicarious reinforcement that encourages the correct behavior.

12.Fish Bowl Exercise it is essentially used in providing skills in understanding human behavior. It effectively uses group interaction to develop in the participants a degree of self awareness. The primary objectives of the method is to inculcate in the participants the discipline of observing others and on the basis of this, provide objective and constructive feedback and to learn about oneself, ones behavior and personality as seen through the eyes of others and consequently to overcome weaknesses and improve upon strengths.

The aspects to which the fish bowl exercise can be put to effective use are; individual and group behaviour , content of communication, roles individuals paly in groups, intergroup conflicts, level of participation, dynamics of group problem solving and decision making and, inter personal relations.

The exercise can involve up to 25 participants seated in two concentric circles( one inner, the outer).the inner circle is the target group, members of this group will either discuss a preselected topic or move towards completion of a group task. After the discussion by the members of the inner group, the outer group is asked to comment on the content and more importantly the dynamics and group process of the inner group members Participants must learn to provide feedback with clarity and precision. Feedback must never be critical or it loses its constructive nature. After one cycle of the exercise is completed the outer group will change palces with the inner group and become the target group , inner group member become observers and the exercise is repeated. There are several non-group methods involving an assessment of each individuals strengths and weaknesses.


Counselling: It helps the trainees to observe their weaknessed and involves measures to overcome them. It is related to periodic appraisals of ratings. Specifically counselling purports to help the subordinates to do a better job, provides a clear picture of how they are doing, build strong personal relationships and eliminate, of at least minimize anxiety.

Understudies System: In this the trainees work directly with individuals whom they are likely to

replace. However, it is disappointing as a training because of a likelihood of an imitation of weak as well as strong points of the seniors.

Special Project Arrangements; These are likely to be highly effective training systems. In these systems, a task force is built representing varied functions in the company. The special project enable the trainees to achieve knowledge of the subject assigned as well as to learn how to deal with others having varied viewpoints.



Proper training can be as important as the equipment used and other characteristics of the job.

The money annually paid for training by business and industry also demonstrates the importance of training. It has been estimated that American business firms spend more than $30 billion per year on training and development, with some estimates running as high as $100 billion Motorola, Inc. alone spends about $44 million annually on employee education.

Another indication of the importance business and industrial firms attach to training is the estimate, made a few years ago, that some forty five thousand employees across the United States were assigned full-time to training and development activities. Since then the figures have no doubt grown.

This broad definition of training includes both skills training, which is usually of a technical nature and has a short-term focus, and management and career development programs, which are aimed at educating employees above and beyond the immediate technical requirements of their jobs in order to increase the organizations present and future ability to attain its goals. Thus, management and career development tend to be more future oriented than skills training.

The purpose of skills training is to bring the competencies of individuals up to desired standards for present or near-future assignments & develop new skills and knowledge to replace those that have become obsolete as a result of technological organizational changes.

The seven major steps, as shown in figure are the following:Determining the need for skills training 47

Translating skills needs into training objectives Formulating the budget Selecting trainees Choosing a training method Selecting and educating trainers Determining evaluation procedures


What Is 5S? The five S stand for the five first letters of these Japanese words: M ea ni n g

Se S iri or t

Se Se it t o in n O rd er

Se S is hi o ne

Se St ik a


et n su d ar di za ti o n

S S hi us ts ta u in ke Calling this principle 5S is a good way to remember its content.

5S is a set of techniques providing a standard approach to housekeeping within Lean Manufacturing.

It is often promoted as being far more than simply housekeeping and some of the elements described below certainly move into broader areas. A cornerstone of 5S is that untidy, cluttered work areas are not productive. As well as the physical implications of junk getting in everybody's way and dirt compromising quality, people are happier in a clean and tidy environment and hence more inclined to work hard and with due care and attention. Naturally enough, the elements of 5S are all Japanese words beginning with the letter S. Since their adoption within Western implementations of JIT, or Lean Manufacturing, various anglicized versions of the terms have been adopted by different writers and


educators. These are listed below against the individual elements and it can be seen that none are entirely satisfactory. There are some symptoms by which we are able to know that we require 5s training methodology. Space is crowded with parts and tools. Unneeded items are stacked between workers. Excess inventory on the floor. Excess items and machines make it difficult to improve process low. Equipment is dirty and a collection point for miscellaneous materials. Needed equipment such as tools is difficult to find.

5S Training Housekeeping "pillars" The individual items within 5S are known as the "pillars" and are: Seiri (Sort) Seiri is the identification of the best physical Organization of the workplace. It has been variously anglicized as Sort, Systematization or Simplify by those wishing to retain the S as the initial letter of each element. It is the series of steps by which we identify things which are being held in the workplace when they shouldn't, or are being held in the wrong area of the workplace. Put simply, we may identify a large area devoted to tools or gauges, some of which are needed regularly and some used infrequently. This brings all sorts of problems, including: Operators unable to find the item they need, being unable to see wood for trees. The time spent searching is a waste (or in Japanese lean-speak a muda) and if we only held the items needed regularly in a prominent position we would save time.


Quality issues when gauges are not calibrated on time because too many are held. Safety issues when people fall over things. Lockers and racking cluttering the production area making it hard for people to move around or to see each other and communicate. Some of the standard texts also talk about the elimination of excess materials and WIP. This is a complete restatement of all the JIT goals of releasing capital, reduced movement, shorter cycle times and so on. The question may be asked: should we then see inventory and WIP reduction as part of the implementation of the lean approach or as an element of 5S? The answer, as ever, is that keeping inventory and WIP to a minimum is simple best practice. Whether we view it as JIT, or lean, or 5S or assign any other term is quite frankly irrelevant. The major element of Seiri is simply a critical look at the area. Involving crossfunctional teams, or getting people to look at each other's areas, is an obvious first step. People tend to be blind to failings in their own area and a fresh pair of eyes can be useful. Another element of the standard approach is 'red tagging' where items are given a tag which says what the item is, which location it is in and when it was identified in this location. We then leave the area for a while and anybody using the item notes this. We go back some time later and can readily identify things that haven't moved, or been used. Items which have not been used can then potentially be disposed of. As a first pass we should perhaps create a quarantine area before throwing items away, selling them or reworking them into something else. Other items may be deemed necessary but used infrequently and so an alternative location can be found. If the operator needs a particular tool only once or twice a month then a 20-yard walk is not a problem - especially if the space thus saved on the workbench helps to make the area more productive, or helps address quality issues.


Seiton (Set in Order) Seiton is the series of steps by which the optimum organisation identified in the first pillar are put into place. The standard translation is Orderliness but again some wish to keep the initial S and use Sort (yes, that is also one of the translations of Seiri), Set in order, Straighten and Standardisation. The sorting out process is essentially a continuation of that described in the Seiri phase. Removing items to be discarded or held in an alternative location will create space. This space will be visible and facilitate the alternative layout of the area. In some cases, of course, we are talking about what a fitter will have on his bench, or in racks alongside the bench. In other cases we may be considering where we should locate a piece of plant - for example we may relocate a coin press to enable items to be completed in one work area rather than requiring a significant movement down the shop. This is something which we also undertake when adopting cellular manufacturing. We then look at how we can restructure the work content so that certain operations can be carried out within the cycle of others - for example we may carry out a trimming operation on a steel component while the press which produced it is busy creating the next one. Again, is this a 5S initiative, or part of a kaizen programme, or something else? Again, who cares, as long as we get on and achieve an improvement in business performance? Standardization includes all the elements of setting out a consistent way of doing things. This includes standard manufacturing methodologies, standard equipment and tooling, component rationalisation, drawing standardisation, consistency in the documentation which accompanies work, design for manufacture (or concurrent engineering) and standardisation in the clerical processes which deliver work to the shop floor and track its progress.


All of this could be said to be part of a basic Total Quality approach. The standard ways of doing things should include poka-yoke or error-proofing. Again it might be asked whether this is part of 5S or one aspect of a broader programme. Seiso (Shine) Anglicised as Cleanliness but again the initial S can be retained in Shine, or Sweeping. The principle here is that people are happier and hence more productive in clean, bright environments. There is a more practical element in that if everything is clean it is immediately ready for use. We would not want a precision product to be adjusted by a spanner that is covered in grease which may get into some pneumatic or hydraulic fittings. We would not wish to compromise a PCB assembly by metallic dust picked up from an unclean work surface. Other issues are health and safety (people perhaps slipping in a puddle of oil, shavings blowing into people's eyes) and machine tools damaged by coolant contaminated by grease and dust. The task is to establish the maintenance of a clean environment as an ongoing, continuous programme.

Some time should be set aside for cleaning each day, or each shift. (We may have cleaners who come in a sweep office floors, and even clean the floor in a production area, but they do not clean the production equipment. Even if they did, this would miss one of the opportunities available - an operator cleaning and lubricating his machine tool will spot worn or damaged components.) Cleaning then begins to impinge upon what we already know as preventive maintenance. Cleaning critical components of a piece of equipment is already one element of the activities carried out under the PM banner.

The implementation of Seiso revolves around two main elements.


The first is the assignment map which identifies who is responsible for which areas. The second is the schedule which says who does what at which times and on which days. Some of these happen before a shift begins, some during the shift and some at the end. Again, this is very reminiscent of what we do when adopting PM. The standard texts such as that of Hiroyuki Hirano then go on to talk about establishing the shine method for each item / area. This includes such elements as agreeing an inspection step at the beginning of each shift, establishing exactly how each activity within the programme is to be carried out. A key aspect is very much akin to set-up reduction (or SMED) in that we should be aiming as much as possible to internalise the activities - in other words, to minimise the downtime needed to keep the facilities clean. Finally the standard texts talk about preparation - making sure the equipment needed to clean is always available, always ready for use. The best parallel to this is, again, with set-up reduction, which itself is often compared to Grand Prix teams preparing to change tyres. As with many such topics, we are talking about here is to a large extent simply common sense. We do not wish to allocate 5 minutes for a bed to be swept on a piece of grinding equipment if the operator is going to spend 4 minutes finding his brush. 5s Seiketsu (Standardization) This is best described as Standardised cleanup, but other names adopted include Standardisation (not to be confused with the second pillar), Systematisation and Sanitation. Seiketsu can be the thought of as the means by which we maintain the first three pillars. There is, obviously, a danger in any improvement activity that once the focus is removed and another 'hot button' grabs management attention, things go back to the way they were before. Seiketsu is the set of techniques adopted to prevent this


happening. Basically this involves setting a schedule by which all the elements are revisited on a regular basis - usually referred to as the '5S Job Cycle.' The first step in the cycle is a periodic review of the area, perhaps involving red tagging but certainly involving people from other areas of the business. This will identify where standards have slipped - for example where pieces of tooling or fixtures which are used infrequently are no longer being put in the remote location agreed at the outset and consequently a bench is now cluttered with the regular items buried under a pile of irregular. (In other words, the Seiri phase is undertaken periodically - usually monthly, perhaps quarterly.) The second step is to undertake Seiton activities as required - that is, as prompted by the first step. Finally within Seiketsu people from other areas visit and cast a critical eye over the state of the area. Again, an external assessor may notice degradation that is not clear to the people who work in the area. Hirano talks of a checklist within Seiketsu whereby the external visitors mark the area on a number of key criteria defined at the outset of the programme. For example, are the storage areas still clearly defined? Does the tool rack still have clear outlines or profiles for each tool to be stored in it? Does the area meet the general standards of cleanliness? Shitsuke (Sustain) The final stage is that of Discipline. For those who wish to retain the use of initial S's in English this is often listed as Sustain or Self-discipline. There is a fundamental difference between Seiketsu and Shitsuke.

The fourth pillar is the introduction of a formal, rigorous review programme to ensure that the benefits of the approach are maintained.

The fifth pillar is more than this; it is not simply the mechanical means by which we continue to monitor and refine, it is the set of approaches we use to win hearts and minds, to make people want to keep applying best practice in shop organisation and housekeeping. In this sense, discipline is perhaps an unfortunate


term as it implies people forced to do something, with consequent penalties if they do not. The way in which management achieves this establishment of ongoing commitment within the workforce depends, of course, on the culture already in place. As with the adoption of kaizen (continuous improvement) or quality circles we have to press the right buttons to stimulate people. If the business has a history of treating people like cattle, giving no credence to their suggestions and simply trying to improve performance by driving the workers ever harder, then enthusiasm for any sort of initiative aimed at building a better environment is going to be hard to generate. There are a number of elements to any ongoing improvement activity in any business. Which take pre-eminence in a particular organisation varies with the history and culture of that organisation. Suffice to say that key points are: Communication. We need people to be aware of what we are trying to achieve, and why. Education. They need to understand the concepts and the individual techniques. Rewards and Recognition. People need to feel that their efforts are recognised. Whether the reward is a senior manager walking past and saying "that's very good, well done" or some form of award (financial gain, prize or formal presentation of a certificate) depends on the organisation. Time. If we want people to spend five minutes every four hours removing swarf from the floor around their machine we have to make sure that we allow them this time. We cannot give this as an instruction yet at the same time push for more time spent achieving productivity targets. Structure. We need to identify what is to be done, by whom, and ensure that schedules are updated and clearly visible. Implementing 5S Would we want to launch 5S as a stand-alone project, as a complete entity? The elements of 5S are all valuable in their own right but they simply form part of the bigger picture of establishing best practice. They sit alongside the other 57

elements of Lean Manufacturing, or Just in Time, or World Class and some of the elements in, for example, Seiton (standardisation) are in fact straight lifts from textbooks on other forms of improvement activity. There is nothing in any 5S material, for example, to give guidance on improving the clerical processes for generating production paperwork following receipt of a sales order! The answer, surely, is to understand 5S as we understand all aspects of other types of improvement and problem-solving activity and then to agree a change programme for our own business. This is not to say that we must not launch a project which we call "5S" - some businesses have more success if improvement initiatives are launched with a generic, well-publicised term as project name. Equally, this is not the best solution in other organisations. Again, the history and culture of the company or the specific plant have to be taken into account when this decision is taken.



Evaluation means the assessment of value or worth. Evaluation of training is the act of judging whether or not it is worthwhile in terms of set criteria. Evaluation of training and development programmes provides assessment of various methods and techniques, sells training to management, identities the weaknesses of training programmes and helps to accomplish the closest possible correlation between the training and the job. A comprehensive and effective evaluation plan is a critical component of any successful training programmes. It should be structured to generate information of the impact of training on the reactions; on the amount of learning that has taken place; on the trainees behaviour; and its contribution to the job/ organization. Therefore, evaluation is a measure of how well training has met the needs of its human resources. To verify programmes success, HR managers increasingly demand that training and development activities be evaluated systematically. A lack of evaluation may be the most serious flaw in most training and development efforts. There are many reasons for this neglecting activity; firstly, many training directors do not have the proper skills to conduct a rigorous evaluation research. Secondly, some managers are just reluctant to evaluate something which they have already convinced themselves is worthwhile. Thirdly, some of the organizations are involved in training not because it is necessary but simply because their competitors are doing it or the unions are demanding it. Fourthly, as training itself is very expensive, the organizations do not want to spend even a penny on the evaluation. Fifthly, some of the training programmes are very difficult to evaluate because the behaviour taught is itself very complex and ambiguous.



In GE Capital. Need based system of importing training is followed. Training is based on the frequency of defects found during the production. Job supervisor is vigilantly

watching each and every product. If he find any defect in the product, he instructs the worker to do right way. If no. of worker are doing same mistake, than all of them are taken in a group and provided training spontaneously & the process in reurded. This way only defective based training is provided by the company.




What types of training have you gone through? (i) Skill Enhancement (ii) Personality Enhancement (iii) IT Related

Total 45 workers have gone through these training programs. 2 out of them got the skill enhancement training, 4 got personality development, and 6 got skill enhancement & personality development program. Out of 45 workers 8 got skill enhancement & IT related training, 11 got personality development & IT related training and rest 14 got all three, skill enhancement, personality development & IT related training.



Please indicate when should the study material be given to the trainees? Before the training After the training

In any training program the material plays an important role. So it should be provided. But the question is that, "when should be the materials be given, before the training or after the training. In the responses of such Question, 30 out of 45 workers say that materials should be given before the training and 15 says that it should be given after the training.



Before started training programme should you go through any test? Yes No

A good trainee is essential for the successful completion of any training program. A good trainee can be selected by the test. So a test is required for selecting appropriate trainees. Responding this 27 out of 45 workers tell that they dont want to go through any test and rest 18 want to go through such test process. The evolution of any program is very much require for the future. It can be done by asking the trainees.



Rate these training programme according to your development.

T P G E r a i n i n g P r o g r a m m e o o o o r d x c e ll e n t

1 . S k il l E n h


a n c e m e n t

2 . P e r s o n a li t y E n h a n c e m e


n t

3 . I T

R e l a t e d

Skill Enhancement:

Responding to skill enhancement programs, 11 out of 45 workers say that the training program was good, 20 say that it ways very good and rest 14 trainees opine that training program was very helpful to enhance their skills and perform their job in batter manner.


Personality Enhancement:

Responding to the personality development questions there are different views of the trainees, 6 out of 45 workers say that the program was good, 18 say that it was very good and 21 workers say that program was excellent.


IT related:

Responding to the IT related development questions trainees are very much conscious about their improvement. 10 out of 45 have good experienced regarding IT development, 13 say that program was very good and rest 22 have excellent experienced regarding IT in the training program.



In your opinion what should be the frequency of the training programme in your

company. Once in a month Once in 6 months Once in 3 Months Once in 12 Months

Frequency of training program:

The experienced of the training program is so impressive that all the trainees very much interested in these types of programs. They want more of such types of training programs. So 7, out of 24 trainees want this type of training in every month .On the other hand 9 trainees want such program once in every three month. 5 out of them want to hold such types of program twice in a year. Rest of them wants to hold this once a year. In my opinion it should be twice a year.



In your opinion what should be the duration of this training programme? 4 Hours 8 Hours 16 Hours 20 Hours

The duration is an important factor for the successful completion of any program. It should be according the requirement of the trainees. 2 out of 45 trainees say that duration should be 4 hours, 6 say that duration can be 8 hours. 10 out of them want 16 hours and rest 27 wants 20 hours for the training program.


After completion of project on training programs and its effectiveness at GE Capital, the following inferences are drawn: Training system at GE Capital has been good and continuously progressing in nature.

The employees are satisfied and praised to management for conducting various and continuous training programs from time to time in various fields like skill development, KAIZEN, etc. and they found these training programs are very useful in developing personality, in reducing absenteeism rate, adapting to management of change, providing ground for innovativeness and creativity etc.

The training instructions, material and environment are quite good and so also the employees of GE Capital found that the applicability of training program is very good.

The employees feel that the training programs increase their knowledge, skill and potential and help them in both, i.e., in job and personal development. This shows that there has been a favourable attitude toward a training program.

Employees are provided with regular constructive feedback concerning their performance during and in the implementation of newly acquired abilities to some extent but there is place of improvement for making it more suitable and effective. Similarly, employees have to pay their attention and involve personally in the training process to make it more effective.

Employees feel that the chance should be given to every employees and needs are analyzed based on the requirements of the job and hence training henceforth.

GE Capital employees of HRD department are fully devoted to their job.


Department is determined to train without any monetary motivation. Department designs programs based in the needs feedback received from various departments and functional heads.



There is no gainsay regarding the training programs enhance the quality of the performance. No one is perfect in his respective field. A full flazed training program makes trainees complete performer in their respective areas.

Every company looks for a worker, who can work effectively. They are in search of a person who has the maximum skills required for the job. After selecting the right person, the companys main aim is to make that person a perfect workman. For this they provide them training.

First of all the management should look for that areas where workers needs training. For this purpose management should keep eyes on each and every activity of the workers and staffs whosoever may need training. This is a long and time taking process. In this way the next step would be to select the trainees. There should develop a mechanism for selecting the trainees. There should be a test for this purpose. This will give the idea about the weak and strong points of trainees. It will be very fruitful in designing the contents of training program.

The printed material is very useful in training. These materials should be given before the training. Written material would provide the overall idea about the training and make the trainees understand better. Before developing the training contents some points should be taken care of. There should be some practical values in that. The training should include new ideas and should be helpful in the development of trainees. It must be relevant to the hob of workers and staffs. In the training process the efficient use of time should be made as time is the most important factor in any job.

The frequency of training program is according to the requirement and convenience of the trainees as well as the management. Workers require more training so they need one in 73

every six month. Staffs required less training in the compression of workers, so they required at least on training program every year.

The duration of any event is the most important, which maker any program successful or fail. It should be according to the needs of the trainees of participants. In my opinion the duration of the training would be 16 hours.



1. TIME FACTOR The study has been completed during a short period of time so it was not possible to study the problems well in detail.

LACK OF AWARENESS The employee has low awareness level about the initiatives and practices by which there is difficulty in collecting the information from employee.

SMALL SAMPLE SIZE There are inabilities to gather information from all the hierarchy levels of organization. Sample size has been taken 15 for officers , 100 for the workers .




Training is a costly affair for the management. It needs a handsome amount and long time. So management has to play safe game for the benefits of the company as well as the workers. One wrong decision may enforce the company to fall into deep troubles. So selecting the weak areas of staffs and workers should be done very carefully. For that the management should be conduct a test.

For providing an effective training, company requires a knowledgeable trainer. Selecting a particular trainer is again a difficult job. Trainer demands handsome money. Training needs time and cost both.

To conclude, it is very clear that training should be provided but not at the loss of the company. It is very costly and time taking affair. But it is most important for the development of the company. So management cant avoid it at any cost.

An effective training program can bring about dimensional changes in the technical and behavioural skills of the employees.


BOOKS : Mamoria C.B., Personnel Management 21st revised and enlarged edition 2001, Himalya Publishing House. Kothari C.R., Research Methodology, revised edition 2000, Vishwa Prakashan. Flippo B Edwin, Personnel Management, sixth edition, Hill Book company. 4 Aswathappa K., Human Resources & Personnel Management, Tata McGraw. 5 Divivedi R.S. Managing Human Resources edition 1 Galgotia Publishing Company.

MAGAZINES : Companys catalogues & annual report year 2006.




What types of training have you gone through? (i) Skill Enhancement (ii) Personality Enhancement (iii) IT Related (i) (ii) (iii)

Please indicate when should the study material be given to the trainees? Before the training After the training

Before started training programme should you go through any test? Yes No

Rate these training programme according to your development. T P F G E r a i n i n o o r a i r o o d x c e ll e n


g P r o g r a m m e

1 . S k il l E n h a n c e m e n t


. P e r s o n a li t y E n h a n c e m e n t

3 . I T

R e


l a t e d

In your opinion what should be the frequency of the training programme in your company. Once in a month Once in 6 months Once in 3 Months Once in 12 Months

In your opinion what should be the duration of this training programme? 4 Hours 8 Hours 16 Hours 20 Hours

Would you like to suggest some thing for the training programme? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________


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