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1 Copyright 2012 by ASME

Proceedings of the 2012 9th International Pipeline Conference


IPC2012
September 24-28, 2012, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
IPC2012-90397
MODELLING OF SLANT FAILURE USING SMALL SIZE SPECIMEN


Philippe Thibaux
ArcelorMittal R&D Gent
Gent, Belgium
Jeroen Van Wittenberghe
ArcelorMittal R&D Gent
Gent, Belgium




ABSTRACT
The instability of a pipeline crack eventually leads to brittle or
ductile crack propagation. The resistance to ductile crack
propagation is assessed by the energy dissipated in the CVN
test. However the Charpy specimen exhibits mainly mode I
failure, with no small shear lips, while real failure is a
combined mode often described as slant failure. In the present
investigation, instrumented Charpy tests with nominal and
reduced thickness down to 2.5 mm are carried out.
Instrumented Battelle drop weight tear tests where also
performed with nominal and reduced thickness, in order to vary
the ligament versus thickness ratio. The results of the Charpy
tests are simulated by the finite element method. The results are
then discussed in terms of energy dissipated during crack
initiation and crack propagation. It is shown that by reducing
the size of the Charpy specimen, slant failure is promoted,
which results in a decrease of the specific energy absorbed.
However, most of the difference of absorbed energy is in the
crack initiation mode, and only marginally in crack
propagation. Consequently, the fraction of the total energy
dissipated in crack propagation is increased by reducing the
sample thickness, making it a possible tool to assess the
resistance of a material to crack propagation, provided that
brittle fracture is avoided and no separation is present.

INTRODUCTION
Securing energy supply towards industrialized areas
requires more and more the transport of natural resources over
large distances. Economical gas transport has pushed the
pipeline industry to increase pressure in the transportation
network. A substantial economical improvement could be
achieved if future pipelines would be made of higher strength
steels like X100. However, the introduction of higher strengths
has been coupled with reviewing of the criteria concerning
ductile crack arrest. Empirical modifications were applied
when X80 was introduced some 25 years ago [Demofonti].
Unfortunately, it is not yet clear which type of modification of
current design code is required for steel grades of class 100 and
above [Fonzo]. Furthermore, full-scale burst tests in Russia
have shown that previous empirical consideration could be non
conservative when applied to X80 steel with thickness in
excess of 30 mm, pressures above 100 bars and diameter of
1420 mm [Pyshmintsev]. The application of high strength
steels requires therefore the reinforcement of current
knowledge about failure in a mode similar to the failure of a
pipeline.
The development of new technologies to counter global
warming will likely require similar developments as the
introduction of high strength steels. One of the investigated
ways to avoid release of carbon dioxide is carbon capture and
storage. To organize carbon sequestration, sources of CO
2
will
have to be connected to storage sites through a network of
pipelines working in supercritical condition, at pressure in
excess of 80 bars. The behaviour of supercritical carbon
dioxide in case of failure is at first very fast decompression,
when the fluid is in supercritical / liquid state, followed by a
very slow decompression speed at the transition to the gaseous
state, which requires supplementary conservatism or an
increased toughness. These effects are currently investigated in
different international research programs [Spinelli].
The ductile crack arrest behaviour is predicted by the
Battelle Two Curve approach [Maxey][Eiber]. The
decompression wave speed is compared with the crack speed.
The principle is that at some point, the crack propagation
should be slower than the decompression wave. Current
standard [ISO3183] includes an annex describing the required
Charpy energy as a function of the steel grade, pipe diameter
and wall thickness. It is however mentioned that there can be
non conservative predictions when very high impact energies
are specified (above 108J). The main reason is that the
application of the Battelle Two Curve approach requires to
2 Copyright 2012 by ASME
estimates the crack speed, and it has been analyzed on the basis
of the impact energy in a Charpy test. It was assumed that the
energy dissipated for crack propagation in a pipeline was
proportional to the total energy dissipated in the impact test.
Recent developments have shown that the very high impact
energies were unfortunately achieved through increase of the
crack initiation resistance, while the crack propagation
resistance was becoming a smaller fraction of the total
dissipated energy [Thibaux].
Previous research focused on the analysis of fracture arrest
considering the drop weight tear test. The Battelle drop weight
tear test (BDWTT) was originally designed to demonstrate the
resistance of a pipe towards brittle fracture. If the failure is
ductile, the specimen can exhibit a slant failure similar to the
one observed in full scale tests [Wilkowski]. The BDWTT
could then have the potential to characterize the resistance
towards ductile failure with a proper instrumentation and
analysis. But this test is facing some difficulties, considering
geometry, instrumentation and quality insurance. Classically,
the notch is pressed, raising questions about reproducibility.
Different authors investigated the possibility to modify the
notch to decrease the energy required for crack initiation, for
example by the classical pressed notch, static cracked notch,
Chevron notch or using back slot [Rudland][Afaganis]
[Pussegoda]. During these experiments the load displacement
of the striker is measured, from which a fracture arrest criterion
is computed. Another method is the two specimens approach,
which is then used to determine a CTOA value [Demofonti-
BDWTT]. These techniques are based on the force
measurement of the striker, which can be subject to dynamic
artifacts. From a quality insurance point of view, the absence of
standard describing instrumented drop weight tear test and its
calibration hinders its application in the industry.
In the present investigation, slant failure was reproduced in
Charpy impact test by reducing the thickness of the specimen.
First standard impact tests were produced on a normalized and
a thermomechanically rolled material. Impact test in reduced
thickness was then performed on the second material, as well as
BDWTT. Fracture surfaces were observed and the energy
dissipated during the test is discussed.
MATERIAL
The main material investigated was X70 steel of 19.5 mm
thickness produced at one of ArcelorMittals European plants.
The production of this steel requires the application of precise
process control and installations with high cooling capacity and
large rolling forces in the last finishing rolling stands. To
represent an older material with similar strength (table 1), a
normalized pressure vessel grade P460N was selected. Due to
the process, the material obtains its strength from the chemical
composition and is therefore more alloyed, among other in
carbon (table 2). As expected, the normalized steel exhibited
bands of ferrite and pearlite, while the accelerated cooled X70
steel had smaller carbides finely dispersed (Figure 1 and 2).



Table 1 Tensile properties of investigated materials
Ref ReH
(MPa)
UTS
(MPa)
UE
(%)
El prop
(%)
X70 589 637 10.6 26
P460N 496 592 14.7 26

Table 2 Chemical composition in weight %, except S:
ppm
Ref C Mn Si S Ceq/Pcm Others
X70 <.07 <1.6 .24 25 0.33/0.25 Mo, Ni, Nb
P460N .15 1.5 .31 25 0.44/0.25 Ni, Nb, V


Figure 1 Microstructure of the normalized steel


Figure 2 Microstructure of the X70 material
STANDARD CHARPY IMPACT TESTS
Instrumented impact tests (10x10 mm section) were
performed on a Zwick 750J hammer according to ISO 148. As
shown in Figure 3, test temperature ranged from room
temperature down to -120C. The upper-shelf energy of the
3 Copyright 2012 by ASME
X70 steel was close to 270J, while the normalized steel had
upper- shelf energy of around 130J.
The X70 material exhibited ductile failure until -60C. At
-80 and -100C some specimens had first ductile failure,
eventually followed by brittle failure. At -120C, all specimens
failed in brittle mode. After brittle failure, there was almost no
ligament showing a brittle to ductile transition. The temperature
for 27J is close to -120C.
The normalized material had a very progressive transition.
At -20C, some ductile failure was observed, followed by
brittle failure, then the brittle crack was arrested and continued
to propagate in ductile mode (Figure 5). The very progressive
transition was actually a consequence of a significant part of
the energy being dissipated after the brittle crack arrest part.
The energy absorbed after brittle crack arrest had limited
scatter, and lead to the very smooth transition curve. The
temperature of 27J is close to -80C.
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
-140 -120 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20
Temperature (C)
C
V
N

E
n
e
r
g
y

(
J
)
P460N
X70

Figure 3 Transition curve of both materials.

20C
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
0 5 10 15 20 25
displacement (mm)
f
o
r
c
e

(
N
)
X70 -1
X70-2
P460N-1
P460N-2

Figure 4 Instrumented impact tests at 20C
The force-displacement curves during impact tests at room
temperature are compared in Figure 4. Steel X70 yielded at a
force of around 14.5kN, while steel P460N reach general yield
at a force of around 13.5kN. The maximum force was lower for
the P460N material (~17kN) than for the X70 material
(~18.2kN), and the maximum force was obtained for a smaller
displacement of the hammer for the normalized material than
for X70 (3.8 versus 5.3 mm). This is likely the indication of a
lower energy needed for crack initiation. The decrease of the
force after reaching the maximum was very progressive for the
X70 material, until a total displacement of 10 mm was reached.
At that moment, the load decreased faster until a displacement
of 15 mm. The normalized steel exhibited a faster decrease of
the load after the maximum. The slope of the load /
displacement curve was constant between forces of 15 and
6kN. Below a force of 6kN, the force decreased at a much
slower pace.
N -20C
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
0 5 10 15
displacement (mm)
f
o
r
c
e

(
N
)
60J
80J
91J
97J
Brittle Failure
Brittle arrest
Brittle propagation
Ductile propagation

Figure 5 Instrumented Charpy curves for material N
at -20C
REDUCED THICKNESS IMPACT TESTS
In order to promote slant failure, Charpy-V impact
specimens from X70 material were produced with a thickness
of 5 and 2.5 mm, with a width of 10 mm and a classical notch
of 2 mm. Tests were performed at room temperature and at -
60C. All the samples failed in ductile mode. Correcting the
energy by the sample thickness, one observes a decrease of the
energy absorbed when the thickness of the sample is reduced,
being only 151 J/cm
2
for the thin sample compared to 335J/cm
2

for the 10 mm thick sample (table 3).

Table 3 Influence of sample thickness on the impact
energy for X70 steel.
Thickness (mm) Energy (J)
Specific energy
(J/cm
2
)
10 268 335
5 99 247
2.5 31 151

The loads recorded during the instrumented tests were
divided by the thickness (and multiplied by 10) in Figure 6.
The main difference between the experiments with different
thickness was at the beginning of the test. The displacement at
the maximum load was smaller when the thickness of the
sample was decreased. After the maximum, a constant slope
was achieved in the samples of 2.5 and 5 mm thickness. As
mentioned previously, the 10mm thick samples had a different
behaviour just after the maximum, with a limited slope,
suddenly increasing for a displacement above 12mm. The last
4 Copyright 2012 by ASME
part of the force curves were different for each thickness.
Generally, the curves of the 2.5 and 5 mm samples had a shape
more similar to the curve of the 10 mm P460N material. One
will notice that the slopes of the curves are remarkably constant
for forces between 14 and 7 kN. On the same graph, the
dissipated energy in function of the displacement is
represented. As it is the integration of the load displacement
signal, straight lines indicate a constant load, while curved /
parabolic regions are indications of a decrease of the force
versus displacement curve. If the part of the curve with linear
decrease of the load (and thus a parabolic profile for the
energy) is assimilated with crack propagation, one would
actually consider that the crack propagation energy / mm
thickness is constant in function of the thickness, while the
crack initiation energy is increased when the thickness of the
sample increases (see Figure 6).

0
5000
10000
15000
20000
0 5 10 15 20 25
Displacement (mm)
F
o
r
c
e

(
N
)
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
E
n
e
r
g
y

(
J
/
m
m
2
)
F2.5mm F5mm F10mm
En 2.5mm EN 5mm En 10mm

Figure 6 Force and energy normalized by thickness
to 10mm of instrumented test on 2.5, 5 and 10mm
Charpy samples
OBSERVATION OF FRACTURE SURFACES
Fracture surfaces were investigated optically and in the
scanning electron microscope. The general geometry of the
fracture surfaces indicates a rotation of the sample during the
test (see Fig 7). The rotation was more pronounced for the
5 mm than for the 2.5 mm thickness sample. Investigation of
similar 10 mm specimens was reported in [Thibaux]. The
rotation of the sample was then very large, with large plastic
deformation.
Optically, the fracture surfaces exhibited a mode I failure
under the notch, with thinning and shear lips on the sides
(Figure 8). Further away from the notch, the width of the zone
in mode I was reduced, while the fracture surface covered with
shear lips increased. Finally, on the side opposite to the notch,
the width of the sample increased, and showed a large area in
mode I. When the thickness of the specimen decreased, the area
failing in mode I was much reduced, with most of the surface
covered with shear lips.



Figure 7 Overview of impact samples


Figure 8 Perpendicular view of the specimen

Detailed investigation of the surfaces showed that the
fracture in mode I had a triangular shape close to the notch with
a base of ~3.5 mm and a height of ~1.5 mm for the 5 mm thick
sample. For the 2.5 mm sample, the respective dimensions were
1.9 and 1 mm. At mid-ligament, the width of the fracture was
~3.2 mm, with a width in mode I of 1.3 mm for the 5 mm
thickness sample. For the 2.5 mm sample, the width of the
fracture was 1.4 mm, with a width in mode I of around
0.25 mm (Figure 9 and 10).
Independently of the sample thickness, the fracture
surfaces were dominated by large dimples. At mid-thickness of
the specimen, the dimples were round and had a diameter close
to 40 m. They were similar for the 2.5 and the 5 mm sample.
In the shear lips, the dimples were smaller and heavily
deformed, making the measurement of their sizes difficult.
Fracture surfaces of tensile specimen exhibited a small number
of large dimples, with a large area of very small dimples
between them (Figure 11). The fracture surfaces observed in
the small Charpy specimen were quite similar to the appearance
observed on full scale burst test specimen [Tagawa], which is
an indication that the failure mode could be similar to the full
scale experiment. The presence of moderately large dimples
demonstrates the presence of a significant triaxiality, although
likely smaller than in plane strain experiments.
2.5mm
5mm
5 Copyright 2012 by ASME



Figure 9 Fracture surface of 2.5mm thickness sample



Figure 10 Fracture surface of 5mm thickness sample
6 Copyright 2012 by ASME

Figure 11 Fracture surface of tensile specimen

Sections were cross cut in the plane normal to crack
propagation at mid ligament length (figure 12). The angle
observed between the shear lips seems to be slightly smaller for
the 2.5 mm sample than for the 5mm thick sample. Voids were
observed at some distance from the fracture surface at mid-
thickness. These voids were more present in the 5mm thick
sample. It can be explained by the larger area in plane strain
mode in the 5mm sample compared to the 2.5 mm sample,
leading to more growth of voids in the 5mm sample. Finally, a
significant thickness reduction was observed in both samples.
Confirming the measurements performed in the scanning
electronic microscope. The initial thickness was reduced by
10% at 1.8mm from the minimum section for the 5mm
thickness sample, while it was at 2.1mm for the 2.5mm
thickness sample.


Figure 12 Cross section of the fracture surfaces of 5
and 2.5mm thickness samples
BATTELLE DROP WEIGHT TEAR TEST
Battelle Drop Weight Tear Tests were performed on the
X70 material using an instrumented tup. The notches were
made by pressing against a tool. The total energy of the system
was 21 kJ. Three thicknesses were investigated: 10, 15 and
19.5 mm. The smaller thicknesses were obtained by machining
the material on both sides. The values reported by the test were
normalized by the thickness of the sample and are reported in
Figure 13. The samples of 10 and 15 mm were impacted at -
20C, while the 19.5 mm sample was impacted at room
temperature. One observes that the energy was not constant for
the different thicknesses, and also that a significant part of the
energy was dissipated in crack initiation (around 300J/mm for
10 mm and 500 J/mm for 15 and 19.5 mm). One should also
notice that the total specific energy dissipated during a test was
much larger than the specific energy dissipated in a Charpy test
(1000 J/cm
2
versus 350 J/cm
2
).

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
0 2 4 6 8 10
t (ms)
F
(
k
N
/
m
m
)
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
E
n

(
J
/
m
m
)
Force 19.5mm Force 10mm Force 15mm
En 19.5 mm Energy 10mm Energy 15mm

Figure 13 Force displacement curves of BDWTT
NUMERICAL SIMULATION
The charpy impact tests were simulated with the finite
element method using Abaqus Explicit. Ductile tearing is
modeled using the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) model
[Tvergaard]. Damage is represented by an internal variable f
representing the void volume fraction, and is supposed to be
isotropic. The influence of damage is to decrease the size of the
yield locus according to Equation 1.
( ) 0 1
2
3
cosh 2
2
2
1
0
2 1 2
0
2
= +
|
|

\
|
+ =

f q
p
q f q
eq

(1)
In this equation, p is the hydrostatic pressure,
eq
is the
effective Von Mises stress,
0
is the yield stress of the matrix
(function of the plastic deformation),
2 1
, q q are material
parameters and

f is the effective porosity.


Crack width ~1.3
Crack width ~3.2
voids
7 Copyright 2012 by ASME
The effective porosity is a function of the porosity f to take
into account the larger influence of the porosity in the
coalescence step. The usual expression is given by Equation 2.
( )

> +

=
c c c
c
f f f f f
f f f
f

*
(2)
c
f is the void volume fraction at which coalescence of
voids occurs and is the acceleration factor accounting for
the increased softening of the material once coalescence has
started. The evolution of the volume fraction of voids sums up
the growth of the existing voids (computed by the mass
balance) and the nucleation of new voids as indicated in
Equation 3.
( )
pl
eq
pl
gr
A I f f
&
&
&
+ = : 1 (3)
New voids can nucleate in function of the plastic
deformation according to Equation 4, following a normal
distribution on variable plastic deformation.
(
(

|
|

\
|
=
2
2
1
exp
2
N
N
pl
m
N
N
s s
f
A

(4)
N
f is the total volume fraction of sites where new voids
can be nucleated. Half of these voids will have nucleated when
the equivalent plastic deformation is around a given value,
N
,
considering that the dispersion of the nucleation process is
determined by the parameter
N
s .
The material parameters include: the true stress true
strain relationship for the material, the parameters of the GTN
model described previously and the mesh size for the finite
element simulations. A strain sensitivity dependence was added
in the model according to a Norton law.
5 / 1
55
eq
static
eq
dyn
eq
& + = (5)
Ductile failure at high strain rate can be considered
adiabatic. To include the increase of temperature in the sample
and its influence on the stress / strain curve, adiabatic
conditions were considered with a heat capacity of 460J/kg/K.
The influence of the temperature on stress was described by
[Sedlacek].
189
55555
293
+ =
=
T
K T
eq
T
eq
(6)
The flow curve of the material has been determined
experimentally until the uniform elongation for the quasi-static
simulations. Because damage occurs at deformation levels
much larger than the uniform elongation, a linear extrapolation
of the curve has been performed beyond that point. The set of
parameters
1
q and
2
q were kept to the classical values of 1.5
and 1 as often reported in the literature [Tvergaard]. These
estimates were also proven to be close to a self-consistent
estimate of the behaviour of a dilute porous medium [Perrin]
The parameters concerning the nucleation of new voids
and the coalescence are less documented in literature, as they
are strongly material dependent. These parameters were
determined by trial and error, based on the force displacement
curve of the 10 mm sample.
The models had two symmetry planes to reduce the
computation time. The typical dimension in the notch area is
0.1 mm. An example of the mesh is represented in Figure 14.


Figure 14 Overview of the mesh


Figure 15 Von Mises stress distribution 10 mm
sample at t=2 10
-3
s

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Figure 16 Von Mises stress distribution of the 2.5 mm
sample at t= 2 10
-3
s.

The computed force-displacement curves are shown in
Figure 17, together with the experimental ones, all of them
divided by the thickness. The finite element simulation was
able to reproduce rather accurately the experimental results.
The maximum load increased when the thickness increased,
and shifted to larger displacements. The only fact that was not
accurately reproduced is the change of slope for the 10 mm
sample. The simulations predict a failure mainly in mode I for
the 10 mm sample (Figure 15) and in slant mode for the
2.5 mm sample (figure 16). These simulations gave an insight
about the development of the fracture in the specimen. For the
present material, it appears that the slant failure was partly
caused by tunneling of the crack at the mid thickness (Figure
16). Because the ligament length was significantly larger than
the thickness of the specimen, the fracture surface becomes
tilted. Another example of the quality of these simulations was
the width of the fracture surface (distance between the
extremities of the shear lips at mid-ligament, see Figure 12).
We calculated the reduced thickness at the crack plane to be
1.2 mm in the finite element simulation for the 2.5 mm thick
specimen, while the experimental value is 1.3 mm; for the 5mm
specimen, 3 mm was obtained from FE simulation while
3.2 mm was experimentally measured.
Computations by the finite element method provide the
possibility to determine supplementary quantities compared to
experiments. The area of the ligament was measured at
different time steps for the simulations of impact of the 2.5 and
10 mm thickness sample. The measured area was then reduced
to an equivalent ligament length by dividing by the nominal
thickness. The results are reported in Figure 18. One observes
that the ligament decreased much quicker for the thin sample,
from a displacement of 3mm, and then has an almost linear
evolution with the displacement. For the 10 mm sample, the
decrease of the ligament was quite limited for a displacement as
large as 15mm. Consequently, one can conclude that the energy
dissipated in the 10mm sample is mostly governed by crack
initiation, while the thin specimen is more sensitive to crack
propagation.

0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
0 5 10 15 20
displacement (mm)
F
o
r
c
e

/

t
h
i
c
k
n
e
s
s

(
N
/
1
m
m
)
Exp 2.5mm
Exp 5mm
Exp 10mm
FE 2.5mm
FE 5mm
FE 10mm


Figure 17 Force /thickness versus displacement for
finite element simulations and instrumented Charpy
tests for X70 material
The proportion of energy dissipated in crack propagation
was estimated in Figure 19. Long running cracks should be
characterized by a linear relationship between the energy
dissipated and the increase of the crack length, which was
observed for a crack length between 0.5 and 3 mm. One
observes that the force also changed almost linearly with the
crack length in this interval, which is a second indication that a
constant crack propagation regime was achieved. The total
energy dissipated in crack propagation was then ~60 J
(normalized to 10mm), on a total dissipated energy of 130 J.
This corresponds to a dissipation of 2J/mm
2
, which is on the
lower side compared to values reported in the literature of
materials with similar upper shelf energy [Rivalin].
0
50
100
150
200
250
0 5 10 15 20
Displacement (mm)
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

e
n
e
r
g
y

(
J
/
m
m
)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
E
q
u
i
v
a
l
e
n
t

l
i
g
a
m
e
n
t

(
m
m
)
En 10mm En 2.5mm
Ligament 10mm Ligament 2.5mm

Figure 18 Normalized energy and equivalent ligament
length versus displacement for X70 FE simulations
9 Copyright 2012 by ASME
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 2 4 6
Crack length (mm)
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

E
n
e
r
g
y

(
J
)
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

F
o
r
c
e

(
k
N
)
Energy Force

Figure 19 Normalized absorbed energy and force
versus crack length (2.5mm specimen, normalized to
10mm) for X70 material
DISCUSSION
When the thickness of the impact specimen is decreased,
the energy is reduced. It is argued that the energy dissipated in
the shear lips will be constant, and independent of the
thickness. Hence, when the thickness of the sample is
decreased, the contribution of the shear lips becomes dominant.
Based on these considerations, a master curve relating the
upper-shelf energy to the thickness of the sample was proposed
by [Wallin]. The present results (Table 4) show a good
agreement with the proposed formula in Equation 7.
( )
( )
[ ] mm J
e
e
KV
B KV
B KV
B KV
B
,
1
5 . 0
1
10
3 . 17
7 . 44 / 2
3 . 17
7 . 44 / 2
10
10
10

(7)
Table 4 Conversion from reduced thickness Charpy
specimen to 10mm thickness
KV10 (J) B (mm) KVB
predicted (J)
KVB
measured (J)
260 2.5 32 31
260 5 85 99

From this analysis, it appears that the difference of impact
energy between reduced thickness samples and full thickness
samples is not only a function of the thickness, but also of the
upper shelf energy. High impact energy material will be more
penalized in small thickness specimens compared to lower
energy material. The normalized material investigated
previously, should then exhibit proportionally less difference of
energy between 10 mm and 2.5 mm thickness sample compared
to the X70 material. This would also be consistent with the
instrumented impact curves (Figure 4), as this curve is more
similar to the curves obtained when reducing the thickness of
the specimen. Crack arrest rules based on experiments with
lower toughness steel should likely not be extrapolated to high
toughness specifications, because full thickness specimens of
low toughness steels exhibit potentially a behaviour closer to
pipeline failure than modern steels in similar conditions.
The present investigation demonstrated the possibility to
reproduce a failure dominated by a slant profile and to limit the
initiation energy with a Charpy pendulum.
The total absorbed energy in a specimen with a reduced
thickness is a better measurement of the energy dissipated
during crack propagation than the total energy measured on a
full thickness specimen. Furthermore, it is possible to
instrument and to determine more accurately the energy
dissipated at the different stages, assuming the steady
propagation mode is between 95 and 25% of the maximum
load. Compared to the different developments based on the
BDWTT, the instrumented Charpy has the advantage of the
standardization and the direct measurement of the dissipated
energy.
Reducing the thickness of the specimen reduces, however,
the magnitude of the stress in the normal direction, and the
amount of material loaded with higher normal stress.
Separations or splits, are less likely to be present in small
thickness specimens than in full thickness specimens. In such a
case, measurement of energy dissipated in propagation with the
small specimen is potentially non-conservative versus thicker
specimens. It should also be reminded that the standard 10 mm
Charpy test can be non-conservative for splits due to the same
reason versus a full thickness specimen like the BDWTT
specimen.
Obviously, reduced thickness specimens should not be
used to assess the resistance of material versus brittle fracture,
as the level of constraint and the material sampled is reduced.
CONCLUSIONS
Instrumented impact tests were performed on reduced
thickness specimens, with the aim to reproduce slant failure as
in actual pipeline failure cases, and to obtain a measurement of
crack propagation resistance.
By reducing the thickness of the specimen, slant failure is
obtained, as well as the energy required for crack initiation.
This was confirmed by experimental measurements and finite
element simulations. Reducing the thickness of the specimen
leads to a decrease of the load in the instrumented curves, and a
shift of this maximum to lower displacement. This was
reproduced by finite element computations.
Comparison between a modern TMCP material and a
traditional normalized steel has shown that modern steels have
much higher impact energy in the upper shelf, but that the
increase of the impact energy is mainly due to higher resistance
to crack initiation.
The upper shelf energy of thin specimens is well predicted
by empirical relations. These relations include an influence of
the impact energy, making lower toughness material less
sensitive to a potential thickness reduction. Specifications
based on experiments made with older steels should not be
10 Copyright 2012 by ASME
extrapolated to very high toughness specifications without in-
depth study.

NOMENCLATURE
p Hydrostatic pressure
eq
Effective Von Mises stress
0
Yield stress of the dense material (function of the
plastic deformation)
3 2 1
, , q q q Gurson parameters

f Effective porosity
c
f Critical void volume fraction at which coalescence
of voids occurs
Acceleration factor accounting for the increased
softening of the material once coalescence has started
N
f Total volume of sites where new voids can be
nucleated
N
Average deformation at which new voids are
formed
N
s Dispersion around the deformation
N
at which
new voids are formed
I Identity tensor
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