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# Strong Ground Motion and Concept of Response Spectrum

## February 2012 Sudhir K Jain, IIT Gandhinagar

Sudhir K. Jain

February 2012

EQ Ground Motions

PP

Surface Waves

200

400

600

800

1000

## 1200 Time (s)

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EQ Ground Motions

## Near-field ground motions Usually accelerations Engineers

0.3 0.2 PGA=0.32g

Accn. (g)

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Characteristics

Parameters

## Duration of Significant Shaking Frequency Content

1985 Mexico Earthquake (SCT 1A; N90E)

0.5g

10

20

30

40

50

60 Time (sec)

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Characteristics

Influence of

## Magnitude of EQ Source mechanism

Fault

Type of faulting

Fault

Distance from source Soil/rock medium along travel path Local soil site, geology, topology, etc.,.
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## Attenuation with Distance

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Sudhir K. Jain

Accelerogram

During ground shaking, one can measure ground acceleration versus time (accelerogram) using an accelerograph

## Accelerograph is the instrument Accelerogram is the record obtained from it

Accelerogram is the variation of ground acceleration with time (also called time history of ground motion)

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Typical Accelerograph

This is a typical analog instrument. These days, digital instruments are becoming popular (photo from Earthquakes by Bolt)
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Typical Accelerograms

Time, sec

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## Response Spectrum (contd)

If the ground moves as per the given accelerogram, what is the maximum response of a single degree of freedom (SDOF) system (of given natural period and damping)?

## Response may mean any quantity of interest, e.g., deformation, acceleration

T=2 sec, Damping =2%

a(t)/g

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## Response Spectrum (contd)

Using a computer, one can calculate the response of SDOF system with time (time history of response) Can pick maximum response of this SDOF system (of given T and damping) from this response time history

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## Response Spectrum (contd)

Maximum response = 7.47 in.

d(t)

Time, sec

Time History of Deformation (relative displacement of mass with respect to base) response

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## Response Spectrum (contd)

Repeat this exercise for different values of natural period. For design, we usually need only the maximum response. Hence, for future use, plot maximum response versus natural period (for a given value of damping). Such a plot of maximum response versus natural period for a given accelerogram is called response spectrum.
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ag(t)/g

d(t)/g

Time, sec

dmax

T, sec Slide 15

## Response Spectrum (contd)

Response Spectrum is useful to obtain maximum response of any SDOF system for that accelerogram and for that value of damping. See example on next slide

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Example
Mass = 10,000kg Natural Period T=1 sec 3m Damping =5% of critical Acceleration, g Maximum Acceleration, g Undamped Natural Period T (sec) Acceleration Response Spectrum for the above accelerogram for 5% damping (Fig. from Seed and Idriss, 1982)
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Max. Base Moment

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## May repeat the entire process for different values of damping

Maximum Velocity, in/sec

Velocity response spectra for N-S component of 1940 El Centro record (damping values of 0, 2, 5 and 10%) Fig From Housner, 1970
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## Response Spectrum (contd)

By response we may mean any response quantity of interest to us, for example:

## Word Spectra is used to denote plural of Spectrum.

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## Response Spectrum (contd)

Since SDOF system responds maximum to the waves of frequency near its own natural frequency,

Response spectrum is also a very good way to characterize the strong ground motion from engineering view point.

For instance, relative strength of low frequency versus high frequency waves

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## Example: Velocity spectra from two accelerograms

Velocity, ft/sec

Natural Period T (sec) Note that the two response spectra above show very different frequency content. Ground motion B has more energy at low periods. An expert may be able to make out from these spectra that B is recorded at a short distance (say 15km) from a small earthquake, while A is recorded from a large earthquake at a large distance (say 100km) (Fig. edited from Housner, 1970)
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## Response spectrum is a very powerful tool. Uses of response spectrum:

To obtain maximum response of a SDOF system (to the original accelerogram using which response spectrum was obtained) To obtain maximum response in a particular mode of vibration of a multi degree of freedom (MDOF) system It tells about the characteristics of the ground motion (accelerogram)

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## Different terms used in IS:1893

Design Acceleration Spectrum (clause 3.5) Response Spectrum (clause 3.27) Acceleration Response Spectrum (used in cl. 3.30) Design Spectrum (title of cl. 6.4) Structural Response Factor Average response acceleration coefficient (see terminology of Sa/g on p. 11) Title of Fig. 2: Response Spectra for .

## It is better if the code uses the term consistently.

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## Smooth Response Spectrum

Real spectrum has somewhat irregular shape with local peaks and valleys For design purpose, local peaks and valleys should be ignored

## Since natural period cannot be calculated with that much accuracy.

Hence, smooth response spectrum used for design purposes For developing design spectra, one also needs to consider other issues

## We will discuss this later.

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## Smooth Response Spectrum (contd)

Period (sec)

Acceleration Spectra

Velocity Spectra

Period (sec)

Period (sec)

Displacement Spectra

Shown here are typical smooth spectra used in design for different values of damping
(Fig. from Housner, 1970)

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## Ground Acceleration (contd...)

Note the term Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) is max acceleration of ground.

Because of deformation in the structure, the motion of its base and the superstructure will be different Max acceleration experienced by mass of the structure will be different from the PGA (except if the structure is rigid)

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Ground Acceleration

## ZPA stands for Zero Period Acceleration.

Implies max acceleration experienced by a structure having zero natural period (T=0).

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## Has zero natural period (T=0) Does not deform:

No relative motion between its mass and its base Mass has same acceleration as of the ground

## Hence, ZPA is same as Peak Ground Acceleration

For very low values of period, acceleration spectrum tends to be equal to PGA. We should be able to read the value of PGA from an acceleration spectrum.
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## Peak Ground Acceleration (contd)

Average shape of acceleration response spectrum for 5% damping (Fig. on next slide)

## Ordinate at 0.1 to 0.3 sec ~ 2.5 times the PGA

There can be a stray peak in the ground motion; i.e., unusually large peak.

Such a peak does not affect most of the response spectrum and needs to be ignored.

Effective Peak Ground Acceleration (EPGA) defined as 0.40 times the spectral acceleration in 0.1 to 0.3 sec range (cl. 3.11)

There are also other definitions of EPGA, but we will not concern ourselves with those.
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## Typical shape of acceleration spectrum

1.80 1.60 1.40 Spectral Acceleration (g) 1.20 1.00 0.80

0.60
0.40

PGA = 0.6g

## 0.20 0.00 0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

Period (sec)

Typical shape of acceleration response spectrum Spectral acceleration at zero period (T=0) gives PGA Value at 0.1-0.3 sec is ~ 2.5 times PGA value (for 5% damping)
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## Response Spectrum versus Design Spectrum

Consider the Acceleration Response Spectrum Notice the region of red circle marked: a slight change in natural period can lead to large variation in maximum acceleration
Spectral Acceleration, g

## Undamped Natural Period T (sec)

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## Response Spectrum versus Design Spectrum (contd)

Natural period of a civil engineering structure cannot be calculated precisely Design specification should not very sensitive to a small change in natural period. Hence, design spectrum is a smooth or average shape without local peaks and valleys you see in the response spectrum

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Design Spectrum

Since some damage is expected and accepted in the structure during strong shaking, design spectrum is developed considering the overstrength, redundancy, and ductility in the structure. The site may be prone to shaking from large but distant earthquakes as well as from medium but nearby earthquakes: design spectrum may account for these as well.

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## Design Spectrum (contd)

Spectral Acceleration, g

Natural vibration period Tn, sec Fig. from Dynamics of Structures by Chopra, 2001
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## Design Spectrum (contd)

Design Spectrum is a design specification It must take into account any issues that have bearing on seismic safety.

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## Load factors or permissible stresses that must be used

Different choice of load factors will give different seismic safety to the structure Variation in the value of damping used will affect the design force. Depending on modeling assumptions, one can get different values of natural period.

## Design force can be lowered if structure has higher ductility.

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Soil Effect

Recorded earthquake motions show that response spectrum shape differs for different type of soil profile at the site

## Fig. from Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering, by Kramer, 1996

Period (sec)
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## Soil Effect (contd)

This variation in ground motion characteristic for different sites is now accounted for through different shapes of response spectrum for three types of sites.
Spectral Acceleration Coefficient (Sa /g)

## Fig. from IS:1893-2002

Period(s)
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## Shape of Design Spectrum

The three curves in Fig. 2 have been drawn based on general trends of average response spectra shapes. In recent years, the US codes (UBC, NEHRP and IBC) have provided more sophistication wherein the shape of design spectrum varies from area to area depending on the ground motion characteristics expected.

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## Design Spectrum for Stiff Structures

For very stiff structures (T < 0.1sec), ductility is not helpful in reducing the design force. As a stiff structure gets damaged during the Design spectrum assumes peak extends to T=0 shaking, its period Actual shape of response spectrum elongates (may be used for higher modes only)

Codes tend to disallow the reduction in force in the period range of T < 0.1sec

Spectral acceleration

i.e., during the same ground shaking, a very stiff structure may ride up the ascending part of the graph.

T(seconds)
Concept sometimes used by the codes for response spectrum in low period range.

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