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Proceedings of the 2012 9th International Pipeline Conference IPC2012 September 24-28, 2012, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

IPC2012-90282

WELDING OF 2205 DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL PIPES


Xiaofeng, Xu CNPC Tubular Goods Research Institute Xian, Shaanxi, P.R.China, 710065 Tel: +86-29-88726076 E-mail: xuxiaofeng009@cnpc.com.cn Weiwei, Li CNPC Tubular Goods Research Institute Xian, Shaanxi, P.R.China, 710065 Tel: +86-29-88726169 E-mail: liweiwei001@cnpc.com.cn

ABSTRACT There are abundant natural gas resources in western China, but many oil and gas fields are rich in chloridion, sulfureted hydrogen, carbon dioxide and other corrosive medium, which have strong corrosivity to the carbon steel and low alloy high strength pipeline steel. Tarim Basin KL2 gas field possesses abundant natural gas with great pressure, and the chloridion concentration in the water separated from gas is about 10%, so the medium has great corrosivity. In order to ensure the safety of the pipeline, about 13 km length pipeline and the internal pipes of a gas treatment plant that purifies gas about 12 billion stere a year are made of 2205 duplex stainless steel (2205 DSS). 2205 DSS using Cr, Ni, Mo, N and other alloying elements, has excellent mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. The site welding of the material is the key factor to its successful and wide application in large-scale pipeline project. 2205 DSS has many characteristics in welding with complex welding process; and because of high quality requirements for the construction of natural gas pipeline and restriction of on-site conditions, the site welding is very difficult. Focus on engineering applications, a large number of experimental researches have been carried out on the material microstructure, properties and weldability. Finally weld joints which conform to the requirements of standard are obtained, contributing to the first large-scale application of this material in the field of oil and gas pipelines. 2205 DSS has excellent performances due to the two-phase structure with appropriate proportion. The welding parameters have a great impact on the structure of the weld joint, so only appropriate welding parameters combined with certain technical measures can the weld and heat affected zone obtain favorable microstructure and properties. Considering the engineering application and the latest research development, the welding and key factors

affecting the joint properties of 2205 DSS pipes are summarized and analyzed. INTRODUCTION Ferrite-austenitic duplex stainless steel was invented in 1920s, which hadnt been widely used until 1970s because of some questions such as material, welding and so on. As the development of metallurgy technique and the acknowledgement that nitrogen element has an important role in duplex stainless steel, the 2nd generation duplex stainless steel containing nitrogen had been developed in 1970s and the weldabilty had been improved. Therefore duplex stainless steel started to be widely used in projects from 1980s in some advanced countries and from 1990s in China. 2205 DSS is one of the modern duplex stainless steels and possesses high strength, high toughness and good corrosion resistance, especially good resistance to pitting, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion in chloridion containing environment, and has been applied widely in acid petroleum and natural gas transportation, ocean and chemistry industries (1, 2). The KL2 gas field in western China possesses abundant natural gas and undertakes about 80% of the total provision for West-East Pipeline Project. Because the medium is very dangerous and the chloridion concentration in the water separated from gas is higher up to 10%, which have great corrosivity to the pipes, so 2205 DSS with good mechanical properties and corrosion resistance had been used in the pipes of the project for the safety and reliability, including a 13 km length pipeline and the internal pipes of a gas treatment plant that purifies gas about 12 billion stere a year. The 2205 DSS consumed was about 5226 tons and occupied about 1/3 of the global annual production at that time (3). This is the first time for such a large application of 2205 DSS material in China and

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the world. The project has run over several years safely, which accumulates a wealth of technical results and application experiences for the further application of 2205 DSS. Welding is the most important work for the construction of natural gas pipelines. 2205 DSS has many characteristics in welding with complex welding process; and because of high quality requirements for the construction of natural gas pipeline and restriction of on-site conditions, the site welding is very difficult. Based on welding experiments and studies, reasonable welding procedures and strict discipline are developed, which ensure the quality of the project. From the view of engineering application, the welding characteristics of the material and some key welding techniques are introduced in this paper. PROPERTIES AND WELDABILITY OF THE MATERIAL
MATERIAL PROPERTIES

influence on the microstructure of the weld. Only the right welding parameters, welding method and combined with certain technical measures can the weld and heat affected zone obtain fine microstructure and properties.

The main alloying elements of 2205 DSS are Cr (approximately 22%, mass fraction), Ni (approximately 5%, mass fraction), Mo (approximately 3%, mass fraction) and N (approximately 0.15%, mass fraction). Cr and Mo promote the formation of ferrite, while Ni and N stable austenite. The material is generally delivered in solid solution treatment state, and studies show that this material by solid solution treatment at 1050 for 2 hours can obtain best microstructures and performances (4). In the normal state of delivery, the microstructure is a kind of duplex structure combined about 50% of ferrite with about 50% of the austenite, shown in Figure 1. 2205 DSS combines the advantages of the two microstructures, in which the ferrite microstructure provides high strength while the austenite gives good plasticity and toughness and promotes the formation of fine grain structure with the ferrite microstructure, thus making the material exhibit excellent mechanical properties. The typical mechanical properties of 2205 DSS are given in Table 1. The weldability of the early duplex stainless steel was poor and lots of quality accidents happened due to welding problems. Even until now, many people are still worried about the welding of duplex stainless steel. Due to nitrogen alloying technology, sufficient austenite can reform in the heat-affected zone and weld joints with good mechanical properties and corrosion resistance can be obtained; thus, the welding performance of the modern duplex stainless steel has been greatly improved (5-8). Compared with austenitic stainless steel, 2205 DSS has higher thermal conductivity and smaller linear expansion coefficient, so the hot tearing tendency and deformation are smaller; compared with the low alloy high strength steel, due to the effects of the austenite, the cold cracking tendency is smaller. Overall, the weldability of 2205 DSS is good. It can be welded without preheating and postweld heat treatment, and it can be welded with the 18-8 type austenitic stainless steel or carbon steel (9, 10). Its excellent performance relies on an appropriate proportion of two-phase structure; however, the welding thermal cycle has a great

100m
Figure 1 Table 1
Tensile strength Rm MPa 680

Typical microstructure of 2205 DSS Typical mechanical properties of 2205 DSS


Elongation A 25 Charpy impact absorbed energy at 20 KV J 150 Hardness

Yield strength Rp0.2 MPa 480

HB 290

WELDING PERFORMANCE INFLUENCING FACTORS


HEAT INPUT

The welding heat input has a great influence on the microstructure and the proportion of the two phases of the weld and heat affected zone, and thus has a significant impact on mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the weld joint. The results of corrosion test and impact test of the weld joint in different heat input in laboratory simulation are as shown in Figure 2. We can see from Figure 2, in smaller heat input (6.2 kJ/cm), the pitting corrosion rate of weld joint is higher, the corrosion resistance is poorer and pitting may appear, and the impact absorbed energy of the weld and heat affected zone is also lower. During the heat input range of 8.2 kJ/cm to 15.7 kJ/cm, with the increase of heat input, the corrosion rate increases, the corrosion resistance decreases, and the impact absorbed energy improves, but the combination property is good, meeting the engineering requirements.

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14 Pitting corro sion rate/ 12 (mg.d m .d )


-1

10 8 6 4 2 0 6 .2 8 .2 13.9 15.7 Heat inp ut/(kJ.cm-1)

indicate that the phase ratio of ferrite in the weld metal and heat-affected zone of the joints is controlled in the range of 30% to 60%. The combination property of TIG joint is the best, and then that of SAW, last the SMAW. The impact absorbed energy at 40 of the weld metal by SMAW is the minimum for 37J while the pitting corrosion resistance is the poorest with the weight loss rate at about 9 mg/(dm2d), but also meeting the engineering requirements. Restricted by the field welding conditions in the actual construction, TIG is used for backing welding and SMAW is used to fill and cover in the pipe girth welding, which can meet the project quality and schedule requirements.
OTHER FACTORS

-2

140 120 K v (40)/J 100 80 60 40 20 0 6.2 8.2 13.9 Heat input/(kJ.cm -1 ) weld HAZ 15.7

Figure 2

Varies of corrosion rate and low temperature toughness of the weld joint with the heat input

If the welding heat input is too small, the cooling rate is very fast and the austenite of the weld metal and high temperature heat affected zone hasnt enough time to fully precipitate, resulting in high content of ferrite and nitride (the solubility of nitrogen in ferrite is low and easy to form nitride), and reducing the corrosion resistance and toughness of the weld joint. Welding in the proper heat input, the austenite of the weld and heat affected zone transforms fully with proper ratio of two phases, so that the weld joint has a good performance. Within a certain range, with the increase of heat input, the austenite content increases and the toughness of the joint improve. However, with the increase of heat input, the cooling rate becomes lower. If the time from 900 to 550 stays too long, the likelihood of precipitation of intermetallic phases of the weld or heat affected zone increases, reducing the corrosion resistance of the joint (11, 12).
WELDING METHOD

The welding consumables shall use the duplex stainless steel material in which the nickel content is higher (usually increased by 2% to 3%) than that of the parent metal, to ensure an appropriate proportion of austenite and ferrite in the weld (10). Generally, the welding doesnt need preheating. However, when the weldment wall thickness is too thick or the environment temperature is too low, to prevent too much ferrite forming in the weld and heat affected zone due to the rapid cooling rate, if necessary, preheating may be used. To avoid the production of precipitate phase for the slow cooling rate, the interpass temperature between the multi-layers or multi-passes shall be controlled, usually not to exceed 150. Multi-pass welding and additional process welds if necessary should be adopted, the following weld having a heat treatment effect on the front, to ensure the balance of the phases of the joint. Its necessary for the shielding gas to increase a certain percentage of nitrogen to improve the corrosion resistance of the weld. Besides, effective protection from the back is very important for TIG welding. The purity of the gas shall meet the technical requirements and welding shall not start until the oxygen content on the back of the weld meets the process requirements. Effective measures shall be taken to prevent air into the back, and the back gas protection should continue until the effective thickness of the weld reaches 6 mm or more. It should prevent the stainless material from the pollution of carbon steel, copper, low melting point metal or other impurities. Where possible, the stainless steel pipe and carbon steel pipe should be kept separate. Measures shall be taken to prevent spattering, arc blowing, carburizing, local overheating in the welding and cutting. WELDING PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION

Many welding methods can apply to 2205 DSS, such as shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), gas tungsten arc welding (TIG) and submerged arc welding (SAW). Theses three methods are used in paper (13) to conduct the welding test on 2205 DSS plates; and the microstructure, mechanical property and corrosive property of weld joints are analyzed. The results

According to the techniques weve mastered, the process specifications are developed and the corresponding welding procedure qualifications (WPQ) are processed. The main test conditions and results of one welding procedure qualification on 508 mm15.9 mm pipe are given in Table 2 and Table 3.

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Table 2
Welding process TIG for 2 root pass SMAW for filler and cap pass

Main test conditions of WPQ of the girth weld


Protect gas Groove Position Heat input E/(kJcm-1)

Filler metal

joint is obtained, indicating that the welding parameters are appropriate and the proposed welding process specification is correct. ENGINEERING APPLICATION

AVESTA 2205 AVESTA 2205-PW

Torch Ar+1.5% N2 Back of weld Ar+5% N2 Single V 45fixed (6G) 820

Table 3
Tensile strength RmMPa Guided bend

Main results of WPQ of the girth weld


40 CVN KvJ Weld HAZ No 41.5 43.5 45.0 43.0 40.0 40.0 155 103 115 112 155 90.0 in pitting specimens corrosion occurs Microstructure Pitting corrosion

Diameter of 766 763 737 752 the mandrel is 180. No crack 90mm, bending for

Weld and HAZ are F A. No intermetallic precipitations. The F proportion is 35% to 50% in weld and 50% to 65% in HAZ.

surface after 24h at 22, 6FeCl3 solution. Average corrosion rate of 3 specimens are 1.57, 1.57, 0.00 mgdm-2day-1

It can be seen from the results given in Table 3, the tensile strength of weld joints is much higher than the specified lower limit of the base metal (620 MPa), and so the tensile property of the joint is good. The tensile side of the weld joint is intact after bended for 180, indicating that the ductility of the joints is good. The Charpy impact absorbed energies at -40 of the weld metal and heat affected zone meet the specified requirement in ASTM A923 (no less than 54J for the base metal while no less than 34J for the weld). The pittting test in 6% FeCl3 solution in accordance with ASTM A923 C method shows that the weld joints possess good resistance to chloridion localized corrosion (the specified requirement is no more than 10 mgdm-2day-1). Both the weld and heat affected zone are ferritic and austenitic duplex structure, and there is no single-phase ferrite or intermetallic precipitate phase near the weld. The ferrite content in heat affected zone near the weld is the maximum for 65%, meeting the requirement of the technical condition (the required value for the weld and heat affected zone is 35% to 65%), and the plasticity and toughness and corrosion resistance can be satisfied. The ferrite content in other parts of the weld and heat affected zone is 35% to 50% while the austenite phase is relatively more, which is favorable to the plasticity, toughness and corrosion resistance. The assessment results meet the requirements of relevant standards and excellent weld

KL2 gas field is a large-scale CO2-bearing gas condensate field in China with high single well production. The transportation pipeline faces the corrosion with high pressure (the maximum working pressure is 13.3 MPa), high temperature (the highest temperature is 80 ), and high chloridion (the chloridion concentration in the water separated from gas is about 10%). According to these characteristics of the gas field, 2205 DSS material with higher mechanical properties and excellent resistance to chloridion and carbon dioxide corrosion is used. There are many pipe sizes used in the project (the minimum 33.4 mm 3.4 mm, the maximum 508 mm 19.1 mm). Based on the experimental studies and analysis, 12 process specifications are developed and the corresponding welding procedure qualifications are processed. According to the results of the qualification, six of the welding specifications are elected for the welding of the project. In order to guarantee the quality and progress of the project, lots of preparatory work and strict requirements have been done on the technical standards for construction, welder training and assessment, on-site construction discipline and so on. Under the careful organization and coordination of the project department, after more than five months of hard work of the scientific research, construction and supervision corporations, the project was successfully completed at the end of 2004. Currently, these pipelines run in seven years in good condition, showing that the construction quality of the pipeline is reliable. This project accumulates a wealth of technical results and application experiences for the further application of 2205 DSS. CONCLUSION (1) 2205 DSS has good mechanical properties and corrosion resistance, and a bright future. (2) The welding of the material has many characteristics with complex processes and high process requirements. To master the welding performance features and key technologies is the premise to ensure the quality. (3) During the construction, detailed technical rules and rigorous discipline are developed and implemented strictly in the welding process, ensuring the welding quality of the project. REFERENCES [1] Jiu W., Shizhen J., Jun H., et al, 1999, Duplex Stainless Steel, Metallurgical Industry Press, Beijing, pp.1-6.

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[2] Lippold J. C., and Kotecki D. J., 2005, Welding Metallurgy and Weldability of Stainless Steels, JohnWilly & Sons, Incorporated, Hoboken. [3] Zongyue B., Jianxun Z., Feng Z., et al, 2010, 2205/Q235 Duplex Stainless Steel Composite Pipe with Large Diameter Used in Acid Medium, Corrosion & Protection, 31(5), pp.349-352. [4] Bin W., Zhenquan B., Chengxian Y., et al, 2009, Effects of Solid Solution Treatment on Pitting Corrosion Behavior of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel, Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment, 30(4), pp.73-76. [5] Lindblom B. E. S., Lundquis T. B., and Hannerz N. E., 1991, Grain Growth in HAZ of Duplex Stainless Steels, Scandinavian Journal Metallurgy, 20, pp.68-74. [6] Shangzhou L., Wiseman R., and Sunter B. J., 1995, Metal Inert Gas Welding of Alloy 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel, Transactions of the China Welding Institution, 16(2), pp.68-73. [7] Mats L., 2003, The Welding Metallurgy of Duplex Steel, International Duplex Stainless Steel Conference, Beijing, pp.25-39. [8] Rouault P., and Bonnet C., 2003, Make the Duplex and Super Duplex Welding Easier through Metallurgical and Practical Simple Recommendations, International Duplex Stainless Steel Conference, Beijing. [9] Chinese Welding Society of Mechanical Engineering Society, 1992, Welding of the Materials, Welding Handbook, Mechanical Industry Press, Beijing, pp.3-309. [10] Wenyue Z., and Shengchang H., 2004, Weldability and Welding Material of Duplex Stainless Steel, Welding Technology, 33(1), pp.40-42. [11] Jian L., and Yushan W. 2004, Effect on Metallographic Structure of Duplex Stainless Steel (SAF 2205) by Different Welding Procedure, Pressure vessel Technology, 21(2), pp.7-11. [12] Claes-Ove P.and Sven-Ake F., 1994, Welding Practice for the Sandvik Duplex Stainless Steels SAF 2304, SAF 2205 and SAF 2507, SANDVIK Steel, Sweden, pp.3-7. [13] Zhiyu W., Jian H., Hongmei S., et al, 2011, Comparative Analysis for Joint Performance of Duplex Stainless Steel by Different Arc Welding Methods, Transactions of the China Welding Institution, 32(4), pp.37-40.

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