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Proceedings of the 2012 9th International Pipeline Conference IPC2012 September 24-28, 2012, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

IPC2012-90222

DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW OPTICAL MONITORING SYSTEM OF WELDING CONDITIONS FOR PRODUCING HF-ERW LINE PIPES WITH HIGH WELD SEAM TOUGHNESS
1 3

ADVANCED WELDING PROCESS OF HF-ERW 2

Noboru HASEGAWA, 2Hideki HAMATANI, 1Nobuo MIZUHASHI, 1Toshisuke FUKAMI, 2Yoshifumi KARUBE, Takao MIURA, 4Kimiharu TANAKA, 4Tomohiro NAKAJI, 5Kazuto YAMAMOTO, 1Yasushi HASEGAWA

1 2

Technical Development Bureau, Nippon Steel Corporation, Futtsu City, Chiba Prefecture, 293-8511, Japan Nagoya Works, Nippon Steel Corporation, Tokai City, Aichi Prefecture, 476-8686, Japan 3 Kimitsu Works, Nippon Steel Corporation, Kimitsu City, Chiba Prefecture, 299-1141, Japan 4 Oita Works, Nippon Steel Corporation, Hikari City, Yamaguchi Prefecture, 743-8510, Japan 5 Head Office, Nippon Steel Corporation, Tokyo, 100-8071, Japan

KEYWORDS Line pipe, HF-ERW pipe, monitor, image processing ABSTRACT To improve the weld seam quality of HF-ERW (high frequency-electric resistance welded) pipes, a monitoring system that combines optical and electrical measurement techniques is developed. In the welding process, it is known that there are type 1, 2, and 3 phenomena depending on the welding speed, the input power and the Vee convergence angle. We found that type 2 phenomena can be subdivided into three conditions, normal type 2, instable (type 3) and the two phased reduction of the Vee convergence angle (type 2) regions in production processes, caused by the facing angle of the edge surfaces, which may not have the I-shape. Among them, only the condition under a narrow range of type 2 allows to prove melting in the whole area of the edge surfaces and to excrete the oxide inclusions from the weld seam. Following the welding mechanism, the defect rate in the weld seam is kept at minimum. Accordingly, we developed a monitoring system to control the welding condition to the type 2 range. An optical image processing and an electric impedance measurement method are combined into this system, which is based on remote photographing, high-precision V point detection, temperature measurement techniques with image processing, and a multi-frequency filtering method of the transient impedance waveform. Furthermore, operational indices are constructed through the analysis of the welding mechanism and the experimental data. We find that the weld defect area ratio lower than ever is steadily achieved in the trial products, as a result of continuously controlling the heat-input condition.

INTRODUCTION In recent years, the use of high frequencyelectric resistance welded (HF-ERW) pipes for line-pipes in the oil and natural gas fields has been increasing. High mechanical strength and toughness not only in the pipe body but also in the weld seams are required. In order to increase the toughness of the weld seam, we must prevent the generation of cold defects and oxide inclusion in the continuous thin file shape. These kinds of defects are caused by insufficiencies in the heat input power, excretion by electromagnetic force, and mechanical squeeze. Therefore, to guarantee product quality, techniques that monitor welding phenomena and control heat-input power are needed. In the process of HF-ERW, there are type 1, 2, and 3 phenomena that depend on the welding speed, the heat-input power, the Vee convergence angle and appropriate and over input power conditions. A CPD (Condition Phenomena Defect) diagram that indicates the state of welding as a function of the welding speed and the heat-input power was proposed [1-2]. According to the diagram, type 1 and 3 are observed in sequence as the heat-input power increases at a rate lower than the critical welding speed. On the contrary, type 1 and 2 are observed at higher speeds. It is believed that type 2 weld conditions are the best because they minimize oxide inclusions. The edge form of the Vee convergence around the welding point is characteristic in each case. In the region of type 2, a narrow gap parallel to both strip edges, called a slit, appears. In contrast, the lower side of the slit slightly expands in type 3, and there is no slit in type 1. To adjust the welding condition in the type 2 region, several optical observation methods have been suggested [3].

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Defect area ratio

A phenomenon that the contact point of the strip edges in the slit periodically moves, namely bridge traveling behavior, is observed [4]. In the case where the position of the bridge is at the upper side of the welding point, it becomes very hard to observe the slit between both points, because the disappearance of the electromagnetic force brings back the melted metal into the gap of the strip edges. The full length of the slit is a few mm to cm, and the sweeping velocity of the bridge is 2.5 to 6.0 m/s. Consequently, a high-speed camera with a frame rate of higher than 1 kHz is necessary to capture the slit. However, the photographing technique is not applicable to real-time monitoring in production because of the extremely short time of detection processing. We have studied welding by analyzing the correlation between the optical or the electrical signatures in welding and the mechanical properties of the weld seam, which resulted in finding out the condition for the two-phased reduction in the Vee converge phenomenon and optimizing the toughness of the weld seam. In this welding condition, the whole area of the edge surfaces is proved to melt with sufficient heat-input power even if the edge surfaces are not faced in an I-shape [5]. In this article, we argue that it is more effective to monitor the phenomenon than to measure the temperature of the strip surface to confirm melting. For continuous monitoring, an optical heat-input optimizing system is developed that monitors the welding area combining high-resolution remote photographing technique and real-time image processing. The system has a couple of functions to observe the variation of the narrow gap between the strip edges, and finds inferior parts in the full length. Furthermore, the possibility to apply the system to production processes based on the result of trial products is demonstrated.

still remains. In type 3 condition, the oxides are not properly excreted at the squeezing stage, owing to insufficient force by the squeeze rolls. It is important to melt the whole edge surface and to expel the oxides grown on the edge surface, in order to maintain a high quality weld seam. As to the type 2 condition, the original one is subdivided into three conditions, normal, unstable, and two-phased reduction of the Vee convergence angle regions as a result of our study on the weld seam quality. Figure 1 indicates the conceptual relation between the input power and the defect area ratio. The unstable region that produces a high defect area ratio should be obviously avoided. The rest of the original type 2 conditions produce almost the same defect area. In case that the edge surface facing in I-shape is invariably guaranteed, the defect rate is minimized in either case of the normal type 2 or type 2. There is , however, the possibility that the edge surfaces adjust to an inverse V-shape to prevent spatter generation or fluctuations of the edge surfaces from the ideal Ishape facing that takes place in the manufacturing process. In this situation, the curve is shifted to the higher power direction, indicated by the dashed line. Especially, our experimental and modeling study clearly shows that the defect area in the region of the normal type 2 increases. Therefore, we conclude that the welding condition of the two-phased reduction in the Vee convergence angle (the type 2 phenomenon) is suitable for the production purposes.
Type 1 Original Type 2 Normal Type 2

Unstable region Type 2 V-shape facing

NOMENCLATURE V0: geometrical convergent point V1: physical contact point W: welding point SPLmax : standard heat-input power

I-shape facing

Heat input power

WELDING MECHANISM According to our modeling, the welding process consists of three stages, heating, melting, and squeezing. At the heating stage, the temperature increases from the edge part of the strip, because of the skin depth of the high- frequency current. At the same time, a thin oxide layer is generated at the heated parts on the strip surface. If the layer remains in the weld seam, it can generate oxide inclusions. However, in the case of welding with an appropriate input power, it is excreted with molten steel by the electromagnetic force at the melting stage. Furthermore, the residual oxides are expelled from the strip at the squeezing stage. Meanwhile, in the case of type 1, where there is not enough input power, there is the problem of not dispelling the oxide layer from the edge surfaces, since a part of solid state

Fig. 1 Conceptual relation between the heat-input power and the defect area ratio. Figure 2 schematically shows the difference among type 1, 2, and 2 phenomena. Here, three positions, the geometrical convergence point (V0) that is the intersection point between both strip edges, the closest point to the contact shoes among the physical contact points of the edges (V1), and the welding point (W) where excretion starts are defined. In type 1 phenomenon, all points, V0, V1, and W, are observed to overlap. Next, type 2 phenomena are characterized by the separation of W from V0. In this situation, V1 exists somewhere between them. Finally, regarding type 2, there are unique signatures that each point is distinctly separated at a

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certain distance, and that there are two kinds of the Vee convergence angles. At the lower part of the bending position of the strip edges, the width between the edges is extended relative to the original edges. This phenomenon is explained as follows. In this area, the whole part of the edge surfaces melts, and the molten steel is excreted by the electromagnetic force. The amount of the excreted metal and the welding speed is in a state of equilibrium. As a result the phenomenon that the Vee convergence angle is in two steps and the point V1 shifts to the lower position relative to the original. Therefore, type 2 phenomena provide evidence of whole melting of the edge surfaces. Note that type 2 phenomena are only a part of the original type 2 region; therefore, a more precise control of the heat-input power is needed. We tried to develop an optical and electrical technique to monitor type 2 phenomena for manufacturing purposes, as a method of proving the whole melting of the edge surfaces.

Power supplier V0,V1,W

SQ rolls

(a) Type 1 phenomenon

V0

V1

(b) Type 2 phenomenon

OBSERVATION METHODS The developed system combines two types of measurement methods, an optical image processing, and an electric impedance measurement method, shown in Fig. 3. 1) Optical image processing: The radiation pattern of the welding area from the strip is continuously photographed by a vertically positioned CCD color camera. A spatial resolution less than 100 m per pixel is required to detect the narrow gap between the strip edges in sub-millimeter order. Taking into account that the target phenomena occur in a short time as well as that the strip moves, an exposure time around 1/10000 sec is necessary to obtain sharp images. A camera with a frame rate of 40 fps for an industrial use was employed to monitor the full length of the welding condition with real-time image processing. 2) Impedance measurement: The electromagnetic field produced by the high frequency current in the strip edges is measured with a pickup coil mounted near the contact shoes. The frequency signal is proportional to the distance of the current route along the strip edges between the contact shoes and the contact position of both strip edges. Therefore, the fluctuation of the frequency signal in time domain represents the moving length of the bridge traveling behavior in type 2 and 2 phenomena. The slit gradually grows as the heat-input power increases from type 1 to type 2 region. The signal indicates high frequencies while the slit is growing, since the bridge is moving in a comparatively short slit with high repetition rate. The frequency decreases after the slit is completely grown. Using this feature, we defined the heat-input power with the highest frequency as SPLmax. The heat input power is indicated by the increasing or decreasing percentage relative to SPLmax. The optical method offers the advantage of visually observing the aspects of the Vee convergence, and the impedance measurement is superior because of the high sampling rate. It is thought that by combining both we can precisely grasp the state of welding, because each technique complements each other.

V1 V0 W
SQ rolls Camera

slit

Heating stage

Melting stage

Squeezing stage

Pickup coil Edge surfaces Contact shoes t BPF Digitizer Controller

(c) Type 2 phenomenon Fig. 2 Variation of the Vee convergence points.

Power supplier

Fig. 3 Configuration of the welding observation methods.

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TEMPERATURE MONITORING TECHNIQUES To date, the temperature measurements with infrared thermometers have been used in production for proving melting. Imaging techniques with visible light are also applied for the same purpose. The latter have the advantage of measuring the temperature in a specified area and its distribution. In this technique, the camera should be corrected by measuring the relation between the brightness level of the image and the temperature of the object, using a standard blackbody furnace and a standard radiation thermometer. Figure 4 shows an example of a color image of the welding area. The photograph is taken under a 60 m spatial resolution and 1/10000 sec exposure time. The image clearly indicates that the metal excreted from the strip edges in a teardrop shape is already molten. The area to be measured is the welding spot. However, the area has less variation in the brightness level, and this is difficult to automatically specify with basic image processing. Therefore, we constructed an algorithm to extract the welding spot using the V0 point as criterion, as the distance between V0 and the welding spot is almost constant in the case of type 2 and 2 regions. The processing flow is described as follows: (i) in the region of 70% of the gap between the strip edges on the upper side, two linear approximation lines are calculated by the least-squares method, and the edge detection points and the approximation lines are marked as green crosses and solid lines in the image, respectively; (ii) the intersection point of the lines is defined as V0 (see the red cross in Fig. 5); (iii) the measurement area is created at a position that is sifted by a constant from V0 on the lower side, and the distance is experimentally fixed by the thickness of the strip; (iv) the average of 100 pixel order in case of taking the median value as the center is calculated, for rejecting the noise components like dark area of water and bright by spatters; and (v) the brightness level is transferred to the temperature following the relation measured in advance. As a result of evaluating the performance with a 3 CCD color camera (red component) for industrial use, the precision is around 10 in the temperature range of 1200 to 1600 , and this is shown in Fig. 6. Note that the precision decreases as the temperature goes down because Planck radiation has a tendency to drastically decrease below 1300 (see Fig. 7).

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+ + + + + + + ++ + + +

+ +++ + +++ + ++ + + ++ + + +++

+ ++ ++ + ++ + + + + + + + + +

V0 +

Edge detection area

Approximation lines

Fig. 5 Detection algorithm of the V0 point.

Measurement temperature

1600 1550 1500 1450 1400 1350 1300 1250 1200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600

Frame number

Fig. 6 Example of the precision evaluation


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Brightness level

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Standard radiation thermometer

()

Fig. 7 Conversion curve from the brightness level in the photographed image to the temperature. This technique allows to extract the temperature at the welding spot. However, the strip edges start to melt from their corners according to the skin effect in the ERW process, so the temperature measurement on the surface is not sufficient evidence whether the whole edge surfaces has melted or not. Therefore, we did an off-line experiment in order to clarify the relation between the welding and melting state of the edge surfaces. Some test strips with attached thermocouples on the center of the edge surfaces were welded at various heat-input powers under the condition of I-shape facing of the edge surfaces, photographed from the upper side. The images and

5mm 1mm Parameter by the strip thickness

Fig. 4 Example of the temperature measurement area.

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the measured temperature transition as a function of time are shown in Fig. 8. Each case indicates (a) type 2 (only image), (b) type 2, (c) and (d) type 1 phenomena, respectively. The measured temperature at the welding spot is the melting point of steel in each case. The corresponding data by the thermocouples, shown in Fig. 9, also support the results of image processing. Naturally, it is thought that the temperature at the welding spot reaches the melting point within 400 msec, because the measured temperature proves melting even at the center of the strip edges. However, in case of type 1 phenomena, the temperature at the center of the edge surface decreases to the temperature of the solid state within several seconds after having reached the melting point. It is assumed that the oxide layer is not excreted at the squeezing stage. In contrast, the temperature is kept at the melting point after welding in case of type 2. The data indicate that the whole edge surfaces melt in type 2 phenomena, and the melting state is maintained during the squeezing stage. To generate type 2 phenomenon, more input power is applied, so it is safely said that the whole edge surfaces should be molten.

Temperature ()

SPLmax

SPLmax-5%

SPLmax-10%

Fig. 9 Temperature measurement results of the edge surfaces based on the thermocouples, and corresponding to the images in Fig. 8 (b), (c) and (d).

(a) SPLmax+10%

(b) SPLmax

(c) SPLmax-5%

(d) SPLmax-10% Fig. 8 Photograghed images in various heat input powers.

OPTIMIZATION OF THE OPTICAL SYSTEM There are harmful effects such as electromagnetic noise, spatters of molten metal, fume, and thermal radiation near the welding area. Therefore, to have a stable observation we need to enlarge the working distance of the optical system. The distance of 3.5 m from the strip surface is based on evaluating the measurement environment and from the viewpoint of maintenance. The images must be photographed with a spatial resolution of 60 m per pixel to detect the narrow slit. This condition requires a 40-powered lens. Some factors of the Fnumber, the resolving power of the lens, the depth in the object plane and the exposure time should be taken into account. There are some trade-off conditions among them. The Fnumber is fixed by photographing the radiation pattern of the strip edges with a 1/10000 exposure time. As the F-number increases, the depth of field goes up; however, the resolving power worsens. Figure 10(a) is the image showing a 42powered lens for industry use. The normalized cross-sectional data of the color components (red, green and blue) are plotted in Fig. 10(b). The figure shows that the brightness level between the strip edges does not drop to the background level; moreover, each component indicates different profiles, respectively. This means that the lens does not have sufficient resolving power and color aberration. We tried to apply a lens with increased resolution power by 2.5 and decreased aberration by 1/6, as shown in Fig. 11(a). The image quality much improved, and there are points where the brightness level sharply drops to the background level and the components has show smaller differences (Fig. 11 (b)).

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Zoomed image

10mm

(a) Photographed image


300

250

Red Green Blue

Brightness level

200

a point in the angle-distance plane. An edge detection filter is operated at preprocessing, after the red component is extracted from the photographed image. The comparison results are shown in Fig. 12. In the case of the image of the original lens, the transformed image shows a lot of noise caused by the pattern of the excreted metal, which is as strong as the converged points of the strip edges. Compared with that, the converged points give the maximum peak values in the image photographed using the improved lens. The dispersion of the transformed angle width decreases by a factor of 5 in the improved image after the binarizing operation with a threshold of 90% of the peak value. The high-performance lens enables to obtain a sharp image from a distance of 3.5m along the vertical direction.
Distance from image center

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0 620 640 660 680 700 720 740 760 780

Position (pixel)

4.50.95 degrees Angledegs. Angledegs.

(b) Cross sectional data of the A-A line in Fig (a) Fig. 10 Image data photographed by the 42-powered lens for industry use.
B

(a) Before improvement


Distance from image center

10mm

4.50.18 degrees Angledegs. Angledegs.

(a) Photographed image


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Red Green Blue

(b) After improvement Fig. 12 Radon transformation and binarized images with a threshold of 90 % of the peak level. IMAGE PROCESSING ALGORITHM Image processing is required to detect each Vee converged point, the geometrical converged point (V0), the physical contact point (V1), and the welding point (W), since we aimed at proving to have melted the whole strip surfaces by detecting the two-phased Vee convergence phenomenon. The following algorithm in Fig. 13 is developed for stable detection: (i) to extract the red component; (ii) to detect the V0 point by applying the above-described algorithm in the temperature measurement; (iii) to extract the gap area between the two strip edges using an inverse-binarizing and labeling operation with the lowest position along to the forming direction detected as the V1; (iv) to connect the blobs along the bisector line of the Vee convergence angle after setting the limit to the aspect ratio among the labeling blobs. Thus, the W point at the lowest tip of the connected blob is detected. Here, the blob means a group of pixels labeled with the same number after connecting operation of 4 or 8 neighborhoods.

Brightness level

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Position (pixel)

(b) Cross sectional data of the B-B line in Fig (a) Fig. 11 Image data photographed by the improved lens. To evaluate the sharpness of the strip edges, Radon transformation is applied. In this method, an image is projected on a line with an image rotating operation, i.e., coordinates transformed to angle-distance of the image center planes from x-y plane. Ideally, a line in the original image is transformed to

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Physical contact pointV1 Vee convergence angle Geometrical convergent pointV0 Welding pointW

(a) Detection parameters describing the welding condition

DEVELOPED MONITORING SYSTEM The system consists of the above-described functions, the continuous monitoring of three Vee convergence points, and the monitoring of the welding state by the optical and the electrical methods, and the detection of sparks. Furthermore, the initialization of the heat-input power using the SPLmax, the indication of the CPD diagram, and the detection of other types of failures, such as overlapping and backward flowing of cooling water, are provided.

(b) Binary image VERIFICATION IN MANUFACTURING PROCESS This system is applied to products with a thickness of 12.7 mm, at various heat-input power from SPLmax to SPLmax+20%. Figure 15 shows the evaluation data of the defect area ratio by the Charpy impact test. This result obviously indicates that SPLmax+20% is the best welding condition. Corresponding to these conditions, images of the optical monitoring are shown in Fig. 16. The data prove that each detection point is systematically shifted. The V0 point shown in red cross marks and the dashed line is moving to the upper side in proportion to the input power. In the cases of SPLmax, all points are at the same position, therefore it is judged to be a type 1 state. On the contrary, the V1 and W points, indicated in blue and light blue, respectively, are separated from the V0 positions. The positions are also moving to the lower side as the input power increases, keeping the distance between them constant. The part between V0 and V1 is equivalent to the slit as described above. The separation of the V0 point from V1 proves that in cases the two- phased reduction of the Vee convergence angle appears higher than SPLmax+5%. The detection results corresponding to the images are shown in Fig. 17. It is observed that the overlapped points in SPLmax are gradually separating as the heat-input power increases, although the W point is not perfectly separated from V1 in the case of SPLmax+5%. A distinctive behavior of the V1 point, which is hopping between the separated V0 and W points, is observed at SPLmax+10%. This condition corresponds to the unstable state with a large number of defects. At an input power of higher than SPLmax+15%, the V0 and V1 points completely separate from each other. In both cases, the trend of the detected W points hopping between V1 and the original W positions means that bridge traveling behavior is observed in the photographed images with a frame rate of 40 fps. The impedance measurement data, shown in Fig. 18, also support the interpretation of welding from image processing observations. The waveform in time domain represents the movement of the contact point V1. In the case of SPLmax+10%, relatively large oscillations in low frequency as well as small oscillations are observed. This phenomenon indicates that hopping occurs over long distance and leads to increased oxide inclusions, since the electromagnetic force eventually vanishes in a long range, then the excreted metal with the oxides tend to return to the edge surface, the moment the contact point hops to the upper side. Except for SPLmax+10%, the amplitude is almost constant.

(c) Extraction area for the slit detection

(d) Zoomed binarized image of the surrounding area by yellow rectangle in Fig (c) Fig. 13 Examples of the V points detection.

IMPROVEMENT OF THE ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE MEASUREMENT Impedance measurement has been applied to our production processes, but the system only displayed the analog waveform. Recently, we integrated an analog to digital conversion and a multi-frequency digital filtering function. Figure 14 shows an example of the filtering effect. The raw waveform of Fig. 14(a) includes some spark phenomenon, possible of yielding an oxide inclusion, but it is difficult to recognize them from the raw waveform. Figure 14(b) shows the result of filtering by band-cut filtering of the frequencies of the ripple noise in the power source and the welder, their harmonic generation of high order, and so on. After filtering, three spike noises caused from sparks were observed.
272.8
450

Amplitude of frequency (a.u.)

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Frequency (kHz)

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Time (sec)

Time (sec)

(a) Raw waveform (b) Amplitude of frequency Fig. 14 Example result of the multi-frequency filtering.

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However, the fluctuation signals of the frequency waveforms (SPL values) show that the absolute value decreases as the input power increases. It is difficult for the impedance measurements to distinguish the various phenomena between SPLmax+15% and +20%, but they offer the advantage of detecting the unstable state. The combination of these detection methods makes it possible to control the heat-input power more precisely.

SPLmax

SPLmax+5%

SPLmax+10%

10 Defect area ratio (%) 10 10 10 10

SPLmax+15%

-1

SPLmax+20%

-2

Fig. 16 Detected points in various heat input powers.


Detected position (mm)

-5 0 5 10 15 20 Normalized heat input power (%)


Fig. 15 Evaluation of the defect area ratio in case of a trial product with the thickness of 12.7 mm. On the other hand, the upper limit of the input power is judged from the absolute position of the W point. Figure 19 shows an example of the distance between the W position and the center of the squeeze rolls (SQ-center) versus the defect area ratio. In the case that the distance becomes larger than a certain threshold, the defect area increases drastically. Under these conditions, welding is performed while keeping the W point more than 25 mm away from the SQ- center. From these data, the required conditions for keeping the oxide defects at minimum are the length of melting area V1V0 >20 mm, slit length 10 mm, distance between the W point and the SQ-center <25 mm from image processing, and the fluctuation of frequency 1/f <4.0. The conditions by the optical method can define the upper and lower limits of the heat input power to keep the welding condition in the type 2 region and the electrical condition makes it more precise to catch the stability of the high speed phenomenon like the bridge traveling behavior. As a result of using the monitoring system and the four operational indices, the defect area ratio of lower than 0.05% is achieved in the trial product with a 12.7 mm thickness.

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25mm
V0
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Time (sec)

Fig. 17 Trend of the detected points, V0, V1 and W.

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Frequency (kHz)

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SPLmax
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Time (sec)
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Fig. 19 Index of the upper limit in the heat-input power.

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Time (sec)

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Fig. 18 Frequency waveforms (left side) in time domain and the fluctuation signals of the frequency waveforms (right side).

CONCLUSIONS It is experimentally found that type 2 phenomena, one of the subdivided three conditions of the original type 2, prove melting of the whole area of the edge surfaces, and minimize the defect ratio in the weld seam in production processes. We developed a monitoring system to control the welding condition in the type 2 range. The system was provided with the functions of detecting the V points by optical and electrical measurements. As a result of that the constructed operation indices based on the detection data were applied to trial products and the quality of the full length of seam was increased.

Frequency (kHz)

SPL value

REFERENCES [1] H. Haga, The welding Journal, Research Supplement, July (1980) 208. [2] H. Haga, The welding Journal, Research Supplement, June (1981) 104. [3] H. Haga, Nippon Steel Technical Report, No.26(1985)27. [4] T. Fukami T, Proc. Int. Pipeline Conf. 2012, (2012) to be published [5] C-M Kim, journal of materials processing technology, 209 (2009) 838.

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