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Proceedings of the 2012 9th International Pipeline Conference IPC2012 September 24-28, 2012, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

IPC2012-90700

DEVELOPMENT OF API GRADE PIPELINE STEELS BY REDUCED SCALE TRIALS


Dr. Karina Wallwaey, Hendrik Langenbach, Dr. Alessandro Stenico ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe AG Duisburg, Germany

ABSTRACT Trials at a pilot plant were performed in order to develop new chemical compositions for the production of API grade X70 and X80 pipeline steels. The pilot hot rolling mill allows trials in a limited scale with the target strip thickness and strip widths between 100 mm and 500 mm. The mechanical properties of the X70 and X80 pipeline steels with thicknesses of 23 mm and 12.7 mm respectively were examined by tensile tests and charpy impact tests. In addition DWT tests were conducted for material with a thickness of 23 mm. Some of the trials were arranged to estimate the influence of 0.3 % nickel and of 0.03 % vanadium with and without the addition of titanium stoichiometrical to nitrogen on the basis of a chemical composition with a niobium content above 0.06 %. For a selected composition submerged arc welding trials were performed in a welding laboratory. The results obtained in the small scale trials were used to derive chemical compositions for industrial scale trials including hot strip rolling and the production of helically welded pipes. This paper will deal with the pilot plant trials, the welding trials and the industrial scale trials. The attained mechanical properties will be presented and compared. Furthermore future trials to develop optimized chemical compositions for pipeline steels and the challenge to transfer results from limited to industrial scale will be discussed. INTRODUCTION Producers of pipeline steels are faced with increasing demands regarding the mechanical properties including toughness. In order to fulfil these requirements the development of new alloying concepts is of great importance. This need to develop new alloying concepts is complicated by the fact that industrial trials are expensive and hinder normal production.

Whereas laboratory results may not directly be transferred to industrial scale production. In this paper limited scale trials are presented as a compromise between industrial and laboratory scale trials. The pilot hot rolling mill trials were aimed at the development of heavy gauge X70 and X80 pipeline steel. For the X70 trials with a thickness of 23 mm a chemical composition containing approximately 0.06 % Nb was used. Beforehand this composition had been investigated by dilatometry in order to evaluate the recrystallisation and the transformation behaviour. The trials with this chemical composition ended in welding trials. The same chemical composition was used for the X80 trials with a thickness of 12.7 mm. In addition chemical compositions with higher niobium contents, above 0.07 %, and variations of the elements nickel, vanadium and titanium were tested in the X80 trials. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Pipeline steels consisting of a microstructure of Acicular Ferrite (AF) and/or Bainite have been developed in recent years basing on high Nb and/or Mo alloying (e.g. [1, 2, 3]). For the present investigations a Reference Alloy was defined with a chemical composition as follows (q.v. Alloy 1 in Table 1): 0.0500.065 % carbon as a compromise between high strength, low yield/tensile strength ratio and good weldability; 1.451.65 % manganese for solid solution strengthening; 0.250.35 % silicon for solid solution strengthening; 0.060.07 % niobium to increase the Recrystallisation Stop Temperature (TNRX) so that after finishing rolling a pan-cake austenitic microstructure with a high dislocation density may undergo an AFtransformation;

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less than 0.03 % titanium, a strong nitride former, in order to avoid the precipitation of Nb-carbonitrides at higher temperatures that deprives the Austenite of solute Nb; Molybdenum, nickel, chrome and copper (in total less than 0.6 %) for austenite stabilisation and/or kinetic retardation of the ferritic-perlitic transformation. For this Reference Alloy a deformation Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) diagram was determined by dilatometry (cylindrical specimens: 4 mm diameter x 9 mm) [4]. Cooling started at a temperature of 820 C after full austenitisation at 1250 C for 5 minutes and two deformation passes of = 0.36 at 1100 C and = 0.6 at 820 C. The deformation rate was 1 s-1 for both passes. The deformation CCT diagram in which t8/5 is the cooling time between 800 C and 500 C is shown in Figure 1. The diagram shows that in order to completely avoid the ferritic transformation a cooling rate of about 75 K/s is required. Owing to kinetic retardation, a Ferrite volume fraction less than 10 % is still obtainable at cooling rates down to 10 K/s. The Ar3 transformation temperature lies at approximately 790 C, the Bainite Start Temperature at approximately 630 C.
1000 900 800

100 90

1050 C

1000 C

950 C

900 C

Recrystallised Fraction % % Softening Fraction in in

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

10

100

1.000

Time in s

Figure 2 - Softening Behaviour of the Reference Alloy

Rolling trials at the pilot plant, as well as industrial scale trials, were conducted with this Reference Chemical Composition. REDUCED SCALE TRIALS Pilot Plant The pilot hot rolling mill of ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe AG is shown in Figure 3. It is a two-high reversing stand. The roll diameter is 550 mm and the maximum rolling force is 6.6 MN. The plant is equipped with a high-pressure descaler between the reheating furnace and the rolling stand and pyrometers on both sides of the hot rolling stand. The cooling section consists of 13 cooling headers that can be switched on separately. Another pyrometer is located at the end of the cooling section. After water cooling the strips can be cooled to ambient temperature in a specially regulated furnace, simulating the cooling process in a coil.

Temperature in C

700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0,1

Ferrite
<5 5 20 35 90

Bainite

Martensite

10

100

1000

Cooling Time t8/5 in s

Figure 1 - Deformation CCT Diagram for the Reference Alloy

Plastometric measurements were conducted in a dilatometer at different temperatures in order to describe the recrystallisation behaviour of this Reference Alloy [4]. The twohit compression tests were performed with cylindrical specimens (4 mm diameter x 9 mm) after austenitisation at 1250 C for 5 minutes and a first deformation at 1100 C ( = 0.36, 1 s-1). Figure 2 shows the softening fraction as a function of the holding time between the two passes performed at the given temperature. Defining here TNRX as the temperature at which no significant softening (i.e. less than 25 %) takes place in a time of 5 seconds after a plastic deformation of = 0.6, a value of TNRX = 925 C can be extrapolated for the Reference Alloy.

Figure 3 - Pilot Hot Rolling Mill

Small scale trials with the target strip thickness and strip widths between 100 mm and 500 mm can be conducted at the

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pilot hot rolling mill. The total deformation degree is smaller than in industrial production. X70 with a thickness of 23 mm Trials: The feasibility of heavy gauge, hot rolled strip of API Grade X70 was investigated at the pilot plant. Short strips with a thickness of 23 mm were rolled out of the reduced scale slabs (180 mm thick, 270 mm wide, 240 mm long) with a chemical composition corresponding to the Reference Alloy described above (Alloy 1 in Table 1). Compared to the industrial production the final thickness was not scaled because only full scale thickness is suitable to investigate fracture behaviour of line pipe steels. The slabs were reheated to a temperature of 1240 C for approximately two hours. The rolling schedule (10 passes) was defined according to [5], with a roughing process above TNRX (4 passes) and a finishing process between TNRX and Ar3 (6 passes). In particular, a maximal reduction of 25 % was applied at the end of the roughing process at a temperature of approximately 1000 C, well above TNRX, aiming at a highly refined austenitic microstructure before finishing rolling. Later, two more passes with a reduction of 25 % were applied just below TNRX in order to achieve a pan-cake microstructure till the core of the strip. A total of twenty strips were rolled under these conditions. Accelerated Cooling after finishing rolling was performed with different water flow intensities and different cooling times, so that several Cooling Stop Temperatures were reached applying different cooling rates. The cooling process was completed by air cooling, at room temperature, until Coiling Temperature. This was followed by thermoregulated cooling in the furnace simulating the slow cooling process of a strip after coiling. Results: One tensile test (according to ASTM A307 [6], strip type specimen, full thickness), three Charpy-v-notch Impact tests (middle wall specimens) and two Drop Weight Tear Tests (DWTT) were conducted for every trial strip. Specimens were cut transverse to rolling direction. The microstructure was

investigated by means of optical microscopy. All trial strips fulfilled the tensile test requirements of API Grade X70 [7], with yield strengths ranging between 530 and 620 MPa, and tensile strengths ranging between 625 and 680 MPa (Figure 4). Such high values can guarantee Grade X70 pipes also after helically pipe forming and the associated orientation change compared to strip testing. An influence of the microstructure on the tensile test values was not observed. (Figure 4). The Charpy Impact values at -20 C ranged between 228 and 292 J and thus easily exceed the normative requirements. No evident correlation was observed between these mechanical values and the variation of the process parameters.
650 625 Yield strength R t05 [MPa] 600 575 550 525 500 575 600 625 650 675 700 Tensile strength Rm [MPa] 725 Acicular Ferrite Ferrite / AF Ferrite / Perlite

Figure 4 - Yield Strength and Tensile Strength Values for the 23 mm Thick X70 Trial Strips

By contrast the Drop Weight Tear Tests, conducted at 0 C according to [8], showed a great variety of failure behaviour, with the shear fracture area (SFA) ranging between 20 and 100 % of the assessed fracture area. No correlation was found between the DWTT results and the tensile and Charpy Impact test values. This is well known (cf. [9]) and makes DWT tests with full thickness material unavoidable to assess fracture

(b) (a) Figure 5 - Ferrite-Perlite Microstructure (a) and Acicular Ferrite Microstructure (b) obtained with the Reference Alloy

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behaviour of heavy gauge steel plates and strips. Metallographic investigations showed that brittle fractures (i.e. SFA 60 %) always appeared with ferritic-perlitic microstructures (Figure 5a). More generally, Polygonal Ferrite and transitional microstructures (i.e. Acicular Ferrite mixed with Polygonal Ferrite) delivered a big scattering of the SFA values. In contrast, Acicular Ferrite microstructures (Figure 5b) always led to ductile fractures (SFA 85 %). In these trials the Cooling Stop Temperature was identified as a fundamental parameter in order to assure an AF microstructure. In Figure 6 DWTT results are plotted against the temperature at the end of the cooling zone which was measured by a pyrometer. (NB: The effective Cooling Stop Temperature is actually higher, as the cooling zone was only partially activated directly after the last rolling pass. A subsequent temperature drop due to air cooling before measuring must be taken into account.) It is observable that only at lower Cooling Stop Temperatures an AF microstructure and therefore ductile fracture behaviour could be reached. These investigations confirm that AF is a suitable microstructure to assure ductile fracture behaviour for X70 Grade pipeline steel with a strip thickness of 23 mm, providing the necessary strength and toughness to heavy gauge pipe walls, with SFA 85 % at 0 C as required by pipeline specifications. This combination of excellent mechanical properties is considered to be due to the fine and homogeneous grain size of AF, about 4-5 m [1] or even smaller, if low angle grain boundaries are considered [10].
Shear Fracture Area (DWTT) [%]

X80 with a thickness of 12.7 mm Trials: The X80 trials were part of [4] and the different chemical compositions used for the trials presented in this paper are listed in Table 1. Compared to the Reference Alloy the other chemical compositions have a higher niobium content and less carbon. A reduction of the carbon content in compositions with relatively high niobium contents can lead to higher tensile test values because more solute niobium is available [11]. In addition, the influence of the alloying elements nickel, vanadium and titanium was investigated. Therefore Alloy 3 contains nickel in traces only. Alloy 4 and 5 contain up to 0.035 % vanadium with up to 0.03 % and no titanium respectively. The slabs were reheated to a temperature of 1250 C for approximately two hours. After descaling the small slabs with a thickness of 150 mm they were rolled to the target thickness of 12.7 mm. The finish rolling temperature was 820 C and the target coiling temperature after water cooling between 550 C and 600 C could usually be met. The strips were cooled to room temperature in the furnace, simulating the cooling process in the coil. Due to handling reasons the slabs needed to be shortened after two passes. The residual material was used for trials with a smaller starting thickness of 75 mm. A total of one slab with a starting thickness of 150 mm and three slabs with a starting thickness of 75 mm were processed for each of the five chemical compositions.
0,50 0,45

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 200

0,40

Reduction per Pass

0,35 0,30 0,25 0,20 0,15 0,10

Acicular Ferrite Ferrite / AF Ferrite / Perlite 300 400 500 600 700

0,05 0,00 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Pass Number 7 passes 5 passes 3 passes

Temperature at the end of the cooling zone [ C]

Figure 6 - Drop Weight Tear Test Results for the 23 mm Thick X70 Trial Strips

Figure 7 - Different Rolling Schedules for the X80 Pilot Plant Trials

Figure 7 shows the reduction per pass for the different rolling schedules applied for the X80 pilot plant trials. The

Table 1. Chemical Compositions in Weight-% Alloy C Si Mn N 1 0,050-0,065 0,25-0,35 1,45-1,65 2 0,035-0,050 0,20-0,30 1,65-1,80 3 0,035-0,050 0,20-0,30 1,65-1,80 4 0,035-0,050 0,20-0,30 1,65-1,80 5 0,035-0,050 0,20-0,30 1,65-1,80

P <0,020 <0,020 <0,020 <0,020 <0,020

S 0,003 0,003 0,003 0,003 0,003

Ni 0,15-0,25 0,30-0,35 <0,05 0,30-0,35 0,30-0,35

Cu, Cr, Ni, Mo < 0,6 <0,7 <0,5 <0,7 <0,7

Nb 0,06-0,07 0,07-0,09 0,07-0,09 0,07-0,09 0,07-0,09

Ti <0,03 <0,03 <0,03 <0,03 <0,005

V <0,005 <0,005 <0,005 <0,035 <0,035

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7 passes schedule was used for the original starting thickness of 150 mm. The residual material had a starting thickness of 75 mm and was processed with a 5 passes and a 3 passes rolling schedule respectively. The rolling reduction in the nonrecrystallisation region is about 20 % of the total reduction for the 7 and the 5 passes schedules and about 45 % of the total reduction for the 3 passes schedule. Results: The mechanical properties were examined by tensile tests using one flat bar sheet type specimen (according to ASTM A307 [6], full thickness) at 90 to the rolling direction and by three Charpy v-notch Impact tests (middle wall specimens) per trial strip. The mean Rt0.5 and Rm values for the different chemical compositions are illustrated in Figure 8.
700

650

The Charpy Impact values at 0 and -40 C are shown in Figure 9 and 10. At 0 C the mean values of approximately 350 J for the Alloys 3, 4 and 5 are about 50 J higher than for Alloys 1 and 2. The values at a temperature of -40 C are roughly 50 J lower than at 0 C with a wider distribution for the Alloys 1, 2 and 3. The Charpy Impact values of Alloy 5 only decrease slightly with the lower temperature whereas the impact toughness of Alloy 4 drops significantly to values of about 70 J. This drop might be caused by precipitations of the microalloying elements. As Alloy 3 offers comparatively good toughness values even at -40 C the addition of 0.30-0.35 % nickel does not seem to improve the Charpy Impact toughness for the investigated compositions. The comparison of Alloy 4 and Alloy 5 would lead to the conclusion that the addition of titanium is not favourable in the investigated compositions with Nb and V . However titanium is important for the control of the austenite grain size in the reheating furnace [12] and the addition of Ti stochiometrical to nitrogen is important to obtain fine Nb carbides [13, 14].

Rt0,5 inin MPa Rt0,5 MPa

600

Charpy impact toughness in J

550

400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0

500

450

400

1.1.

1.3.

2.3.

2.4.

2.5.

alloy number
800

750

RRm in MPa m in MPa

700

1.1. 1

1.3. 2

2.3. 3

2.4. 4

2.5. 5

650

Alloy Number Alloy Number

alloy number

600

Figure 9 - Charpy Impact Toughness Values at 0 f or C Alloys 1 to 5 (3, 5 and 7 passes)

550 400 500

Charpy impact toughness in J

1 1.1.

2 1.3.

3 2.3.

4 2.4.

5 2.5.

350 300 250 200 150 100

alloy Number Alloy number

Figure 8 - Yield Strength and Tensile Strength Values for Alloys 1 to 5 (3, 5 and 7 passes)

Most of the Rt0.5 values meet the requirements of an API X80 steel, however single yield strength values are at the lower end of the range. The yield strength values for the different chemical compositions are on the same level and the dispersion in the mean is wider for Alloy 3 without nickel and Alloy 4 containing up to 0.035 % vanadium. The tensile strength values in contrast are clearly within the required range for all compositions. Thereby the Rm values for the chemical compositions with more Nb (Alloy 2-5) are in average about 30 MPa higher than for Alloy 1.

50 0

1.1. 1

1.3. 2

2.3. 3

2.4. 4

2.5. 5

Alloy Number

alloy number

Figure 10 - Charpy Impact Toughness Values at -40 for C Alloys 1 to 5 (3, 5 and 7 passes)

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In addition, the influence of the number of passes needs to be considered. The tensile and Charpy Impact test results, as a function of the number of passes, are shown in Figures 11 and 12.
700

tensile test values could be observed for the 5 passes. The 3 passes rolling schedule with a higher reduction per pass and a higher deformation degree below TNRX turned out to lead to higher tensile test values and to an increase of toughness of about 70 J compared to the 7 and 5 passes at 0 C. WELDING TRIALS For the Reference Alloy (Alloy 1 in Table 1) welding trials were performed in the welding laboratory of ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe AG. For this purpose material produced as hot rolled coil with a thickness of 23 mm was used. The plates were welded with a submerged arc welding system producing a tandem arc weld. A double v seam (X-60, root face 4 mm) was used. The parameters for the welding process were chosen pursuant to real production conditions. Hardness, tensile and Charpy Impact tests were conducted in the weld seam [15]. The hardness values for the weld metal, the HAZ and the parent metal are at the same level at about 225 HV10 without any hardness peaks. The tensile strengths ranged between 640 and 681 MPa, for the weld as well as for the parent metal, and therefore met the requirements of a grade X70 steel. The impact toughness tests (Charpy v-notch) showed very good results (Figure 13). Consequently good welding properties during the production of spirally welded pipes could be expected for this chemical composition. [15]
notch position

650

Rt0,5 inin MPa Rt0,5 MPa

600

550

500

450

400

number of passes
800

750

RRm in MPa m in MPa

700

650

600

550

500

number of Passes Number of passes

Kerbschlagarbeit J Impact toughness in J

Figure 11 - Yield Strength and Tensile Strength for 3, 5 and 7 passes (Alloys 1 to 5)
400

300

parent metal

HAZ +2 mm HAZ/centre

0 C -20 C

Charpy impact toughness in J

200
248 228 227 187 111 133

HAZ/second pass weld metal

350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0

100

152 150

Figure 13 - Charpy Impact Toughness in the Weld Seam [15]

Number of Passes

number of passes

Figure 12 - Charpy Impact Toughness Values at 0 for 3, 5 C and 7 passes (Alloys 1 to 5)

There is nearly no difference between the 7 passes and the 5 passes values even tough the starting thickness and the total deformation were higher for the 7 passes. Only slightly lower

INDUSTRIAL SCALE TRIALS Two of the chemical compositions (Alloy 1 and Alloy 3) investigated in the pilot plant trials were used for industrial scale trials. These two compositions were chosen because they showed good tensile and Charpy Impact test results and because their sum of the alloying elements copper, chromium, nickel and molybdenum is less than 0.6 and this maximum value can be found in various specifications. The final thickness was 12.7 mm for Alloy 1 and 18 mm for Alloy 3 in order to test different alloying concepts for different strip thickness ranges. Two strips were rolled for both chemical compositions.

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During the production of helically welded pipes at a customers plant, no problems with the submerged arc welding process were observed. The strip material was easily processed. The process parameters for the pilot plant trials were chosen according to the parameters used for industrial scale production. Therefore temperatures (furnace temperature, finish rolling temperature, finish cooling temperature) and rolling schedules (except for the total deformation, including the reduction in the non-recrystallisation region) resemble to a large extent. Other parameters in contrast differ: The pilot plant is a reversing stand and thus the finish rolling is not continuous. The water cooling conditions are not comparable and the cooling in the coil needs to be simulated in a furnace. A comparison of the mean tensile and Charpy Impact test values for the pilot plant strips, the industrially produced strips and the helically welded pipes is shown in Figure 14 and 15 respectively. It has to be considered that the tensile test was performed at 90 to the rolling direction on strip and at 90 to the pipe axis on the pipe. The tensile test as well as the Charpy Impact test values for pilot strips, industrially produced strips and pipes are at the same level and thus show a very good comparability. The industrial scale strip and the pipe values meet the requirements of API Grade X80 pipeline steels.
1 Pilot
700
1 Strip 1 Pipe

Alloy 3 without nickel seems to be a good choice for the production of X80 pipeline steel because the requirements are met and the alloying costs are comparatively low. Furthermore good welding properties can be expected due to the leaner alloying concept.
1 Pilot
400

1 Strip

1 Pipe

Charpy Impact Toughness in J

350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0

Alloy Number

Figure 15 - Comparison of Charpy Impact Toughness Values at -40 for Alloy 1 and 3 C

650

Rt0,5 MPa Rt0,5 inin MPa

600

DWT tests according to [8] were conducted at different temperatures. For Alloy 1 the SFA for 12.7 mm thick strip specimens was 100 % even at a temperature of -40 C. The corresponding pipes were tested down to -30 C and showed SFA between 95 and 100 %. For Alloy 3 the SFA for 18 mm thick strip and pipe specimens was 95-100 % at temperatures of -10 and -20 C, lower temperatures were not tested. CONCLUSION API Grade X70 and X80 pipeline steels were developed in reduced scale trials at the pilot plant. The results of these trials could be transferred to the industrial scale. From these results the successful use of the pilot hot rolling mill for the development and the comparison of chemical compositions for pipeline steels can be inferred. As well, indications for the production parameters can be derived. In doing so it has to be considered that there are differences between the pilot plant and an industrial hot rolling mill, regarding e.g. the dimensions or the rolling and cooling technology. Therefore the results can only be transferred to some extent so that industrial scale trials are still considered necessary to confirm the results of the pilot plant trials. Further trials at the pilot plant and at an industrial scale will be conducted. One aim is to develop leaner alloying concepts for pipeline steels. Also a more detailed investigation of the influence of certain alloying elements like nickel and titanium on the mechanical properties is of interest. Another topic is the comparison of alloying concepts containing above 0.07 % Nb with alloying concepts according to DIN EN 10208-2:2009 where the niobium content is restricted.

550

500

450

400

800

750

R in MPa Rmm in MPa

700

650

600

550

500

Alloy Number

Figure 14 - Comparison of Yield Strength and Tensile Strength for Alloy 1 and 3

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REFERENCES [1] Stalheim, D.G.; Barnes, K.R.; and McCutcheon, D.B., Alloy designs for high strength oil and gas transmission linepipe steels, International Symposium on Microalloyed Steels for the Oil and Gas Industry, TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society), 2007 [2] Siciliano, F.; Stalheim, D. G.; and Gray, J. M., Modern high strength steels for oil and gas transmission pipelines, Proceedings of IPC2008, 7th International Pipeline Conference. Calgary, CA, 2008 [3] DeArdo, A. J., The metallurgy of high strength linepipe steels, Proceedings of Pipelines for the 21st Century, COM 2005, 44th Annual Conference of Metallurgists of CIM held in conjunction with the 35th Annual Hydrometallurgy Meeting, Calgary, CA, 2005 [4] Wallwaey, K., Werkstoffkundliche Untersuchungen zur Darstellbarkeit der Rohrstahlgte X80 auf einer konventionellen Warmbandstrae, thesis, Ruhr-Universitt Bochum, Bochum, 2011 [5] Yin, Y.; Yao, Y Wu, Y Huang, Y.; Wang, D.; and .; .; Stalheim, D.G., Improved DWTT Performance on Heavy Gauge API Plate and Coil from 150mm and 180mm Thickness Slab at Nanjing Iron and Steel Company, Nanjing China, Proceedings of IPC2008, 7th International Pipeline Conference, Calgary, CA, 2008 [6] "Standard Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products", ASTM A370, 2009 [7] API 5L Specification for Line Pipe, American Petroleum Institute, 2007 [8] API 5L3 Recommended Practice for Conducting DropWeight Tear Test on Line Pipe, American Petroleum Institute, 1996 [9] Erdelen-Peppler, M.; Gehrmann, R.; Junker, G.; Knauf, G.; and Liessem, A., Significance of DWT testing for line pipe safety, 11th International Conference on Fracture ICF11, Turin, IT, 2005. [10] Wang, W.; Shan, Y.; and Yang, K., A comparison study on microstructure and mechanical property of polygonal ferrite and acicular ferrite pipeline steels, Baosteel BAC 2008, 3rd Baosteel Biennial Academic Conference, Better Steel, Better Environment, Better Life, Proceedings, Shanghai, China, Sep. 26-28, 2008 [11] Hulka, K.; Bordignon, P.; and Gray, J.M., Experience with low carbon HSLA steel containing 0.06 to 0.10 percent niobium, CBMM, Niobium Technical Report, 2004 [12] Li, W.; Huo, C.; Ma, Q.; and Feng, Y., The development of large diameter thickness X80 HSAW linepipe, Proceedings of IPC2008, 7th International Pipeline Conference, 2008 [13] Hulka, K.; Gray, J.M.; and Heisterkamp, F., High temperature thermomechanical processing of pipe steel technical basis and production experience, Pipeline Technology, Proc. Of the 3rd Internat. Pipeline Technol. Conference, 2000

[14] Klinkenberg, C.; Hulka, K.; and Bleck, W., Niobium carbide precipitation in microalloyed steel, Steel Research International, 75 (11), p. 744-752, 2004 [15] Langenbach, H.; Bogatsch, M.; and Wallwaey, K., Production of Heavy Gauge Pipeline Steels with Integrated Welding Support, The Welding of High Strength Pipeline Steels International Seminar, Arax, Brazil, 2011

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