You are on page 1of 9

Proceedings of the 2012 9th International Pipeline Conference IPC2012 September 24-28, 2012, Calgary, Alberta, Canada


Robert M Andrews MACAW Engineering Newcastle upon Tyne, UK Nick Pussegoda BMT Fleet Technology Kanata, Ontario, Canada

Neil Millwood 5G Orbital Loughborough, UK Menno Hoekstra TWI Cambridge, UK

Sanjay Tiku BMT Fleet Technology Kanata, Ontario, Canada Stephen Smith TWI Cambridge, UK

ABSTRACT As part of a safety case for a subsea 13Cr pipeline, the operator wished to demonstrate that if a circumferential through wall crack developed, the crack would remain stable as a leak rather than growing to a full bore rupture. An initial fracture mechanics analysis had suggested that the margins on crack length were too small to make such a leak before break argument. This paper reports an integrated programme of small scale testing, numerical modelling and full scale testing which showed that a leak before break case could be made. 13Cr martensitic steel generally shows excellent toughness at the service temperature, as does the super duplex weld metal that was used for the girth welds. However, as the pipeline had been installed by reeling, there was some concern that the toughness may have been reduced. Hence a programme of fracture toughness testing was designed to generate tearing resistance curves for both as-received and pre-strained parent material and weld metal. Deep and shallow through thickness notched specimen geometries were tested to explore the effect of constraint on the toughness. Finite element analysis was used to predict the stress intensity for a range of crack lengths, including the effects of misalignment. Non-linear analyses were used to estimate the limit load for the cracked pipe. The test results were used as input to tearing analyses to Level 3 of BS 7910. These showed that the tolerable length of a through wall crack exceeded the length of anticipated defects by a factor of at least two.

To confirm the fracture mechanics predictions, two full scale tests were carried out. These used pressure cycling to grow a through wall crack by fatigue. These cracks were stable under an internal pressure equal to the pipeline design pressure. The cracked specimens were then axially loaded to failure. Extensive tearing occurred before final failure at loads above those predicted by the fracture analysis, confirming the conservatism of the predictions.

INTRODUCTION The pipeline was constructed from 13Cr weldable martensitic stainless steel with a nominal outside diameter of 324 mm (NPS 12) and a nominal wall thickness of 16.9 mm. The design internal pressure was 23.5 MPa and the minimum metal temperature was the seabed temperature of +18 C. The mainline girth welds were produced using a mechanised pulsed GMAW system with a super duplex (Zeron 100X) consumable. The welds were not post weld heat treated. The pipeline was installed by reeling from the CSO Apache in 2001, resulting in plastic strains of up to 2%. Girth welds in 13Cr pipelines may be susceptible to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in the HAZ close to the fusion line if they are permanently wetted by produced water and are subject to tensile stress. Although operators take measures to dehydrate the produced fluids, it is possible that under transient or upset conditions water may be

Formerly BMT Fleet Technology, Loughborough, UK

Copyright 2012 by ASME

present and cause IGSCC. Flow assurance simulations had shown that any water would separate at the bottom of the pipe so that IGSCC would be confined to a circumferential length of around 70 mm at the 6 oclock position. This internal surface cracking could potentially lead to a through wall crack followed by complete separation if the through wall crack grows around the entire pipe circumference. If the circumferential length of IGSCC at penetration is less than the length of a stable though wall crack, then it can be argued that leakage will occur rather than rupture. This is the basic leak before break (LBB) condition as usually considered in the pipeline industry. Annex F of BS 7910 [1] gives additional requirements for a full LBB analysis, where factors such as the leak rate through a crack and the detectability of a leak are considered. These were not considered in this project, as the main concern was to demonstrate that a full bore rupture would not occur. However, it was understood that the pipeline operator was carrying out regular ROV inspections of the pipeline which would identify leakage. The project involved small scale specimen testing on representative weldments to determine material properties, two full scale pressure cycling tests on material which had undergone a simulated reeling cycle, numerical analysis and fracture mechanics analyses. The fracture toughness testing considered a range of constraint levels. Simulated reeling and small scale testing on pre-strained material were included in the project to determine if the fracture toughness was degraded by the plastic strain of the installation by reeling. MATERIALS TESTING The materials were initially characterized in the as-received state using standard tensile, Charpy impact and CTOD testing. The parent pipe had a longitudinal 0.2% proof strength of 694 N/mm2 and a tensile strength of 839 N/mm2 with a uniform elongation of 10%. All weld metal tensile tests showed a marginally lower yield strength of 684 N/mm2 but a higher tensile strength of 867 N/mm2 and a uniform elongation of 19%. Charpy impact energies at -40 C measured on the weld centerline were around 120 J in a full size specimen, rising to over 250 J at +2 mm and +5 mm from the fusion line. All HAZ Charpy fracture faces showed 100% shear fracture. Maximum load CTODs were measured on both the weld centerline and the HAZ, with minimum values of 0.353 mm and 0.412 mm respectively. No brittle behaviour such as pop-ins was noted. Both the 13Cr parent material and the super duplex weld metal were expected to behave in a ductile manner, so that cracks would extend by ductile tearing rather than by brittle fracture. R-curve testing using the unloading compliance method was carried out on the weld metal and the HAZ to quantify the tearing resistance. At least three triplicate tests were carried out on each condition to assess variability. All testing was carried out at ambient temperature (23 C), comparable with the minimum metal temperature in service. J R-curve fracture tests were carried out on the welds in both the as-received (AR) condition and also after pre-straining

(PS) to simulate the effect of reeling. Although IGSCC was not expected to occur in the weld metal, Charpy impact data and the CTOD results suggested that the weld metal would have lower tearing resistance than the HAZ and so the weld centreline was also tested. Ideally the tests on prestrained material would have used material which had been subjected to the same simulated reeling cycles as were used for the full scale testing. However, only a small part of the pipe circumference is subject to the full strain level when the pipe is reeled and reeling of several welds would have been required to obtain the required number of specimens. Also, due to project deadlines the small scale testing was carried out at the same time as the simulated reeling. Hence the decision was taken to prestrain the material in tension only, using a standard servo-hydraulic test machine. Specimen blanks were machined slightly oversize and then strained to 4% total strain using an extensometer with a gauge length of 50.8 mm centred on the weld. The fracture specimens were prepared from these blanks. In addition to testing standard geometry single edge notch bend (SENB) testpieces with a/W = 0.5, tests were also carried out on shallow notch SENB and single edge notch tension (SENT) geometries. These tests were intended to quantify the effects of crack tip constraint. Using the elastic T-stress [2] as a measure of constraint, the standard SENB testpiece has a dimensionless T-stress of +0.2, and is considered a high constraint geometry. The shallow notch (a/W = 0.2) SENB geometry has a dimensionless T-stress of -0.25, giving an intermediate constraint level and the SENT specimen with a/W = 0.4 has the lowest value of the geometries used, -0.5. The specimen preparation, including fatigue pre-cracking, followed the requirements of ASTM E1820 [3]. Lateral compression was used to improve the straightness of the fatigue crack front and the specimens were sidegrooved after precracking. For the deep notch SENB specimens J was determined using the ASTM method, whilst for the shallow notch SENB specimens J was derived using the method proposed by Zhu et al. [4]. Analysis methods for the SENT specimen are not standardized; the method developed by Shen et al. at CANMET [5] was used for this project. Figure 12 shows typical experimental R-curves for the weld metal centerline in the AR condition at all three constraint levels. It can be seen that the initiation toughness is insensitive to the constraint level, but as the amount of crack growth increases an effect of constraint can be seen. As expected, the lowest R-curve is for the deep notch SENB testpiece. Unexpectedly, the shallow notch SENB geometry shows the highest toughness, with the lowest constraint (in terms of the Tstress) testpiece, the SENT, giving intermediate results. The reason for this is not known, but the trend was consistent across all the R-curve testing. For conservatism the SENT results were selected to represent a low constraint condition.

Figures are located at the end of the paper.

Copyright 2012 by ASME

The R-curve results for the weld centerline are summarized in Figure 2, where lower bound power law curves are shown for the AR and PS material in both high and low constraint conditions. The initiation point has been taken at an initial crack growth of 0.2 mm. The toughness at initiation is independent of the pre-strain and of the constraint condition. As the crack extends, at both constraint conditions the pre-strain reduces the toughness compared with that of the AR material by about 20%. Lowering the constraint level increases the effective toughness. The pre-straining appears to offset the reduction in constraint in the SENT specimens for this material. R-curve specimens which tested the HAZ showed uneven crack extension, often with preferential growth into the weld metal. The R-curves derived from these tests were above the corresponding weld centreline curves. The results are not shown in the present paper, but it should be noted that, as with the Charpy and CTOD specimens, all the specimens showed fully ductile behaviour, with no evidence of pop-ins or local brittle zones. FULL SCALE TESTING Two further weldments were used for full scale testing. These were first subjected to a simulated reeling cycle which reproduced the strains during installation. A sharp through wall circumferential crack was then generated in each specimen by pressure cycling to extend a starter notch through the pipe wall by fatigue. The maximum pressure during this cycling was equal to the design pressure, in order to determine whether the crack remained stable and leaked after breaking through the pipe wall, rather than failing as a rupture. The cyclic end cap loading from the pressure acting on the closed ends provided the fluctuating axial stress for fatigue crack growth. The length of the starter notch was determined by the fracture mechanics analyses described below. If the cracks remained stable after penetration (ie leakage rather than rupture) the second stage of the planned testing was uniaxial tensile loading of the unpressurized pipe to beyond the maximum load condition. Simulated Reeling Two original mechanised GMAW girth welds along with four pipe pup-pieces were supplied. Using these, a twelve metre long spool was fabricated by Serimax, Evanton, Scotland. The spool comprised the two original girth welds which were to be tested and four new fabrication welds. These new fabrication welds were manually welded using the GTAW process. Although the procedure for these welds was based on the original project tie-in procedure, no attempt was made to reproduce the original welds, as the additional welds were required only to produce a spool long enough for the simulated reeling and subsequent full scale testing. Examination by radiography and manual ultrasonics to the acceptance criteria of DNV OS-F101 [8] revealed no reportable indications. The spool was then put through two simulated reeling cycles. In each cycle the spool was first bent onto a former with a radius of 8.23 m to simulate reeling onto the hub of the drum

of the CSO Apache. The spool was then reverse bent onto a former with a radius of 35 m to remove the residual curvature. This is a conservative simplification of the actual stress-strain cycle during installation [7]. It is common when qualifying pipe and welds for installation by reeling to apply additional simulated strain cycles to allow for the possibility that it may be necessary to recover the pipeline onto the drum. As this project was considering an actual installation where it was known there had been no recovery of the pipe, only two strain cycles were used. The test welds were then cut from the spool and transported to TWI, Cambridge, for fatigue pressure cycling and uniaxial loading. Phased array UT examination reported intermittent indications identified as either root undercut or lack of fusion with a height less than 5 mm. As the testing programme would introduce much larger defects, it was decided to accept these and continue with the test programme. Fatigue Cycling In both tests the test weld was located centrally in a two metre long spool. Each spool was made into a pressure vessel by welding flanges onto the ends and sealing with blind flanges. One or two starter slits were machined into the test weld using an electro-discharge machining (EDM) technique. The dimensions of these starter slits were selected based on fracture mechanics calculations of the tolerable through wall crack length after the crack had grown through wall. The starter slits were placed on the centreline of the weld, as the small scale testing had shown the weld metal to have the lowest toughness. In addition, targeting the fusion line when only the outside surface was accessible was considered impractical. Biaxial strain gauges were attached to the external surface to measure the strains during pressure fatigue cycling. The vessel was filled with inhibited water and pressure cycled at the maximum attainable rate until leakage occurred. A simple enclosure around the weld with a float switch was used to detect leakage. Test 1: Two starter slits were used in the first test. These were diametrically opposite so that they would not interact. One slit (A) was intended to give a through wall crack slightly shorter than predicted by the fracture mechanics analyses, whilst a shorter slit (B) was sized to be less than the maximum length of IGSCC after extension through the wall by fatigue: Slit A: 125 mm circumferential length, 6 mm deep; centred on 12 oclock. Slit B: 40 mm circumferential length, 13 mm deep; centred on 6 oclock. The internal pressure was cycled between 20 and 235 bar; failure occurred by leakage after 32,510 cycles. Repressurisation to 80 bar provided visual confirmation that a through-wall crack had propagated from Slit A. Non-destructive testing suggested there had been minimal crack growth in the circumferential direction. Non-destructive examination of Slit B suggested that some fatigue cracking had occurred in the

Copyright 2012 by ASME

circumferential direction, but no appreciable increase in crack depth was observed. Test 2: The initial was also to have two starter slits, however due residual out-of-straightness of part of the pipe spool it was decided to make only one starter slit, identified as Slit C. This was located on the intrados of the residual curve of the section, as it was considered that this would generate additional tensile stress under the internal pressure cycle. As the the first full scale test had shown the fracture mechanics predictions to be conservative, a longer slit was used: Slit C: 190 mm circumferential length, 6 mm deep; centred on 6 oclock Initially, the internal pressure was cycled between 20 and 235 bar, as in Test 1. However, since penetration had not occurred after 80,000 cycles, the test was interrupted to determine the extent of crack growth. Ultrasonic inspection suggested that the fatigue crack had grown to a depth of 9 mm at one end of the slit and that there was no detectable crack growth at the other end. Discussions within the project team postulated that compressive residual stresses remaining from the partial straightening cycle at the 6 oclock weld position during reeling were reducing the effective stress intensity factor range. Thus the lower part of the pressure cycle was not contributing to fatigue crack growth. The minimum pressure was raised to 100 bar giving a pressure range of 125 bar. This permitted a higher cycling frequency and failure (by leaking) eventually occurred at a total at both pressure ranges of 152,646 cycles. Axial Loading The spools were tested in a specially constructed loading rig similar in concept to a wide plate test rig. Figure 3 shows the basic layout, where two hydraulic actuators load the test pipe through large I-beams bolted to the flanges. The position of the actuators was adjusted to ensure that the test weld was loaded in tension with minimal beam bending of the spool. The total applied axial load during the test was estimated from the hydraulic pressure and the bore area of the actuators. In addition to the strain gauging applied for the fatigue cycling, displacement transducers were used at the 12 and 6 oclock positions to measure the overall elongation. Clip gauges were used to measure the crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) at the centre of each crack and at each tip of the long slits A and C; it was only possible to use one clip gauge on the short Slit B. Figure 4 shows the instrumentation at Slit A. For each test the load was increased monotonically until a clear maximum load had been obtained and the crack was observed to be extending by tearing at each end. The test was terminated at this point to avoid damage to the actuators. The tests showed ductile behavior with no evidence of any sudden load drops which would indicate brittle behavior. The first test achieved a maximum axial stress of 599 N/mm2 at an overall average strain measured by the displacement transducers of 0.78% whilst the second test achieved a maximum stress of 486 N/mm2 at an overall average strain of 0.46%.

Post Test Examination Figure 5 shows the outer surface of the pipe at Slit A after the testing. Tearing at the end of the slit is visible together with plastic deformation. The fracture faces were removed and broken open for examination by back cutting, cooling in liquid nitrogen and breaking open. The fracture face for Slit A is shown in Figure 6. The original spark eroded slit has a matt grey appearance, whilst the fatigue crack grown from the slit has a bright columnar surface. Slit B showed minimal fatigue crack growth whilst Slit C in the second test had a similar appearance to that of Slit A. FINITE ELEMENT MODELLING Linear elastic finite element analyses were carried out to estimate stress intensity factors for a range of through wall crack sizes. These showed that the solution for a circumferential through wall crack in a thin walled cylinder, M. of BS7910 [1], was marginally conservative. The analysis showed that for the crack lengths considered the same solution could be used for both remote axial tension and beam bending loading of the pipe. This simplified the fracture assessment as the analyses could be based on the maximum outer fibre stress without having to decompose the loading into tension and bending components or consider through wall stress variations. The analyses confirmed that the effect of weld misalignment could be included using the through wall bending component of the BS 7910 solution. Non-linear analyses were carried out to verify that the reference stress solution in P.4.2.2 of BS 7910 Annex P was appropriate for the cracked pipeline. Figure 7 shows the deformed shape of the quarter symmetric model of a through wall crack of length 120 mm at a nominal applied axial stress of 714 N/mm2. The development of plasticity from the crack is clearly seen. In addition to elastic ideally plastic analyses using the 0.2% proof strength as the yield point, cases were run using the measured stress-strain curve to investigate the effect of work hardening. As the measured weld metal strength approximately matched the parent metal strengths, no account was taken of mis-match effects and this analysis used the parent metal stress-strain curve. The J integral was obtained and plotted against the applied nominal stress. Figure 8 shows the results for a crack length of 180 mm. The limit load was estimated as the load at which the J integral increased rapidly in the ideally plastic analysis. As expected, the inclusion of work hardening decreases the J integral as the extent of plasticity is reduced. The results are shown as nominal stresses for the two crack lengths in Table 1. Also shown is the limit load derived using P.4.2.2 of BS 7910 for a circumferentially cracked cylinder under remote tension loading. The BS 7910 solution is conservative when compared with the FEA results; both are below the experimental failure stress; this is the nominal axial stress at maximum load.

Copyright 2012 by ASME

Circumferential crack length, mm 120 180 FEA limit load N/mm2 544 462 BS 7910 limit load N/mm2 499 415 Expermental failure stress N/mm2 599 486 Table 1 Collapse analysis results expressed as limit loads

received and the pre-strained condition. Pre-straining reduces the predicted length of a through wall crack by about 10%. Effect of Temperature Increasing the temperature may affect the fracture behaviour as ductile tearing involves plasticity which is temperature dependent. The plastic collapse behaviour is also temperature dependent. Changing the yield and tensile strengths will modify the shape of the Level 3B FAD and change the cutoff at Lrmax on the horizontal axis. Corrections to the yield and tensile strengths were obtained using typical strength values at high temperature from the pipe manufacturers data sheets [9]. The R-curves were corrected approximately for temperature by assuming that the measured curves could be scaled in the same ratio as curves derived using Wallins method of predicting Rcurves from upper shelf Charpy impact energy [10]. It was assumed that the upper shelf Charpy impact energy did not change with temperature, but the yield strength did. Figure 11 shows that increasing the temperature to +100 C reduces the predicted crack lengths by a small amount, around 10%. Extent of Allowable Ductile Tearing The fracture predictions were limited to 1 mm of ductile tearing, because of concerns about the validity of the R-curve data from small specimens with large amounts of tearing. The shape of the R-curves (Figure 2) shows that the most benefit from including tearing is gained in the initial stages, and a similar conclusion can be drawn from the spacing of the assessment points on the FAD, as shown in Figure 9. However, the full scale tests showed more extensive tearing; see Figure 5. The sensitivity of the predictions to the amount of tearing is shown in Figure 12. This analysis assumed a higher residual stress than the previous cases, equal to yield magnitude tension, so the predicted crack length at 1 mm of tearing is smaller than in Figure 10. Allowing tearing up to 5 mm increases the predicted crack length by about 50%. Although this result should be treated with caution, as it requires extrapolation of the fitted R-curves beyond the underlying test data (see Figure 1 for an example of the data), it does show the potential flaw tolerance margins in the pipeline. Effect of Residual Stress The sensitivity of the results to the assumed residual stress is shown in Figure 13, where a uniform tension residual stress is varied from zero to yield. There is a large variation in the predicted crack length, but the results do show that even at the highest residual stresses the predicted tolerable crack lengths are over 70 mm and they increase rapidly as the residual stress falls. The state of residual stress at the welds is likely to be complex, as in addition to the welding residual stresses there will be more general residual stresses due to the plastic deformation during reeling. Whilst the effect of reeling would be to mechanically relax the welding residual stress, there will be areas around the circumference where a tensile residual stress remains after reeling.

FRACTURE ANALYSIS Fracture mechanics analyses were carried out using the Level 3B approach of BS 7910. As the finite element modeling had shown that the stress intensity and reference stress solutions in Annexes M and P of BS 7910 were slightly conservative, these solutions were used without modification. However, the Mk factor which takes account of the local stress raising effect of a weld toe was not applied, despite the recommendation in BS 7910 that this should be used for through thickness cracks at the weld toe. It was judged that for predictions of the full scale axial loading tests the Mk factor was not appropriate for cracks located at the weld centerline. For IGSCC in the pipeline it is not clear whether the crack would be at the weld toe when it reached the outer surface. The tough behavior of the weld, HAZ and parent pipe also suggests that any local stress concentrations at the weld toe would just cause localized yielding rather than triggering a brittle fracture. Figure 9 shows a typical FAD analysis with the amount of tearing restricted to 1.0 mm. This was the approximate validity limit of the R-curve data and is also the maximum amount of ductile tearing recommended in DNV RP-F108 [6], [7]. The residual stress was assumed to be a combination of membrane and bending loading stresses of 246 N/mm2 and 181 N/mm2 respectively, based on estimations of the welding residual stress and the effect of reeling. The peak value in this distribution is about 60% of the measured yield strength, rather than the 30% which would be predicted by Annex O of BS 7910 if the mechanical stress relief effect of reeling is considered. Figure 10 shows predicted lengths3 of a through wall crack as a function of the axial stress at 20 C. At an axial stress of 100 N/mm2 the predicted crack length is in excess of 200 mm, falling to about 130 mm at a higher stress of 300 N/mm2. This figure also shows three points marking the initial defect sizes for the full scale tests, assuming an axial stress of 95 N/mm2, the pressure end cap load in a closed vessel at the design pressure. All three points are below the lengths predicted by the fracture mechanics analysis. The measured failure stresses for these full scale tests were in excess of 400 N/mm2, which would place points representing the failure condition beyond the limit of the graph. Effect of Pre-strain The effect of pre-straining the material on the predicted crack lengths is also shown in Figure 10, which shows predictions for flaw sizes in the weld metal in both the as3 The term predicted length has been used to denote results from the fracture analyses after 1 mm tearing.

Copyright 2012 by ASME

DISCUSSION Failure Modes All failures, in both the laboratory and full scale tests, were fully ductile with the specimens showing maximum load behaviour. No cleavage fractures or pop-in events were noted in any of the tests on the weld metal, the fusion line or in the HAZ. As the failures were fully ductile at ambient temperature, ductile failures are also expected at higher temperatures. Ductile crack growth is favourable to a leak before break case, as until maximum load is reached the crack is stable at the current size. Weld Root Defects Small defects were found in the root area during prestraining and in the first full scale test after the axial loading stage, as it was not possible to avoid them when positioning the starter notch. These can be seen (arrowed) in the top left corner of Figure 6. These defects did not affect the fatigue crack. Although superficially similar to porosity in this figure, examination of the fracture faces showed them to be due to lack of fusion between the root and hot passes and the hot pass and the weld preparation. Whilst these defects became apparent when pre-straining material for the fracture toughness specimens and after the simulated reeling, they do not appear to have affected the performance of the reeled welds. Even with these defects present the full scale tests achieved a maximum load toughness result and the failure stress was above that predicted for collapse by BS 7910. Whilst such defects may be present in the installed pipeline, it is considered that they will not affect the LBB behaviour. Effect of Pre-straining Some material for the laboratory tests was pre-strained to simulate the strain accumulated during reeling. This ensured that any damaging effects of the strain were included in the testing. Although prior straining of a defective structure may be beneficial due to the creation of residual stresses at the crack tip (warm pre-stressing), this may not be the case for a defect free structure. For example, Cosham et al. [11] have shown that prior plastic strain reduces the CTOD and initiation J toughness of X60 and X65 materials. Rather than attempt to predict the effects of pre-straining in the 13Cr material, it was decided to measure the effect by testing. The laboratory pre-strain of 4% tensile strain was equivalent to the twice the maximum tensile strain imposed by the hub of the drum on the CSO Apache. This gives a conservative total strain, as during installation the tensile strain imposed by the aligner is less than the strain imposed by the drum [7]. It does not account for the possible damaging effect of compressive strain. However, in the pipeline only the material at the outer fibres of the bending sees the full strain, whilst all pre-strained laboratory specimens received the full 4% strain. During the laboratory pre-straining, no account was taken of possible mismatch effects which might have caused the strain

to concentrate in either the weld metal or the parent metal. As the measured tensile properties of weld and parent metal were similar, these effects were likely to be small. Also, a similar situation would exist during installation where the overall strain is imposed by the drum or the previous layers of pipe on the reel but strain may be localized in the weld or in parent material. Generally the aim in developing pipeline girth weld procedures is to produce an overmatching weld, so that at high stresses the weld metal is protected by yielding of the parent metal. Crack Position and Type If IGSCC does occur, it will be in the HAZ. The HAZ Charpy energies were measured at -40 C, showing that at the minimum service temperature of +20 C the pipeline is operating at least 60 C above the transition temperature. All the fracture specimens, both CTOD and J R-curve showed fully ductile behaviour with no indications of brittle fracture on the fracture faces and no pop-in features in the load-displacement traces. Thus it was considered that the HAZ was not at risk of a brittle fracture from a flaw located in the HAZ. Charpy, CTOD and R-curve testing all showed that the HAZ is tougher than the weld metal in both the as-received and the pre-strained conditions. Thus it was considered that using weld metal properties and a sharp fatigue crack would provide conservative predictions and a conservative full scale test. Fatigue cracks were used for full scale testing instead of attempting to generate IGSCC as: Fatigue cracks could be grown in a relatively controlled manner by pressure cycling in a short time period. The location of a fatigue crack could be controlled from the starter notches and placed into the lowest toughness area in the weld metal. A fatigue crack is a single sharp crack, and represents an onerous condition for fracture. SCC is often branched and more diffuse, which will produce a less severe condition. Leak before Break The likely maximum length of a through wall crack resulting from IGSCC had been estimated by the pipeline operator as 70 mm, based on a consideration of the water cut of the produced fluids and flow assurance simulations. If through wall cracks exceeding this length are shown to be stable then the pipeline will leak and not break or rupture. The pipeline operator had implemented surveillance measures such as ROV surveys to ensure that leakage could be detected, so the main concern was to demonstrate that a through wall crack would leak and not rupture. The full scale tests and the fracture mechanics analyses have demonstrated this. The through wall cracks in the full scale tests were over 100 mm long and leaked at the pipeline design pressure. The subsequent axial loading required stresses in excess of 400 N/mm2 to produce failure. The fracture mechanics analyses have shown that at the stresses predicted to

Copyright 2012 by ASME

be present in the pipeline the tolerable through wall crack lengths are in excess of 100 mm for all combinations of input data, and approach 200 mm for most combinations of inputs. Conservatisms The crack length predictions are conservative as they have used lower bound fracture toughness results for the high constraint condition. These were obtained from the weld metal which showed a lower toughness than would be expected at the location of any IGSCC in the heat affected zone. The conservatism of the predictions was confirmed by the full scale tests, in particular the axial loading stage where the failure stress exceeded the service axial load by a factor of four. CONCLUDING REMARKS This paper has presented a programme of small and full scale experimental tests and fracture mechanics analyses that have shown that it is possible to apply ductile tearing analyses to a subsea pipeline and make a leak before break case for failure from IGSCC. The full scale testing has shown that the fracture mechanics predictions are conservative. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS In addition to the contributions of the BMT Fleet Technology and TWI test laboratory staff, the authors wish to acknowledge the contributions of CANMET for the R-curve testing, the staff of the Serimax spool base at Evanton for welding the full scale test spool and Ms Lindsey Mortimer for the finite element analyses. REFERENCES [1] BS 7910: Guide to methods for assessing the acceptability of flaws in metallic structures Incorporating Amendment 1, September 2007. British Standards Institution, 2005. [2] Sherry AH, France CC and Goldthorpe MR: Compendium of T-stress solutions for two and three dimensional cracked geometries. Fatigue and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures, 1995. 18(1): 141-151. [3] ASTM E1820-06: Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fracture Toughness, American Society for Testing and Materials, 2006. [4] Zhu X-K, Leis BN and Joyce JA: Experimental estimation of J-R curves from load-CMOD record for SE(B) specimens. Journal of ASTM International, 2008. 5(5) JAI101532. [5] Shen G, Gianetto JA and Tyson WR: Measurement of J-R curves using single-specimen technique on clamped SE(T) specimens. In: Proceedings of 19th ISOPE Conference. 2009. Osaka, Japan: International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers. [6] DNV RP-F108: Fracture control for pipeline installation methods introducing cyclic plastic strain. Det Norske Veritas, 2006.

[7] Cosham A and Macdonald K: Fracture control in pipelines under high plastic strains a critique of DNV-RP-F108 IPC2008-64348. In: Proceedings of IPC 2008. Calgary, Alberta, Canada. 2008. New York, ASME. [8] DNV: Submarine pipeline systems OS-F101 Hovik, Norway: Det Norske Veritas, 2010. [9] JFE data sheet for 13Cr steels. Downloaded from: wcs.html, January 2010. [10] Wallin K: Low cost J R-curve estimation based on CVN upper shelf energy. Fatigue and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures, 2001. 24(8): 537-549. [11] Cosham A, Hagiwara N, Fukuda N and Masuda T: A model to predict the effect of pre-strain on the fracture toughness of line pipe steel IPC2002-27324. 2002. In: Procedings of IPC 2002, Calgary, Alberta. New York, ASME.

Figure 1 R curves for weld centreline: SENB shallow (SN) and deep (DN) and SENT geometries

Figure 2 Lower bound weld centreline R curves used for fracture assessments. AR- As Received, PS Pre strained.

Copyright 2012 by ASME

Figure 6 Fracture face of Slit A after testing. Figure 3 Uniaxial testing of pipe section.

Figure 4 Instrumentation showing extensometer, strain gauges and clip gauges mounted over the crack.

Figure 7 Collapse analysis of 120 mm long crack using measured stress-strain curve; nominal axial stress 714 N/mm2.

Figure 5 Slit C after axial loading - note plasticity ahead of the crack.

Figure 8 J Integral evaluation for 180 mm long circumferential through wall crack.

Copyright 2012 by ASME

Figure 9 Typical assessment results. Axial stress 100 N/mm2, crack length 200 mm, membrane plus bending secondary stress using WCL as received R-curve

Figure 11 Effect of temperature on predicted crack length

Figure 10 Predicted crack lengths at 20 C, using reduced membrane and bending residual stresses and high constraint R-curves.

Figure 12 Predicted crack length as function of ductile tearing. Axial load 100 N/mm2, yield magnitude tension residual stress.

Figure 13 Effect of assumed residual stress on the predicted crack length. Axial load 100 N/mm2; uniform tension residual stress.

Copyright 2012 by ASME