You are on page 1of 8

Proceedings of the 2012 9th International Pipeline Conference IPC2012 September 24-28, 2012, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

IPC2012-90448
METALLURGICAL DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE OF ERW LINEPIPE WITH HIGHQUALITY WELD SEAM SUITABLE FOR EXTRA-LOW-TEMPERATURE SERVICES
Shunsuke Toyoda, Sota Goto, Takatoshi Okabe and Hideto Kimura Steel Research Laboratory, JFE Steel Corporation Handa, Aichi, Japan Satoshi Igi and Yutaka Matsui Steel Research Laboratory JFE Steel Corporation Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan Satoru Yabumoto, Akio Sato and Masahito Suzuki East Japan Works JFE Steel Corporation Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan Tomohiro Inoue Chita Works JFE Steel Corporation Handa, Aichi, Japan

KEY WORDS ERW Linepipe, low-temperature toughness, Charpy impact property, Finite element analysis, nonmetallic inclusion, weld seam, hydrostatic burst test ABSTRACT To clarify the effect of inclusions on the Charpy impact properties, the 2 mm V-notched Charpy properties of X60 X80-grades steel were numerically simulated using the finite element method code ABAQUS. The yield strength and the tensile strength of the steel were 562 MPa and 644 MPa, respectively. The strikers velocity and the temperature dependency of the stress-strain curve were taken into account. To estimate the effect of nonmetallic inclusions, a 200 m long virtual inclusion with a 1 m edge radius was situated at the maximum point of the stress triaxiality. Four types of micro crack initiation were determined: (a) ductile void generation in the matrix, (b) cleavage crack generation in the matrix, (c) void generation by inclusion fracture and (d) void generation by matrix-inclusion interface debonding. Without inclusions, a ductile micro void was generated when the striker stroke was 3.3 mm, independent of the temperature. With inclusions, an inclusion fracture occurred when the striker stroke was 0.6 mm at room temperature. The striker stroke decreased as the temperature decreased. Based on the above numerical estimation results, electric resistance welded (ERW) Linepipe with high-quality weld seam MightySeam has been developed. Controlling the morphology and distribution of oxides generated during the

welding process by means of temperature and deformation distribution control is the key factor for improving the lowtemperature toughness. The Charpy transition temperature of the developed ERW pipe was much lower than -45C. Based on the low-temperature hydrostatic burst test with a notched weld seam at -20 C, the MightySeam weld provides a fracture performance that is the same as UOE Double Submerged Arc Welded pipe. The pipe has been used in actual, highly demanding, severe environments. INTRODUCTION Based on the appreciable progress being made in quality control and assurance technology for the electric resistance welding process, applications of electric resistance welded (ERW) steel pipe for Linepipe in highly demanding, severe environments, such as offshore and low-temperature environments, have gradually increased. The Charpy impact property is the most common index for low-temperature toughness. However, the Charpy property has not yet been fully related to metallurgical factors, because it involves the complicated combination of fracture mechanics and elasticplastic dynamics. Recently, analytical study of the Charpy property has been reported with marked improvement of the analytical capability. The Charpy absorbed energy has been calculated near the ductile-brittle transition temperature [1]. In this report, it is assumed that ductile fracture occurs first in the basilar part of the notch, and then the initiated ductile crack transits to brittle fracture. On the other hand, the temperature dependence of the fracture toughness has also been calculated by considering the

Copyright 2012 by ASME

effect of nonmetallic inclusions [2]. However, the effect of nonmetallic inclusions on Charpy absorbed energy was not fully clarified yet. So, in this study, firstly to clarify the relationship between the Charpy impact properties and metallurgical factors such as nonmetallic inclusions, the 2 mm V-notched Charpy properties of X60 X80-grades steel in the ductile-brittle transition region were numerically simulated. Next, based on the results of numerical estimation, ERW Linepipe with high-quality weld seam has been developed in order to meet the needs of steel pipe for Linepipe in highly demanding, severe environments. CRACK INITIATION NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE CHARPY IMPACT TEST Numerical Simulation Condition The finite element mesh used to simulate the Charpy specimen is shown in Fig. 1. The specimen size is 10w10h55L mm. The notch depth is 2 mm, the notch angle is 45 degree, the radius of the basilar part of the notch is 0.25 mm and the anvil distance is 40 mm. Only half of the specimen is meshed due to symmetries. Finite element analysis was conducted on the twodimensional plane model assuming plane strain deformation. The finite element method code ABAQUS porous metal plasticity model was used for the analysis.

A striker speed of 5 m/s was considered by applying the stress-strain curve at a high strain rate of 1000 /s. The effect of the testing temperature was examined from 25 C to -90 C by the temperature-dependent stress-strain curve. The temperature dependence of the stress-strain curve was incorporated on the basis of the SM490A grade steel data [2]. To estimate the effects of nonmetallic inclusions, an inclusion with a 200 m length and a 1 m edge radius was situated at the maximum point of stress triaxiality in the direction of the notch depth. The nonmetallic inclusion was assumed to be a perfect elastic body of with E = 113 GPa and = 0.25 [4]. Based on the result of an elasto-plastic analysis for up to 5 mm of striker stroke, the main crack initiation stroke and the mode were determined; i.e., (a) ductile void generation in the matrix, (b) cleavage crack generation in the matrix, (c) void generation by inclusion fracture and (d) void generation by matrix-inclusion interface debonding. The crack initiation criteria of these modes were (a) the volume fraction of micro voids, f = 0.2, (b) equivalent plastic strain p = 0.00728, stress triaxiality m/eq = 2.32, and maximum principal stress yy = 1700 MPa, (c) yy = 1630 MPa and (d) p = 0.00916. These criteria are based on previous works [2, 5].

Results and Discussion Figure 2 shows the distribution of the stress triaxiality adjacent to the notch when the striker stroke is 1 mm. The maximum point of stress triaxiality is approximately 0.75 mm underneath the notch basement where m/eq = 1.41. It was confirmed that the crack initiation sites are in the vicinity of this point in the actual Charpy specimen. Therefore, the nonmetallic inclusion was situated at this point.

Inclusion

Notch

m/eq

Fig. 1 Finite element mesh The steel was assumed to have a yield strength of 562 MPa, a tensile strength of 644 MPa, an elongation to fracture of 28 %, and a uniform elongation of 14 %. Young's modulus E = 211 GPa, and Poisson's ratio = 0.3. The stress-strain curve was approximated by Eq. (1) for the elastic range and by Eq. (2), the Ludwik expression [3], for the plastic range.
0.75mm

Fig. 2 Distribution of stress triaxiality Figure 3 shows the main crack initiation stroke without and with inclusion specimens. A ductile main void was generated in the matrix when the stroke was approximately 3.3 mm without an inclusion. In this case, the initiation stroke was almost the same, independent of the temperature. For up to a 5 mm stroke, the stress and strain condition did not meet the

) = 211,000 (MPa

(e 0.00266) (e > 0.00266)

(1) (2)

(MPa ) = 1,358 (0.391 + )0.945

where is the flow stress and is the strain.

Copyright 2012 by ASME

cleavage crack generation criteria level without inclusions. The maximum m/eq was approximately 1.6. In the inclusion-containing case, void generation occurred via an inclusion fracture when the stroke was approximately 0.6 mm at 25 C. The initiation stroke decreases as the temperature decreases. The initiation stroke at -90 C is approximately 0.25 mm. The stroke depth causing void generation by matrix-inclusion interface debonding is calculated to be approximately 1.2 mm. Therefore, the main void generation caused by inclusion fracturing occurs prior to matrix-inclusion interface debonding. Figure 4 shows the distribution of maximum principal stress when the stroke is 4 mm with an inclusion at -45 C. The maximum principal stress exceeds 1700 MPa on the periphery of the inclusion. In fact, inclusion fracturing occurs before the stroke reaches 4 mm. Figure 5 shows the distribution of the maximum principal stress in the inclusion at -45 C when the stroke is 0.34 mm, just after inclusion fracturing occurs. The stress in the red-colored side area of the inclusion is over 1630MPa, which is assumed to be the inclusion fracture criteria.

yy / MPa
1723 1630 91

Fig. 5 Distribution of yy in the inclusion (stroke = 0.34 mm; at -45 C)

CRACK PROPAGATION NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE CHARPY IMPACT TEST Numerical Simulation Condition In addition to crack initiation analysis, crack propagation analysis was conducted using the finite element method code ABAQUS/explicit striker strokes of up to 15 mm. Basically, the material properties and size of the metal matrix and the nonmetallic inclusion are the same as in the initiation numerical simulation. However, the stress-strain curve over the uniformelongation region, i.e., e > 0.14, was approximated using the simple power law as Eq. (3). This equation was used because Eq. (2) derives a slightly higher stress value in the high-strain region. The stress-strain curves of e 0.14 region were the same as Eq. (1) and (2).

4 3.5 3 without inclusion 2.5 (micro void) 2 with inclusion 1.5 (inclusion cracking) 1 0.5 0 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 Temperature (C) Fig. 3 Crack initiation stroke

Striker stroke (mm)

(MPa ) = 987 0.146

(e > 0.14)

(3)

yy / MPa
+2374 +1700 +1500 +1300 +1100 + 900 + 700 + 500 + 300 + 100 100 300 6407

4mm

The analysis flow chart is shown in Fig. 6. When the void fraction of micro-voids reaches 0.2, the finite element was deleted successively. If the yy exceeds 1630 MPa in the inclusion or p exceeds 0.00916 in the matrix adjacent to the inclusion, two terms that represent the inclusion fracture and the matrix-inclusion interface debonding criteria, respectively, the element was also deleted. Meanwhile, even though the cleavage crack generation criteria were satisfied, the ductile fracture analysis was continued until a striker stroke depth of 15 mm. After the calculation, the stroke and the element satisfying the cleavage crack generation criteria were noted in the data history. Results and Discussion Figure 7 shows the load-stroke curves. The load was calculated per 1 mm thickness. The peak stroke and peak load of inclusion-containing samples are smaller than those of inclusion-free samples. Because the main crack initiation stroke of the inclusion-containing sample is smaller than that of the inclusion-free samples. The load peak of the inclusion-free

Inclusion

Fig. 4 Distribution of maximum principal stress (stroke = 4 mm; with inclusion; at -45 C)

Copyright 2012 by ASME

Striker stroke:015mm Charpy d=015mm


f Volume fraction of micro void, f Enum=1Max Element number:1Max

p
1.00 0.90 0.80 Max0.69 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00 2.21 1.00 0.90 0.80 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00

NO

ff >0.2 >=0.2 NO YES

Matrix

Matrix : adjacent inclusion yy>1630 MPa S1>1630MPa


YES NO

Inclusion EPSeq>0.00916 >0.00916


p

Stroke :1 mm

1.35 1.00 0.90 0.80 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00 4.34 1.00 0.90 0.80 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00

Stroke :2 mm

YES Element delete YES d=d+d NO S1

Element number Enum=Max = Max


YES

Stroke :5 mm

Stroke :15 mm

Fig. 6. Flow chart of the crack propagation analysis samples is approximately 5 mm. In contrast, the load peak of the inclusion-containing sample is approximately 1.4 mm. The energy absorbed from the 15 mm stroke by inclusionfree samples ranges from 284 to 331 J. In contrast, the absorbed energy of inclusion-containing samples ranges from 216 to 258 J, assuming ductile fracture. The decrease due to the existence of the inclusion is 22 to 24 %. If brittle fracture, which will be discussed in Figs.12 and 13, were to occur, the decrease would become larger. Figure 8 shows the deformed state and the distribution of the equivalent plastic strain p of the inclusion-free sample at 25 C. Figure 9 shows the element near the notch and the p distribution. A crack has been initiated at the basilar part of the notch when the stroke is 5 mm, and the crack propagates as the stroke increases up to 15 mm. Figure 10 shows the deformed state and the p distribution of inclusion-free samples at 25 C. Figure 11 shows the element near the notch and the p distribution. A crack has already been initiated in the inclusion when the stroke is 2 mm.
3.5 3.5

Fig. 8 Deformed state and p distribution (without inclusion; at 25 C)


p p
0.69 0.63 0.57 0.52 0.46 0.40 0.34 0.29 0.23 0.17 0.11 0.06 0.00 1.35 1.24 1.13 1.02 0.90 0.79 0.68 0.56 0.45 0.34 0.23 0.11 0.00

Stroke :1 mm

Stroke :2 mm

p
2.21 2.03 1.84 1.66 1.47 1.29 1.11 0.92 0.74 0.55 0.37 0.18 0.00

p
4.33 3.98 3.62 3.25 2.89 2.53 2.17 1.81 1.45 1.09 0.72 0.36 0.00

Stroke :5 mm

Stroke :7.5 mm

Fig. 9 p distribution near the notch (without inclusion; at 25 C)


p
1.00 0.90 0.80 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00 2.42 1.00 0.90 0.80 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00 Max0.69

3.03

Load (kN/mm)

2.5 2.5 +25 (KN)

Stroke :1 mm

Stroke :2 mm

2.0

-45 -90

with inclusion

+25

1.5 1.5

without -45 inclusion -90

1.01
0.5 0.5

0.00

10 (mm)

10

15

15

20

20

Stroke :5 mm

2.42 1.00 0.90 0.80 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00

Stroke :15 mm

Stroke (mm)

Fig. 7 Load-stroke curves

Fig. 10 Deformed state and p distribution (with inclusion; at 25 C)

Copyright 2012 by ASME

Deleted element number

0.69 0.63 0.57 0.52 0.46 0.40 0.34 0.29 0.23 0.17 0.11 0.06 0.00

Stroke :1 mm

2.42 2.22 2.02 1.81 1.61 1.41 1.21 1.01 0.81 0.60 0.40 0.20 0.00

800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 900 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Stroke, mm 2.5 3

25 C

Stroke :2 mm

p
2.42 2.22 2.02 1.81 1.61 1.41 1.21 1.01 0.81 0.60 0.40 0.20 0.00

3.5

0 4 4

800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 900 0 0.5 1 1.5

-45 C

Stroke :5 mm

Fig. 11 p distribution near the notch (with inclusion; at 25 C)

Latent cleavage element numbe r Latent cleavage element numbe r Latent cleavage element numbe r

800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 0.5 1

Stroke, mm Inclusion fracture

200 150 100 50 0


180

Void generation

3 2
25 C

-90 C

Latent cleavage Interface debonding Void generation


2

1 0

Latent cleavage
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 140 0 2 4 6 8 Stroke, mm 10 12 14

0 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 Stroke, mm Stroke (mm)

16 4
3

Deleted element number

Stroke, mm

-45 C

Fig. 13 Deleted element number and stroke (with inclusion) Figure 12 and Fig. 13 show the relationship between the deleted element number and the stroke with respect to each fracture mode. In all cases, the stress triaxiality m/eq did not exceed 2.32; therefore, the criteria for latent cleavage crack generation were defined as p = 0.00728, m/eq = 2.00, and yy = 1700 MPa in the analysis. In the case of no inclusions, shown in Fig. 12, ductile void generation occurs for a stroke of approximately 5 mm at 25 C. The latent cleavage generation occurs for a stroke of approximately 8 mm at 25 C. A temperature decrease up to 90C did not shorten the ductile void generation stroke or the latent cleavage generation stroke. In the case containing inclusions, shown in Fig. 13, void generation by inclusion fracture occurs for a stroke of approximately 1 mm at 25 C. Subsequently, void generation by matrix-inclusion interface debonding occurs. The latent cleavage generation occurs for a stroke of approximately 1.5 mm at 25 C. Both the ductile void generation and the latent

0 16 4

Deleted element number

120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 2 4 6

-90 C

0 8 Stroke, mm 10 12 14 16

Stroke (mm)
Fig. 12 Deleted element number and stroke (without inclusion)

Copyright 2012 by ASME

Latent cleavage element numbe r

Deleted element number

250

2.5

3.5

0 4 4

Deleted element number

Latent cleavage element numbe r Latent cleavage element numbe r

900

Deleted element number

cleavage generation stroke tend to slightly decrease as the temperature decreases. Figure 14 shows the relationship between the stroke and the crack length. The crack length of the inclusion-containing sample is much longer than that of the inclusion-free sample at the same stroke depth. Meantime, in the propagation analysis, ductile void generation, void generation by inclusion fracture and void generation by matrix-inclusion interface debonding were represented by element deletion. However, element deletion was not conducted by cleavage crack generation in this calculation. If the effect of cleavage crack generation on the element deletion is taken into account, the load-stroke curves might be changed.
6

Crack , mm length (mm)

5 4 3 2 1 0 0 2

Absorbed energy (J) Absorbed energy (J)

25 with -45 inclusion -90 25 -45 inclusion -90

microstructure and oxide content optimization, the weld seam of X80-grade ERW steel pipe shows a Charpy transition temperature much lower than 45 C. Figure 15 shows the Charpy absorbed energy transition curve of the weld seam of the developed X60-grade ERW pipe. The wall thickness is 14.3 mm and the outer diameter is 406.4 mm. The subsize Charpy specimen is 7.5 mm thick [8]. The Charpy transition temperature is around 120 C. The upper shelf energy is much higher than 200 J. The Charpy specimen was cooled by ethanol and dry ice from 0 to 60 C, by isopentane and liquid nitrogen from 80 to 120 C, and by liquid nitrogen at 196 C. Developed pipes have been applied to actual highly demanding severe environments after checking for flaws along the entire length of the weld seam. The developed and applied online ultrasonic flaw detector is more than ten times more sensitive than conventional detectors.
350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 -200

without

3/4sub-size
-150 -100 -50
o

10

12

14

16

, mm Stroke (mm)

Temperature (C) Test temperature ( C)


Fig. 15 Charpy absorbed energy of the X60-grade ERW pipe weld seam LOW-TEMPERATURE FRACTURE PERFORMANCE OF MIGHITYSEAM To verify the fracture initiation characteristics of MightySeam, a low-temperature hydrostatic burst test with a notched weld seam was conducted. The tested tube was X60grade ERW pipe with a 273.1 mm outer diameter and 15.9 mm of wall thickness. As shown in Fig. 16, the length of tested pipe was 2,200 mm (approximately 8 times outer diameter). An artificial surface defect of 200 mm in length and 11.9 mm deep, corresponding to 75 % of the wall thickness, was introduced at the center of weld seam in the middle portion of the pipe using electric discharge machining. The test temperature was kept at 20 C by a refrigerant mixture of ethanol and dry ice. Figure 17 shows the fracture appearance of the tested pipe. When the internal pressure reached 34.3 MPa, a ductile leak from the bottom of the surface notch occurred after plastic deformation. Brittle crack propagation into the weld seam from the initial notch was not observed. The rest of the body part was elastically deformed uniformly, as shown in Fig. 18. Figure 19 shows a comparison of the critical burst pressure of the weld seam with the Battelle prediction formula

Fig. 14 Relationship between the stroke and the crack length

METALLURGICAL DESIGN OF ERW LINEPIPE WITH A HIGH-QUALITY WELD SEAM Based on the above numerical estimation results of the effect of inclusions, ERW Linepipe with a high-quality weld seam MightySeam has been developed. Controlling the morphology and distribution of oxides generated during the welding process by means of temperature and deformation distribution control is a key factor for the improvement of lowtemperature toughness. Optimization of the temperature and the strain distribution in the welding portion can minimize the oxide content [6]. Along with minimization of oxide, chemical composition and microstructure optimization in the weld seam are also important for extra-low-temperature toughness. It is reported that low-carbon (approximately 0.03 wt.%), low-Pcm (approximately 0.15 %), fine-grained bainitic ferrite microstructure X80-grade ERW steel pipe shows a Charpy transition temperature much lower than 45 C in the body part [7]. In the seam weld, a low-carbon, fine-grained bainitic ferrite microstructure is also suitable for extra-low-temperature toughness. Using a combination of chemical composition,

Copyright 2012 by ASME

Shatterproof shield Pressure Test pipe Pressure cell

Notch Clip gage


Antifree ze

[9] that is based on the fracture data of UOE pipes. The burst pressure is higher than both the estimated leak and rupture pressure. Accordingly, it is shown that MightySeam provides a fracture performance that is the same as UOE pipe.

Pipe length = 2,200 mm (8D) Notch length = 200 mm

A A section Refrigerant : Ethanol +Dry ice

Internal pressure (MPa)

Notch depth : 75%WT

Wall thickness = 15.9 mm

Test result Leak pressure limit

Fig.16

Schematic illustration of the low-temperature hydrostatic burst test configuration with a notched weld seam

Rupture pressure limit

Half length of the crack, c (mm)

Fig. 19 Comparison of the fracture condition with the Battelle prediction formula
Internal pressure (MPa)

Crack opening displacement (mm)

Fig. 17 Fracture appearance of the tested pipe in the weld with a notch
Internal pressure (MPa) Internal pressure (MPa)

Circumferential strain (10 6) Seam and slit

Circumferential strain (106)

Circumferential strain (106)

Fig. 18 Deformation strain of the pipe body

CONCLUSIONS First, to clarify the effect of the existence of inclusions on Charpy impact properties, the 2 mm V-notched Charpy properties of X60 X80-grades steel were numerically simulated using the finite element method code ABAQUS. (1) The maximum point of stress triaxiality is approximately 0.75 mm underneath the base of the notch. (2) In the inclusion-containing case, void generation occurred by inclusion fracturing when the stroke was approximately 0.6 mm at 25 C. The initiation stroke decreases as the temperature decreases. The initiation stroke at -90 C is approximately 0.25 mm. (3) A ductile main void was generated in the matrix when the stroke was approximately 3.3 mm without inclusion. (4) The peak stroke and peak load of inclusioncontaining samples are smaller than those of the inclusion-free samples. The load peak of the inclusion-free samples is approximately 5 mm. In contrast, the load peak of the inclusion-containing sample is approximately 1.4 mm. Second, ERW Linepipe with high-quality weld seam MightySeam has been developed based on the numerical simulation results. (5) The Charpy transition temperature is much lower than -45 C. (6) In the seam weld, the low-carbon, fine-grained bainitic ferrite microstructure is also suitable for extra-low-temperature toughness. Using a

Internal pressure (MPa)

Copyright 2012 by ASME

(7)

combination of chemical composition, microstructure and oxide content optimization, the weld seams of X60 X80-grades ERW steel pipe showed Charpy transition temperatures much lower than -45 C . As a result of the low-temperature hydrostatic burst test with a notched weld seam at -20 C, it is shown that MightySeam provides a fracture performance that is the same as UOE Double Submerged Arc Welded pipe. Because, the burst pressure is higher than both the estimated leak and rupture pressure by the Battelle prediction formula.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors are deeply indebted to Dr. Naotake Yoshihara at the JFE Techno-Research Corporation for numerical simulation of the Charpy impact properties. REFERENCES [1] Tanguy, B, Besson, J, Piques, R and Pineau, A (2005) Ductile to brittle transition of an A508 steel characterized by Charpy impact test Part II: modeling of Charpy transition curve Eng. Fract. Mech., Vol.72, pp 413-434. [2] Nakamoto, H, Homma, H, Suzuki, S, Kusutani, S, (2004) Prediction of fracture toughness in ductile-brittle transition region Trans. JSCES, Paper No.20040007 [3] Ludwik, P, (1909) Elemente der technologishen Mechanik Berlin. [4] Fujimatsu, T, Nagao, M, Nakasaki, M, and Hiraoka, K, (2006) Analysis of stress around nonmetallic inclusions under rolling contact surface Sanyo Tech. Rep., Vol.13, No.1, pp 62-65. [5] Chen, J. H, Wang, Q, Wang, Z and Li, Z, (2003) Fracture behavior at crack tip a new framework for cleavage mechanism of steel Acta Mater., Vol.51, pp 1841-1855. [6] Okabe, T, Aratani, M, Yokoyama, Y, Toyoda, S, Kimura, H, Egi, M, and Kawanishi, A (2011) Finite element analysis of the electric resistance welding phenomenon Proc. of ICTP 2011, pp 662-666. [7] Nakata, H, Kami, C, Matsuo, N (2008) Development of API X80 grade electric resistance welding line pipe with excellent low temperature toughness JFE Tech. Rep., No.12 pp 27-31 [8] Arakawa, T, Inoue, T, Masahito, S, Yokoyama, H, Iizuka, Y (2011) Advanced electric resistance welding (ERW) Linepipe with high quality weld seam The Piping Eng. (Jpn), Vol. 53, No.8, pp79-82. [9] Kiefner, J. F, Maxey, W. A, Eiber, R. J, Duffy, A .R (1973) Failure stress levels of flaws in pressurized cylnders ASTM STP 536, pp 461-481.

Copyright 2012 by ASME