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# Lecture 1

## Data Communication and Media

.c Concept and Model of Communications rs ee Analogy Signal and Digital n Signal Signal Frequency, Spectrum and Bandwidth gi n E System Frequency Response and Bandwidth O and Types Transmissiono Media aD Transmission Modes a & Serial Transmission F - Parallel
- Asynchronous & Synchronous Transmissions - Simplex & Duplex Transmission

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Lecture 1

## Microphone Telephone Computer Scanner

.c Our Focus Computer Communication rs ee General Communication Model in g n S(t) T(t) Transmission T (t) S (t) ESystem Source Transmitter Receiver Destination O o aD a F
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General Communications: face-to-face conversation, write a letter, etc. Electronic Communications: telephone, wireless phone, TV, radar, etc.

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Lecture 1

## Analogy Signal and Digital Signal

Information must be converted into electrical energy, called signal, before transmission.
Text, voice Video, etc Digital Text, voice Video, etc Analog

Converter Encoder

## Input Signal s(t)

General aDCommunication a

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s(t) voltage

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Digital Signal

s(t) voltage

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Analogy Signal

## Output Signal o(t) =H[s(t)]

Component H()
Digital-to-Digital Analogy-to-Digital Digital-to-Analogy Analogy-to-Analogy

s 2(t)dt

Lecture 1

## Signal Frequency, Spectrum and Bandwidth

Signal in time domain
s(t)

Transformation T=1/f1

cos2f1t

Periodic

S(f)

t
T period
1

f: frequency

2 1, 2 s(t)

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f1 f1

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S(f)

f2

Aperiodic

S(f)

s(t)

Analogy Signal

S(f)=s(t)e t

-j2f

df

S(f)

Bandwidth

Digital Signal

Bandwidth

Lecture 1

## Time-Frequency Relation and Signal Bandwidth

General Relations:
Time Domain Change Slow Change Fast Frequency Domain Low Frequency High Frequency Signal Bandwidth small large

Frequency Unit: Hertz (Hz), Kilohertz (KHz), Megahertz (MHz), Gigahertz (GHz), Terahertz (THz)

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Earthquake wave: 0.01 ~ 10 Hz Nuclear explosion signal: 0.01 ~ 10 Hz Electrocardiogram (ECG): 0 ~ 100 Hz Wind noise: 100 ~ 1000 Hz Speech: 100 ~ 4000 Hz (4 KHz) Audio: 20 ~ 20000 Hz (20 KHz) NTSC TV: 6 MHz HDTV: > 10 MHz

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Lecture 1

## System Frequency Response & Bandwidth

Input Signal x(t) Input Spectrum: X(f) System: H()

## System Frequency Response: H(f) = Y(f)/X(f)

H(f)

aDSystem Bandwidth a
f

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## Signal can pass Signal cant pass

Lecture 1

Transmission Media
A transmission medium: - a connection between a sender and a receiver - a signal can pass but with attenuation/distortion - a special system with a transmission bandwidth

## Guided (Wired) Media

(lines) - Twisted pair (0~10MHz) - Coaxial cable (100K~500MHz) - Optical fiber (180~370THz)

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## ee (Wireless) Media Unguided in vacuum, water, etc.) g (air, n

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LF (30~300KHz, Navigation) MF/HF (300~3000KHz, AM/SW radio) VHF (30~300MHz, TV & FM radio) UHF (0.3~3GHz, TV, mobile phone) SHF (3~30GHz, satellite, microwave) EHF (30~300GHz, experimental com. Infrared (no frequency allocation)

Lecture 1

902 928 Mhz

ISM band

## 2.4 2.4835 Ghz

LF
30kHz 10km 300kHz 1km

MF
3MHz 100m

HF
30MHz 10m

VHF

1 kHz

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1 GHz

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300MHz

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UHF

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SHF

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EHF
300GHz 100mm

3GHz 10cm

30GHz 1cm

1 THz 1 PHz

Gamma rays
1 EHz

1 MHz

Lecture 1

## Parallel Transmission and Serial Transmission

011000110111010111
Segment the 0/1 stream into N bits groups N N N

Sender
N

Receiver

## 0100 0110 1110 1011

Parallel Transmission
0 1 1 0 0 0 1

Sender

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Serial g Transmission n
Sender 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0110001

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0 1 1 0 Receiver 0 0 1

Receiver

P/S converter

S/P converter

## 7 (N) bits are sent together 7 (N) lines are needed

7 (N) bits are sent one after another Only 1 line is needed

Lecture 1

## Asynchronous and Synchronous Transmission

Timing or synchronization between a sender and a receiver is very important for data transmission

Asynchronous transmission:
1) 2) 3) 4)

A bit stream is segmented into small groups characters (5~8 bits) Add a start bit (0) and a stop bit (1) at the beginning and end of each character Frame= start_bit+character+stop_bit (7~10 bits), but 2/9~2/10 no real data Arbitrary long gap between two characters or frames
Sender
1 0110001 0

Synchronous transmission:
1) 2) 3) 4)

A bit stream is segmented into relative large groups/blocks many characters or bytes Add control bits at the beginning and end of each block Frame=H_control_bits+character+T_control_bits No gap between two characters in a data block Sender
Con_bits 0110001

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1 1001100 0

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1 0011101 0 1 1011100 0

Receiver

independent

...

Receiver

Lecture 1

## Simplex Transmission and Duplex Transmission

Simplex Transmission
Direction of data Device A

## Direction of data at time 1

Device A

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Full Duplex Transmission

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Direction of data at time 2 Both can send and receive but in different time

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Device B

Device B

Direction of data all the time Device B Both can send and receive simultaneously

Device A

## Lecture 1 Communication Standards and Related Organizations

Communications need standards for inter-operations of different devices

Standard Organizations:

ee number - ISO (International Standards Organization): ISO in - ITU (International Telecommunication Union): V.num & X.num g EIA-num - EIA (Electronic Industries Association): n IEEE.num E - IEEE (Institute of Electronics Engineers): O - ANSI (American National Standards Institute): ASCII, etc. o - ATM Forum and ATM Consortium aD and Internet Engineering Task Force): RFC num - IETF (Internet Society aWide Web Consortium): HTTP, HTML, XML, F - W3C (World
- WAP Forum (Wireless Application Protocol): WAP-num

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Lecture 1

## Serial & Asynchronous Transmission Standards

Standards of transmission in short distance: - EIA-232 or RS-232 - V.24 - ISO 2110 - EIA-449/RS-422/RS-423 - EIA-530 - X.21

o features Their common aD - Serial & asynchronous transmission a -F Transmissions of ASCII code, byte, char

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- Use twisted copper lines - Low speed: several Kbits ~ Mbits per second - Short distance: < several tens of meters

Lecture 1

EIA/RS-232 Standard
Waveform of +, 2B or 0101101

Device A

Transmit characters (7 or 8 bits) 0 +15v and 1 -15v in a sender 0 (+3v, +15v) and 1 (-3v, -15v), otherwise error Start bit (0) and stop bit (1) for every character 9/10 bits in total A sender never leaves wire at 0v; when idle, puts 15v, i.e., 1

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Device B

Lecture 1

## EIA/RS-232 Standard (cont.)

Agreement of transmission timing or rate (bps bits per second) - 300bps, 2.4Kbps, 4.8Kbps, , 19.2Kbps, 33.6Kbps, 56Kbps Setting bit rates of devices/hardware - switch (manually), software, auto-detection Either simplex or duplex

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Lecture 1

## EIA/RS-232 and Other Standards

EIA-232: rate<64Kbps; connection length< 15 meters; 25 pin connector - pin 2: receive (RxD); pin 3: transmit (TxD); pin 7: groud - other pins for transmission control EIA-449: rate<10Mbps; connection length< 12 meters; 37/9 pin connector EIA-530: same as the above; 25 pin connector X.21: 64/192 Kbps (N-ISDN rate); 15/8 pin connector

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Exercise 1
1. Two signals are given in the following figures. Whose bandwidth is large? Why? s(t) s(t)

(a)

2. Draw the RS-232 waveform diagrams of ASCII letters of R (1010010) and S (1110011). 3. Give at least one example for each of the following transmission/communication modes: parallel transmission, serial transmission, simplex transmission and duplex transmission.

4. Suppose one sent 10000 7bit characters across an EIA-232 or RS-232 connection that operated at 9600 bps. How long will the minimum transmission time be required? (Hint: remember to add a start bit and a stop bit on each character.)

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