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Lecture 1

Data Communication and Media


.c Concept and Model of Communications rs ee Analogy Signal and Digital n Signal Signal Frequency, Spectrum and Bandwidth gi n E System Frequency Response and Bandwidth O and Types Transmissiono Media aD Transmission Modes a & Serial Transmission F - Parallel
- Asynchronous & Synchronous Transmissions - Simplex & Duplex Transmission

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Communication Standards: RS/EIA-232 & Others

Lecture 1

Concept and Model of Communications

Microphone Telephone Computer Scanner

.c Our Focus Computer Communication rs ee General Communication Model in g n S(t) T(t) Transmission T (t) S (t) ESystem Source Transmitter Receiver Destination O o aD a F
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General Communications: face-to-face conversation, write a letter, etc. Electronic Communications: telephone, wireless phone, TV, radar, etc.

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Transformer Encoder Compress Modulator

Line/Cable Fiber/Air Satellite Network

Transformer Decoder Uncompress Demodulator

Speaker Earphone Computer Printer

Basic Communication Criteria: Performance, Reliability, Security

Lecture 1

Analogy Signal and Digital Signal


Information must be converted into electrical energy, called signal, before transmission.
Text, voice Video, etc Digital Text, voice Video, etc Analog

Converter Encoder

Input Signal s(t)

General aDCommunication a

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s(t) voltage

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Digital Signal

s(t) voltage

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Analogy Signal

Output Signal o(t) =H[s(t)]

Component H()
Digital-to-Digital Analogy-to-Digital Digital-to-Analogy Analogy-to-Analogy

Signal Power: s (t) Signal Energy:

s 2(t)dt

Lecture 1

Signal Frequency, Spectrum and Bandwidth


Signal in time domain
s(t)

Transformation T=1/f1

cos2f1t

Periodic

Signal in frequency domain Spectrum


S(f)

t
T period
1

f: frequency

E s(t)=Acos2f t + Bcos2f t T=LCM(1/f 1/f ) O o aD a t Fourier Transform F


2 1, 2 s(t)

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f1 f1

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B

S(f)

f2

Aperiodic

S(f)

s(t)

Analogy Signal

S(f)=s(t)e t

-j2f

df

S(f)

Bandwidth

Digital Signal

Bandwidth

Lecture 1

Time-Frequency Relation and Signal Bandwidth


General Relations:
Time Domain Change Slow Change Fast Frequency Domain Low Frequency High Frequency Signal Bandwidth small large

Frequency Unit: Hertz (Hz), Kilohertz (KHz), Megahertz (MHz), Gigahertz (GHz), Terahertz (THz)

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Earthquake wave: 0.01 ~ 10 Hz Nuclear explosion signal: 0.01 ~ 10 Hz Electrocardiogram (ECG): 0 ~ 100 Hz Wind noise: 100 ~ 1000 Hz Speech: 100 ~ 4000 Hz (4 KHz) Audio: 20 ~ 20000 Hz (20 KHz) NTSC TV: 6 MHz HDTV: > 10 MHz

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Lecture 1

System Frequency Response & Bandwidth


Input Signal x(t) Input Spectrum: X(f) System: H()

System Frequency Response: H(f) = Y(f)/X(f)


H(f)

aDSystem Bandwidth a
f

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Output Signal y(t) =H[x(t)]

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Signal can pass Signal cant pass

Lecture 1

Transmission Media
A transmission medium: - a connection between a sender and a receiver - a signal can pass but with attenuation/distortion - a special system with a transmission bandwidth

Guided (Wired) Media

(lines) - Twisted pair (0~10MHz) - Coaxial cable (100K~500MHz) - Optical fiber (180~370THz)

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LF (30~300KHz, Navigation) MF/HF (300~3000KHz, AM/SW radio) VHF (30~300MHz, TV & FM radio) UHF (0.3~3GHz, TV, mobile phone) SHF (3~30GHz, satellite, microwave) EHF (30~300GHz, experimental com. Infrared (no frequency allocation)

Lecture 1

Frequency and Spectrum


902 928 Mhz

ISM band

2.4 2.4835 Ghz

LF
30kHz 10km 300kHz 1km

MF
3MHz 100m

HF
30MHz 10m

VHF

1 kHz

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1 GHz

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1m

300MHz

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UHF

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SHF

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EHF
300GHz 100mm

5.725 5.785 Ghz

3GHz 10cm

30GHz 1cm

X rays infrared visible UV


1 THz 1 PHz

Gamma rays
1 EHz

1 MHz

Propagation characteristics are different in each frequency band

Lecture 1

Parallel Transmission and Serial Transmission


011000110111010111
Segment the 0/1 stream into N bits groups N N N

Sender
N

Receiver

0100 0110 1110 1011

Parallel Transmission
0 1 1 0 0 0 1

Sender

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Serial g Transmission n
Sender 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0110001

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0 1 1 0 Receiver 0 0 1

Receiver

P/S converter

S/P converter

7 (N) bits are sent together 7 (N) lines are needed

7 (N) bits are sent one after another Only 1 line is needed

Lecture 1

Asynchronous and Synchronous Transmission


Timing or synchronization between a sender and a receiver is very important for data transmission

Asynchronous transmission:
1) 2) 3) 4)

A bit stream is segmented into small groups characters (5~8 bits) Add a start bit (0) and a stop bit (1) at the beginning and end of each character Frame= start_bit+character+stop_bit (7~10 bits), but 2/9~2/10 no real data Arbitrary long gap between two characters or frames
Sender
1 0110001 0

Synchronous transmission:
1) 2) 3) 4)

A bit stream is segmented into relative large groups/blocks many characters or bytes Add control bits at the beginning and end of each block Frame=H_control_bits+character+T_control_bits No gap between two characters in a data block Sender
Con_bits 0110001

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1 1001100 0

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1 0011101 0 1 1011100 0

Receiver

independent

...

0110001 1001100 0011101 1011100 Con_bits synchronized

Receiver

Lecture 1

Simplex Transmission and Duplex Transmission


Simplex Transmission
Direction of data Device A

One can send and the other can receive

Half Duplex Transmission

Direction of data at time 1


Device A

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Full Duplex Transmission

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Direction of data at time 2 Both can send and receive but in different time

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Device B

Device B

Direction of data all the time Device B Both can send and receive simultaneously

Device A

Lecture 1 Communication Standards and Related Organizations


Communications need standards for inter-operations of different devices

Standard Organizations:

ee number - ISO (International Standards Organization): ISO in - ITU (International Telecommunication Union): V.num & X.num g EIA-num - EIA (Electronic Industries Association): n IEEE.num E - IEEE (Institute of Electronics Engineers): O - ANSI (American National Standards Institute): ASCII, etc. o - ATM Forum and ATM Consortium aD and Internet Engineering Task Force): RFC num - IETF (Internet Society aWide Web Consortium): HTTP, HTML, XML, F - W3C (World
- WAP Forum (Wireless Application Protocol): WAP-num

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Lecture 1

Serial & Asynchronous Transmission Standards


Standards of transmission in short distance: - EIA-232 or RS-232 - V.24 - ISO 2110 - EIA-449/RS-422/RS-423 - EIA-530 - X.21

o features Their common aD - Serial & asynchronous transmission a -F Transmissions of ASCII code, byte, char

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- Use twisted copper lines - Low speed: several Kbits ~ Mbits per second - Short distance: < several tens of meters

Lecture 1

EIA/RS-232 Standard
Waveform of +, 2B or 0101101

Device A

Transmit characters (7 or 8 bits) 0 +15v and 1 -15v in a sender 0 (+3v, +15v) and 1 (-3v, -15v), otherwise error Start bit (0) and stop bit (1) for every character 9/10 bits in total A sender never leaves wire at 0v; when idle, puts 15v, i.e., 1

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Device B

Lecture 1

EIA/RS-232 Standard (cont.)


Agreement of transmission timing or rate (bps bits per second) - 300bps, 2.4Kbps, 4.8Kbps, , 19.2Kbps, 33.6Kbps, 56Kbps Setting bit rates of devices/hardware - switch (manually), software, auto-detection Either simplex or duplex

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T: Transmitter R: Receiver G: Ground

Lecture 1

EIA/RS-232 and Other Standards


EIA-232: rate<64Kbps; connection length< 15 meters; 25 pin connector - pin 2: receive (RxD); pin 3: transmit (TxD); pin 7: groud - other pins for transmission control EIA-449: rate<10Mbps; connection length< 12 meters; 37/9 pin connector EIA-530: same as the above; 25 pin connector X.21: 64/192 Kbps (N-ISDN rate); 15/8 pin connector

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Exercise 1
1. Two signals are given in the following figures. Whose bandwidth is large? Why? s(t) s(t)

(a)

2. Draw the RS-232 waveform diagrams of ASCII letters of R (1010010) and S (1110011). 3. Give at least one example for each of the following transmission/communication modes: parallel transmission, serial transmission, simplex transmission and duplex transmission.

4. Suppose one sent 10000 7bit characters across an EIA-232 or RS-232 connection that operated at 9600 bps. How long will the minimum transmission time be required? (Hint: remember to add a start bit and a stop bit on each character.)

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