You are on page 1of 8

Proceedings of the 2012 9th International Pipeline Conference IPC2012 September 24-28, 2012, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

IPC2012-90417

FULL RING EVALUATION OF X70 GRADE UOE LINE PIPES FOR SOUR SERVICE
Kenji Kobayashi Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd. Amagasaki, Japan Hiroyuki Nagayama Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd. Amagasaki, Japan Tomohiko Omura Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd. Amagasaki, Japan Izuru Minato Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd. Kashima, Japan Masahiko Hamada Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd. Amagasaki, Japan Yuki Nishi Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd. Kashima, Japan

ABSTRACT High-strength large-diameter UOE line pipes over X70 grade are difficult to apply to actual fields, including H2S, because of a deterioration of sour resistance and a lack of past performance. However, API X70 grade large-diameter UOE line pipes for sour service have been manufactured stably by optimizing the continuous casting process, controlling the shape of inclusions and decreasing coarse precipitates. A fullring test can simulate fairly well the actual applied conditions of line pipes and evaluate hydrogen induced cracking (HIC), sulfide stress cracking (SSC) and stress oriented hydrogen induced cracking (SOHIC) of line pipes for sour service simultaneously. It was confirmed that the X70 grade UOE line pipes have a good sour resistance from standard HIC tests, four-point bent beam SSC tests and the full-ring test including a seam weld under severe sour conditions (NACE solution A with 0.1 MPa H2S). In addition, the SSC resistance of a girth welded portion was also investigated by using simulated HAZ. INTRODUCTION In oil and gas fields which contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S), hydrogen atoms originating from corrosion reaction on the steel surface can enter and diffuse into the steel. It is well known that the hydrogen atoms cause hydrogen induced cracking (HIC), sulfide stress cracking (SSC) and stress oriented hydrogen induced cracking (SOHIC). Large-diameter UOE line pipes up to API 5L X65 grade for sour service have been manufactured stably and widely used the world over. These pipes were produced by a thermo-mechanical controlled process (TMCP), a pipe-forming process, a longitudinal submerged arc welding (LSAW) process and an expanding process. In recent years, thicker line pipes for sour service such as X65 grade with a

thickness of over 1 inch (25.4 mm), have been required for deep-sea pipelines in order to improve collapse resistance. On the other hand, higher-strength line pipes for sour service, such as the API 5L X70 and X80 grade, also have been required for high pressure transportation of natural gas in offshore pipelines. Therefore, the challenges to manufacture thicker and higher strength line pipes for sour service increase when improving the manufacturing processes and optimizing the alloy design. However, higher-strength grades are difficult to apply to fields because of concern about sour resistance and a lack of performance in the past. In actuality, X70 grade UOE line pipes for sour service can be manufactured stably by strictly controlling the shape of inclusions (adding an adequate amount of Ca) and decreasing coarse precipitates to remove initiation sites of HIC and to optimize the continuous casting process (e.g. solidification rate, cooling rate, roll pressure and roll position) in order to decrease the centerline segregation rate [1,2]. FULL-RING TEST A full-ring test is an excellent test method to evaluate HIC, SSC and SOHIC of line pipes for sour service simultaneously. It is particularly true when higher-strength grades, such as X70 for sour service, are evaluated in this test because the test results are very valuable, as higher-strength grades have had no or little application in the fields [3-6]. A full-ring test is well-suited to simulate the actual applied conditions of line pipes from the viewpoints of the hydrogen distribution in the material and the applied tensile stress near the internal surface. Under actual pipeline service conditions, hydrogen originates only on the internal surface, then enters into the steel from the internal surface, permeates through the wall and escapes from the external surface. Therefore, the

Copyright 2012 by ASME

hydrogen content has a slope from the internal surface to the external surface as shown in Figure 1. On the other hand, in the case of the current HIC and SSC test methods provided in NACE TM0284 and TM0177 [7, 8], all surfaces of a specimen are exposed to a sour environment. Hydrogen originates on all surfaces and enters into the specimens up to a hydrogensaturated condition. In the case of SSC evaluation, the difference in hydrogen distribution between the full-ring test and small size SSC tests may not affect the test results because what the SSC susceptibility strongly depends on is only the hydrogen content of a tensioned surface area. On the contrary, HIC results are strongly affected by the difference in hydrogen distribution because the HIC occurrence and propagation depend on the hydrogen content in the mid-wall area.

Thickness Hydrogen content

H
External surface

Internal surface

the case of UOE line pipes, HIC in the mid-wall hardened phase related to the center segregated portion is the most serious problem, especially for high strength grade such as X70. It is important to suppress the formation of this hardbanded structure to prevent the propagation of HIC. The hardened phase is produced by segregating Mn and P in the continuous casting process and concentrating on C during the accelerated cooling (ACC) process after controlled rolling (CR) process. In addition, it is also important to decrease elongated inclusions, such as MnS, CaS, Al2O3, CaO-Al2O3 and coarse precipitates (Nb(C, N) and TiN), to decrease the HIC initiation. Therefore, the chemical composAition is low in C, low in P and low in Mn to decrease the HIC susceptibility of the centeredsegregation portion. It is also low in S, and there is an adequate amount of Ca added to remove the HIC initiation sites. The manufacturing processes of X70 grade line pipes for sour service are summarized in Table 2. To decrease the formation of the mid-wall hardened phase, several conditions of the continuous casting process and the plate-making process must also be optimized. The microstructure of X70 grade UOE line pipes was a fine and uniform bainitic ferrite structure. The segregation ratios of the center segregation portion were very low as shown in Table 3. Thus, it seems that the HIC susceptibility of center segregation portion is relatively low. Table 1 - Chemical composition of X70 pipes /wt% C Si Mn P S 0.005 0.0004 0.050 0.3 1.3 -0.006 -0.0005 Others Ceq Pcm Cu / Ni / Cr / Nb / V / Ti / Ca 0.39 0.17 Table 2 - Manufacturing processes of X70 pipes Plate making WT CR ACC Slab Finishing In let Out let heating 450-600 1140> Ar3 > Ar3 19.05 mm o C 1200 oC Pipe making Pipe forming Submerged arc welding Expandin (C-U-O Press) (LSAW) g Welding conditions Location Wire Flux Heat input 30.8 Inside Y-DS,Y-SCTK,Y-D HS3 kJ/cm Y-DS,Y-SCTK, 37.3 Outside HS3 Y-DS,Y-DS kJ/cm Table 3 - Center segregation ratios of UOE linepipe steels derived from laser ablation-ICP C Mn P S 1.06 1.14 1.08 1.09

Figure 1 - Hydrogen distribution through the wall thickness in the case of full-ring test Taking the hydrogen distribution in actual pipeline conditions into account, it seemed that the severity of sour environment was lower than the current HIC tests. On the other hand, there are some reasons that make the full-ring test condition more severe compared to the current HIC tests. The external tensile stress is applied mainly on the welded portion and large areas of material are exposed to sour conditions. In addition, the test duration of the full-ring test is very long. The duration of the full-ring test is 1 month and that of the current HIC test is only 96 hours. So, the full-ring test condition is never considered as a mild test compared with current HIC test. Consequently, in order to evaluate the sour resistance of material from various viewpoints, both the current HIC / SSC tests and the full ring test are important. In this study, the sour resistance of X70 grade was evaluated by standard HIC tests, four-point bent beam SSC tests and a full-ring test, including a seam weld under severe sour conditions (NACE solution A with 0.1 MPa H2S). In addition, the SSC resistance of the girth welded portion was also investigated by using simulated HAZ. X70 GRADE LINE PIPES FOR SOUR SERVICE X70 grade large diameter UOE line pipes for sour service have been manufactured by four different heats to evaluate the mechanical properties and sour resistances (508 mm OD x 19.1 mm WT). The chemical compositions are shown in Table 1. In

Copyright 2012 by ASME

Hardness (Hv1kgf)

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES All steel pipe samples manufactured were checked by transverse direction tensile tests where the strength of these steels were within X70 grade strength range as shown in Figure 2. Figure 3 shows the Charpy impact test results of base metal, weld metal and visible HAZ at -15 oC. These results show that the absorbed energies and shear areas are good enough to be applied.
700 Tensile strength /MPa 650 600 X70 550 500 400

260 X70 welded portion 240 220 200 180 160 Outer surface HAZ Inner surface HAZ Base metal 1/4T

X80

Figure 4 - Hardness on the welded portion of X70 grade steel pipes

450 500 550 Yield Strength /MPa

600

Outer surface HAZ Base metal Inner surface HAZ

Figure 2 - Yield strength and tensile strength of X70 grade steel pipes derived from transverse direction tensile test
600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Base Metal Weld Metal Visible HAZ 40 20 0 100 80 Shear area /% 60

Absorbed energy (-15 oC) /J

Figure 5 - Macrostructure at the welded portion of X70 grade steel pipes SOUR RESISTANCE HIC tests were carried out according to NACE TM02842003 [7] in the NACE solution A (an aqueous solution with 5% NaCl and 0.5% CH3COOH saturated with 0.1MPa of H2S) to investigate the HIC susceptibility of X70 grade line pipes for sour service. Standard-sized HIC test specimens (plate thickness x 20 mm wide x 100 mm length) were used in this study. The specimens were taken from both steel plates and steel pipes as shown in Table 4. The test duration was 96 hours. The testing temperature was 25 oC. After the HIC test, the absorbed hydrogen contents in HIC specimens were measured according to the glycerol method (JIS Z 7188: Japanese Industrial Standards). The HIC specimens were immersed in glycerol at 45 oC for 72 hours. Then, the absorbed hydrogen was released from specimens which accumulated at the top of the glass container with a scale. After the hydrogen content was measured, crack area ratios (CAR) were measured by ultrasonic testing (UT). A detectable minimum defect diameter was 0.6 mm. In addition, the crack length ratios (CLR) were also evaluated according to NACE TM0284-2003. HIC test results of X70 grade linepipe steels are shown in Table 4. All specimens taken from the plates indicated no HIC and no blistering. On the other hand, some specimens taken from the pipes indicated a slight HIC occurrence. However, the CARs of

Figure 3 - Charpy impact test results of the base metal, weld metal and visible HAZ of X70 grade UOE line pipes at -15 oC The hardness of the center segregation portion was investigated by using a very small load (10gf) Vickers hardness measurement. The maximum hardness of the portion showed less than 250 Hv. Therefore, it was expected that the HIC susceptibility is low in the NACE solution A condition because of the low segregation ratio of C and Mn. The hardness on the welded portion of X70 grade steel pipe is shown in Figure 4. The measurement points of hardness are shown in Figure 5. From these results, it seems that the hardness on welded portion was low enough so that SSC did not occur in the NACE solution A condition because of the maximum acceptable hardness provided by NACE MR0175/ISO 15156-2 [9] is 250 Hv.

Copyright 2012 by ASME

these HICs were less than 0.5%. The CLRs of all HIC specimens were zero. Pipe No. 1A 1B 2A 2B 3A 3B 4A 4B Table 4 - Results of HIC tests (CAR /%) Plate Pipe 1/2W 3/4W 90 o 180 o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 0 0 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.3

Weld 0 0.1 0 0 0.1 0 0.1 0.1

point bent beam tests were carried out under the same conditions as mentioned above. SSC test results of simulated HAZ are shown in Table 7. The results clearly show all specimens indicated no SSC. From the results, the hardness of simulated HAZ is very low compared with NACE MR0175/ISO 15156-2 criteria (250 Hv). It is expected that girth welded portion also shows good SSC resistance. Pipe No. 1A 1B 2A 2B 3A 3B 4A 4B Table 6 - SSC test results of actual pipes AYS Applied stress SSC test results /MPa /MPa 500 450 No Cracking 495 446 No Cracking 500 450 No Cracking 511 460 No Cracking 90% AYS 500 450 No Cracking 501 451 No Cracking 500 450 No Cracking 493 444 No Cracking
260 Hardness (Hv1kgf) 240 220 200 180 160 10 20 o o 30 o Cooling rate from 800 C to 500 C / C/s Base Metal X70

Absorbed hydrogen contents into HIC specimens derived by the glycerol method are shown in Table 5. The absorbed hydrogen content of steel pipe was about 1.5 times as that of the steel plate. It is presumed that the difference in absorbed hydrogen content between the plate and pipe was caused by the pipe forming process and expanding process. These cold workings produce many dislocations which become hydrogentrapping sites. In addition, the increase in hydrogen content causes an increase in HIC susceptibility. Taking a pipe laying operation into consideration, further cold working may be applied to the pipes and it is possibility to increase the HIC susceptibility, therefore the material which has sufficient HIC resistance is desirable. Table 5 - Absorbed hydrogen content into the HIC specimen Plate Pipe Pipe (Weld) 1.7 - 2.2 ppm 2.2 - 2.9 ppm 2.1 - 2.8 ppm Four-point bent beam tests were carried out according to ASTM G39 and EFC 16 [10] in the NACE TM0177 solution A (an aqueous solution with 5% NaCl and 0.5% CH3COOH saturated with 0.1MPa of H2S) to investigate the SSC susceptibility of X70 grade linepipe steels for sour service. The four-point bent beam specimen plate geometry was 5 x 15 x 115 mm. The specimens were taken from a nearby internal surface and transverse to the weld with the weld metal at the centre of the specimen. The stress applied transversely to the weld. The applied stress was 90% of the actual base metal yield strength. The test duration was 720 hours. The testing temperature was 24 oC. SSC test results of X70 grade linepipe steels are shown in Table 6. The results clearly show that all specimens indicated no SSC. To clarify the effect of the cooling rate on SSC susceptibility of the welded portion, simulated HAZ was prepared by heat treatments. The hardness of these specimens are shown in Figure 6. From the samples, including simulated HAZ, four-point bent beam specimens were prepared. The geometry was a plate with 2 x 10 x 75 mm. The applied stress was 100% of X70 specified minimum yield strength. Four-

Figure 6 - Hardness on the simulated HAZ Table 7 - SSC test results of simulated HAZ Cooling rate Maximum Applied SSC test / oC/s Hardness stress results 190 Hv No Cracking 10.0 218 Hv No Cracking X70 14.5 217 Hv No Cracking 100% SMYS 17.0 221 Hv No Cracking 483 MPa 22.5 222 Hv No Cracking 26.8 220 Hv No Cracking A full-ring test was carried out according to oti 95 635[6] in the NACE TM0177 solution A to investigate the HIC, SSC and SOHIC susceptibility of X70 grade line pipes for sour service. Test conditions are shown in Table 8. Tensile stress is applied for the internal surface of SAW seam weld by a mechanical jack as shown in Figures 1 and 7. The applied stress was measured by using strain gauges. The positions of strain gauges and the estimated stresses are shown in Figure 8. In addition, hydrogen permeation rates during the test are conducted by

Copyright 2012 by ASME

using two electrochemical hydrogen permeation cells as shown in Figures 8 and 9. The external surface was partially electroplated with nickel. The cells (on the anodic side) was filled with 1N NaOH and polarized at 0 V vs. SCE. Test sample Surface preparation Loading method Loading level Test environment Test duration Table 8 - Full ring test conditions API 5L X70 (Straight seam welded pipe) 20(508.0 mm) OD x 0.75(19.1 mm) WT 800 mm L Grit blasting (#100 grit) to internal surface (Sa 2 1/2) Mechanical jacking method X70 - 72%SMYS (347 MPa) NACE TM0177-2005 solution A (5%NaCl + 0.5%CH3COOH, 0.1MPa H2S) 720 hr

Figure 9 - Electrochemical hydrogen permeation cells The results of the hydrogen permeation tests are shown in Figure 10. The test results showed that the hydrogen permeation rates are equivalent to that between cell A and cell B. Hydrogen permeation rates immediately reached the maximum value of about 22 A/cm, and then decreased. This maximum value and the behavior of hydrogen permeation rate during the test are equivalent to the past performance of X65 grade [11]. The maximum hydrogen permeation rate is higher than that of the well-polished, small-size specimen [12] because the internal surface of the full-ring test sample was prepared by the shot blast. The rough surface has a large surface area to react with a test solution. The increase in surface area increases the corrosion rates and the hydrogen permeation rate as shown in Figure 11 [12].
Cell A Cell B 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 120 240 360 480 600 Test duration /hr 720

90o

180o

270o
The surface of a liquid

0o
Weld

45o

90o

375 360 800 mm 354 358 353 361 350 317 MPa 340 322 315

250 mm

Strain gauge
345

Hydrogen permeation

250 mm

Figure 8 - Positions of strain gauge and the estimated applied stress

Figure 10 - Hydrogen permeation coefficients during the full ring test

Hydrogen permeation rate / A/cm

Figure 7 - Application of internal load by mechanical jacking method

Copyright 2012 by ASME

Emery Emery Emery #600-320 #180 #80

Shot blasted

Maximum hydrogen permeation rate (J x L)max / A/cm

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
As rolled X65 NACE TM0177 solution A

In order to investigate the indications derived by UT during the full-ring test in detail, these indication points were cut and evaluated by using UT after the full-ring test. From these results, some indications were found and the crack sizes were measured as shown in Figure 13 and Table 10. It seems that the initiations of cracks are CaO-Al2O3 and/or Nb(C, N). On the other hand, indication D was not detected because the indications were very small and located near the internal surface. The crack area rate (CAR) of the full-ring test sample was less than 0.02%. Consequently, this X70 material showed no SSC, no SOHIC and a few HICs from the full-ring test. 10 m 20 mm Figure 13 - Indications of HIC by ultrasonic testing after cutting Table 10 - Indications derived by ultrasonic testing after the full ring test Indication Distance from internal surface Crack size A 4 mm HIC 12 x 4 mm B 0 mm Blister 3 x 2 mm C 2 mm HIC 1 x 1 mm D 0 mm Blister In the full-ring test, a few HICs were observed in just a small limited area. The area is applied to both the highest tensile stress and the highest hydrogen content in the full-ring test sample as shown in Figure 14 because the cracks were located near both the seam weld and internal surface. J. Kraegeloh et al. showed that the risk of HIC damage can be reduced with the help of both tensile and compression residual stresses after an investigation of HFI pipes [12]. However, from the full-ring test result, it seems the HIC susceptibility increased by applying high tensile stress. Further study is needed to make clear the effect of applied and/or residual stress on HIC susceptibility. A B C

4 8 12 16 Mean surface roughness Ra /m

Figure 11 - Effect of surface roughness on hydrogen permeation rate (J x L) [12] The result of the full ring test is shown in Figure 12 and Table 9. From the results, only a few indications were detected by ultrasonic testing (UT) during the test. All indications were detected near an internal surface and two of them were blistering because the positions were on an internal surface. In addition, these indications did not spread during the test from an initial indication size.
90o 180o 270o DC B A
800 mm

0o
Seam Weld

90o

Figure 12 - Positions of indications derived by ultrasonic testing during the full ring test Table 9 - Indications derived by UT during the full ring test
Distance from internal surface 4 mm 0 Blister 2 mm 0 Blister UT evaluation

A B C D

Less than

Less than

Less than

Less than

Hydrogen content

Indication

7 days 20 x 10 -

14 days 20 x 10
Less than

21 days 20 x 10
Less than

30 days Final 20 x 10
Less than

HIC test

Crack

Full ring test condition

10
-

10 10
-

10 10 10

Less than

Less than Less than

Compression

Tension

Figure 14 - Stress and hydrogen conditions of HIC occurrence area

Copyright 2012 by ASME

From these HIC tests, the four-point bend beam tests and the full-ring test, it can be confirmed that the HIC, SSC and SOHIC resistances of API X70 grade large-diameter UOE line pipes for sour service, including weld, are very good. A total amount of large-diameter line pipe steel for sour service manufactured by SMI is over 1,600,000 tons, and most of the steel grade is X65. Now, it is confirmed that X65 grade UOE linepipe steels for sour service with a thickness of up to 1.5 inch (38.1 mm) can be supplied. In the case of X70 grade UOE line pipe steel, about 150,000 tons have been manufactured as a mildly sour grade. The sour condition is an aqueous solution with 5% NaCl and 0.5% CH3COOH saturated with 0.01MPa of H2S and the thickness is up to 1 inch (25.4 mm). In addition, from the results of this paper, it is confirmed that X70 grade UOE line pipe steels for sour service with a thickness of up to 0.75 inch (19.05 mm) can be supplied. SOUR RESISTANCE EVALUATION METHOD FOR HIGH-STRENGTH STEEL From this study, it is clear that for the X70 line pipes for sour service which has good sour resistance under present evaluation methods, conditions (NACE solution A with 0.1 MPa H2S) and criteria from the perspective of HIC, SSC and SOHIC can be manufactured. On the other hand, when applying for higher-strength line pipes for sour service to actual fields, appropriate fit-for-purpose sour resistance evaluation methods should also be investigated. In the case of SSC, regions of environmental severity of carbon and low alloy steels are provided in NACE MR0175/ISO15156-2 and the evaluation is simple because SSC can be observed by its external appearance. On the other hand, although fit-forpurpose test conditions and acceptance criteria on HIC have been provided in NACE MR0175/ISO15156-2, the acceptance criteria (e.g. no cracking) is difficult to prove and verify. In addition, a suitable test duration has not been clarified yet. In recent years, there is some literature on the fit-for-purpose, HIC test [13-19]. However, further studies about it are needed to establish the appropriate test method and the criteria. Regarding SOHIC, the mechanism has not been clarified yet, and a suitable evaluation method has not been provided [20]. CONCLUSIONS X70 grade UOE linepipe steel for sour service has been manufactured stably by optimizing the continuous casting process (e.g. solidification rate, cooling rate, roll pressure and roll position), controlling the shape of inclusions (e.g. by adding an adequate amount of Ca) and decreasing coarse precipitates. The hardness of the center segregated portion was controlled at a very low level because Mn, P and C segregation ratios of the center segregated portion were very low. By using current HIC and SSC test methods and the full-ring test, it is confirmed that HIC, SSC and SOHIC resistances are good for severe sour conditions (NACE solution A with 0.1 MPa H2S).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors wish to thank Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd. for allowing publication of this study. The assistance and discussion of co-workers in the laboratories are gratefully acknowledged. REFERENCES 1. K. Kobayashi, T. Omura, N. Takahashi, I. Minato and A. Yamamoto, High strength sour grade line pipe X70, Pipeline Technology Conference, paper no. Ostend2009022 (Ostend, 2009). 2. K. Kobayashi, T. Omura, N. Takahashi, I. Minato and A. Yamamoto, Advanced technologies for manufacturing high strength sour grade UOE line pipe, International Pipeline Conference, paper no. IPC2010-31106 (Calgary, 2010). 3. C. M. Fowler and F. A. Golightly, The influence of residual stress of pipeline circumferential welds for sour service, Pipeline Technology Conference, 18.33-18.46 (Ostend, 1990) 4. J. D. Harston, J. A. King, T. Kushida and T. Takeuchi, Full-ring test evaluation of linepipe steels for sour service, Corrosion/92, paper no. 39 (Houston, TX: NACE, 1992) 5. C. M. Fowler and M. Himeman, The full ring test enables detection of susceptibility to cracking in sour service, Corrosion/99, paper no.608 (Houston, TX: NACE, 1999) 6. Oti 95 635, A test method to determine the Susceptibility to cracking of linepipe steels in sour service, U.K. Health and Safety Executive (HSE), 1996, ISBN 0-7176 1216-3, HSE Books, http://books.hse.gov.uk 7. NACE Standard TM0284-2003, Evaluation of pipeline and pressure vessel steels for resistance to hydrogen-induced cracking (Houston, TX: NACE, 2003) 8. NACE Standard TM0177-2005, Laboratory testing of metal for resistance to specific forms of environment cracking in H2S environments (Houston, TX: NACE, 2005) 9. NACE MR0175 / ISO 15156-2, Petroleum and natural gas industries - Materials for use in H2S-containing environments in oil and gas production - Part 2 (NACE/ANSI/ISO 2003) 10. EFC (The European Federation of Corrosion) Number 16, Guidelines on materials requirements for carbon and low alloy steels for H2S-containing environments in oil and gas production (1995 11. I. Takeuchi, T. Kushida, S. Okaguchi, A. Yamamoto and M. Miura, Development of high strength line pipe for sour service and full ring evaluation in sour environment OMAE2004-51028 (2004) 12. J. Kraegeloh, C. Bosch, H. Brauer and A. Kulgemeyer, Effect of residual stresses on the HIC resistance of ERW pipes for line pipe applications Corrosion/2011, paper no. 11107 (Houston, TX: NACE, 2011)

Copyright 2012 by ASME

13. C. Bosch, T. Herrmann and J. P. Jansen, Fit-for-purpose HIC assessment of large-diameter pipes for sour service application, Corrosion/2006, paper no. 06124 (Houston, TX: NACE, 2006) 14. J. Kittel, J. W. Martin, T. Cassagne and C. Bosch, Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC) assessment of low alloy steel linepipe for sour service application - laboratory testing, EUROCORR/2007, paper no.1355 (Freiburg, 2007) 15. J. Kittel, J. W. Martin, T. Cassagne and C. Bosch, Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC) - laboratory testing assessment of low alloy steel linepipe, Corrosion/2008, paper no. 08110 (Houston, TX: NACE, 2008) 16. T. Haase, C. Bosch, A. Liessem and J. Schroeder, HIC testing of heavy-wall LSAW pipe for mild sour service applications, EUROCORR/2009, paper no. 8009 (Nice, 2009)

17. J. Kittel, V. Smanio, L. Garnier and X. Lefebvre, Hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) testing of low alloy steel in sour environment - impact of time of exposure on the extent of damage, EUROCORR/2009, paper no.7800 (Nice, 2009) 18. C. Bosch, T. Haase, A. Loessem and J. Schroder, HIC performance of heavy wall large-diameter pipes for sour service applications under fit-for-service conditions, Corrosion/2010, paper no. 10280 (Houston, TX: NACE, 2010) 19. K. Kobayashi, T. Omura, H. Asahi, M. Sawamura, M. Okatsu and M. Kimura, HLPs study on HIC evaluation method in mildly sour environments for high strength line pipe steel, Corrosion/2012, paper no. 12000 (Houston, TX: NACE, 2012) 20. R. J. Pargeter, Susceptibility to SOHIC for Linepipe and Pressure Vessel Steels Review of Current Knowledge Corrosion/2007, paper no. 07115 (Houston, TX: NACE, 2007)

Copyright 2012 by ASME