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Proceedings of the 2012 9th International Pipeline Conference IPC2012 September 24-28, 2012, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

IPC2012-90681
DETECTION AND MITIGATION OF AC INTERFERENCE ON 200KM PIPELINE
Yanxia Du Corrosion and Protection Center, University of Science and Technology Beijing 30 Xueyuan Rd, Haidian District Beijing, 100083,China Minxu Lu Corrosion and Protection Center, University of Science and Technology Beijing 30 Xueyuan Rd, Haidian District ,Beijing, 100083,China
KEYWORDS AC interference, Detection, Mitigation, Design, Simulation software ABSTRACT The AC interference on pipelines caused by nearby HVAC power lines and electried railways can lead to electric shock hazard and AC corrosion, which threatens the safety of pipeline and has attracted more and more attention. A 300km-long pipeline in the north of China is close to many HVAC power lines and electrified railways and there exists a high risk of AC interference. A detection of AC interference has been done along the pipeline and the results indicate that AC interference is severe due to high AC voltage and AC current density. The mitigation scheme of the pipeline is designed with the aid of computer simulation software, based on which the mitigations are constructed. The field measurements show that the mitigation effect is good. INTRODUCTION With recent economy development, Chinas industries of oil, power and traffic transportation develop very rapidly. Lots of oil & gas pipelines, high-voltage transmission lines and electrified railways have been built, and many more are under construction or plan. Due to spatial or geographical limitations, some underground pipelines are laid parallel or cross to transmission lines or railways, and in these cases practices have shown that AC interference will occur. Not only personal safety may be threatened, but also AC corrosion can be caused. These are the new challenges to the pipeline integrity management, and thus attracted widespread attentions [1-8]. Yong-tang-qin (hereinafter abbreviated as YTQ) gas pipeline is a branch of the 2nd Shan-jing pipeline, a national key pipeline project. YTQ pipeline is 312.4 km long, 1016 mm in diameter, and 3PE is used as anti-corrosion coating. Totally there are 320 locations where this pipeline crosses railways, highways and rivers, and also the pipeline is laid parallel or cross to transmission lines or railways in many places. Therefore, a high potential risk of AC interference is in existence. To better understand such interference risk, the field measurement is performed for the YTQ pipeline, and mitigation schemes are designed and constructed for some parts of the pipeline. The detailed field measurement and mitigation schemes are described below.

Zitao Jiang Corrosion and Protection Center, University of Science and Technology Beijing 30 Xueyuan Rd, Haidian District Beijing, 100083,China

DETECTION OF AC INTERFERENCE Detection content and methods About 205 km of YTQ pipeline are under severe interference. Since April 28th 2010, detailed detection has been performed for the pipeline, and the detected parameters include AC interference voltage, AC current density, DC current density, CP on & instant-off potential and soil resistivity. The detection method is based on GB/T50698-2011 Technical Standard of AC Interference Protection for Buried Steel Pipeline, and DD CEN-TS 15280-2006 Evaluation of a.c.

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corrosion likelihood of buried pipelines - Application to cathodically protection pipelines. For less serious points, 4hours continuous detection is applied. For more serious points, 24-hours continuous detection is applied. For pipelines parallel or cross to high-voltage transmission lines or electrified railways, 48-hours continuous detection is applied. Totally 116 points are detected, of which 48-hours detection is for 5 points, 24-hours detection for 93 points, and 4-hours detection for 18 points. ZC-8 Ground resistance tester is used to measure the soil resistivity. Local measurement is applied for AC interference voltage, that is, reference electrodes are placed right above the pipeline and keep a distance of about 1 meter from the nearest contacting point on the ground. In the measurement, one terminal of AC voltmeter (high impedance) is connected to the reference electrode, and the other terminal connected to the pipeline through test piles. The readings of AC voltmeter are the AC interference voltage of the pipeline, and Figure 1 below is the measuring schematic diagram.

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1Specimen; 2Buried steel pipeline; 3AC Ammeter; 4 Testing pile; 5Copper connecting piece Figure 2. Measuring circuit of AC current density

Figure 1. Voltage Measurement for AC Interference Note: 1 Soil, 2 AC voltmeter, 3 Reference electrode, 4 Pipeline AC current density is directly measured using specimens. The measuring method is as follows: a specimen with the same material as pipeline is fabricated, and only 1 cm2 of working area is kept while the others are packaged using epoxy resin. The specimen is buried near to the pipeline and connected electrically to the pipeline through test piles, and besides, the AC Ammeter is connected in series, too. Divide the AC current between pipeline and specimen to the working area of specimen, and the AC current density is obtained. The schematic diagram is given in Figure 2. Polarized probe is used to measure the on and instant-off potential, which comprises of reference electrode, polarized specimen, electrolyte, insulated case and micro-penetration end. Polarized specimen has the same material as pipeline and simulates the coating defect on the pipeline. The specimen is buried near to the pipeline and connected electrically to the pipeline through test piles, as shown in Figure 3. After polarization of specimen has become stable, the on potential of the specimen is measured. Instantly disconnect the circuit, and the instant-off potential is measured. The on and instant-off potentials of specimen will be approximately used as those of pipeline under detection.

Figure3. Schematic Diagram of Polarized Probe Installation Detection results The detection results are shown in Figure 4 to 7.

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AC Interference voltage along YTQ pipeline

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Figure 5.

AC current density along YTQ pipeline

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On potential along YTQ pipeline

The AC interference of YTQ pipeline was evaluated according to DD CEN-TS 15280-2006 Evaluation of a.c. corrosion likelihood of buried pipelines - Application to cathodically protection pipelines and NACE SP 0177-2007 Mitigation of Alternating Current and Lightning Effects on Metallic Structures and Corrosion Control Systems. According to DD CEN-TS 15280-2006, pipeline AC voltage measured at selected test points should not exceed 10V where the local soil resistivity is greater than 25m and should not exceed 4V where the local soil resistivity is less than 25m, besides, AC corrosion likelihood is very high when AC current density is higher than 100A A/m2. According to NACE SP 0177-2007, a steady-state touch voltage of 15V or more with respect to local earth at above-grade or exposed sections and appurtenances is considered to constitute a shock hazard. From Figure 4-7, for about 180 km of pipeline, the AC interference voltage exceeds 15 V, AC current density exceeds 100 A/m2, and the maximum AC voltage and current density arrive at 165 V and 100 A/m2 respectively. At the same time, about 50 km of pipeline cannot meet the related requirements for cathodic protection. From Table 1, we can see that the soil resistivity measured along YTQ pipeline is greater than 25m. Such a result indicates that a serious interference exists, which presents a large safety risk to the normal operation. For Figure 6, the very high and low of DC on potential might be caused by the poor filtering capability of the data logger and if the data logger with good filtering capability is used, the problem can be well improved. MITIGATION DESIGN OF AC INTERFERENCE According to the results above, some corresponding mitigation measures should be taken to ensure the operational safety of YTQ pipeline. The initial mitigation target is to make AC voltage down to 10V and AC current density down to 30A/m2. While considering the complexity of AC interference mitigation, the mitigation objective is adjusted. Firstly, the mitigation measures by witch AC voltage can be reduced below 15V are designed and after the measures are taken, fields measurement will be carried out to verify the actual AC voltage and AC current density, and secondly, according the field measurements results, new mitigation scheme will be designed to make AC voltage and current density down to 10V and 30 A/m2.The design process and scheme of the first stage are introduced in this paper, in which only steady-state interference is considered. Based on a comprehensive consideration of mitigation results, economy and feasibility, the mitigation scheme design is divided into two steps. The first step is to improve the existing grounding system to mitigate the AC interference to some extent, and the second step is to design new mitigation ground bed. The specific work is described as below. Improvement of existing grounding system Two distribution stations are established for the 205 km of YTQ pipeline, in which grounding grid is used for lightning protection and anti-static of facilities and the associated

Figure 7. Instant-off potential along YTQ pipeline The soil resistivity data of some tests points are shown in Table 1. Table 1. Soil resistivity of some test points Mileage Soil resistivity/m 125km 132km 158km 172km 194km 254km 299km 305km 52.2 42.5 34.2 32.1 28.2 34.1 30.1 26.7

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instruments. To ensure the CP systems inside and outside the station dont interfere with each other, the pipeline inside and outside the station is connected through insulating flange. As a result, AC interference for pipeline outside the station cannot be mitigated using grounding grid inside the station. Therefore, firstly the grounding grid inside the station is improved, and a decoupler is used to connect the two sides of insulating flange, which can allow AC current while prevent DC current. In this way, AC interference for the main pipeline outside station can be mitigated to some extent through the grounding system inside station. Field tests show that AC interference voltage is mainly distributed between 80-100V prior to the installation of decouplers, and then dropped to about 40-60V after installation. However, such a result still cannot meet the safety voltage standard of 15V in NACE SP 0177-2007. Therefore, the new mitigation ground bed needs to be designed. Design of new mitigation ground bed The key of design is to select proper location to install the ground bed. Although design based on experiences and formulas is easy, the interaction of the whole long pipeline cannot be considered. Computer simulation for AC interference has a higher accuracy and predictability, and can provide a solid basis for the design and optimization of mitigation ground bed [9-12]. For YTQ pipeline, CEDGS software from Canadian SES Company is used. The main procedures of design are as follows: (1) collect required basis data and perform necessary field measurement; (2) establish AC interference model of pipeline; (3) perform calculation and optimization of mitigation ground bed; (4) determine the distribution scheme of mitigation ground beds. The design data include high-voltage transmission lines, electrified railways and interfered pipelines, such as relative location of pipeline and transmission lines, tower type, phase space, phase sequence arrangement, wire type and averaged height, grounding system type and distance from pipeline, rated voltage, load current and unbalance degree of 3-phase load, single phase short-circuit fault current and its duration, relative location of railway and pipeline, traction substation location, distribution of high-voltage towers along railways, feed network and power supply; resistivity, type and thickness of pipeline anti-corrosion coating; AC interference voltage and its distribution; soil resistivity along pipeline, etc. Based on the information above, the AC interference calculation model can be established, and then the mitigation ground bed can be designed. Take Zn ribbon as an example, the calculation process and parts of results will be given. The Zn ribbon is installed at 10 locations, each of them is 500 m in length. In case the total length is 5 km, the mitigation result is shown in Figure 8. In case of 7.5km for 15 locations, see Figure 9. For 27 locations, of which 25 locations have a length of 300 m each, and 2 locations 400 m each, the mitigation result is given in Figure 10. For Figure 11, 25 locations have a length of 500 m each, and 2 locations 1000 m each.

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Figure 8. 10 locations, totally 5 km of mitigation Zn ribbon


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Figure 9 15 location, totally 7.5 km of mitigation Zn ribbon


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Figure 10. 27 locations, totally 8.3 km of mitigation Zn ribbon


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Figure 11.

27 locations, totally 14.5 km of mitigation Zn ribbon

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From Figure 8-11, in case the total length of Zn ribbon is 8.3 km, the AC interference voltage can be lowered to below 15 V, and in case of 14.5km, the voltage is below 10 V. According to the previous introduction, the mitigation target of the first stage for AC interference mitigation of YTQ pipeline is 15V. In order to compare the effectiveness and economy of different mitigation ground beds, three types of ground beds are adopted in the final mitigation scheme: Zn ribbon ground beds, galvanized flat iron ground beds and both galvanized flat iron and galvanized angle steel ground beds. All the mitigation grounds beds are DC decoupled from pipe. The final determined mitigation scheme is as follows: for 27 locations with higher AC interference, the mitigation line is laid parallel to the pipeline, of which 2 locations use 200 m long galvanized flat iron, 3 locations use both galvanized flat iron and galvanized angle steel, while the other 22 locations use 300 m long horizontal Zn ribbon. The decouplers are installed in series between mitigation lines and pipeline. The predicted mitigation results are shown in Figure 12 and the reference is the copper/ saturated copper sulfate reference electrode put far away from the pipe.

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Figure 12. Mitigation result of the final design scheme Based on the design scheme above, the corresponding construction has almost been completed. The primary detection shows that the AC interference voltage at most locations has been reduced to below 15 V. When further measurement is finished, the more detailed data will be given in the near further. CONCLUSIONS In the north part of China, a gas pipeline is under serious AC interference due to high-voltage transmission lines and electrified railways, and the mitigation measure needs to be taken to ensure its operational safety. In the present work, the AC interference detection content, methods and results are given. Besides, both the design process and the final design result are also introduced, which can be used as a reference for similar engineering projects.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This work was supported by PetroChina Beijing Natural Gas Pipeline Co., Ltd. REFERENCES 1. Wakelin R G, Sheldon C. Investigation and mitigation of AC corrosion on a 300mm diameter natural gas pipeline[A]. Corrosion/2004[C], Houston, TX: NACE, 2004:205. 2. Wakelin R G, Gummow R A, Segall S M. AC corrosion-case historises, test procedures, & mitigation[A]. Corrosion/1998[C], Houston, TX: NACE, 1998:565. 3. Gummow R A, Wakelin R G, Segall S M. AC corrosion-a new challenge to pipeline integrity[A]. Corrosion/1998[C], Houston, TX: NACE, 1998:566. 4. Linhardt P, Ball G. AC corrosion:results from laboratory investigations and from a failure analysis[A]. Corrosion2006[C], Houston, TX: NACE, 2006:160. 5. Leng Xuyao, Lu Yuanlu, He Wuzhong. AC interference and mitigation of Gaizhou oil pipeline. Pipeline Technique and Equipment, 1998(2):39-41. 6. Reyes T, Bhola S, Olson D L, et al. Study of corrosion of super martensitic stainless steel under alternating current in artificial sea water[A]. Corrosion/2011[C], Houston, TX: NACE, 2011:341. 7. Lilleby L S, Olsen S, Hesjevik S M. Effects from alternating current on cathodic protection of submarine pipeliens[A]. Corrosion/2011[C], Houston, TX: NACE, 2011:055. 8. Liu Y Q, Liang Z S, Chen H Y, et al. Use FFT method for the detection and characterization of pipelines AC stray current interference[A]. Corrosion/2011[C], Houston, TX: NACE, 2011:326. 9. Southey R D, Dawalibi F P, Li Y, et al. Increasing the cost-effectiveness of AC interference mitigation designs with integrated electromagnetic field modeling[A]. Corrosion/2005[C], Houston, TX: NACE, 2005:623. 10. Southey R D, Ruan W, Dawalibi F P. AC mitigation requirements: A parametric analysis[A]. Corrosion/2001[C], Houston, TX: NACE, 2001:604. 11. Li Y, Dawalibi F P, Ma J. Effect of conductor angle between transmission lines and neighboring utilities on the accuracy of inductive interference computations[A]. 2002 International Conference on Power System Technology Proceedings[C], Kunming, 2002: 2477 2481.

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