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Sudhir K. Jain

February 2012

EQ Ground Motions

PP

Surface Waves

200

400

600

800

1000

Sudhir K. Jain

February 2012

Slide 2

EQ Ground Motions

0.3 0.2 PGA=0.32g

Accn. (g)

Sudhir K. Jain

February 2012

Slide 3

Sudhir K. Jain

February 2012

Slide 4

Sudhir K. Jain

February 2012

Characteristics

Parameters

1985 Mexico Earthquake (SCT 1A; N90E)

0.5g

10

20

30

40

50

60 Time (sec)

Sudhir K. Jain

February 2012

Slide 6

Characteristics

Influence of

Fault

Type of faulting

Fault

Distance from source Soil/rock medium along travel path Local soil site, geology, topology, etc.,.

February 2012

Slide 7

Sudhir K. Jain

Accelerogram

During ground shaking, one can measure ground acceleration versus time (accelerogram) using an accelerograph

Accelerogram is the variation of ground acceleration with time (also called time history of ground motion)

Sudhir K. Jain

February 2012

Slide 8

Typical Accelerograph

This is a typical analog instrument. These days, digital instruments are becoming popular (photo from Earthquakes by Bolt)

Sudhir K. Jain February 2012 Slide 9

Typical Accelerograms

Time, sec

Sudhir K. Jain

February 2012

Slide 10

If the ground moves as per the given accelerogram, what is the maximum response of a single degree of freedom (SDOF) system (of given natural period and damping)?

T=2 sec, Damping =2%

a(t)/g

Sudhir K. Jain

Using a computer, one can calculate the response of SDOF system with time (time history of response) Can pick maximum response of this SDOF system (of given T and damping) from this response time history

Sudhir K. Jain

February 2012

Slide 12

Maximum response = 7.47 in.

d(t)

Time, sec

Time History of Deformation (relative displacement of mass with respect to base) response

Sudhir K. Jain

February 2012

Slide 13

Repeat this exercise for different values of natural period. For design, we usually need only the maximum response. Hence, for future use, plot maximum response versus natural period (for a given value of damping). Such a plot of maximum response versus natural period for a given accelerogram is called response spectrum.

February 2012 Slide 14

Sudhir K. Jain

ag(t)/g

d(t)/g

Time, sec

dmax

T, sec Slide 15

Response Spectrum is useful to obtain maximum response of any SDOF system for that accelerogram and for that value of damping. See example on next slide

Sudhir K. Jain

February 2012

Slide 16

Example

Mass = 10,000kg Natural Period T=1 sec 3m Damping =5% of critical Acceleration, g Maximum Acceleration, g Undamped Natural Period T (sec) Acceleration Response Spectrum for the above accelerogram for 5% damping (Fig. from Seed and Idriss, 1982)

February 2012 Slide 17

Max. Base Moment

Sudhir K. Jain

Maximum Velocity, in/sec

Velocity response spectra for N-S component of 1940 El Centro record (damping values of 0, 2, 5 and 10%) Fig From Housner, 1970

Sudhir K. Jain

February 2012

Slide 18

Sudhir K. Jain

February 2012

Slide 19

By response we may mean any response quantity of interest to us, for example:

February 2012 Slide 20

Sudhir K. Jain

Since SDOF system responds maximum to the waves of frequency near its own natural frequency,

Response spectrum is also a very good way to characterize the strong ground motion from engineering view point.

For instance, relative strength of low frequency versus high frequency waves

Sudhir K. Jain

February 2012

Slide 21

Velocity, ft/sec

Natural Period T (sec) Note that the two response spectra above show very different frequency content. Ground motion B has more energy at low periods. An expert may be able to make out from these spectra that B is recorded at a short distance (say 15km) from a small earthquake, while A is recorded from a large earthquake at a large distance (say 100km) (Fig. edited from Housner, 1970)

Sudhir K. Jain February 2012 Slide 22

To obtain maximum response of a SDOF system (to the original accelerogram using which response spectrum was obtained) To obtain maximum response in a particular mode of vibration of a multi degree of freedom (MDOF) system It tells about the characteristics of the ground motion (accelerogram)

Sudhir K. Jain

February 2012

Slide 23

Design Acceleration Spectrum (clause 3.5) Response Spectrum (clause 3.27) Acceleration Response Spectrum (used in cl. 3.30) Design Spectrum (title of cl. 6.4) Structural Response Factor Average response acceleration coefficient (see terminology of Sa/g on p. 11) Title of Fig. 2: Response Spectra for .

February 2012 Slide 24

Sudhir K. Jain

Real spectrum has somewhat irregular shape with local peaks and valleys For design purpose, local peaks and valleys should be ignored

Hence, smooth response spectrum used for design purposes For developing design spectra, one also needs to consider other issues

February 2012 Slide 25

Sudhir K. Jain

Period (sec)

Acceleration Spectra

Velocity Spectra

Period (sec)

Period (sec)

Displacement Spectra

Shown here are typical smooth spectra used in design for different values of damping

(Fig. from Housner, 1970)

Sudhir K. Jain

February 2012

Slide 26

Note the term Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) is max acceleration of ground.

Because of deformation in the structure, the motion of its base and the superstructure will be different Max acceleration experienced by mass of the structure will be different from the PGA (except if the structure is rigid)

Sudhir K. Jain

February 2012

Slide 27

Ground Acceleration

Implies max acceleration experienced by a structure having zero natural period (T=0).

Sudhir K. Jain

February 2012

Slide 28

No relative motion between its mass and its base Mass has same acceleration as of the ground

For very low values of period, acceleration spectrum tends to be equal to PGA. We should be able to read the value of PGA from an acceleration spectrum.

February 2012 Slide 29

Sudhir K. Jain

Average shape of acceleration response spectrum for 5% damping (Fig. on next slide)

There can be a stray peak in the ground motion; i.e., unusually large peak.

Such a peak does not affect most of the response spectrum and needs to be ignored.

Effective Peak Ground Acceleration (EPGA) defined as 0.40 times the spectral acceleration in 0.1 to 0.3 sec range (cl. 3.11)

There are also other definitions of EPGA, but we will not concern ourselves with those.

February 2012 Slide 30

Sudhir K. Jain

1.80 1.60 1.40 Spectral Acceleration (g) 1.20 1.00 0.80

0.60

0.40

PGA = 0.6g

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

Period (sec)

Typical shape of acceleration response spectrum Spectral acceleration at zero period (T=0) gives PGA Value at 0.1-0.3 sec is ~ 2.5 times PGA value (for 5% damping)

Sudhir K. Jain February 2012 Slide 31

Sudhir K. Jain

February 2012

Slide 32

Consider the Acceleration Response Spectrum Notice the region of red circle marked: a slight change in natural period can lead to large variation in maximum acceleration

Spectral Acceleration, g

Sudhir K. Jain February 2012 Slide 33

Natural period of a civil engineering structure cannot be calculated precisely Design specification should not very sensitive to a small change in natural period. Hence, design spectrum is a smooth or average shape without local peaks and valleys you see in the response spectrum

Sudhir K. Jain

February 2012

Slide 34

Design Spectrum

Since some damage is expected and accepted in the structure during strong shaking, design spectrum is developed considering the overstrength, redundancy, and ductility in the structure. The site may be prone to shaking from large but distant earthquakes as well as from medium but nearby earthquakes: design spectrum may account for these as well.

Sudhir K. Jain

February 2012

Slide 35

Spectral Acceleration, g

Natural vibration period Tn, sec Fig. from Dynamics of Structures by Chopra, 2001

Sudhir K. Jain February 2012 Slide 36

Design Spectrum is a design specification It must take into account any issues that have bearing on seismic safety.

Sudhir K. Jain

February 2012

Slide 37

Different choice of load factors will give different seismic safety to the structure Variation in the value of damping used will affect the design force. Depending on modeling assumptions, one can get different values of natural period.

February 2012 Slide 38

Sudhir K. Jain

Soil Effect

Recorded earthquake motions show that response spectrum shape differs for different type of soil profile at the site

Period (sec)

Sudhir K. Jain February 2012 Slide 39

This variation in ground motion characteristic for different sites is now accounted for through different shapes of response spectrum for three types of sites.

Spectral Acceleration Coefficient (Sa /g)

Period(s)

Sudhir K. Jain February 2012 Slide 40

The three curves in Fig. 2 have been drawn based on general trends of average response spectra shapes. In recent years, the US codes (UBC, NEHRP and IBC) have provided more sophistication wherein the shape of design spectrum varies from area to area depending on the ground motion characteristics expected.

Sudhir K. Jain

February 2012

Slide 41

For very stiff structures (T < 0.1sec), ductility is not helpful in reducing the design force. As a stiff structure gets damaged during the Design spectrum assumes peak extends to T=0 shaking, its period Actual shape of response spectrum elongates (may be used for higher modes only)

Codes tend to disallow the reduction in force in the period range of T < 0.1sec

Spectral acceleration

i.e., during the same ground shaking, a very stiff structure may ride up the ascending part of the graph.

T(seconds)

Concept sometimes used by the codes for response spectrum in low period range.

Sudhir K. Jain

February 2012

Slide 42

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