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1 Copyright 2012 by ASME

DEVELOPMENT OF A RELIABLE MODEL FOR EVALUATING THE DUCTILE


FRACTURE PROPAGATION RESISTANCE FOR HIGH GRADE STEEL PIPELINES


M. Di Biagio
Centro Sviluppo Materiali S.p.A.
Rome, Italy
G. Demofonti
Centro Sviluppo Materiali S.p.A.
Rome, Italy
G. Mannucci
Centro Sviluppo Materiali S.p.A.
Rome, Italy


F. Iob
Centro Sviluppo Materiali S.p.A.
Rome, Italy
C.M. Spinelli
eni gas&power
Milano, Italy
T. Schmidt
Vallourec & Mannesmann Tubes,
Dsseldorf, Germany





ABSTRACT
The recent experience on ductile fracture propagation control
on gas pipelines has shown that the applicability of the Battelle
Two Curve Method (based on Charpy-V energy) to high grade
steel pipes from API5L-X80 to X120 (ISO3183-L555M to
L830M) operated at very high hoop stress values (500 MPa) is
highly questionable.
The reduced geometry of the specimen, the intrinsic low value
of ductility of very high strength steels, as low work-hardening
and low value of the strain at maximum load are pointed out as
the main causes of the mismatch.
Starting from these assumptions a new EPRG (European
Pipeline Research Group) project has been launched with the
aim to develop, with reference to the ductile fracture
propagation resistance, a suitable fracture parameter(s) with an
associated laboratory methodology based on a simple sample
which would be able to take into account the role of the
ductility of the material on this specific fracture event.
The present paper shows the approach adopted in this EPRG
Project: an innovative approach based on plastic damage
model which allows to describe the stable ductile crack
propagation by means of stress-state parameters (named
triaxiality and deviatoric parameters).
Moreover the proposed damage model has been implemented
inside a commercial finite element code and used to predict the
fracture crack propagation behaviour of Single Edge Notch
Bend (SENB) tests in terms of load-displacement diagram and
residual plastic deformation.
One of the main topics of this project was the application of this
method to six selected grade steels (with grades in the range of
API X65 X100) many of them coming from experimental full
scale burst tests. The comparisons between experimental results
and numerical simulations are substantially good; besides the
results confirm that Charpy-V specimens, during the fracture
propagation, work in different constraint conditions with
respect to pipe and that DWTT specimen is in the middle
between the two. Finally the damage model approach seems
also able to discriminate between low and high grade steels in
terms of failure deformation at rupture. So it resulted very
promising to quantify the role of both ductile of the steel and
geometrical constraint of the specimen in the ductile fracture
propagation event.

NOMENCLATURE

A Elongation at rupture
Ag Uniform elongation
BTCM Battelle Two Curve Method
C1, C2, n, , , Damage model constants
CTOA Crack Tip Opening Angle
D Damage

0
lower bound equivalent plastic strain to failure

1
upper bound of equivalent plastic strain to failure

equivalent plastic strain to failure


EPRG European Pipeline Research Group
I
1
, I
2
, I
3
three stress tensor invariants
J
1
, J
2
, J
3
three deviatoric tensor invariants
Proceedings of the 2012 9th International Pipeline Conference
IPC2012
September 24-28, 2012, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
IPC2012-90614

2 Copyright 2012 by ASME
n hardening coefficient
Rm Tensile strength
Rp0.2% Yield strength
s1, s2, s3 principal stress deviator components
1, 2,
3
, principal stress components
SENB Single Edge Notch Bending
T triaxiality
X deviatoric
Z Reduction of area
, , Haigh-Westergaard coordinates

1. INTRODUCTION
A longitudinal crack or defect, with critical dimensions, can
cause a fracture to propagate along a pipeline in a ductile mode
if the operating temperature is above the transition temperature
of the linepipe steel. After the fracture initiation, decompression
waves at various pressure levels run in the gas going back up
the line; if critical plastic deformation for the local failure at
crack tip is achieved and, step by step, the work performed by
the gas (driving force) on the crack flanks (i.e. flaps) in the
broken zone is equal or higher than the energy absorbed by both
steel and backfill (resistance force), the crack runs at constant
speed (or increasing speed) corresponding to the energy
balance, and steady state propagation conditions can be
achieved. If the resistance force, and in particular the part
related to the material (steel toughness), is high enough the
fracture will slow turning in a spiral direction and finally will
arrest. So, to limit the length of ductile fracture propagation,
linepipe steels having an appropriate toughness, or external
device (as crack arrestor) to improve the global pipe
resistance force, have to be used. In Figure 1, as an example,
fracture propagation on X80 pipes after a CSM full scale burst
test (left) and view of the arrest at the E-glass fiber crack
arrestor (manufactured by Europipe) after a CSM test on X100
pipes (right) are shown.


Figure 1 - Fracture propagation on X80 pipes after a CSM full
scale burst (left) and view of the arrest at the E-glass fiber crack
arrestor (manufactured by Europipe) after a CSM burst test on
X100 pipes (right).

The determination of the material toughness value required for
arresting ductile fracture propagation, has been historically
based on the use of semi-empirical models in the form of
predictive equations, which state the minimum required value of
the Charpy-V notch upper shelf energy as a function of pipe
geometry, grade of pipes, applied hoop stress, chemical
composition (and temperature) of gas. These semi-empirical
predictive relationships have been developed by using a
combination of theoretical analysis and available burst test data
[1-5] by several Institutes: Battelle Memorial Institutes (BMI),
American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), Centro Sviluppo
Materiali (CSM), High Strength Line Pipe Research Committee
(HLP) of the Japanese iron and Steel Institute (JISI), British
Gas (BG), etc. All these equations were developed using the
upper shelf energy obtained by breaking the 2/3 Charpy-V
specimen (extracted in transverse direction with respect to the
pipe axis); the equations have converted 2/3 thickness Charpy-
V energies to standard 10mmx10mm Charpy-V energies
historically by assuming constancy of the energy value per unit
fracture-surface.
Among all the predictive equations, the Battelle Two Curve
Method (BTCM) is generally considered as the most reliable. It
was firstly proposed by Maxey [1] and it is based on the
comparison of the force driving the ductile fracture propagation
to that resisting it. The approach considers the gas
decompression and the dynamic crack propagation resistance as
uncoupled processes, but both related to the crack propagation
speed. This uncoupled approach allows taking into account
different gas compositions with consequently different
decompression behaviours [6].
A recent EPRG desk study [7] and published results of full
scale burst tests on high grade steel line pipes [8,9] (within the
range from APIX80 to X120 operated at very high hoop stress
values 500 MPa) show that the applicability of the Battelle
Two Curve Method (to quantify the resistance of steel to the
ductile fracture propagation event based on the Charpy-V
energy) is highly questionable. Recently, these indications have
been confirmed substantially also from some results of full scale
tests on 48 (1420mm) diameter, API X80 grade steel pipes
performed by Gazprom in the winter-spring of 2008 [10].
In the diagram of Figure 2 the requested values of Charpy-V
shelf energy for the arrest of crack evaluated by BTCM are
compared with the actual values of tested higher grade pipes
(CSM data base).

3 Copyright 2012 by ASME

Figure 2 - BTCM Charpy-V shelf energy for the arrest of crack
vs actual values of tested higher grade pipes (CSM data base).
Generally, also by adopting alternative fracture parameters
more physically related to the fracture process in pipe, such as
the Drop Weight Tear Test (DWTT) total energy, DWTT
propagation energy, and Crack Tip Opening Angle (CTOA), it
is not possible to exclude ambiguous predictions when applied
to higher grade/large diameter pipes.
Moreover the worldwide experience (and also the Gazprom full
scale tests) has confirmed that:
for very high strength steels (grade X80, with very high
value of Charpy-V, shelf energy > 200 J) large-diameter
pipes fracture propagation resistance can no be longer
specified by relying on Charpy-V energy only;
the Charpy-V fracture parameter exhibits some intrinsic
limitations, limiting or excluding it as the only toughness
parameter of material when high strength steels are
considered.
Many fracture propagation experts point out that:
Charpy-V specimen geometry, in particular the small
ligament of sample that is very shorter than extension of
plastic zone in front of crack tip in fractured pipeline.
the low intrinsic value of ductility when the grade of the
steel increases, with a consequent reduction of both
work-hardening and uniform elongation (Figure 7),
may be the main causes of misprediction.
To support these interpretations about both the fracture
behaviour of higher grade steel pipes and the ambiguous
evaluation of toughness when Charpy-V specimen is used, there
are worldwide experiences from full scale and laboratory
fracture tests. In particular it is well know, as testified also by
CSM experimental activities, that failure during ductile crack
propagation involves a large amount of biaxial stretch in front
of crack tip. The geometrical extent of the longitudinal (axial)
deformation is probably related to the ratio of longitudinal to
transverse flow stress and also to the work-hardening; while the
failure strain at the crack tip could be related both to the strain
at the failure on the specimen and to the constrain conditions at
crack tip. In Figure 3 as an example the plastic deformation
field measured on a broken pipe after a fracture propagation test
is shown, together with values of both equivalent strain and
specific plastic energy (the latter calculated through flow stress
of material) [11].Longitudinal deformation can be noted also in
the scalloped edges behind the fracture (as in left side of Figure
1)
Numerous full scale fracture tests performed by CSM
demonstrated that the extension of this plastic zone at the crack
tip of a running crack is associated with the fracture resistance
force of pipes; the larger the plastic field, the higher the
material resistance to the running crack. This concept was
recently confirmed also by the work of Gazprom [10], where
the absorbed plastic energy of the running crack has been
associated with the length of fracture zone.
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Circumferential distance from crack path (mm)
S
t
r
a
i
n

(
%
)
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
S
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

e
n
e
r
g
y

(
J
/
c
m
2
)
Longitudinal strain
Through thickness strain
Circumf erential strain
Equivalent strain
Specif ic energy

Figure 3 - Plastic deformation field frozen on the broken pipe
after a fracture propagation test. Demopipe 2
nd
test 36x20mm,
X100 grade.
Finally also the detrimental effect of the separations on the
ductile fracture propagation resistance can be interpreted as a
consequence of the reduction of the possibility to have a large
extension of the plastic zone at the crack tip. In fact separations
occur within the plastic zone directly ahead of the oncoming
fracture, and the result is the splitting of the fracture surface in a
group of thinner sub-specimens with a global detrimental effect
to the possibility to have high value of absorbed plastic energy
(Figure 4).

Figure 4 Scheme of creation of separations.
This reasoning about the role of separations on the fracture
propagation behaviour of steel is supported also by the recent
experiences of Gazprom performed during its full scale tests
program to qualify pipes for transportation gas pipelines from
Yamal gas fields to Europe; in fact generally a low arrestability

4 Copyright 2012 by ASME
of pipe was accompanied by high presence of separations on the
fractured areas, with a consequence lower straining, smaller
wall thickness reduction and therefore lower specific fracture
energy [12].
Starting from these evidences, a specific EPRG project has been
launched with the aim to develop new fracture parameter(s) and
to point out an associated laboratory methods to quantify the
role of ductility of material on ductile fracture propagation
event together with the constraint at the crack tip, with the
final aim to develop a new laboratory method to specify the
minimum toughness requirements of high-grade steels (API 5L
X80 grade) with respect to the ductile fracture propagation
event.
2. AIM OF THE EPRG PROJECT
General aim of EPRG project is to provide, with reference to
control of ductile fracture propagation, a fracture parameter(s)
and an associated laboratory method(s) to measure fracture
resistance (e.g. toughness) of high grade steel (API 5L X80
grade) pipelines using small scale specimen in order to evaluate
the real toughness resistance of very high strength steel
linepipes, without underestimating the role of plastic
deformation behaviour of material concerning its resistance to a
ductile fracture. The obtained results should give a relevant
contribution to fix the guidelines to design both new higher
grade steel pipes and new high pressure/high grade large
diameter gas pipelines with respect to ductile fracture
propagation control.
3. APPROACH
The work has been focused to develop and apply a local plastic
strain damage model to describe the step by step ductile crack
growth; a damage model where the plastic deformation
behaviour of steel and the local geometrical constraint at the
crack tip (fracture process zone) can be quantify in coupled way
in order to evaluate the critical local strain at the failure. The
model, after its development, has been implemented inside a
finite element code and used as fracture parameter criteria to
kill the elements at the crack tip and by this to simulate the
fracture process.
After the validation of the developed damage model and its
implementation inside the numerical code, it should be used:
to study the transferability from laboratory specimen to
pipe of selected fracture conventional toughness test
results (as Charpy-V, DWTT shelf energy) and/or not
conventional fracture mechanical parameter(s) (as Crack
Tip Opening Angle).
to distinguish among different high grade steel pipes
materials fracture behaviour, in order to quantify the role
of ductility in the ductile fracture propagation event.
To validate the proposed approach six large diameter medium-
high grade (X65 X100) pipes have been selected and used,
some of these pipes have been also used in past full scale
fracture propagation tests performed by CSM. The analysis of
these last tests will permit a direct comparison between the
fracture behaviour of pipe and of small dimension specimen.
The innovative component of this approach consists in the use
of a new plastic deformation damage model developed to
describe the failure of a component as critical parameters to
describe the local failure at the crack tip and then the ductile
crack growth.
4. DESCRIPTION OF PROPOSED PLASTIC DAMAGE
MODEL
The proposed plastic damage model (incremental plasticity
model) is based on an original integrated methodology
developed by CSM in the framework of an internal project (d-
FRASMET) based on conventional and innovative laboratory
testing, finite element analysis and post processing, aiming to
define new criteria for the ductile fracture assessment on metals
and steels in particular; in this framework, a new approach for
fracture limits has been developed as described in Coppola et
al, [11].
Plastic damage model main concept is the use of the three stress
tensor
ij
invariants (I
1
, I
2
, I
3
) and the correspondent for the
deviatoric tensor s
ij
(J
1
, J
2
, J
3
) which are usually combined to
define some stress parameters. Being
1
,
2
,
3
, the principal
stress components and s
1
, s
2
, s
3
the principal stress deviator
components (s
ij
=
ij
-p
ij
, p is the hydrostatic pressure), the
deviatoric stress invariants are defined as:
( )
s s s
J
3 2 1
1
3
1
+ + =

( )
s s s
J
2
3
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
+ + =

( )
s s s
J
3 2 1
3
=
eq. 1
The second invariant J
2
is used in the von Mises stress

definition:
J 3 2
=
eq. 2
A generic stress state may be represented in the stress space by
using the Haigh-Westergaard coordinates (Khan, 1995 [15]):
p 3
3
I1
= =

J 2 2
=

|
|

\
|
=

J
J
cos
2
3
2
3 1
2
3 3
3
1

eq. 3
where is the Lodes angle.
Any stress state may be represented, combining the above
quantities, by two stress parameters, called triaxiality (T) and
deviatoric (X), defined as (Khan, 1995 [15]):

3
2
= =
p
T

( )
3
3
2
27
3 cos

J
X = =
eq. 4
Under the basic hypothesis about the uniqueness of the stress-
strain law a relation between local values of T and X and the

5 Copyright 2012 by ASME
local strain subsisted. To be noted that T may span in the full
range

, while X is confined in the interval [-1; 1]. For the


same triaxiality T, we have at X=1 the maximum ductility
(axysymmetric stress states, tensile tests), while at X=0 we have
the minimum ductility (pure shear and plane strain states). In
particular the ductility, represented by the equivalent plastic
strain to failure
f
, is bounded between two limits in the plane
f

T named
1
(upper bound) and
0
(lower bound)
corresponding to the extreme values of X (Wierzbicki, 2004
[13], Coppola, 2008 [14]). It is possible to demonstrate that
under the hypothesis of uniqueness of Hollomons stress-strain
relation, if failure is reached according to the Tresca criterion,
eq. 4 becomes:
2
3
1
0
=
|
|

\
|

n
eq. 5
where
0
and
1
represent the fracture strain for the lower and
upper bound respectively. Equation (5) establishes a relation
between the lower and upper bound, with an explicit
dependence from the material, through the hardening coefficient
n. From eq. (5) two important considerations derive. First, the
fracture sensitivity to the Lode parameter, expressed by the
ratio
1
/
0
between the upper and lower bound strain at a given
T, depends directly on the work hardening behaviour: higher
values of n parameter correspond lower values of
1
/
0
ratio as
simply shown in Figure 5.
As second consequence, in principle it may be sufficient to
obtain only one of the bounds to find immediately also the
other.

The proposed CSM model is a more generalized criterion that
can take into account also the materials that not follow the well-
known Tresca criterion.
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
n

1
/

0

Figure 5 - Fracture strain sensitivity to hardening coefficient n.
Further improvements can be achieved expressing the loss of
ductility due to the influence of the deviatoric parameter X by
using a generalized criterion proposed Coppola Demofonti
(2008) [16] and implemented in this activity:
1
0
( )
( )
f
p
n
f T
D d
g X

eq. 6
where the two functions f(T) and g(X) are defined as:
2
1
( )
C T
f T C e = eq. 7
( )
1
( )
1
cos cos
6 3
g X
X

=
(

(

eq. 8
Where C
1
, C
2
, n, , , are the models constants to be defined
starting from experimental small scale test activity and
numerical simulations.
When D reaches 1 we have the failure, which is the point on
which material has reached its ductile fracture limit. An
automatic deletion algorithm is also used to eliminate the
elements that reach the critical value. On the other hands, this
dependence is well supported by many experimental evidences
and almost all models take this effect into account.
Nevertheless, according to a void growth and coalescence
description in the final phase of the fracture process, two
different mechanisms may to compete, the internal necking of
ligaments between voids, which is mainly influenced by
medium-high values of the stress triaxiality, and the shear
failure which is evident at low stress triaxiality, as described
recently by Bao and Wierzbicki [17] and Barsoum [18].
To use the proposal damage model it is necessary to evaluate
for the material of interest both six different parameters (C
1
,
C
2
, n, , , ) and the extended stress-strain curve. Extended
stress-strain curve is a material curve that is still valid also after
the necking point; this curve can be obtained in several ways as
the inverse calibration of tensile test[16]. So to characterize the
material for the assessment of the ductile failure limit it is
necessary to perform a set of experimental tests such as to
define the fracture locus covering as widely as possible the T
and X parameters range. The tests matrix should be designed
according to some basic requirements. At first, tests should be
able to bring the material to failure, which is easy in tensile but
not so feasible in other ones, like bending tests.
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
Triaxiality T
S
t
r
a
i
n

t
o

f
a
i
l
u
r
e
Upper bound X=1
Flattening
Torsion
Tension
RNB10
RNB2
Lower bound X=0

Figure 6 - Fracture strain as function of stress parameters T
and X (33MnB5 annealed), [14].
In these cases it may be useful to introduce a stress
concentrator, like a smooth notch, which will induce the ductile
fracture in the desired point but with some modification in the T
and X parameters. The second requirement is to keep the T and
X evolution as constant as possible during deformation. To
place in fact the fracture point in the
f T plane (where
f

6 Copyright 2012 by ASME
is the equivalent plastic strain at fracture, and keeping X as
constant) it is necessary to define a unique value for both T and
X. If the two parameters vary during the strain path, we have to
define an effective or mean value, as defined in Wierzbicki
(2005) [17]:
0
1
( )
f
m
f
T T d


0
1
( )
f
m
f
X X d

eq. 9
where is the equivalent plastic strain and ) ( T , ) ( X are the
actual T and X values during the path. In this case it is necessary
to perform numerical calculations, (i.e. finite elements) to
precisely calculate in each point the T and X evolution by using
the equations (8). So the main effort in the test design is
devoted, in general, to the selection of loading paths that give
the more constant as possible T and X parameters evolution as
function of applied plastic strain. An example of stress
parameters (T and X) that can be obtained from conventional
tests is reported in Table 1, while the Figure 6 shows an
example the obtained strain at the failure function of X and T
for 33MnB5 annealed as reported in the reference.
Table 1. Summary of tests and stress parameters target values,
[14].
Test type
Triaxiality
parameter, Tm
Deviatoric
parameter, Xm
Tensile smooth >0.33 1
RNB >0.6 1
Torsion 0 0
Flattening 0.557 0
Bending T~0.5 0<X<1
5. EXPERIMENTAL ACTIVITY
5.1 Selection of material and Laboratory test
A selection of material grades has been done with the aim to
identify a wide range of materials available for gas pipeline
transportation. The selection was focused, as much as possible,
choosing pipes involved in past full scale burst tests, where the
actual fracture arrest capability has been verified. Moreover, to
complete the set of materials, also new production pipes were
selected. Starting from these needs the following pipes have
been selected:
Longitudinally seam welded UOE pipe no. E411 (X100
OD 48 WT 18.4mm) used in the ENI TAP full
scale burst test. The full scale burst test result for this
pipe was a propagation at high speed
Longitudinally seam welded UOE pipe no. 834 (X100
OD 36 WT 20.0mm) used in the second full scale
burst test within the DEMOPIPE project. The full scale
burst test results for this pipe was a natural arrest [9].
Longitudinally seam welded UOE pipe no. 67284 (X80
56 26.0mm). Pipe used in the full scale burst test of
Long Distances ENI/SNAM project (L.D.). The full
scale burst test results for this pipe was a natural arrest
[19]. It is important to note that this pipe after a new
complete mechanical characterization has been
downgraded to X70 for our activity, as confirmed also
from the data reported in the following. (this pipe comes
from an experimental production)
Longitudinally seam welded UOE pipe no. 31 (X65
OD 56 WT18.7mm) used in the CSM full scale burst
test no. 21. The full scale burst test results for this pipe
was a natural arrest.
Longitudinally seam welded UOE pipe no. 924996 (X80
OD 56 WT 27.7mm). Recent production. Pipe not
involved in any full scale burst test.
Spiral welded pipe, n 930605 (X80 OD 42" WT
18.8 mm). Recent production. Pipe not involved in any
full scale burst test.

5.2 Tensile properties: true stress true strain curve
For each pipe round bar specimens both for longitudinal and
transversal direction have been tested at low strain rate
(according ISO 6892-1 and ASTM A370). The results of the
tensile tests are reported in Table 2 and Table 3.
Table 2. Tensile properties in transversal direction
Material Rp0.2 %
(MPa)
Rm
(MPa)
Rp0.2 /
Rm
(%)
Ag
(%)
A
(%)
Z
(%)
X100 TAP E411 812 814 99.7 1.0 18.3 76.2
X100 Demopipe 779 812 95.9 4.8 22.0 74.1
X80 L.D. 67284 500 596 83.9 11.2 30.1 74.5
X65 Pipe 61 469 576 81.4 12.0 29.4 67.2
X80 UOE 632 718 88.1 7.9 27.3 76.2
X80 Spiral 638 722 88.4 8.5 27.9 76.8
Table 3. Tensile properties in longitudinal direction
Material Rp0.2 %
(MPa)
Rm
(MPa)
Rp0.2 /
Rm
(%)
Ag
(%)
A
(%)
Z
(%)
X100 TAP E411 702 737 95.2 5.4 23.6 76.3
X100 Demopipe 686 747 91.8 3.6 22.5 76.0
X80 L.D. 67284 448 571 78.0 11.0 32.1 76.4
X65 Pipe 61 467 564 82.5 10.8 29.4 66.0
X80 UOE 553 670 82.5 7.5 29.2 75.6
X80 Spiral 643 737 87.3 6.3 25.4 73.0
To highlight this result a comparison between transversal
directions of non-dimensional stress-strain curves is reported in
Figure 7 where it is possible see a relevant difference in work
hardening between the selected materials.
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25%
Strain (%)
S
t
r
e
s
s

/

R
p
0
.
2

(
M
P
a
)
X80 - Spiral pipe
X80 - UOE new production
X65 - CSM full scale burst test no.21
X80 - Long Distance ENI/SNAM project
X100 - Demopipe Project
X100 - Eni TAP project

Figure 7 - Different strain hardening on transversal specimen.

7 Copyright 2012 by ASME
Moreover in Figure 8 it is possible to see a relevant difference
in work hardening coefficient n among the selected materials.
These coefficients correlate well with the uniform elongation as
reported in Figure 8.
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16
Work Hardening Coefficient
U
n
i
f
o
r
m

E
l
o
n
g
a
t
i
o
n

(
e
)
X100 - ENI TAP Project
X100 - Demopipe
Project
X80 - UOE new production
X80 - Spiral pipe
X80 - Long Distance ENI/SNAM project
X65 - CSM full scale
burst test no.21

Figure 8 - Correlation between work hardening coefficient and
uniform elongation values on transversal specimen.

5.3 Toughness properties by: Charpy-V, DWTT shelf
energy and CTOA
Toughness properties were also measured by means both
Charpy-V and Pressed Notch Drop Weight Tear (PN-DWT)
test shelf fracture energy on specimen machined in transverse
direction and tested at room temperature. Moreover the
measurements of the Crack Tip Opening Angle has been made
using the Two Specimens CTOA Propagation Energy Test,
[20]. The results of these tests are reported in Table 4.
Table 4. Toughness properties of selected steels: Charpy-V,
DWTT shelf energy, CTOA.
Material
Charpy-V
shelf energy
(J)
DWTT specific
total energy
(J/cm2)
DWTT Specific
prop. energy
(J/cm2)
CTOA

()
X100 TAP E411 289 661 304 2.2
X100 Demopipe 251 792 466 4.3
X80 L.D. 67284 253 909 419 9.2
X65 Pipe 61 126 445 228 5.3
X80 UOE 304 >1476 >715 8.5
X80 Spiral 267 1132 629 6.4

Fracture surfaces of DWTT specimens showed that X100 TAP
and X80 Long Distances ENI/SNAM project materials (L.D.
Material) exhibit several separations in comparison to the other
materials. Concerning the DWTT tests Figure 9 shows the
differences between the selected materials in terms of load-
displacement curve normalized with respect to maximum load.
These graphs underline that there are important differences
between the selected materials. This is also confirmed in the
Table 4 where these material are compared in terms of Charpy-
V shelf energy DWTT (total and propagation energy) and
CTOA.

0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Displacement from crack onset (mm)
D
i
m
e
n
s
i
o
n
l
e
s
s

f
o
r
c
e
X100 TAP E411
X100 Demopipe 834
X80 Long Distance
X65 CSM pipe 21
X80 UOE New Prod.
X80 Spiral pipe

Figure 9 - Load-displacement curve normalized respect to
maximum load for DWTT tests.

6. DAMAGE PARAMETERS EVALUATION
6.1 Testing activity to obtain the damage model
parameters.
The above proposed damage model implemented into FE code
(MSC Marc commercial finite element code), that permits the
fracture propagation (by elements release), has to be calibrated
using a series of experimental tests that exhibit different values
of triaxiality level (T) and deviatoric parameter (X) of the stress
state. So, the following specimens have been tested:
Round bar smooth tensile tests
Notched round bar tensile tests (radius = 2 mm)
Notched round bar tensile tests (radius = 10 mm)
Torsion tests
Notched three point bend tests (plain strain)
In parallel to the laboratory tests program, the FE simulations
were carried out for all the tensile specimens (RB, NRB2,
NRB10) and for the bending tests to obtain the trend of the
triaxiality (T) and deviatoric parameter (X), during the
deformation, measured in the center of the specimen. For the
pure torsion tests no numerical simulations have been
performed, in fact both the value of T=0, X=1 and strain at the
failure are directly obtained from experimental data. To
perform the numerical simulations an evaluation of the
extended true stress-strain curve it is needed. To obtain this
information for each steels involved an inverse calibration of
load-displacement curve has been carried out [16].
In Figure 10 and Figure 11 are reported the strain limit curves
for the materials that are object of this study are reported, in
particular Figure 11 refers to low/medium grade steels (X65
Pipe 61 and X80 L.D. 67284 actual X70) and Figure 10 to
higher grade steels with lower level of uniform elongation. The
pictures report the upper limit (upper curve) and lower bound
(lower curve) plotted with the same color for the same material.
The first important consideration that can be done looking these
charts is that highest grades exhibit a larger difference between

8 Copyright 2012 by ASME
the lower and upper bound curves. This means that there is
large difference in terms of strain to failure between X=0 curve
and X=1 curves. The influence of the deviatoric parameter for
high grade materials seems to be key point in the failure criteria.
This is also in agreement with the highlighted influence of a
reduced value of strain hardening on the divergence of the
lower and upper lines. This is confirmed both from X80 L.D.
67284 (to be note that this steel nominally X80 resulted actually
more similar to an X70) and from X65, where the lower and
upper bounds are very close. So, the damage model seems to be
able to distinguish the behaviour at rupture for different grades.
This effect can be related to the hardening capability of the
materials.
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
Triaxiality T
S
t
r
a
i
n

t
o

f
a
i
l
u
r
e
X100 2nd Demopipe (834)
X100 Eni TAP project
X80 UOE new prod.
X80 Spiral pipe

Figure 10 - Strain limit curves for grade steels X80.
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
Triaxiality T
S
t
r
a
i
n

t
o

f
a
i
l
u
r
e
X65-CSM Test 21 (31)
X80 L.D. ENI/SNAM (67284)
,,

Figure 11 - Strain limit curves for grade steels < X80.

6.2 Testing for the validation the applicability of
plastic damage as fracture critical parameter
With the aim to set-up the damage model for the correct
prediction of fracture propagation, Single Edge Notch Bend
(SENB) specimens have been machined from all steels involved
and then tested at room temperature and at low strain rate (no
dynamic test). The geometry of the samples is similar to DWTT
specimen, but with a longer initial crack; in particular all these
samples have been fatigue pre-cracked up to achieve a total
notch depth of about 15 mm. Finally, a grid of 2 mm side has
been etched on one side of the specimen to measure after the
test the frozen plastic deformation on samples with the aim to
compare these data with the same quantities calculated by
means finite element simulations.
Analysis of the grid deformation has been carried out by using
the Automated Strain Analysis and Measurements Environment
(ASAME) that permits, using a double camera, to evaluate the
deformation in the two principal directions (grid orientation).
This ASAME system is a portable camera-based measurement
tool that measures the surface geometry and strain distribution
on a deformed part. The use of the double camera technique
allows to measure deformation correctly also in the regions that
are not perpendicular to the camera lens, for instance near to the
fracture path where the wall thickness decreases due to the
necking.
An analysis of these data shows some important issues:
the longitudinal deformation in the fracture path is
negligible for all the tested samples. This is a strong
difference respect to the pipe rupture way in the full
scale propagation test where longitudinal component of
the strain is very important (up to 5-8 %).
in transversal direction the X65 pipe shows the lowest
value and also the extension of the deformation is
smaller than other materials.
X80 L.D. pipe seems to have stored more plastic
deformation for the initiation respect to the propagation
phase.
the other X100 and X80 materials have similar
behaviour in terms of plastic deformation near the
fracture path.
For each sample, during the test, a series of unloading steps has
been performed to measure the amount of energy versus crack
propagation. For each loading step, the area of the load versus
displacement curve has been calculated and the increment in
crack propagation has been measured using the corresponding
pictures.
7. APPLICATION OF DAMAGE MODEL TO
REPRODUCE THE DUCTILE CRACK GROWTH
ON SENB SPECIMENS
The damage model, calibrated for all steels involved in this
EPRG project, has been implemented inside a commercial finite
element code and used as criteria to kill elements to the crack
tip when the value of damage D (defined in equation no.6)
achieves the unit. In particular to carry out these simulations a
3-D model has been used and an isotropic description of
material has been used in a first phase of the work.
SENB specimens have been used for the validation of model
that has been calibrated using the small scale test reported in
Table 1.

9 Copyright 2012 by ASME
Generally the results of comparison between experimental test
(SENB samples) and their simulations show that it is possible:
to reproduce the load vs crack growth;
to create a plastic deformation field frozen on the
specimens very similar to the measured strain on broken
SENB specimens;
to generate a shape of crack front very similar to the real
specimen.
As example in the Figure 12 a comparison between
experimental and calculated load vs displacement diagram for
the X100 TAP E411 pipe shown.
Figure 12 - Comparison between experimental and calculated
load vs displacement diagram for the X100 TAP E411.

After the test, experimental and calculated plastic deformation
on the specimen surface, are compared and shown in the
subsequent Figure 13 and Figure 14.


Figure 13 - Comparison between plastic deformation calculate
by FEA (left side) and plastic deformation measured on sample
surface using grid reading after the test (right side).

Also if the scale of contour is not the same, it is possible to note
that the maximum deformation on fracture path is almost the
same (+0.4 ), also the transversal extension of deformation is
very similar.

Figure 14 - Comparison between FEA and experimental crack
growth for two different crack extension values.

Finally, Figure 15 shows the shape of the crack front obtained
during the simulated crack growth. It can be noted that the
calculations reveal a similar typical wedge shape as could be
observed in the experimental tests. This is a consequence of the
different local values in the process failure zone of the value
of T and X, along the thickness of the specimen, with an average
value of T
m
of about 1.2.

Figure 15 - Shape of the crack front obtained during the
simulated crack growth.
8. PRELIMINARY STUDY ABOUT THE EFFECT OF
LIGAMENT LENGTH ON DUCTILE CRACK
GROWTH
To quantify the role of the specimen ligament length on the
growth of a ductile crack the simulation of:
A low strain rate failure of a Charpy-V specimen. (quasi-
static three point bending test)
Single Edge Notch in Tension (SENT) specimen with a
ligament length of about 500 mm,
A section of pipe with a longitudinal crack
have been performed.
Also in these three cases, the results in terms of both expected
shape of crack and plastic deformation are very promising. In
fact, as shown in Figure 16, the crack front of Charpy-V
specimen is flat, with an average value of T
m
= 1.7-1.8. In the
case of SENT specimen and pipe section the shape of crack
front comes back to be more similar to the SENB specimen, but

10 Copyright 2012 by ASME
with an average value of T
m
= 0.6. In Figure 16 the shape in
both cases are reported.


Figure 16 - Shape of crack front, for Charpy-V specimen
geometry (left) and SENT specimen (right).

These values of average triaxiality (together with the previous
value on the DWTT specimen) can be reported qualitatively in
terms of the value of averages of T
m
at the crack front on the
fracture strain diagram as function of stress parameters T and X,
as shown in Figure 17. It is important to note that X values for
all the samples during the fracture propagation can vary in the
range between 0 and 0.5, and the average values are very close
to zero. A preliminary consideration is that this approach in
terms of parameters T and X could permit to quantify the
distance in terms of toughness prediction among Charpy-V
specimen, DWTT specimen and large ligament (pipe). This
issue highlights the influence of sample ligament in material
rupture limit. In particular longer ligaments permit a larger
development of plastic field in front of crack tip with respect to
the smaller ones.
At the same time the increasing of divergence between the X=0
and X=1 curves when the strain hardening decrease, as showed
in Figure 5, can give a justification about the non unique
correlation between DWTT and Charpy-V specimens when the
strain hardening of steel decreases.

Figure 17 - Location of Charpy-V, DWTT, SENT specimen
(ligament 500 mm) and pipe on the fracture strain diagram as
function of stress parameters T and X.

9. CONCLUSIONS
Published results of full scale burst tests on high grade pipeline
steels (within the range from API 5L X80 to X120 operated at
very high hoop stress values 500 MPa) show that the
applicability of Charpy-V shelf energy to quantify the resistance
of steel to the ductile fracture propagation event is highly
questionable.
There is a common opinion that one of the main causes of the
misprediction can be related both to reduced Charpy-V
specimen geometry (a small ligament can increase the constraint
at the crack tip) and also to the low intrinsic value of ductility
when the grade of the steel increases, with a consequent
reduction of both work-hardening and value of the strain at
maximum load.
In order to give a contribution on the understanding and
quantify the cause of this misprediction a new plastic damage
approach to give an answer to these open issues has been
proposed.
The plastic damage model is based on two stress parameters,
called triaxiality (T) and deviatoric (X). The model, after an
initial set up, has been implemented inside a finite element
commercial code and used as fracture parameter criteria to
simulate the fracture process. Its validation has been performed
by using six different large diameter steel pipes with a nominal
grade in the range of X65 - X100.
Generally first results are very promising, in fact there is a
substantially agreement between the experimental data and
results obtained by numerical simulation in terms of load vs
displacement curve and local plastic deformation frozen in the
specimen.
Preliminary considerations about the future use of this
methodology show that this approach could permit to quantify
the distance in terms of toughness prediction among Charpy-
V specimen, DWTT specimen and large ligament (pipe or
plate). In particular the influence of ligament length of sample
has been showed as influence on deformation of failure of the
material.
An indication of influence of ductility role on the behavior of
material at rupture, in terms of strain hardening of steel, has
been highlighted on stronger influence of deviatoric parameter
on low strain hardening materials that tends to separate the
lower and upper bound curves in failure strain diagram.
The work is in progress and new challenging topics must be
faced, as the role of strain rate in the calibration of proposed
damage model and its applicability to a pipe size.
10. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors wish to acknowledge the considerable contributions
made by many of their colleagues and their companies, within

11 Copyright 2012 by ASME
the EPRG, towards the development and promotion of the
research project described above.
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