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TOPIC 1 LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AND LEARNING KEY CONCEPTS AND ISSUES

1.0 SYNOPSIS Topic 1 introduces you to the key concepts and issues related to language acquis ition and learning. It provides insights to the nature of language, language le arning process, and characteristics of the effective language learner. It also m akes a distinction between language acquisition and language learning. 1.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of Topic 1, you will be able to: define the nature of language describe the language learning process in early childhood list the learner characteristics that affect second language learning differentiate between language acquisition and language learning 1.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS

CONTENT SESSION ONE (3 Hours) 1.2.1 Language Acquisition and Learning Key Concepts and Issues It is important for you to develop an awareness of the properties of language an d an understanding L1 language development in children. Your understanding of w hat language is and how the learner learns will determine to a large extent, you r philosophy of education, and how you teach English: your teaching style, your approach, methods and classroom technique. In short, this knowledge of the natu re of language and the language learning process would enable you to teach your learners to learn a second language more effectively. 1.2.1 Nature of Language Exercise 1: What is your definition of language?

Write down in twenty-five-words-or-less a definition of language. Share your definition with another friend or in a small group. Compare differences and similarities.

What is Language? There are many ways in which we could describe language. Your definition of language (in the above) probably yield something that sounds similar to the following composite definition: A language is considered to be a system of communicating with other people using sounds, symbols and words in ex pressing a meaning, idea or thought. This language can be used in many forms, pr imarily through oral and written communications as well as using expressions thr ough body language. Language is defined as "a systematic means of communicating ideas or feelings by the use of conventionalized signs, sounds, gestures or marks having understood

meanings." (Webster New International Dictionary of the English Language, 654), and "is a tool for communication" (Emmet, 22). In most common use of language, these signs are the words which we employ in such a way that they may communica te ideas or feelings. There are many possible theoretical positions about the nature of language. Com monly, three different views are explicitly or implicitly reflected in current a pproaches to language learning. They are: The structural view of language The structural view of language is that language is a system of structurally rel ated elements for the transmission of meaning. These elements are usually descri bed as: phonological units (phonemes) grammatical units (phrases, clauses, sentences) grammatical operations (adding, shifting, joining or transforming elements) lexical items (function words and structure words) The target of language learning, in the structural view, is the mastery of eleme nts of this system. The communicative view of language The communicative view of language is the view that language is a vehicle for th e expression of functional meaning. The semantic and communicative dimensions of language are more emphasized than the grammatical characteristics, although the se are also included. The target of language learning is to learn to express co mmunication functions and categories of meaning. The interactional view of language The interactional view of language sees language primarily as the means for esta blishing and maintaining interpersonal relationships and for performing social t ransactions between individuals. The target of language learning in the interac tional view is learning to initiate and maintain conversations with other people . Tutorial Task: Language can be likened to an ocean. Like the ocean, language is never still. It has many moods and shapes. It seems to be endless. It carries people and the ir goods. Can you suggest another metaphor to describe language? What is your image of language? Make a simple sketch or drawing of your image of language. Then, write down all the ways in which language reflects the image you see. Share your image with a friend. Note features of your images which you have in common. Note significant differences between your images.

Now, take a break before you move on to the next topic.

1.2.2 Language Learning Process Children go through a number of different stages as language develops, from the earliest stage of producing cooing sounds through being able to produce complex, multi-word sentences.

Babbling first stage of language development known as the pre-linguistic, babbling or cooing stage period typically lasts from the age of three to nine months babies begin to make vowel sounds such as oooooo and aaaaaaa by five months, infants typically begin to babble and add consonant sounds to th eir sounds such as ba-ba-ba, ma-ma-ma or da-da-da. Single Words second stage is known as the one-word or holophase stage of language development around the age of 10 to 13 months children will begin to produce their first real words only capable of producing a few, single words at this point, but important to re alize that they are able to understand considerably more infants begin to comprehend language about twice as fast as they are able to pro duce it Two Words third stage begins around the age of 18 months children begin to use two word sentences sentences usually consist of just nouns and verbs E.g. Where daddy? "Puppy big!" Multi-word Sentences around the age of two children begin to produce short, multi-word sentences that have a subject and pr edicate E.g. a child might say "Mommy is nice" or "Want more candy As children age, they continue to learn more new words every day. By the time th ey enter school around the age of five, children typically have a vocabulary of 10,000 words or more. Developmental Sequences Developmental sequences reflect linguistic elements in childrens cognitive unders tandings Examples Grammatical Morphemes Negations Questions Grammatical Morphemes Roger Browns longitudinal study (1973) Present progressive ing Plurals s Irregular past forms possessive s Copula Articles the and a Regular past ed Third person singular simple present s Auxiliary be Acquisition of Grammatical morphemes e.g., wug test i. Here is a wug. Now there are two of them.

There are two ______.

ii.

John knows how to bod. Yesterday he did the same thing. Yesterday, he_______.

Through the tests, children demonstrate that they know the rules for the formati on of plural and simple past in English. By generalizing these patterns to words they have never heard before, they show that their language is not just a list of memorized word pairs such as book/books and nod/nodded. Acquisition of Negation Lois Blooms study (1991) four stages Stage 1: no e.g., No go. No cookie. Stage 2: subject + no e.g., Daddy no comb hair. Stage 3: auxiliary or modal verbs (do/can) + not (Yet no variations for different persons or tenses) e.g., I cant do it , He dont want it. Stage 4: correct form of auxiliary verbs (did/doesnt/is/are) + not e.g., He didnt go. She doesnt want it. But sometimes double negatives are used e.g., I dont have no more candies. Acquisition of Questions By the age of 4: Most children are able to ask questions, give commands, report real events, and create stories about imaginary ones with correct word order and grammatical mark ers most of the time. They have mastered the basic structures of the language or languages spoken to t hem in these early years. They begin to acquire less frequent and more complex linguistic structures such as passives and relative clauses. They begin to develop ability to use language in a widening social environment. The six stages of childrens question-making can be illustrated as follows: Stage 1: using single words or single two- or three-word sentences with rising i ntonation (Mommy book? Wheres Daddy?) Stage 2: using the word order of the declarative sentence (You like this? Why you atch it?) Stage 3: fronting - putting a verb at the beginning of a sentence (Is the teddy is tired? Do I can have a cookie?) Stage 4: subject-auxiliary inversion in yes/no questions but not in wh-questions (Do you like ice cream? Where I can draw?) Stage 5: subject-auxiliary inversion in wh-questions, but not in negative wh-que stions (Why can he go out? Why he cant go out?) Stage 6: overgeneralizing the inverted form in embedded questions (I dont know why cant he go out.) Reflect on your own language learning experien ce First 3 years Pre-school years School years

Then, share your thoughts with a friend. Now, take a break before you move on to the next topic. 1.2.3 Language Learner A lot of research has been carried out into what makes a good language learner. Here is a brief summary of the latest theories: The good language learner thinks about how she is learning. She tries to find ou t what works for her and what doesn t. If she doesn t understand the purpose of a particular exercise, she asks the teacher. The good language learner is willing to experiment and take risks. For example, she will try out different ways of learning vocabulary until she finds the way t hat suits her best. She is also not afraid of making mistakes, because she knows that these will help her. The good language learner is realistic. She knows that it will take time and eff ort to become proficient in English, and that there will periods where she does not seem to be making much progress. The good language learner is independent. She does not expect to learn English j ust by sitting in the classroom, and does not rely on the teacher to totally dir ect her learning. The good language learner is organized and active. She uses her time to learn En glish sensibly, and is always looking for opportunities to develop her language both inside and outside of the classroom. The good language learner has a balanced concern for communication and accuracy. Some students are experts at communicating their thoughts but do not care that they make many mistakes in doing so. The good language learner, on the other han d, is concerned with both communicating and doing so as accurately as possible. Although these are the qualities that have been found in the most efficient lang uage learners, there are still many other factors that influence how quickly a c hild will learn English. Source: Copyright Paul Shoebottom (1996-2011) The Good Language Learner. Retrie ved 8 December 2011, from http://esl.fis.edu Factors affecting language learning There are various factors that affect successful language learning. They could stem from the learners own mind (internal factors) or from the environment he liv es in (external factors). Internal factors are those that the individual language learner brings with him or her to the particular learning situation, for example, age of the learner, pe rsonality, motivation, experiences, cognition abilities and his native language. External factors are those that characterize the particular language learning si tuation,some of which include the curriculum in use, mode of instruction, and th e opportunity to interact with native speakers both within and outside of the cl assroom.

Exercise 2 The following are some factors that are known to affect second language acquisit

ion and learning. Determine whether each factor is related mainly to the student , to the family or to the environment of the second culture. Use the following c ode: S = factors primarily in the student F = factors primarily in the family E = factors primarily in the environment of the second culture 1. _______ 2. 3. _______ 4. 5. 6. 7. _______ 9. 11. _______ 15. _______ 17. 19. _______ 20. 24. 25. _______ Age Socioeconomic status Classroom culture Cognitive development in L1 Family support Whether environment provides adequate L2 input Literacy level Opportunities for language use in school Motivation Proficiency in the home language Role models in the community Personality _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______

Whether student has enough opportunities to use English _______ Teachers expectations _______ Preferred learning styles

Adapted from Maitland, K. (1997). Adding English: Helping ESL Learners Succeed. Good Apple. ISBN 1-56417-903-6. Now check your answers below. Answers: 1S, 2F, 3E, 4S, 5S, 6E, 7F, 8E, 9S, 10S, 11E, 12S, 13E, 14E, 15S Tutorial Task: In your experience, as an English learner: i. Are there personal characteristics that make you more successful than another learner? ii. Which characteristics seem to you most likely to be associated with success in L2 acquisition? Iii, Share your opinion with your group members. Find three most important and three least important learner characteristics. Individual Differences Research findings reveal that every person has a learning style; therefore, ther e is no particular teaching or learning method that can suit the needs of all le arners. Learning styles are also value-neutral; that is, no one style is better than others. Learning styles exist on wide continuums, although they are often d escribed as opposites. Learners should therefore be encouraged to stretch their learning styles so that they will be more empowered in a variety of learning si tuations.

Age is only one of the characteristics which affects the learners L2 learning. Th e opportunities for learning (i.e., context - both inside and outside the classr oom), the motivation to learn, and individual differences in intelligence , apti tude , personality , and learning styles have also been found to be important de termining factors in both rate of learning and eventual success in learning. 1.2.4 Acquisition versus Learning It is sometimes thought that acquisition and learning refer to the same processe s. According to linguists there is an important distinction between language acquis ition and language learning. Language Acquisition Acquisition occurs passively and unconsciously through implicit learning. Exper ts suggest there is an innate capacity in every human being to acquire language. Language acquisition in children just seems to happen. Children do not need e xplicit instruction to learn their first languages but rather seem to just pick u p language in the same way they learn to roll over, crawl and walk. Language acquisition, therefore, is the process whereby children acquire their f irst language. As you may well have noticed, children acquire their mother tong ue through interaction with their parents and the environment that surrounds the m. Their need to communicate paves the way for language acquisition to take pla ce. rather seem to just pick up language in the same way they learn to roll over, crawl and walk. Language Learning As opposed to acquisition, learning occurs actively and consciously through expl icit instruction and education. Language learning is the process whereby humans past the critical period learn second languages. In other words, older childre n and adults need explicit teaching to learn their second languages. It is the result of direct instruction in the rules of language. In language learning, st udents have conscious knowledge of the new language and can talk about that know ledge. However, studies have shown that knowing grammar rules does not necessari ly result in good speaking or writing. We should not ignore the differences between language acquisition and language l earning. While all children before the critical period can innately acquire the ir first languages, most older children and adults past the critical period must learn second languages through explicit education and instruction. L1 and L2 acquisition are quite complicated processes. To understand these proce sses will enable the language teacher to be more sensitive to the factors involv ed. While L1 and L2 acquisition reveal some similarities, they also show differences. Similarities in First and Second Language Acquisition theories are of great interest to teachers and learners as they can be utilized to improve la nguage teaching and learning methods. Nature vs Nurture Much debate has taken place concerning the importance of nature (what is innate) and nurture (environmental factors) in the acquisition of language. Is language acquisition and development innate or taught? The debate about nature versus nu rture in language acquisition has drawn heated testimony from both sides. The following chart compares nature and nurture in language acquisition.

Tutorial Task: Comparing First and Second Language Acquisition Activity 1: There are similarities and differences in first and second language acquisition. It is clear that a child or adult learning a second language is different from a baby acquiring a first language in terms of personal characteristics and condi tions for learning. Language teachers must have theoretical knowledge of how languages are acquired. How is learning a second language like learning a first? How is it different? How will this knowledge help you plan classroom experiences? Write a paper (4-6 pages) citing at least four research articles to support text reading.

Activity 2: As teachers, it is our duty to make sure that our students acquire rather than lear n the language. Discuss.

TOPIC 2 THEORIES OF LANGUAGE LEARNING 2.0 SYNOPSIS Topic 2 provides you with an overview of four influential learning theories that underlie the instruction of a teachers classroom practice. More specifically, i t examines in detail the key principles of Behaviourism, Cognitivism, Social Con structivism and Humanistic orientations to language learning. 2.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this Topic, you will be able to: define terms relevant to some theories of language learning explain the main principles of each language learning theory distinguish the application of behaviourist, cognitivist, constructivist and hum anist principles in the classroom

2.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS

CONTENT SESSION ONE (3 Hours) 2.2 Theories of Language Learning The main goal of any teaching is to bring about learning. Generally , we have not been able to say with certainty how people learn languages althoug h a great deal of research has been done into this subject. Various theories hav e emerged over the years to study the process of language acquisition. The four main schools of thought which provide theoretical paradigms in guiding the cours e of language acquisition are: behaviourism, cognitivism, social constructivism and humanism. 2.2.1 Behaviourism

The behaviourist approach in studying learning can be traced to the philosophic traditions of Aristotle, Descartes and Locke. The founders and proponents inclu de John B. Watson in the early 20th century, Ivan Pavlov, B.F.Skinner, E.L. Thor ndike, Bandura and others. They argued that behavior can be conditioned by alte ring the environment. In other words, by manipulating and giving a certain stim ulus, a certain response can be produced. Motivation to learn was assumed to be driven by drives such as hunger, rewards and punish. General perception is that there is no difference between the way one learns a l anguage and the way one learns to do anything else. According to the psychologis t Skinner, language is a conditioned behaviour: the stimulus response process (Sti mulus Response Feedback Reinforcement). The popular view is that children start out as clean slates and language learning is the process of getting linguistic h abits printed on these slates through positive and negative reinforcement or pun ishment. Both positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement increase the pr obability that the antecedent behavior will happen again. On the other hand, pu nishment decreases the likelihood that the antecedent behavior will happen again . Learners are essentially viewed as passive and learn language step by step, i.e. Imitation - Repetition - Memorization - Controlled drilling - Reinforcement. T hey learn to speak by imitating the utterances heard around them and strengthen their responses by the repetitions, corrections, and other reactions that adults provide. Therefore, language is practice based. The main focus is on inducing the child to behave with the help of mechanical drills and exercises. Learning is controlled by the conditions under which it takes place and that, as long as individuals are subjected on the same condition, they will learn in the same con dition. In summary, the behaviourist is not concerned with how or why knowledge is obtained, but rather if the correct response is given. Learning is defined a s nothing more than the acquisition of new behaviour. The following is a list of behaviourist principles quite often applied in teachi ng and learning in the classroom: Use a system of rewards to encourage certain behaviours and learning. Provide immediate and frequent feedback for complex and difficult concepts Provide practice, drill and review activities to enhance mastery of facts Break down complex task into smaller and manageable subskills Sequence material from simple to more difficult to enhance understanding Model the behaviour students are to imitate and repeat demonstrations when neces sary Reinforce when students demonstrate the modeled behaviour State the learning outcomes desired for the benefit of both teachers and student

s Establish a contract with students on the work to be done and what rewards will be given Critics of behavioural methods point to two basic problems that may arise in the classroom. Some teachers fear that rewarding students for all learning will ca use students to lose interest in learning for its own sake. Using a reward syst em or giving one student increased attention may have a detrimental effect on ot her students in the classroom. Also, another problem with this view of learning includes the fact that imitation does not help the learner in real-life situati ons. Learners are continually required to form sentences they have never previo usly seen. A finite number of pre-practiced sentences are not enough to carry o n a conversation. Exercise 1 Which of the behaviourist principles listed in the above do you think are widely practised in the classrooms? Give specific examples. Now, take a break before you move on to the next topic. 2.2.2 Cognitivism

In the 1950s there was a realization that behaviourism did not fully explain human learning. Although behaviourism emphasized learning that was observable a nd measurable, they did not account for what goes on in the minds of the learner when he or she is learning or thinking. Cognitivists felt that it was necessar y to investigate how learners make sense of what they learn even though such men tal events are difficult to observe and measure objectively. The term cognitivism refers to a group of psychological theories which draw heav ily on the work in linguistics of Noam Chomsky. It replaced behaviourism in 196 0s as a dominant paradigm. Cognitive theories of learning, based on empirical ev idence, indicate that learning is a multi-faceted, complex and dynamic process. Cognitivism focus on the mind or black box and attempt to show how information is received, assimilated, stored and recalled. According to the cognitivists, people are not programmed animals that merely respo nd to environmental stimuli. People are rational beings that require active par ticipation in order to learn, and whose actions are a consequence of thinking. Changes in behaviour are observed, but only as an indication of what is occurrin g in the learners head. Cognitivism uses the metaphor of the mind as computer: in formation comes in, is being processed, and leads to certain outcomes. Cognitivists view learning is as a process of relating new information to previo usly learned information, In other words, learning is defined as a change in the learners schemata. Learning is most likely to occur when an individual can asso ciate new learning with previous knowledge. Unlike in behaviourism, learners ar e not passive receivers of environmental conditions. Rather, they are actively involved in the learning process and can have control over their own learning. Errors are also accepted as part of the learning process. In contrast to behaviourism, the cognitivst perspective focus more on the learne r as an active participant in the teaching-learning process. It believes that t eachers can be more effective if they know what prior knowledge the student alre ady possesses and how information is processed and structured in the learners min d. Therefore, it is important that teachers provide effective instruction to he lp the learner acquire knowledge more effectively by teaching students how to le arn, remember, think and motivate themselves. The following is a list of cognitivist principles quite often applied in teachin

g and learning in the classroom: Present information in an organized manner Show a logical sequence to concepts Go from simple to complex when presenting new material Bring to mind relevant prior learning Provide for review and repetition of learning Provide opportunities for students to elaborate on new information, e.g. inquiry -oriented projects Help students process information in meaningful ways so that they can become ind ependent learners (Staged scaffolding) Like Behaviourism, Cognitivism is also not without its critiques. It has been c riticized for not accounting enough for individuality and for giving little emph asis on the affective characteristics of the learners. The following table sums up very briefly what we have discussed so far: Behaviourist vs. Cognitivist Focus Bahaviourist Cognitivist

View about the mind A blank slate. Basically alike An active organizer. Varied, with multiple intelligences and learning styles. S-T Roles Teacher plans and sets goals for learning. One best way of teaching. Students participate in planning and goal-setting. Teacher teaches with variety. Motivation Reward is motivation. Learning is a motivator. Curriculum Content Students are taught what. Students are taught what and how

Assessment Teacher assess. Product is important. Students are involved in peer and self-assessment. Product and process are important Source: Diaz-Rico, L.(2008). Strategies for Teaching English Learners, (2nd e dn.) Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. Exercise 2 Which of the cognitivist principles listed in the above do you think are being p racticed in the classrooms? Give specific examples. CONTENT SESSION TWO (3 Hours) 2.2.3 Social Constructivism Just as Cognitive Learning Psychology began replacing the predominant Behavioural Psychology in the 1970s, Constructivist Learning Psychology has been challenging the cognitive approach from the 1990s. A reaction to didactic approa ches, constructivism states that learning is an active, contextualized process o f constructing knowledge rather than acquiring it. Constructivism is a perspect ive of learning that has its origins in the works of Bruner, Piaget and Vygoysky . It is Vygotskys social development which is one of the foundations for constru

ctivism. Constructivists emphasize that learning is a social activity. They beli eve that often it is social experiences rather than what is taught in schools wh ich accounts for much of the variation in student learning. Cooperative, collab orative and group investigation methods allow students to discuss ideas, beliefs and values with their peers and teachers. They also argued that the responsibi lity of learning resides with the learner. Learners interpret what they hear, r ead and see based on their previous learning, habits and experiences. Students who do not have appropriate background knowledge will be unable to to accurately hear or see what is before them. Unlike previous educational viewpoints where the responsibility rested with the teacher to teach and where the learner played a p assive role, social constructivism emphasizes the importance of the learner bein g actively involved in the learning process with the teacher playing the role as facilitator. Learning is enhanced when students learn how to learn, engage in serious discussion, and have shared responsibility for applying what they know t o new situations. What does this mean for classroom learning? As active learners explorin g and going beyond the information given, thus students should be provided with authentic and challenging projects that encourage them to work together with one another. Authentic settings would provide learners with opportunities to see a problem from different perspectives as well as negotiate and generate solutions through sharing and exchange of ideas. In an authentic environment, learners a ssume responsibilities for their own learning. The aim is to create a situation more closely related to collaborative practice in the real world. The following is a list of constructivist principles quite often applied in tea ching and learning in the classroom: Encourage student autonomy and initiative Students take responsibility for their own learning Respect students ideas and encourage independent thinking Promote higher order thinking amongst students Ask questions that will influence student response Challenge students to analyze, justify and defend their ideas Engage students in meaningful learning Provide students opportunity to express their ideas Involve students in real-world situations The main critique of Social Constructivism is that it is often seen as being les s rigorous than traditional approaches to instruction. Exercise 3 Discuss some problems related to implementing constructivist principles in the c lassroom. Describe with specific examples. Now, take a break before you move on to the next topic. 2.2.4 Humanism

Humanism refers to a movement in psychology which emerged in the 1960s and 1970s. Humanism has its roots in counseling psychology and focuses its attention on ho w individuals acquire emotions, attitudes, values and interpersonal skills. Perh aps the most well-known applications of humanism in ELT are those of Gattegno (1 972) and Curran (1976). Humanistic psychologists believe that how a person feels about learning is as im portant as how the person thinks or even behaves. They describe behaviour not f

rom the viewpoint of the teacher as do behaviourists but rather from the vantage point of the student who is performing the activity. Humanists, led by such famous authors as Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers, are esp ecially concerned with the idea of self-actualization, the growth of a person to achieve whatever degree of individual satisfaction they are capable of achievi ng. Learning is not an end in itself: it is the means to progress towards selfdevelopment. A student learns because he or she is inwardly driven (self-motiva tion), and derives his or her reward from the sense of achievement that having l earned something affords. Hence, much of a humanist teachers effort would be put into developing a students self-esteem. This form of education, known as studen t-centred, is typified by the student taking responsibility and owning their lea rning. The humanist teacher is a facilitator and not a disseminator of knowledge. He or she creates an educational environment that fosters self-development, cooperati on, positive communications, and personalization of information. In particular, the humanist teacher needs to have a thorough grasp of both how students learn and what motivates them to learn. Participatory and discovery methods would be favoured instead of traditional didacticism. As well as the students academic ne eds the humanist teacher is also concerned with the students affective or emotion al needs. Feeling and thinking are very much interlinked. Humanists believe th at feeling positive about oneself facilitates learning. The following are some principles in the classroom based on humanistic p rinciples: Establish a warm, democratic, positive and non-threatening environment for the s tudents to work in. Provide learning experiences that will lead to the development of habits and att itudes that teachers want to foster. Teachers should be role models and set good examples for students to emulate. Students are given choices (with limitations) and freedom (with responsibilities ) to plan and carry out activities. Teacher facilitates the learning process and share ideas with students. Learning is based on life experiences, discovery, exploring and experimenting. Respect students feelings and aspirations. Provide opportunity for success. De-emphasize rigorous, performance-oriented, test-dominated approaches. Students are allowed to set their own goals and follow their own pace Experiential learning is encouraged. Exercise 4 To what extent do you think schools give attention to the affective (emotions, f eelings) aspects of learning? Discuss by citing specific examples. Summary. What conclusions can we draw from this discussion of various theories of learning? Instructional learning theories are centred on the major schools of educational psychology. From these so-called schools have evolved modern thinki ng and practice about how learning occurs and how your instruction in the classr oom ultimately affects that learning. Each has its own merits and each has shor tcomings that may make them inappropriate in certain learning situations. Your understanding of the basic principles and assumptions of Behaviourism, Cognitivi sm, Constructivism and Humanism is critical to your approach to classroom teachi ng. However, looking back over the current practices in our classrooms, it beco mes abundantly clear that they are a composite of the many different theories we have learnt.

Tutorial Task Based on what you have read in this unit, compare the four major theoretical per spectives explaining human learning. Then, in your view as a teacher, state you r personal beliefs about the teaching-learning process.

TOPIC 3 SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING THEORIES (I) KRASHENS MONITOR MODEL 3.0 SYNOPSIS Topic 3 provides input on a predominant Second Language Learning Theory called K rashens Monitor Model. There are five components or hypotheses which form the ba sis of the model. These are Input Hypothesis, Affective Filter Hypothesis, Acqu isition Learning Hypothesis, Monitor Hypothesis and Natural Order Hypothesis. T he topic also deals with the implications of this model for teaching. 3.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this session, you will be able to: 1. demonstrate an understanding of Krashens Monitor Model 2. explain the five hypothesis of the Monitor Model 3. identify the relationship between the five hypothesis of the Monitor Mod el 4. explain the implications of this model for teaching. 3.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS CONTENT SESSION THREE (6 Hours) 3.3 Krashens Monitor Model

Second language acquisition theory seeks to explain how and by what processes in dividuals acquire a second language. A predominant theory of second language acq uisition was developed by Steven Krashen from the University of Southern Califor nia. Krashen is a specialist in language acquisition and development and his inf luential theory is widely accepted in the language learning community.

The following are some quotes from Krashen (1982) about language acquisition. "Language acquisition does not require extensive use of conscious grammatical ru les, and does not require tedious drill." "Acquisition requires meaningful interaction in the target language - natural co mmunication - in which speakers are concerned not with the form of their utteran ces but with the messages they are conveying and understanding." The best methods are therefore those that supply comprehensible input in low an xiety situations, containing messages that students really want to hear. These m ethods do not force early production in the second language, but allow students to produce when they are ready , recognizing that improvement comes from supply ing communicative and comprehensible input, and not from forcing and correcting production." "In the real world, conversations with sympathetic native speakers who are willi ng to help the acquirer understand are very helpful." Krashen explains five fundamental components - which he calls hypotheses - as th e basis for his language teaching model. Each of the components relates to a dif ferent aspect of the language learning process. The five components are as follo ws: 1. The Input Hypothesis 2. The Affective Filter Hypothesis 3. The Acquisition Learning Hypothesis 4. The Monitor Hypothesis 5. The Natural Order Hypothesis 3.3.1 Input Hypothesis Krashen believes that the main factor in acquisition is not language use but lan guage input, in other words what the learner hears and reads. The most useful f orm of input has to be understandable and it should be just a little beyond the learner s present capacity. If it is too far beyond, the learner will not pay at tention to the input, and if it is not far enough, the learner will learn nothin g. The learner improves and progresses along the natural order when he/sh e receives second language input that is one step beyond his/her current stage of linguistic competence. If a learner is at a stage i , acquisition takes pl ace when he/she is exposed to comprehensible input that belongs to level i + 1. Here i refers to the current language level the learners are at. i + 1 means a level higher than the level the students are at or the next level along the nat ural order. Natural communicative input is the key to designing a syllabus, thu s ensuring that each learner will receive some i + 1 input that is appropriate for his/her current stage of linguistic competence. Karshen suggests that teachers should give rough-tuned input and a wide variety of materials, supported by visual cues and realia which gives it a context withi n which the learner may guess at the content. As such, language teachers must ma ke input comprehensible by contextualizing it. Evidences for the input hypothesis can be found in the following situations: Effectiveness of caretaker speech from an adult to a child/ people speak to chil dren acquiring their first language in special ways. Adults speaking to children modify their language in order to aid comprehension. Adults roughly-tune to childs level of linguistic competence. These include us e of baby-talk and short simple sentences. Teacher-talk from a teacher to a language student.

Teachers simplify their language to make L2 learners understand or go down to L2 learners comprehension. Foreigner-talk from a sympathetic conversation partner to a language learner or acquirer Some of the ways a foreigner talks to a language learner include slower pronunci ation, omission of features of connected speech, heavier stress on key words, sh ort responses, use of gestures and demonstrations. L2 learners often go through an initial Silent Period. A learner is silent to build up competencies in 2nd language via listening. Spe aking only emerges after the learner has enough competence in the language. Krashen indicates that the comparative success of younger and older learners ref lects provision of comprehensible input. The more comprehensible input the grea ter the L2 proficiency. The lack of comprehensible input delays language acquis ition. As such teaching methods work according to the extent that teachers use comprehensible input. One finds that immersion teaching is successful because i t provides comprehensible input. As for bilingual programmes, they succeed to t he extent teachers provide comprehensible input 3.3.2 Affective Filter Hypothesis

This hypothesis describes external factors that can act as a filter that impedes acquisition. These factors include motivation, self-confidence, and anxiety. If a learner has very low motivation, very low self-confidence, and a high level o f anxiety, the affective filter falls into place and inhibits the learner from a cquiring the new language. On the other hand, learners who are motivated, confid ent, and relaxed about learning the target language have more success acquiring a second language. Barriers to learning can also be found in any negative feelings that a learner h as about the language, the method used, the institution or the teacher. These fe elings become a kind of filter, which keeps the input out. Hence, the teacher s job is to make language learning free of stress and enjoyable. 3.3.3 Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis

Krashen elucidates two systems of language acquisition that are independent but related namely the acquired system and the learned system. The acquired system relates to the unconscious aspect of language acquisition. W hen people learn their first language by speaking the language naturally in dail y interaction with others the acquired system is at work. Here speakers are more concerned with the act of communicating meaning than the structure of their utt erances. On the other hand, the learned system relates to formal instruction where studen ts engage in formal study to acquire knowledge about the target language. One ex ample of the learned system is the studying the rules of syntax. The differences between acquisition and learning are depicted in Figure 1 below: Acquisition Learning implicit, subconscious explicit, conscious informal situations formal situations uses grammatical feel uses grammatical rules depends on attitude depends on aptitude stable order of acquisition simple to complex order of learning Fig. 1: Differences between acquisition and learning

3.2.4

Monitor Hypothesis

The monitor hypothesis seeks to explain how the learned system affects the acqui red system. According to Krashen, the formal rule system acts as the Monitor in the acquired system. When second language learners monitor their speech, they apply their understanding of learned grammar to edit, plan, and initiate their c ommunication. This action can only occur when speakers have ample time to think about the form and structure of their sentences. The Monitor is best used when: we have to be very careful when language is necessarily formal e.g. writing letters of application, speaking to a hierarchical superior in a fo rmal situation. There are three conditions required by the Monitor: Time The learner must have time to use the monitor. Using the monitor requires the s peaker to slow down and focus on the form of language. Focus on correctness of form The learner must be focused or thinking about the form of language. A learner m ay find it difficult to focus on meaning and form at the same time. Knowledge of rules The learner must know the rules. This means that the speaker must have had expl icit instruction on the language form that he or she is trying to produce. There three types of monitor users over-users, under-users and optimal-users. M onitor over-users try to always use their monitor, and are so concerned with cor rectness that they cannot speak with any real fluency. Monitor under-users have not consciously learned or choose not to use their conscious knowledge of the l anguage. Error correction by others has little influence on them, as they can of ten correct themselves based on a "feel" for correctness. Teachers should aim to produce optimal monitor users, who use the monitor when i t is appropriate and when it does not interfere with communication. They do not use their conscious knowledge of grammar in normal conversation, but will use it in writing and planned speech. Optimal monitor users can therefore use their l earned competence as a supplement to their acquired competence Krashen suggests that we should leave the monitor unemployed most of the time, a nd concentrate upon the meaning that we wish to convey, rather than on the form of our utterances. 3.2.5 Natural Order Hypothesis

According to this hypothesis there is a natural order to the way second language learners acquire their target language. Krashen states that there is a natural order in which learners pick up a language and this order is roughly the same fo r all learners regardless of their linguistic background. Research shows that this natural order seems to go beyond age, the learner s nat ive language, the target language, and the conditions under which the second lan guage is being learned. Mistakes made by learners are a necessary part of language learning. These mista kes are not random, but are very similar to the errors that children make when l earning their first language. The mistakes that students make through time lie

in a rough sequence. In addition, the sequence of errors for acquired language is not the same as the sequence of learned grammar items. Some grammatical morphemes which appear simp le from the learning point of view are in fact acquired late - the s of PTS. C hinese learning English make the same mistakes, and will learn in more or less t he same order as the French. According to Krashen, this indicates that there is a natural order in which learners pick up a language. In addition, these mistake s will be made in the same order whether the learners have been taught the gramm ar or not, and that teaching grammar will not help them change the order. The combined model of acquisition and production is shown in the diagram below. Combined model of acquisition and production 3.2.6 Implications for Teaching Krashens Monitor Model has its implications for ESL/EFL teaching. Input hypothesi s focuses on comprehensible input at i + 1 level. To enable learners to advance i n language acquisition, teachers need to expose them to large amounts of authent ic language. The language need not be specifically graded in terms grammatical progression, but adapted to the students interests and purposes for learning the language. A wide variety of input, supported by visual cues and realia should be contextualized in a way that the learner can understand a large amount of spoke n or written language. According to Krashen comprehension precedes production. As such, L2 learners of ten go through an initial Silent Period. Teachers should provide time for silen t period to allow learners to build up acquired competence in a language before they begin to produce it. In line with the Affective Filter Hypothesis, language acquisition should be don e in relaxing and friendly conditions. Affective-humanistic activities such as dialogues, interviews, personal charts and tables are encouraged.

Tutorial Task How does the Krashens Monitor Model help a teacher better to understand how his/h er second language students learn? Design materials and tasks suitable for primary school learners in relation to K rashens Monitor Model

Relax and move on to the next topic when you are ready.

TOPIC 4 SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING THEORIES (II)

4.0 SYNOPSIS

Topic 4 introduces termed as such and to first language ations for English

you to Noam Chomskys Universal Grammar(UG), reasons why it is what does it consists of. It also aims to show how UG relates and second language acquisition. It also discusses its implic language teaching.

4.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this Session, you will be able to: define Universal Grammar explain why it is termed Universal Grammar explain what Universal Grammar consist of relate Universal Grammar and first language acquisition relate Universal Grammar and second language acquisition identify and discuss implications for teaching 4.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS

IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING CONTENT SESSION FOUR (3 Hours) 4.2.1 What is Universal Grammar?

Universal Grammar (UG) is the system of principles, conditions, and rules that are elements or properties of all human languages. (Chomsky, 1969) This means that a native speaker of a language knows a set of principles that ca n be applied to all languages and parameters that vary from one language to anot her. It also refers to an innate, genetic endowment of language-specific knowled ge consisting of the principles and parameters of language. 4.2.2 Why it is named Universal Grammar?

Chomsky named this innate capacity as Universal Grammar. Universal imply that it i s universal to all human beings and human languages and grammar signify the facts about grammar (language rules) that humans are born knowing. Before the 1960s, the Structuralist Model was very dominant. It was simply descr iptive of the different levels of production, namely: phonology, morphology, syn tax and semantics. This model did not provide any model or frame work for unders tanding how the actual learning takes place.

Language was usually understood from a behaviourist perspective, suggesting that language learning, like any other kind of learning, could be explained by a suc cession of trials, errors, and rewards for success. In the late 1950s, Skinner c onstructed his cognitive learning model: behaviorism which correlates with the n otion. Stimulus response reinforcement and habit formation According to Skinner, the mind is a blank slate at birth. Children learn the lan guage their mother tongue by simple imitation, listening to and repeating what a dults said. Thus in 1960s Linguist Noam Chomsky puts forward that the human brain contains a limited set of rules for organizing language. He there is an assumption that al l languages have a common structural basis. This set of rules is known as univer sal grammar. There are three main points of critique of Skinner by Chomsky: 1. Poverty -of-the-stimulus

Speakers proficient in a language know what expressions are acceptable in their language and what expressions are unacceptable. How speakers should come to know the restrictions of their language is a mystery, since expressions which violat e those restrictions are not present in the input, indicated as such. This absen ce of negative evidencethat is, absence of evidence that an expression is part of a class of the ungrammatical sentences in one s languageis the core of the pover ty of stimulus argument. For example, in English one cannot relate a question wo rd like what to a predicate within a relative clause (1): (1) *What did Dan meet a man who build? Such expressions are not available to the English language learners, because the y are, by hypothesis, ungrammatical and unacceptable for speakers of that langua ge. Universal grammar offers a solution to the poverty of the stimulus problem b y making certain restrictions universal characteristics of human languages. Lang uage learners are consequently never tempted to generalize in an illicit fashion . The logical problem of language acquisition is that the input is ungrammatical and incomplete and the output are grammatically acceptable. Children only hear a finite number of sentences but they are able to learn the abstract rules and p rinciples of the language and produce an infinite number of sentences. 2. Constraints and principles cannot be learned

Chomsky believes that the reason that children so easily master the complex oper ations of language is that they have innate knowledge of certain principles that guide them in developing the grammar of their language. His theory on language learning is facilitated by a predisposition that our brains have certain structu res of language. Children, without having had any formal instruction, can consis tently produce and interpret sentences that they have never encountered before e ven before the age of 5. At age 6, no one has the cognitive ability to understan d the principles of grammar as a system. It is this extraordinary ability to use language despite having had only very partial exposure to the allowable syntact ic variants that led Chomsky to formulate his poverty of the stimulus argument, wh ich was the foundation for the Universal Grammar hypothesis that he proposed in the early 1960s. 3. Patterns of development are universal

When children develop their language, they learn the various aspects of language in a very similar order. If children only learned what they are taught, the ord er of what they learned would vary in different environments. But Brown (1973) f

ound that there is a very specific order of MORPHEME acquisition. Morphemes are the smallest syntactic units that can carry a meaning such as the following exam ples: a) b) c) d) Prefixes un and suffix -ed in the word unlimited Present progressive ing ( Daddy jumping) Plural s ( as in books) Irregular past forms ( I run I ran)

Chomsky further explains that human languages exhibit remarkable similarities or principles. These patterns are called universals. We can find these similaritie s on many linguistic levels: i. Phonological universals: Consonants, for example, are distinguished also according to the location of their production, that is, after the various organ s of the vocal tract. With the help of this detailed information we can now refe r to every consonant by its location and manner of articulation; [f], for exampl e, is a voiceless, labiodentals fricative. ii. Syntactic universals: Most of existing languages have verbs, nouns, adj ectives and pronouns. iii. Semantic universals: One semantic universal regards our notion of color. There exist eleven basic color terms: black, white, red, green, blue, yellow, b rown, purple, pink, orange, and grey. 4.2.3 What does Universal Grammar consist of?

Universal Grammar exists in the childs mind as a system of principles and paramet ers. The amount of all the principles cover grammar, speech sounds, and meaning that heredity builds into the human language organ. Principles of Language are r ules of the language or abstract principles that permit or prohibit certain stru ctures from occurring in all human languages. It is the properties that all lang uages possess. For example, the principle of structure dependency asserts that k nowledge of language relies on the structural relationship in a sentence rather than on the sequence of the words. To illustrate this, we need to establish the concept of phrase structure in the English Language. Study the following example : (English) The artist drew an eagle. (Bahasa Melayu) Pelukis itu melukis seekor burung helang. This sentence breaks up into a noun phrase (NP) the artist and verb phrase(VP) drew an eagle. These phrases also break up into smaller constituents. The (NP) the art ist consists of a determiner (Det or D) the and a Noun (N) artist, while the NP an e agle consists of a determiner an and a Noun eagle. Sentence Noun Phrase rb drew Determiner Noun Phrase The Determiner Noun Noun artist Verb Phrase Ve

an

eagle

The above example shows the existence of UG allows a speaker to follow certain r ules of grammar (a sentence has to have a subject) to correctly construct a sent ence in that language.

Whereas Parameters of Language are systematic ways in which human languages vary which determine the syntactic variability amongst languages. For example, the use of past tense in English and Arabic which is non-existent in Bahasa Melayu. Look at the following example: i. ii. I went to the market yesterday. English ( change in verb go to went) Semalam saya pergi ke pasar. B. Melayu ( no change in verb pergi) genetic endowment and is an innate component of th interaction with presente system of knowledge attai

Chomsky (1986) reiterates that UG is part of the human coded in the Language Acquisition Faculty(LAF). LAF is e human mind that yields a particular language through d experience, a device that converts experience into a ned: knowledge of one or another language.

Tutorial Task Prepare your answer to the following questions for your tutorial session. Exercise 4.1 a) In your own words, define Universal Grammar. b) Why did Chomsky named this innate component of the human mind as Univers al Grammar? c) d) Explain briefly with your own examples what is meant by principles in UG. Explain briefly with your own examples what is meant by parameters in UG.

e) List and describe briefly the 3 points of critique by Chomsky on Skinners Behaviourist Model. Reflection Do you agree with Chomsky? Take a break before you move on to the next topic.

SESSION TWO (3 Hours) 4.2.4 Universal Grammar and first language acquisition

The main questions are how UG is used and what other procedures (knowledge, meth ods) play a role in the acquisition process. Before we proceed, answer the following question. In your own words, what does language acquisition refer to? Lets check your answer. Language acquisition usually refers to first language acquisition, which studies infants acquisition of their native language. It is the process by which human s acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, and to produce and u se words to communicate. This is different from second language acquisition, whi ch deals with the acquisition (in both children and adults) of additional langua

ges. Can you describe the various stages of language acquisition of a child? You may check your answers in Session 2 and references listed in the bibliography about First language acquisition. The processes in each stage of development show that children are able to learn the "superficial" grammar of a particular language unconsciously because all int elligible languages are founded on a "deep structure" of grammatical rules that are universal and that correspond to an innate capacity of the human brain. Stag es in the acquisition of a native language can be measured by the increasing com plexity and originality of a child s utterances. As illustrated by the example, goed (meaning went), children at first may overgeneralize grammatical rules for a form they are unlikely to have heard, suggesting that they have intuited or de duced complex grammatical rules (here, how to conjugate regular verbs) and faile d only to learn exceptions that cannot be predicted from a knowledge of the gram mar alone. Although children usually learn the sounds and vocabulary of their native langua ge through imitation, grammar is seldom taught to them explicitly whereby they c ould acquire the ability to speak grammatically. This supports the theory advanc ed by Noam Chomsky and other proponents of transformational grammar. He claims that children are biologically programmed for language and that langua ge develops in a child in just the same way that other biological functions deve lop(Lightbown and Spada, 1999). As one of humans biological functions, walking, d oes not have to be taught. Most children learn to walk at about the same age as long as adequate nourishment and reasonable freedom of movement are provided. Si milarly language acquisition develops progressively naturally according to age due to the existence of the principles and parameters of UG. Exposure to langua ge triggers the parameters to adopt the correct setting. Besides, language is said to be innate because it has the following characterist ics: i. Maturationally controlled This is because language emerge before they are critically needed and cannot be forced before scheduled. A child follows a sequence of stages before she is abl e to speak. ii. Do not appear as the result of a conscious decision. A child does not decide to consciously acquire certain skills such as walking or learning a language. iii. Do not appear due to a trigger from external events. What would prompt a child to begin speaking? iv. Are relatively unaffected by direct teaching and intensive practice. Although we correct childrens errors, it does not help them learn the rules. v. Follow a regular sequence of milestones in their development. In spite of different backgrounds, locations, and upbringings, most children fol low the same milestones in acquiring language. vi. Generally observe a critical period for their acquisition. For first language acquisition, there seems to be a critical period of the first

five years, during which children must be exposed to rich language input. There is also a period, from about 10 16 years, when acquisition is possible, but not native-like. Among Chomskys arguments for his claim that children have this innate capacity, U niversal Grammar, are as follows (Lightbown and Spada, 1999): 1. Virtually all children successfully learn their native language as a tim e in life when they would not be expected to learn anything else so complicated. Children who are profoundly deaf will learn sign language if they are exposed to it in infancy, and their progress in language acquisition is similar to that of hearing children. Even children with very limited cognitive ability develop quite complex language systems if they are brought up in environments in which people talk to them and engage them in communication. 2. Children successfully master the basic structure of their native langua ge or dialect in a variety of conditions: some which would be expected to enhanc e language development (for example, caring, attentive parents who focus on the childs language) , and some which might be expected to inhibit it( for example, a busive or rejecting parents). Children achieve different levels of vocabulary, c reativity, social grace, and so on, but virtually all achieve mastery of the str ucture of the language spoken around them. This supports the hypothesis that l anguage is separate from other aspects of cognitive development and m,ay even be located in a different part of the brain. The term modular is sometimes used to r epresent the notion that the brain has different modules which serve different kin ds of knowledge and learning. 3. The language children are exposed to does not contain examples(or, in an y case, not very many examples) of all the linguistic rules and patterns which t hey eventually know. 4. Animals even primates receiving intensive training from humans cannot le arn to manipulate a symbol system as complicated as the natural language of a th ree or four-year-old human child. 5. Children seem to accomplish the complex task of language acquisition wit hout having someone consistently point out to them which of the sentences they h ear and produce are correct and which are ungrammatical. The above evidences show that direct teaching and correcting of grammar could not account for childrens utterances because the rules of grammar children were unconsciously acquiring are already endowed in the brain. Thus, Universal grammar forms the foundation of all human language. A universal grammar can be equated with computer languages. There are many kinds of computer languages, but they all have some fundamental similarities. Children learn lang uage by applying this unconscious universal grammar to the sounds they hear. Studies have point out how remarkable it is that human children, by the age of t hree and four, without explicit teaching, and without over reinforcement, create new and complex sentences never spoken and never heard before. Tutorial Task Prepare your answer to the following questions for your tutorial session. Exercise 4.2

Do you agree with Chomsky? If you agree / disagree , what are your reasons? Elaborate your reasons with suitable examples. Take a break before you move on to the next session. 4.2.5 Universal Grammar and second language acquisition

The study of second language learning examines how second languages are learned; how learners create a new language system with limited exposure to a second lan guage; why most second language learners do not achieve the same degree of profi ciency in a second language as they do in their native language; and why some le arners appear to achieve native-like proficiency in more than one language. The main distinction between first and second or foreign language learning is what i s learned and how it is learned. In this context, you are going to look into the following question: To what extent UG is available in second language acquisition? There are different positions that have been defended by various linguists rang ing from complete availability of UG to complete unavailability. Can you recall how second language is acquired? Learners acquire a second language by making use of existing knowledge of the na tive language, general learning strategies, or universal properties of language to internalize knowledge of the second language. These processes serve as a mea ns by which the learner constructs an interlanguage (a transitional system refle cting the learners current L2 knowledge).Communication strategies are employed by the learner to make use of existing knowledge to cope with communication diffic ulties. One of the factors that affect L2 acquisition is individual differences. Individ ual differences may include: (1) the rate of development and (2) their ultimate level of achievement. Learners differ with regard to variables relating to cogn itive, affective and social aspects of a human being. Besides that, fixed factors such as age and language learning aptitude are beyon d external control. Variable factors such as motivation are influenced by extern al factors such as social setting and by the actual course of L2 development. Another factor that affects L2 acquisition is cognitive style. Cognitive style r efers to the way people perceive, conceptualize, organize and recall information . Learners who are field dependent operate holistically. They like to work with others. Field independent learners are analytic and prefer to work alone. Furthermore, there are strategies that learners use to make language learning mo re successful, self-directed and enjoyable. These deliberate behaviors or action s that learners use are called learner strategies. Among the strategies used are cognitive, metacognitive and social. Cognitive strategies relate new concepts to prior knowledge. Metacognitive strategies are those which help with organizin g a personal timetable to facilitate an effective study of the L2.Social strateg ies include looking for opportunities to converse with native speakers. Chesterfield & Chesterfield (1985) identified a natural order of strategies in t he development of a second language.

1. 2. 3. tings); 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

repetition (imitating a word or structure); memorization (recalling songs, rhymes or sequences by rote); formulaic expressions (words or phrases that function as units i.e. gree verbal attention getters (language that initiates interaction); answering in unison (responding with others); talking to self (engaging in internal monologue); elaboration (information beyond what is necessary); anticipatory answers (completing anothers phrase or statement); monitoring (self-correcting errors); appeal for assistance (asking someone for help); request for clarification (asking the speaker to explain or repeat); and role-playing (interacting with another by taking on roles).

As a set of principles and parameters that constrain all human languages, UG is part of the human genetic endowment and is encoded in the Language Acquisition F aculty(LAF). LAF is an innate component of the human mind that yields a particul ar language through interaction with presented experience, a device that convert s experience into a system of knowledge attained: knowledge of one or another la nguage.(Chomsky, 1986). An example of a principle of UG is the principle of struc ture dependency. And an example of a parameter is the null subject parameter. According to the principle of structural dependency, grammatical rules do not de pend on the linear ordering of the words in the sentence, but on how these words are structured within the constituents of specific types. For example, subjectauxiliary inversion in English: a) She will laugh. Will she laugh? b) The student who is taking good notes will get an A. Will the student who is taking good notes will get an A.

Whereas a null-subject language is a language whose grammar permits an independe nt clause to lack an explicit subject. Such a clause is then said to have a null subject. Typically, null subject languages express person, number, and/or gende r agreement with the referent on the verb, rendering a subject noun phrase redun dant. In the principles and parameters framework, the null subject is controlled by the pro-drop parameter, which is either on or off for a particular language. For example, in Italian the subject "she" can be either explicit or implicit: Maria non vuole mangiare. lit.[Maria not want [to]-eat], "Maria does not want to eat". Non vuole mangiare. lit.Subject not want [to]-eat], "[She] does not want to eat. " The subject "she" of the second sentence is only implied in Italian. English and French, on the other hand, require an explicit subject in this sentence (Wikipe dia ,30 October 2011). The logical problem of language acquisition is that, the linguistic input availa ble to children underdetermines the linguistic competence of adults. Thus childr en acquire properties of language that are not immediately obvious and that are not explicitly taught.If the child possesses only some cognitive ability to make generalizations from input, many features of the adult language cannot be acqui red. If the child comes to the acquisition come to the acquisition solely equipped wi th abilities to make generalization from the input data, it would seem impossibl e to arrive at he correct generalizations without a great many errors. in addit

ion, the child appears to get little or negative evidence because adults react to meaning ad sociolinguistic appropriateness not to errors of form .Therefore k nowledge about what is and is not possible in adult language stems in part from an innate universal grammar, containing principles and parameters which constrai n grammar in various ways. What would constitute evidence for UG in SLA? A learners knowledge of L2 goes beyond what could be induced from the input. A learners knowledge of L2 goes beyond what could be reconstructed from the L1 (e.g., resetting parameters). There are no violations of UG in interlanguage ( no wild grammars). Shachter, J.(1989) tested the availability of UG in adult SLA. The principle of subjacency is a constraint on movement, for example, the movement of wh- elemen ts is cyclical. It may not take place over more than one bounding node at a time . 1. 2. 3. g? 4. he said What did he say that he was reading? What does he believe that he said that he was reading? What are they claiming that she believes that he said that he was readin What do you think that they are claiming that he was reading? that she believes that

In the above examples, there are two theories about the derivation of wh- moveme nt. 1. Cyclic: Each successively higher clause(=CP) forms a separate cycle in t h e derivation of the question. Each cycle leaves an intermediate trace. What did he say [t that he was reading t ?] 2. Noncyclic:Derivation occurs in one fell swoop. What did he say that he was reading t ?] Thus, the fact that there are barriers to wh- movement shows that derivation mus t be cyclic. i. Barriers to wh-movement: sentential subject

That Tom got an A on his first exam pleased him. That Tom got an A on his first exam pleased him. *What did that he got on his first exam please Tom? ii. Barriers to wh-movement: noun complement

The fact that you didnt send your resume shows your lack of interest. The fact that you didnt send your resume shows your lack of interest. *What does the fact that you didnt send prove your lack of interest. iii. Barriers to wh-movement: relative clause

Bill found a principle that solves the problem of equilibrium.

Bill found a principle that solves the problem of equilibrium. *Which problem did Bill find a principle that solves? iv. Barriers to wh-movement: embedded question

They dont know why Sue tolerates Larry. They dont know why Sue tolerates Larry. *Who dont they know why Sue tolerates? The above examples proved that L2 learners know about subjacency constraints on wh-movement in English. This knowledge comes from L1. If there is no movement in L1, then the knowledge of adult second language learners must be innate, that i s, adult second language learners have access to UG. But in another test on syntax that Schachter (1989) has carried out on native s peakers, Indonesians, Chinese and Koreans the results are mixed. He concluded th at UG is unavailable or of limited access in SLA. Bley-Vroman, Felix & Ioup (198 8) also tested L2 learners knowledge of subjacency violations. They concluded th at UG must still be active. White (1988),in a study of native speakers of Frenc h acquiring English a second language, found that the low-intermediate group ha d not reset the parameter, while a high-intermediate group did. Flynn (1996), Shachter (1988), Felix (1985), Clahsen and Muysken 1989) presents four hypotheses or positions to explain the role of UG in SLA (logical problem): i. No Access Hypothesis UG is totally inaccessible to the adult L2 learner; learning takes place in term s of non-linguistic learning strategies ii. Partial Access Hypothesis UG is partially available to the learner so adult L2 learner may be able to rese t L1 parameters by means of general learning strategies. Only those parametric v alues characterising the L1 grammar are available, but the learning principles a re not. iii. Full Access Hypothesis/ Complete Access UG is fully available so L2 learner have full access to UG principles. L1 provid es learner with a quick setting for the L2 parameter if the value is the same, oth erwise the L2 learner proceeds in the way as the L1 learner. The differences in patterns of acquisition between L1 and L2 learners and the lack of completeness can be accounted for in other ways. iv. Dual access L2 learners have access to UG but this is partly blocked by the use of general l earning strategies. Furthermore there are problems with UG as a theory of SLA. 1. There is no learning theory in UG. How does a learner identify particula r bits of language as relevant to the setting of certain parameters? 2. UG only applies to core grammar, but there is much more grammar to be lea rned than just the core. And what about the learning of lexicon, phonology, sema ntics, sociolinguistic competence, discourse structures, etc? 3. In order to test UG we must find extremely rare grammatical structures. 4. Even if we concede that the solution to the logical problem of language acquisition requires innate knowledge, need that knowledge be in the specific fo rm of UG? 5. Evidence in UG studies is obtained from grammatical judgments, since the se are supposed to reflect competence. But there are many problems with grammati

cal judgments: they are just another kind of performance, learners judgments are unstable, and individual differences among learners are ignored. Another approach is to think of UG as the theory of the language faculty and als o of the initial state. Initial state is to be understood as having a set of fin ite discrete principles available at any language specific event. This definition leads to two possible models of LA: Maturation Model: UG over time becomes the language specific grammar, i.e. UG an d L1 are indissociable from each other UG is only fully available until L1 is fu lly acquired. Strong Continuity Hypothesis: UG remains distinct from the language specific gra mmar and remains constant over time and is available continuously. Revisions in linguistic theory, proposing a Minimalist Program, shed a new light on the role of UG in SLA. It seems though, that this new theory is compatible w ith the approach to language acquisition embracing the principle and parameter s etting model (into which also the SCH fits in). Minimalist Theory proposes that languages are based on simple principles that interact to form often intricate s tructures. The Language faculty is not redundant and can still be the basis for grammatical mapping integration of UG principles in the grammar of the specific TL. 4.2.6 Implications for teaching

The discussion on how Universal Grammar relate to both L1 acquisition and L2 lea rning will give language teachers an idea on how to play their roles in the teac hing-learning process in the classroom. Although it is argued that learning and acquisition are quite distinct processes, a language teacher should consider the possibility that extensive practice in the classroom can lead to acquisition. H owever, it should be kept in mind that not everything taught becomes acquired. S o, expectations regarding the quality of learning should be set realistically. Based on the similarities and differences between L2 and L1 acquisition, the rol e of developmental sequences in the cognitive development of learners is very cr ucial. The first stage is termed the silent period for learners to process lang uage input whereby it promotes immature production. This may be the reason why s ome learners resist or avoid to produce the language taught. The second stage is the formulaic speech whereby learners are exposed to sample of useful and frequ ently phrases for learners to refer to in communication. And the last stage of d evelopmental sequence is the application of semantic simplifications to the lea rners language. This will help teachers understand the production of imperfect la nguage with errors related to their L1. Another issue to be considered is the acquisition order of language learning. By knowing which structures are learned prior to others, teachers may be able to s equence the order of content in the English Language syllabus to suit the learne rs. Knowledge of learners L1 may help teachers put in more time and effort on cer tain features of the TL that are not present in L1 when planning lessons. Moreov er teachers will have the insight into why some learners fail to learn or have d ifficulty in learning certain features of the TL. Language teachers are the main source of input to learners in the classroom. The teacher plays an important r ole in the selection of comprehensible input to suit learners level. In order to select the appropriate input, teachers have to be equipped with the knowledge an d skills of teaching methodology. Furthermore, the ZPD or Zone of Proximal Development is another issue related to the similarities of L1 and L2 acquisition. Teachers have to assist their learne rs as much as possible by providing them with language necessary to pass to the

next level of language competence. To provide appropriate activities that promot e language learning, teachers have to consider the level of learners development, the cultural and social environment. Thus the role of tests should be viewed as vital to gauge learners abilities. The Critical Period hypothesis is one of the key differences leading to the vari ations in L1 and L2 acquisition. By knowing that children are better in pronunci ation, whereas adults are faster and better learning in rules and pragmatics, te achers will give more practice on pronunciation for adult learners. Besides, aff ective factors are related to the critical period. While it does not cause a pro blem in L1 acquisition, the learners of L2 are faced with inhibition and attitud es. The affective states of our learners are very important since these are the major factors intervening in language learning. Adult or young adult language le arners need to be relaxed and comfortable to create positive attitudes to the la nguage and the language learning process. In addition, teachers need to free the ir learners from inhibitions so that learners can freely interact and use the la nguage. This can only be possible if they build up trust and understanding betwe en themselves and their learners. More positive than negative feedback, more pra ise than criticism might be the first step. Fossilization is another issue only attributable to L2 acquisition. While all L1 learners reach full competence in the target language, some forms in the target language of the L2 learners might be fossilized. Teachers can prevent fossiliza tion by correcting repeated errors of their learners or they can practise proble matic language more than non-problematic language. One should be aware that once fossilization takes place, it is very difficult to get rid of. Thus, teachers s hould act with caution and help their learners to prevent fossilization. Finally, social issues should be considered by teachers. Second language learner s may choose to learn a language variety other than the standard form depending on the speech community they are taking as a reference. Therefore, it is the tea cher s responsibility to decide on which variety of the target language to take as the norm. It is important to make learners aware of the different varieties o f the target language, but in terms of teaching, there should be consistency. In Malaysia, British English is the TL. Tutorial Task Prepare your answer to the following questions for your tutorial session. Exercise 4.3 1. List the issues to be considered when teaching English language to Malay sian primary school learners. 2. What are your roles as English language teachers of L2 learners in relation to Universal Grammar.

Check your answers with your peers and tutor. Take a break before you move on to the next topic. TOPIC 5 5.0 SYNOPSIS Topic 5 will provide the definition of three concepts: approach, method and tech nique and their relationship. It will introduce to you seven methods of English OVERVIEW: APPROACHES, METHODS AND TECHNIQUES ELT METHODS

language teaching. Each method will be discussed briefly with regards to basic principles, key features, techniques, strengths, limitations of each method, lea rner-teacher interaction, and their implications for syllabus design. Besides yo u will be provided with suggested techniques to plan activities for each method. 5.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES

By the end of this Session, you will be able to: nique; define and explain the relationship between the concepts: approach, method, tech state the basic principles of each method; list and describe the features of each method; illustrate the techniques employed in each method; describe the strengths and limitations of each method; describe learner-teacher interaction; describe the implications for Syllabus Design; and, plan activities for each approach/method

5.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS

CONTENT SESSION FIVE (6 Hours) 2.2 Overview: Approaches, Methods, and Techniques ELT Methods

Harmer, J. (2007) defines the concept of approach to refer to theories about th e nature of language and language learning which are the source of the way thing s are done in the classroom and which provide the reasons for doing them. An app roach describes how language is used and how its constituent parts interlock it offers a model of language competence. It also describes how people acquire thei r knowledge of the language and make statements about the conditions which wil l promote successful language learning. Harmer, J.(2007) also defines method as the practical realization of an approach.

It describes the types of activities, roles of teachers and learners and kinds o f materials and various procedures and techniques which will be helpful for lang uage learning. However if a method takes procedures and techniques from a wide v ariety of sources, it is difficult to describe it as a method. A teaching method r efers to ways of teaching (instruction) that are based on systematic principles and procedures, that is, which is an application of views on how a language is best taught and learned. It varies depending on what information or skill the te acher is trying to convey through class participation, demonstration, recitation and memorization. Methods are decided according to students (background knowle dge, environment, and learning goals) which contribute towards the success of te aching-learning in the classroom. Technique refers to a particular procedure or activity used to accomplish a partic ular objective(Richards and Rodgers (1986). The ake the ach use and mis-use of terms such as approach or learning to describe a method can m discussions of methodology confusing. This maybe due to new insights of how method has been developed. However the main question for a teacher is Does e method achieve what it set out to achieve?

5.2.1

Grammar-Translation Method

The Grammar-Translation Method is one of the most traditional methods, dating back to the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It is originally used to teach dead languages (and literatures) such as Latin and Greek, and this m ay account for its heavy bias towards written work to the virtual exclusion of o ral production. Key Features 1. Classes are taught in the students mother tongue as a medium of instruc tion. Very little teaching in Target Language(TL); 2. Vocabulary is taught in the form of isolated word lists; 3. Elaborate explanations of vocabulary / grammar are always provided; 4. Reading of difficult texts is begun early in the course of study; 5. Little or no attention is paid to speaking or listening skills; 6. Often the only drills are exercises in translating disconnected sentence s; 7. Literary language is superior to spoken language; 8. Authority of class is the teacher; 9. Primary skills to be improved : reading & writing; 10. Focus on accuracy NOT fluency; 11. Little or no attention is given to pronunciation. Strengths 1. TL is quickly explained because translation is the easiest way of explai ning meanings or words and phrases from one language into another. 2. An effective way for application of grammar and sentence structure. 3. Few demands on teachers as they do not have to be fluent in the TL. 4. Least stressful for students as they answer comprehension questions in t he mother tongue. Limitations 1. Shows the wrong idea of what language is /unnatural method of lang. lea rning starts with teaching of reading 2. Speech is neglected 3. Often little contextualization of the grammar

4. The type of error correction can be harmful to the students learning proc esses. 5. Less learners motivation 6. Create frustration for learners 7. No class time is allocated to allow students to produce their own senten ces. Learner-teacher Interaction Most of the interaction in the classroom is from teacher to the learners. There is little learner initiation and little learner-to-learner interaction. Learners listen, copy rules and write out exercises and correct them from the blackboard . The average learner has to work hard at what he considers laborious and monoto nous chores, without much feeling of progress in the mastery of the language, an d with very little opportunity to express himself through it. He has a passive r ole in the classroom. He absorbs and then repeats what he has absorbed to satisf y his teacher. Application : Typical Techniques 1. Translation of a Literary Passage 2. Reading Comprehension Questions 3. Deductive Application of Rule 4. Cognates (words fr. same origin) 5. Fill-in-the-blanks 6. Antonyms/Synonyms 7. Memorization 8. Composition 9. Use Words in Sentences Although there are various limitations of this method, it may appeal to learners who respond well to rules, structure and correction. This method implies that t he teacher should be a walking dictionary and proficient in both learners language and the target language. Before we move on to the next teaching method, try the following quiz. Quiz 5.1 Put a (T) for statements which are true and put an (F) fo r false statements. 1 GTM is originally used to teach dead languages (and literatures) such as Latin and Greek. 2 GTM is emphasized more on oral work. 3 Classes are taught in the students mother tongue. 4 Vocabulary is taught in the form of isolated word lists 5 Elaborate explanations of vocabulary / grammar are always provided. 6 Reading of difficult texts is begun early in the course of study. 7 A lot of attention is paid to the content of texts 8 The only drills are exercises in translating disconnected sentences 9 Pronunciation is given little or no attention 10 An effective way for application of grammar and sentence structure. 11 GTM gives the correct idea of what language is. 12 A lot of error correction may be harmful to students. 13 As GTM does not allow students to produce their own sentences, they are less motivated to learn the language. 14 GTM often provide little contextualization of the grammar. 15 Fill-in-the-blanks and memorization are techniques that illustrate GTM. SCORE To find out how you fare, check your answers. 5.2.2 Direct Method

The Direct Method, which arrived at the end of the nineteenth century, is a reac tion to the grammar-translation approach in an attempt to integrate more use of the target language in instruction and in authentic situations. The teacher and learners have to interact with one another by relating the grammatical forms t hat they were studying to objects and pictures to establish meaning. Key Features 1. Instruction is conducted in the target language; no translation. 2. Learners should be actively involved in using the language in realistic everyday situations as the vocabulary and sentences are ordinary, everyday language. 3. Students are encouraged to think in the target language. 4. Oral and listening comprehension are taught. Oral communication skills are organized with the emphasis on speaking styles and correct pronunciation. 5. Grammar is taught implicitly. New items are taught through modeling and practice. 6. Concrete vocabulary is taught through demonstration, objects, and pictur es whereas abstract vocabulary is taught through association of ideas. Strengths 1. An effective way in creating learners to be competent in using the targe t language communicatively because it makes the learning of English interesting and lively by establishing direct bond between a word and its meaning. 2. It is an activity/method facilitating alertness and participation of the pupils. 3. Psychologically it is a sound method as it proceeds from the concrete to the abstract. 4. Can be usefully employed in both the best and weakest class. 5. It is the quickest way of getting started in learning a language because in a few months over 500 of the commonest English words can be learnt and used in sentences. This serves as a strong foundation for further learning. 6. Learners are able to understand what they learn, think about it and then express their own ideas in correct English about what they have read and learnt . 7. Fluency of speech, good pronunciation and power of expression are proper ly developed. Limitations 1. Not all teachers were proficient enough in the foreign language. 2. It is designed with the assumption that L2 should be learned in way in w hich L1 was acquired - by total immersion technique. 3. It rejects the use of the printed word - but this objection is illogical since L2 learner has already mastered his reading skills. 4. Need a lot of time and effort to prepare teaching materials (selection, grading or controlled presentation of vocabulary and structures) to suit learner s. 5. Since in this method, grammar is closely bound up with the reader, diffi culty is experienced in providing readers of such kind. 6. In larger classes, this method could not be properly applied and teachin g in this method does not suit or satisfy the needs of individual students. Guidelines of Direct Method for teaching oral language Demonstrate Act/modelling Practice Ask questions Correct errors Use sentences

Make students speak much Use lesson plan Follow plan Keep the pace of the students Speak normally Speak naturally Use of pictures Use of objects/ realia Learner-teacher interaction The initiation of the interaction goes both ways, from teacher to learners from learners to teacher, although the latter is often teacher-directed. Learners con verse with one another as well. Learners read texts aloud together. The classroo m is continually filled with the sound of the foreign language, and all activity is closely linked with its use in speech and writing. The teacher and the learn ers are thought of as partners in the teaching and learning process. Application: Typical Techniques 1. Question and Answer Exercise 2. Reading Aloud 3. Student Self-Correction 4. Conversation Practice 5. Fill-in-the-blank Exercise 6. Dictation 7. Paragraph Writing 8. Map Drawing Before we move on to the next teaching method, try the following quiz. Quiz 5.2 Put a (T) for statements which are true and put an (F) for false stateme nts. 1 An attempt to integrate more use of the target language in instruction a s a reaction to GTM. 2 Only use the target language in class. 3 The learner should be actively involved in using the language in realist ic everyday situations. 4 Students are encouraged to think in the target language. 5 Reading is taught first and then speaking only and writing. 6 An effective way in creating learners to be competent in using the targe t communicatively 7 A lot of time and effort is needed to prepare teaching materials (select ion, grading or controlled presentation of vocabulary and structures) to suit le arners. 8 DM does not require teachers to be proficient in the foreign language. 9 DM encourages students to speak normally and naturally. 10 Reading Aloud is a technique that illustrates DM. SCORE To find out how you fare, check your answers. 5.2.3 Audio-Lingual Method

The Audio-Lingual Method or Army Method was founded during World War II for mili tary purposes in the USA. It was popular in the 1960s but died out in the 70s.T his method is based on the principles of behavioral psychology and structural li nguistics. From behavioral psychology it borrows the theory that constant rep etition of behavior leads to habit formation. From structural linguistics it bor rows the theory that language can be separated into different segments(e.g. te nse, pronouns) and studied in small chunks. It adapted many of the principles and

procedures of the Direct Method, in part as a re-action to the lack of speaking skills of the Reading Approach. It focuses on students pronunciation, and train their ability of listening by dialogues and drills. Key Features 1. Dependence on mimicry and memorization of set phrases. 2. Teaching structural patterns by means of repetitive drills. 3. Little or no explicit grammatical explanation because learners are suppo sed to infer grammatical rules. 4. Skills are sequenced in the following order: listening, speaking, readin g, writing. 5. Learning of vocabulary in context but limited. 6. Use of tapes, language labs and visual aids 7. Focus on native-like pronunciation - habit-forming 8. Some use of mother tongue by teachers is permitted, but learners are not allowed to use it at all. 9. Immediate reinforcement (praise/reward) of correct responses 10. Cultural background of target language is stressed Strengths 1. Controlled drills may encourage shy students to speak. 2. Because ALM lessons and drills tend to go very quickly, they may help cr eate a sense of fluency for some students. Limitations 1. Learners who need the written word to reinforce their speaking and liste ning may find ALM very confusing. 2. ALM frequently uses non-authentic language. 3. Some learners may be unable to make the transition from controlled drill s to more open-ended and creative language use. 4. Basic method of teaching is repetition, speech is standardised and learn ers turn into parrots who can reproduce many things but never create anything ne w or spontaneous. Learners became better and better at pattern practice but were unable to use the patterns fluently in natural speech situations. 5. Mechanical drills of early Audio-Visual approach criticised as being not only boring and mindless but also counter-productive, if used beyond initial in troduction to new structure. 6. Audio-Visual materials were open to same sort of misuse. Tendency to reg ard audio-visual materials as a teaching method in themselves, not as a teaching aid. 7. Series of classroom studies threw doubt on claims made for language labo ratory. Showed that this costly equipment did not improve performance of 11+ beg inners, when compared with same materials used on single tape-recorder in classr oom. 8. Soon became clear to teachers that audio-visual approach could only assi st in presentation of new materials. More subtle classroom skills were needed fo r pupils to assimilate material and use it creatively. This final vital phase wa s often omitted by teachers. New technology caught publishers and text-book writ ers unprepared - very few commercial materials were available in the early stage s. Those that did exist stressed oral skills and didn t develop reading and writ ing skills. 9. New materials necessitated extensive use of equipment with all associate d problems of black-out, extension leads, carrying tape-recorders from classroom to classroom. Some schools set up Specialist- Language rooms, but teachers stil l had to set up projectors and find places on tape. Equipment could break down, projector lamps explode, tapes tangle - not sophisticated equipment of today. Ha rdware involved extra time, worry and problems, and, for these reasons alone, it s use gradually faded away. Learner-teacher Interaction There is learner-to-learner interaction in chain drills and when learners take d

ifferent roles in dialogues, but this interaction is teacher-directed. Most inte raction is between teacher and learners and is initiated by the teacher. The tea cher is like an orchestra leader, directing and controlling the language behavio ur of her learners. She is responsible for providing her learners with a good mo del for imitation. Learners are imitators of the teacher s model or the tapes sh e supplies of model speakers. They follow the teacher s directions and respond a s accurately and as rapidly as possible. Application:Typical Techniques 1. Dialogue Memorization Learners memorize an opening dialog using mimicry and applied role-playing. 2. Backward Build-up (Expansion Drill) Teacher breaks a line into several parts, learners repeat each part starting at the end of the sentence and "expanding" backwards through the sentence, adding e ach part in sequence. 3. Repetition Drill Learners repeat teacher s model as quickly and accurately as possible. 4. Chain Drill Learners ask and answer each other one-by-one in a circular chain around the cla ssroom. 5. Single Slot Substitution Drill Teacher states a line from the dialog, then uses a word or a phrase as a "cue" t hat students, when repeating the line, must substitute into the sentence in the correct place. 6. Multiple-slot Substitution Drill Same as the Single Slot drill, except that there are multiple cues to be substit uted into the line. 7. Transformation Drill Teacher provides a sentence that must be turned into something else, for example a question to be turned into a statement, an active sentence to be turned into a negative statement, etc. 8. Question-and-answer Drill Learners should answer or ask questions very quickly. 9. Grammar Games Various games designed to practise a grammar point in context, using lots of rep etition. 10. Use of Minimal Pairs Using contrastive analysis, teacher selects a pair of words that sound identical except for a single sound that typically poses difficulty for the learners to pronounce and differentiate the two words. 11. Complete the Dialogue Selected words are erased from a line in the dialogue - learners must find and i nsert. 12. Dictation

Before we move on to the next teaching method, try the following quiz.

Quiz 5.3 Put a (T) for statements which are true and put an (F) for false statements. 1 Founded during World War II for military purposes in USA. 2 Based on the principles of behavior psychology. 3 Focus on learners pronunciation, and train their ability of listening by dialogues and drills. 4 Dependence on mimicry and memorization of set phrases. 5 There is little or no explicit grammatical explanation. 6 Vocabulary is taught in context. 7 Focus on native-like pronunciation. 8 Learners are not allowed to use mother tongue at all. 9 Correct responses are not given immediate reinforcement (praise / reward ). 10 Cultural background of target language is stressed. 11 Flashcards are used widely. 12 Use of repetitive drills to teach structural patterns. SCORE To find out how you fare, check your answers. 5.2.4 Silent Way

The Silent Way is one of new methods developed in the 70s to highlight the cogn itive domain in language learning. Caleb Gattegno, the founder of the Silent Way , of Egypt, although he repeatedly insisted that "the Silent Way is not a method at all", devoted his thinking to the importance of problem solving approach in education. He contends that the method is constructivist and leads the learners to develop their own conceptual models of all the aspects of the language. The b est way of achieving this is to help students to be experimental learners. The use of the word "silent" is also significant, as Silent Way is based on the premise that the teacher should be as silent as possible in the classroom in ord er to encourage the learner to produce as much language as possible. As far as t he presentation of language is concerned, Silent Way adopts a highly structural approach, with language taught through sentences in a sequence based on grammati cal complexity, described by some as a "building-block" approach(Bowen, T. (2011 ). Key Features The Silent Way (SW)is characterized by its focus on discovery, creativity, probl em solving and the use of accompanying materials. Richards and Rodgers (1986:99) summarized the method into three major features. 1. Learning is facilitated if the learner discovers or creates. The SW belo ngs to the tradition of teaching that favors hypothetical mode of teaching (as o pposed to expository mode of teaching) in which the teacher and the learner work cooperatively to reach the educational desired goals(Bruner, 1966). The learner is not a bench bound listener but an active contributor to the learning proce ss. 2. Learning is facilitated by accompanying (mediating) physical objects. Th e SW uses colorful charts and rods (cuisinere rods) which are of varying length . They are used to introduce vocabulary ( colors, numbers, adjectives, verbs) an d syntax (tense, comparatives, plurals, word order ) 3. Learning is facilitated by problem solving involving the material to be learned. This can be summarized by Benjamin Franklins words: Tell me and I forget Teach me and I remember

Involve me and I learn A good SW learner is a good problem solver. The teachers role resides only in giv ing minimum repetitions and correction, remaining silent most of the times, lea ving the learner struggling to solve problems about the language and get a grasp of its mechanism. Strengths 1. Learning through problem solving looks attractive especially because it fosters creativity, discovery, increase in intelligent potency and long term mem ory. 2. The indirect role of the teacher highlights the importance and the centr ality of the learner who is responsible in figuring out and testing the hypothes es about how language works. In other words teaching is subordinated to learning because good learning demands that any language learner carefully observe his o r her own speech. Limitations 1. The SW is often criticised of being a harsh method. The learner works in isolation and communication is lacking badly in a Silent Way classroom because it does not provide learners the language for everyday situations. 2. Neither the learners work with authentic, culturally based materials nor they hear authentic speech in the instruction. 3. Minimum help on the part of the teacher because she offers neither prais e nor criticism and does not allow questions makes learning inefficient. 4. The material (the rods and the charts (called Fidels), which are difficult to get, used in this method will certainly fail to introduce all aspects of lan guage. Other materials will have to be introduced. Learner-teacher interaction For much of the learner-teacher interaction, the teacher is silent. He is still very active, however, setting up situations to "force awareness", listening atte ntively to students speech, and silently working with them on their production. When the teacher does speak, it is to give clues, not to model the language. Le arner-learner verbal interaction is desirable and is therefore encouraged. The t eachers silence is to allow for this. The teacher constantly observes the learn ers and helps them overcome negative feelings which might interfere with learnin g. Application:Technique ( Leela Mohd. Ali, 1989) Learners learn the language through its sounds. The color-coded Fidel Charts are used to help learners learn spellings that correspond to sounds and progress to reading and pronouncing words correctly. The teacher sets up situations that fo cus learner attention on structures, and provides a vehicle for learners to perceive meaning. The teac her uses the learners errors to ascertain the language the learners are unclear about, and determines what to work on based on this. Learners receive a great deal of p ractice with a structure without repetition for its own sake. They gain autonomy in the language by exploring it and making choices. Learners take responsibilit y for their own learning. (For lessons using Silent Way search on youtube.com). Before we move on to the next teaching method, try the following quiz. Quiz 4.4 Put a (T) for statements which are true and put an (F) for false stateme nts. 1 The Silent Way emphasizes the importance of problem solving approach in education. 2 The teacher constantly observes and interferes by correcting errors all the time. 3 SW is based on the premise that the teacher should be as silent as possi ble in the classroom in order to encourage the learner to produce as much langua

ge as possible. 4 In SW, learning is facilitated if the learner discovers or creates, acco mpanied by(mediating) physical objects or by problem solving involving the mater ial to be learned. 5 The strength of SW is that the learner is given more importance and the centrality because he is responsible in figuring out and testing the hypotheses about how language works. 6 Learners work with authentic, culturally based materials and hear authen tic speech in the instruction. 7 In SW, communication is lacking badly as it does not provide learners th e language for everyday situations. 8 In the SW when the teacher does speak, it is to give clues, not to model the language. 9 The teacher role is to set up situations that focus learner attention on structures, and provides a vehicle for learners to perceive meaning. 10 The teacher uses the learners errors to ascertain the language the lea rners are unclear about, and determines what to work on based on this. To find out how you fare, check your answers. 5.2.5 Suggestopedia Suggestopedia is a teaching method which is based on a modern understanding of h ow the human brain works and how we learn most effectively. It was developed by the Bulgarian doctor and psychotherapist Georgi Lozanov who believes that Learni ng is a matter of attitude, not aptitude.The term Suggestopedia , derived from s uggestion and pedagogy, is often used loosely to refer to similar accelerated le arning approaches. However, Lozanov reserves the title strictly for his own meth od, and he has his own training and certification facilities. Suggestopedia was originally applied mainly in foreign language teaching, and it is often claimed that it can teach languages approximately three times as quickly as conventional methods (Lozanov, G.,1978). This method includes elements such as the use of relaxing music, art and the add itional importance that is given to the learning environment as well as the auth oritative behaviour of the teacher (Richards & Rodgers, 2001). The most distingu ishing feature of Suggestopedia, however, is the aim to help the students achieve [...] childlike openness, plasticity and creativity by putting them into a state called infantalization (Stevick, 1976, p. 156). This act of lowering a learner s "affective filter" - in other words by removing distractions or negative feeling s which may inhibit language learning. Application: Technique The key elements of Suggestopedia include a rich sensory learning environment (p ictures, colour, music, etc.), a positive expectation of success and the use of a varied range of methods: dramatised texts, music, active participation in song s and games, etc. Suggestopedia adopts a carefully structured approach, using fo ur main stages as follows: Presentation A preparatory stage in which learners are helped to relax and move into a positi ve frame of mind, with the feeling that the learning is going to be easy and fun . First Concert - "Active Concert" This involves the active presentation of the material to be learnt. For example, in a foreign language course there might be the dramatic reading of a piece of text, accompanied by classical music. Second Concert - "Passive Review" The learners are now invited to relax and listen to some Baroque music, with the text being read very quietly in the background. The music is specially selected to bring the learners into the optimum mental state for the effortless acquisit ion of the material. Practice

The use of a range of games, puzzles, etc. to review and consolidate the learnin g. There are two phases incorporated in this approach: Learners learn new information very quickly and efficiently in a state of light relaxation accompanied by Baroque or classical music. This new material which ha s been acquired 3 to 5 times faster than with traditional learning techniques, i s now stored passively in the brain. It is then activated by means of creative, interactive and communicative learning techniques, i.e. grammar games, role play , etc. which contribute not only to recall and retention but also to the communi cation skills and personality development of the students.

Strengths It deals with the learners own often quite harmful and often quite negative feel ings about their own abilities. It sets up a non-evaluative classroom atmosphere ; thus it also avoids both criticizing and praising. The processes of desuggesti on and resuggestion requires the teacher to make deliberate and skillful use of the general learning atmosphere. Teachers need to be lively, cheerful, and effic ient (Leela M. A., 1989). Limitations Teacher needs to be well-trained and have the right personality; otherwise, this method will not be completely effective. It is unclear how successful this meth od would be with younger children(ibid, 1989). Learner-teacher Interaction The teacher initiates interactions with the whole group of learners and with ind ividuals right from the beginning of a language course. Initially, the learners only respond nonverbally or with a few target language words they have practised . Later the learners have more control of the target language and respond more a ppropriately and may initiate interaction themselves. Learners interact with eac h other from the beginning in various activities directed by the teacher. The te acher is the authority in the classroom. The learners must trust and respect her in order for the method to succeed. Before we move on to the next teaching method, try the following quiz. Quiz 4.5 Put a (T) for statements which are true and put an (F) for false statements. 1 Suggestopedia is a teaching method which is based on a modern understand ing of how the human brain works and how we learn most effectively. 2 The use of games in this method is for fun only. 3 Learners do not interact with each other from the beginning in various a ctivities directed by the teacher. 4 Infantalization refers to the act of lowering a learner s "affective filte r" by removing distractions or negative feelings which may inhibit language lear ning. 5 The are four main stages of Suggestopedia : Presentation; First Concert - "Active Concert";Second Concert - "Passive Review" and Practice. 6 Second Concert - "Passive Review" is the second stage where the learners are now invited to relax and listen to some Baroque music, with the text being read very quietly in the background. 7 By avoiding both criticizing and praising, Suggestopedia provides a nonevaluative classroom atmosphere. 8 Teacher need not be well-trained and have the right personality complete ly effective. 9 The teacher initiates interactions with the whole group of learners and with individuals right from the beginning of a language course.

10

The teacher is the authority in the classroom. SCORE

To find out how you fare, check your answers. 5.2.6 Community Language Learning Community Language Learning(CLL) takes its principles from the Counseling Learnin g Approach developed by Charles A. Curran. It was created especially for adult le arners who might fear to appear foolish ; so the teacher becomes a Language Coun selor , who understands them and leads them to overcome their fears. It follows Krashens Monitor Theory (Affective Filter Hypothesis) and the Cognitive Theory wh ere the human mind is active (Stevick, 1980). Key Features (Open University Malaysia, 2002) 1. Learning is more important than teaching. Learning develops itself, and the learners only need occasional help. 2. CLL provides learners with opportunities to guide their own learning to decide what they want to learn, and to learn at their own pace. The teacher is not in control of the class. 3. Cooperation is important. Small group activities encourage interaction a mong learners. Learning is achieved through cooperation, not competition. 4. Focus is on fluency rather than proficiency. The purpose of using langua ge is to convey messages and develop creative thinking. Grammatical correctness is less important. 5. The teacher does not correct errors immediately. When a learner produces an incorrect utterance, the teacher provides a model by producing he correct u tterance. Leela (1989) summarizes this method using the formula SAARRD: S-Security, A-Asse rtion, A-Attention, R-Reflection, R-Retention, and D-Discrimination. Learners ar e viewed as whole persons; thus, the relationships and understanding among learn ers as a "knower-counselor" and the learner as a learner are responsible for bri nging their own unique resources to the learning experience. Strengths 1. Learners appreciate the autonomy CLL offers them and thrive on analysing their own conversations. 2. CLL works especially well with lower levels who are struggling to produc e spoken English. 3. The class often becomes a real community, not just when using CLL but al l of the time. Learners become much more aware of their peers, their strengths a nd weaknesses and want to work as a team (Bertrand, J.,2004). 4. By having the learners work with the content of their own choosing and c reation, they are intimately involved with the material. Meanwhile, the teacher attends more closely to the structuring of the class and to the highlighting of the materials. By listening to the learners in structured feedback sessions, the teacher establishes an atmosphere of security which helps minimize behaviour pr oblems( Leela, 1989). Limitations 1. In the beginning some learners find it difficult to speak on tape while others might find that the conversation lacks spontaneity. 2. We as teachers can find it strange to give our learners so much freedom and tend to intervene too much. 3. In your efforts to let your learners become independent learners you can neglect their need for guidance. 4. If the teacher lacks emotional or intellectual sensitivity or lacks skil l at teaching, this method will be rendered ineffective. The teacher needs to be very good at both languages. Learner-teacher Interaction It is neither learner-centered not teacher-centered but rather teacher-learner c

entered with both making decisions in the class. Building a relationship with an d among learners is very important. In a trusting relationship, the threat that learners feel is reduced, and non-defensive learning is promoted. Learners learn from their interaction with the teacher. A spirit of cooperation, not competiti on must prevail. At times the teacher facilitates the learners ability to expre ss themselves, and at times the teacher is in-charge and providing direction. Th us the nature of learner-teacher interaction changes within the lesson and over time. Application : Techniques At the beginning learners speak in the native language and the teacher helps the m express what they want to say by supplying them with the target language trans lations in chunks. The chunks which the learners produce are recorded, and when replayed sound like a conversation. Later a transcription is made and it becomes the "text" with which learners work. Various activities are then conducted (e.g . examination of a grammar point, working on the pronunciation of a particular p hrase, or creating new sentences with words from the transcript) that allow the students to further explore the language they generated. During the course of th e lesson, learners are invited to say how they feel. Before we move on to the next teaching method, try the following quiz. Quiz 4.6 Put a (T) for statements which are true and put an (F) for false statements. 1 CLL takes its principles from the Counseling Learning Approach : a teacher is the counselor who understands learners and leads them to overcome their fear s. 2 CLL provides learners with opportunities to guide their own learning to decide what they want to learn, and to learn at their own pace. 3 CLL encourages competition rather than cooperation. 4 Focus is on fluency rather than proficiency 5 The teacher does not correct errors immediately but provides a model by producing he correct utterance when a learner produces an incorrect utterance. 6 CLL works especially well with lower levels who are struggling to produc e spoken English. 7 The nature of learner-teacher interaction changes within the lesson and over time. 8 The teacher have to be emotionally or intellectually sensitive for lear ning to be effective. 9 The teacher translates chunks of language from learners native language t o the target language. 10 Creates a trusting relationship between teacher and learner because the threat that learners feel is reduced, and non-defensive learning is promoted. SCORE To find out how you fare, check your answers. 5.2.7 Total Physical Response

Total Physical Response (TPR), developed by Dr. James Asher in 1977 is based upo n principles of child language acquisition, in which the child gives physical re sponses when listening to language. TPRs ultimate instructional goal is to teach oral proficiency and conversational fluency. The emphasis is not on text or oth er media, but initially on voice, action and gestures. Instruction is given in t arget language only. TPR recognizes the value of language being associated with physical responses. Follows a grammar-based view of language that focuses on meaning, not form. Based upon principles of child language acquisition, which proposes that the hum an brain has a set pattern for learning language. Assessment types compatible with the method include evaluation of learner action

s and gestures when given non-written prompt, eventually moving towards learner composition. Key Features According to Asher, the language learning theories are similar to those of other behavioral psychologists. The principals that help elaborate his idea are: 1. Second language learning is parallel to first language learning and shou ld reflect the same naturalistic processes. 2. Listening should develop before speaking. 3. Once listening comprehension has been developed, speech develops natural ly and effortlessly out of it. 4. Adult learners should use right-brain motor activities, while the left h emisphere watches and learns. Strengths 1. Allows learners to get up and move while learning and encourages a more relaxed learning environment that can easily incorporate humour. 2. Helps retention by associating movement with words. 3. It is fun and easy. Learners will enjoy getting up out of their chairs a nd moving around. 4. Simple TPR activities do not require a great deal of preparation on the part of the teacher. However, some other more complex applications might. 5. "TPR is aptitude-free". It is inclusive working well with a mixed abilit y class. 6. It is good for kinesthetic learners who need to be active in the class. 7. It is a good tool for building vocabulary. 8. It is memorable. Actions help strengthen the connections in the brain. 9. Class size need not be a problem. Limitations 1. Not as effective in higher levels of language learning. 2. Does not promote independent language use outside of oral work modeled b y teacher in classroom. 3. Learner needs for unrehearsed language not always met. 4. While it can be used at higher levels TPR is most useful for beginners. It is also at the higher levels where preparation becomes an issue for the teach er. 5. Learners are not generally given the opportunity to express their own th oughts in a creative way. 6. It is easy to overuse TPR. "Any novelty, if carried on too long, will tr igger adaptation." "No matter how exciting and productive the innovation, people will tire of it." 7. The teacher may find that it is limited in terms of language scope. Cert ain target languages may not be suited to this method. 8. It can be a challenge for shy learners. Learner-Teacher Interaction The teacher interacts with the whole group of learners and with individual learn ers. Initially, the interaction is characterized by the teacher speaking and the learners responding nonverbally. Later on, the learners become more verbal and the teacher responds nonverbally. Learners perform actions together or individua lly. Learners learn from each other. As learners begin to speak, they issue comm ands to, their peers as well as to the teacher. Application: Techniques In the first phase of the lesson, the instructor issues commands to learners, th en performs the actions with them. In the second phase, learners demonstrate tha t they understand the commands by performing them on their own. The teacher then combines elements from different commands to allow learners to develop flexibil ity in understanding unfamiliar utterances. After learning to respond to oral co

mmands, the learners learn to read and write them. When learners are ready to sp eak they issue the commands. Learners speak only when they are ready to do so; t his avoids anxiety. Before we move on to the next teaching method, try the following quiz. Quiz 4.7 Put a (T) for statements which are true and put an (F) for false statements. 1 The emphasis in TPR is initially on voice, action and gestures. 2 TPR follows a grammar-based view of language that focuses on meaning, no t form. 3 Speaking should develop before listening. 4 It works well with a mixed ability class especially for kinesthetic lear ners. 5 Helps retention by associating movement with words because actions help strengthen the connections in the brain. 6 Does not promote independent language use outside of oral work modeled b y teacher in classroom. 7 Learners are given the opportunity to express their own thoughts in a c reative way. 8 Interaction occurs between the teacher and learners and learners with ot her learners. 9 From the beginning the instructor issues commands to learners and they p erform the actions without any modeling. 10 Learners speak only when they are ready to do so to avoid anxiety. To find out how you fare, check your answers with your peers or tutor. Tutorial Task 4. 8 I. to : Create a GO to compare and contrast the 7 teaching methods with regards Background Principles Key features Roles of student and teacher Techniques Strengths Limitations

II. Choose one teaching method. Discuss your rationale for choosing the meth od with regards to its strengths and how would you overcome t its weaknesses? III. For each method, list the implications for English language teaching.

Take a break before you move on to the next topic.

TOPIC 6 ELT METHODS: COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH 6.0 SYNOPSIS Topic 6 introduces you to key concepts of Communicative Approach or presently kn own as Communicative Language Teaching. It provides insights into the principl es and techniques, strengths and limitations of the approach. You will also loo k into the role of the teacher, learners and resources in this approach. 6.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this session, you will be able to: 5. explain the principles of the Communicative Approach 6. identify the techniques used in the Communicative Approach 7. list the strengths and limitations of the approach 8. explain the role of the teacher, learners and resources in the Communica tive Approach 6.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS CONTENT SESSION SIX (3 Hours) 6.2.1 Concept of Communicative Approach The Communicative Approach which emerged in the early 1970s can be traced to the work of Chomsky in the 1960s. Chomsky reacted against the prevalent audio-ling ual method and its views. He proposed the two notions of competence and perf ormance which were related to language learning. These two concepts were late r developed by Hymes, into the term communicative competence . According to He dge (2000) communicative competence refers to the psychological, cultural and so cial rules which discipline the use of speech. It concerns not only the knowled ge of language but also ability to put that knowledge into use in communication, in other words, knowing when and how to say what to whom. Dimensions of commun icative competence include linguistic or grammatical competence, sociolinguistic or pragmatic competence, discourse competence and strategic competence (Richard s & Rogers, 1986; Hedge, 2000) and fluency (Hedge, 2000). According to Bygate (2001), the communicative approach provides learners with an opportunity to use language for communication purposes without focusing on accu racy. The aims of the communicative approach are: to make communicative competence the goal of language teaching develop procedures for the teaching of the four language skills that acknowledge the interdependence of language and communication (Richards and Rodgers, 1986) The communicative approach is a learner-centred approach to language learning.

Since the main aim of the approach is to prepare learners for meaningful communi cation, errors made by learners are tolerated. 6.2.2 Principles of Communicative Approach Below are some of the principles of the Communicative Approach. Authentic language/language used in real context is introduced. Communicative ap proach seeks to use authentic resources as they are more interesting and motivat ing. In the language classroom, authentic texts serve as partial substitute for a community of native speakers. Newspapers and magazine articles, poems, manuals , recipes, telephone directories, videos, news bulletins, discussion programmes can be exploited in variety of ways. Part of being communicatively competent is figuring out speakers or writers intent ion. The target language is a vehicle for classroom communications not just the objec t of study. The target language is used as the medium for classroom management and instruction. Classroom activities maximise opportunities for learners to use target language in a communicative way through meaningful activities. Emphasis is on meaning (me ssages they are creating or task they are completing) rather than form (correctn ess of language and language structure). A variety of language forms are presented together with the emphasis on the proc ess of communication. Students work with language at the discourse/suprasentential level learn about c oherence and cohesion. Games are important because they have certain features in common with real commu nicative eventsthere is a purpose for the exchange. The speaker receives immediat e feedback from the listener on whether or not he or she has successfully commun icated Teaching is more learner-centered. Students are more involved, rather than o nly listening to the teacher. Students are given opportunities to express their ideas and opinions and to contribute as much as possible. Errors are tolerated and seen as a natural outcome of the development of communi cation skills. Learners doing their best to use the language creatively and spo ntaneously are certain to make errors. As such constant correction is deemed unn ecessary and sometimes even counter-productive. Hence, activities focus on flue ncy where the teacher does not correct the student, but simply notes the error, which he will return to at a later point. Thus, the form of language becomes s econdary. One of the teachers major responsibilities is to establish situations likely to p romote communication. Teachers should provide opportunities for rehearsal of re al-life situations and provide opportunity for real communication. Emphasis shou ld be on creative role-plays/ simulations/ surveys/ projects/ playlets which pr oduce spontaneity and improvisation and not mere repetition and drills Communicative interaction encourages cooperative relationships among students. I t gives students an opportunity to work on negotiating meaning. The use of pa ir-work and group-work activities is common as well as individual and also teach er-led activities. Varied types of interaction are encouraged. Learners hear mor e types of language from different sources, interact with more people and use la nguage in context which further helps to build confidence in the students.

The social context of the communicative event is essential in giving meaning to the utterances. Language is viewed and learned within its social and cultural context whereby learners need to develop knowledge of the language in order to develop appropriate language use, for example talking to friends, facilitating a meeting, or writing letters. The teacher acts as a facilitator in setting up communicative activities and as an advisor during the activities. In communicating, a speaker has a choice not only about what to say, but also ho w to say it. Both fluency and accuracy are important as learning to use language forms approp riately is an important part of communicative competence. Grammar is necessary for communication to occur, but not sufficient by itself. T he grammar and vocabulary that the students learn follow from the function, situ ational context, and the roles of the interlocutors. Students need grammatical e xplanations, drills and exercises, when and only when they are appropriate. Students should be given opportunities to listen to language as it is used in au thentic communication. They may be coached on strategies for how to improve the ir comprehension. The use of visual stimuli or resources is important to provoke practical commu nicative languages as they help to motivate and focus pupils attention. Both spoken and written languages are important. Reading, writing, speaking an d listening are all necessary parts of communicative competence. Tutorial Task: What are the implications of the principles above in your teaching context? Do you have other principles that support your teaching? 6.2.3 Techniques of Communicative Approach Communicative Approach uses almost any activity or technique that allows student s to be engaged in authentic communication. Littewood has distinguished two majo r activity types: functional communication activities: these activities are aimed at developing ce rtain language skills and functions, but which involve communication, such as l anguage games , scrambled sentences , picture strip story, puzzles social interaction activities include activities such as conversation and discus sion sessions, dialogues and role plays, simulation, information-gap activity 6.2.4 Strengths and Limitations of Communicative Approach

Communicative Approach like the other language teaching methods has its strengths and limitations. Below are some of the strengths of Communicative App roach: There is greater focus on the role of learners with a shift from teacher-centere d instruction to learner-centred instruction. There is greater attention on the process of learning rather than the products t hat the learners produce. There is greater attention on the social nature of learning rather than looking at learners as separate, decontexualized learners. There is greater focus on the diversity of learners and looking at the differenc es not as obstacles but as resources. Helps to promote holistic learning.

Emphasis on the importance of meaning rather than drills and other forms of rote learning. Views learning as a life-long process rather than being exam-oriented. Below are some of the limitations of Communicative Approach: The communicative approach focuses on the use of language in everyday situations , or the functional aspects of language, and less on the formal structures. Howe ver, critics believe that there needs to be some sort of "bridge" between the tw o in order for effective language learning. The approach relies extensively on the functional-notational syllabus which plac es heavy demands on the learners. The various categories of language functions are overlapping and not systematica lly graded like the structures of the language. A major premise underlying this approach is its emphasis on learners needs and interests. This implies that every teacher should modify the syllabus to corresp ond with the needs of the learners. The approach gives priority to meanings and rules of use rather than to grammar and rules of structure. The latter are taught by means of functions and notions. Such concentration on language behavior may result in negative consequences in the sense that important structures and rules may be left out. The requirements are difficult: availability of a classroom that can allow for g roup work activities and for teaching aids and materials.

6.2.5 Role of teacher, learners and resources 6.2.5.1Role of teacher The teacher facilitates communication in the classroom. In this role, one of hi s major responsibilities is to establish situations likely to promote communicat ion. During the activities he acts as an adviser, answering students questions a nd monitoring their performance. He might make note of their errors to be worke d on at a later time during more accuracy-based activities. At other times he m ight be a co-communicator engaging in the communicative activity along with studen ts (Littlewood, 1981). 6.2.5.2 Role of learners Students are communicators. They are actively engaged in negotiating meaningin t rying to make them understood and in understanding others. Since the teachers ro le is less dominant than in a teacher-centered method, students are seen as more responsible managers of their own learning 6.2.5.3 Role of resources One of the principles of Communicative Approach is the use of authentic resources. Communicative approach seeks to use authentic resources as they are m ore interesting and motivating. Authentic resources are used to: Provide cultural information about the target language Provide exposure to real language Relate more closely to learners needs Allow for a more creative approach to teaching

Tutorial Task: How useful are authentic resources in your classroom? What difficulties do you encounter when you use authentic resources?

How do you prepare your students to achieve communicative competence?

Relax and move on to the next topic when you are ready.

TOPIC 7 ELT METHODS 7.0 SYNOPSIS Topic 7 provides input on three different ELT methods namely the Lexical Approac h, Eclectic Approach and Task-Based Learning. 7.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the 9. 10. 11. end of this session, you will be able to: explain what is Lexical Approach explain what is Eclectic Approach explain what is Task-Based Learning

7.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS

CONTENT SESSION SEVEN (3 Hours) 7.2.1 Lexical Approach

The Lexical Approach develops many of the principles advanced by the Communicati ve Approach. It was proposed by Dave Willis in 1990 and popularised by Michael L ewis in 1993.The most important difference is the increased understanding of the nature of lexis in naturally occurring language, and its potential contribution to language pedagogy. The lexical approach to second language teaching is seen as an alternative to grammar based approaches.

The lexical approach focuses on developing learners proficiency through lexis, or words and word combinations. According to Lewis (1993) an important part of lan guage acquisition is the ability to comprehend and produce lexical phrases as un analyzed wholes, or chunks, and that these chunks become the raw data by which lea rners perceive patterns of language traditionally thought of as grammar. Lexis i s deemed as central in creating meaning. As such, language instruction focuses on relatively fixed expressions that occur frequently in spoken language, such a s, Im sorry, I didnt mean to make you jump, or That will never happen to me, rather t on originally created sentences . Lewis (1993), who termed the phrase lexical approach, has suggested the followin g: Lexis is the basis of language. Lexis is misunderstood in language teaching because it is assumed that grammar is the basis of language and as such mastery of the grammatical s ystem is a requirement for effective communication. The key notion of a lexical approach is that language consists of

grammaticalised lexis not lexicalised grammar. One of the central organizing principles of any meaning centered syllabus should be lexis. Lewis (1997) has also suggested the following taxonomy of lexical items: words (e.g., book, pen) polywords (e.g., by the way, upside down) collocations, or word partnerships (e.g., community service, absolutely convinced) institutionalized utterances (e.g., Ill get it; Well see; Thatll do; If I were you . . .; Would you like a cup of coffee?) sentence frames and heads (e.g., That is not as . . . as you think; The fact/suggestion/problem/danger was . . . ) and even text frames (e.g., In this paper we explore . . .; Firstly . . .; Secondly . . .; Finally . . .) Below are the key principles of the Lexical Approach: Language consists of grammaticalised lexis, not lexicalised grammar. The grammar/vocabulary dichotomy is invalid; much of language consists of multiwords chunks . A vital element of language teaching is raising students awareness of, and deve loping their ability to chunk language successfully. Although structural patterns are known as useful, lexical and metaphorical patte rning are accorded appropriate status. Collocation is integrated as an organising principle within syllabuses. The central metaphor of language is holistic. It is the co-textual rather than the situational element of context which is of primary importance for language teaching. Grammar as a receptive skill, involving the perception of similarity and differe nce, is prioritised. Receptive skills, particularly listening, are given enhanced status. The Present-Practice-Produce paradigm is rejected, in favour of a paradigm based on the Observe-Hypothesize-Experiment cycle. Activities used to develop learners knowledge of lexical chains include the foll owing: Intensive and extensive listening and reading in the target language. First and second language comparisons and translation are carried out chunk-for-chunk rather than word-for-word and this is aimed at raising language awareness. Repetition and recycling of activities, such as summarizing a text orally one day and again a few days later are done to keep words and expressions that have been learned active. Guessing the meaning of vocabulary items from context. Noticing and recording language patterns and collocations. Working with dictionaries and other reference tools. The language activities carried out with a lexical approach must be directed tow ard language occurring naturally. What is important is raising learners awareness of the lexical nature of language. The logical implication of this premise is that we should spend more time helping learners develop their repertoire of phra ses, and less time on grammatical structures. Tutorial Task: Do you think the Lexical Approach can be implemented in your classroom? What possible challenges to do foresee in the implementation of the approach?

7.2.2 Eclectic approach The eclectic approach is the label given to a teacher s use of techniques and ac tivities from a range of language teaching approaches and methodologies. The tea cher decides what methodology or approach to use depending on the aims of the le sson and the learners in the group. Most course books have a mixture of approach es and methodologies. A typical lesson might combine elements from a variety sources such as Total Ph ysical Response (TPR), Task-Based Learning (TBL), the communicative approach , e .g. in opinion gap activities; the lexical approach, e.g. focusing on lexical ch unks in a reading text; and the structural-situational approach, e.g. establishi ng a context for the presentation of new structures. The following is an example of a lesson using the eclectic approach. The class begins with an inductive activity with the students asked to identify the different uses of synonyms of movement based on a reading text. They then pr actise these using Total Physical Response (TPR). In the next lesson the input is recycled through a task-based lesson, with the students instructed to produce the instructions for an exercise manual. 7.2.3 Task-Based Learning (TBL)

Originally developed by N Prabhu in Bangalore, Southern India, it is based on th e belief that students may learn more effectively when their minds are focused o n the task, rather than on the language they are using. A task-based approach aims to provide learners a natural context for language us e with the primary focus of classroom activity being the task and language is th e instrument which the students use to complete it. The task is an activity in w hich students use language to achieve a specific outcome. The activity reflects real life and learners focus on meaning; they are free to use any language they want. Relevant and authentic tasks include playing a game, solving a problem or sharing information or experiences. More recently, tasks have included projects for producing posters, brochures, pamphlets, oral presentations, radio plays, v ideos, websites and dramatic performances. The characteristic of all these tasks is that rather than concentrating on one particular structure, function or voca bulary group, these tasks exploit a wider range of language. In many cases, stud ents may also be using a range of different communicative language skills. In TBL an activity in which students are given a list of words to use is not con sidered as a genuine task. A role play which does not contain a problem-solving element or where students are not given a goal to reach is also not considered a n authentic task.. In many role plays students simply act out their restricted r ole. For instance, a role play where students have to act out roles as sales per son. However, if the role play has a goal to it for example the students must come to an agreement or find the right solution within the given time limit the n the role play can be considered a genuine task in TBL. In task-based lessons, the tasks will generate their own language and create an opportunity for language acquisition. The belief is that if the focus is taken away from form and structures, teachers can develop the students ability to do th ings in English. This does not mean there will be no attention paid to accuracy, work on language is included in each task and feedback and language focus have their places in the lesson plans. Teachers have a responsibility to enrich their students language when they see it is necessary but students should be given the opportunity to use English in the classroom as they use their own languages in everyday life. Many task-based lessons follow the task structure proposed by Jane Willis (1996) , in her book A Framework for Task-Based Learning, which outlines a model for orga nizing lessons.

Figure 1: The Willis TBL Framework (1996) Figure 1 shows that each task will be organized in the following way: Pre-task activity an introduction to topic and task Task cycle: Task > Planning > Report Language Focus and Feedback

Task-based learning (TBL) is typically based on the three stages of Williss Model . The first of these is the pre-task stage, where the teacher introduces and def ines the topic and the learners engage in activities that either helps them to r ecall words and phrases that will be useful for the main task or to learn new wo rds and phrases that are essential to the task. This stage is followed by the "t ask cycle". Here the learners perform the task, which can be a reading or listen ing exercise or a problem-solving exercise, in pairs or small groups. They then prepare a report for the whole class on how they did the task and what conclusio ns they have reached. Finally, they present their findings to the class in spoke n or written form. The final stage is the language focus stage, during which spe cific language features from the task are highlighted and worked on. Feedback on the learners performance at the reporting stage may also be appropriate at this point. A balance should be kept between fluency, which is what the task provide s, and accuracy, which is provided by task feedback. The main advantages of TBL are that language is used for a genuine purpose meani ng that real communication should take place and that at the stage where the lea rners are preparing their report for the whole class, they are forced to conside r language form in general rather than concentrating on a single form unlike the PPP model. The aim of TBL is to integrate all four skills and to move from flue ncy to accuracy plus fluency. The range of tasks available such as reading texts , listening texts, problem-solving, role-plays, questionnaires, etc. offers a gr eat deal of flexibility in this model and should lead to more motivating activit ies for the learners. Learners who are used to a more traditional approach based on a grammatical syll abus may find it difficult, but if TBL is integrated with a systematic approach to grammar and lexis, the outcome can be a comprehensive approach that can be ad apted to meet the needs of all learners. Task-based learning can be very effect ive at intermediate levels and beyond, but many teachers question its usefulness at lower levels. In general, the methodology requires a change in the tradition al teacher s role.

Which of the approaches above can you adapt to your own teaching context? What are the possible problems you may encounter in using the above approaches?

Relax and move on to the next topic when you are ready.

TOPIC 8 SYLLABUS DESIGN MALAYSIAN PRIMARY SCHOOL ENGLISH CURRICULUM

Tutorial task:

8.0 SYNOPSIS As you already know about the Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Rendah(KBSR) 2001, Top ic 8 introduces you to the Kurikulum Standard Sekolah Rendah (KSSR) 2011. As ed ucation plays a very important role in achieving national unity, the KBSR was de veloped to attain national identity and unity. The national education policy is based on the Razak Report 91956) and the Rahman Talib Report(1960). These report s formed the bases of the Education Ordinance 1957 and the Education Act 1961 re spectively. In introducing KSSR, this unit will also help you to recap your knowledge of the aims and objectives and features of KBSR. The discussion include the curriculum content: learning outcomes, language content and educational emphases of the KB SR. Pedagogical approaches which are employed in the teaching of English will al so be taken into account. You will be exposed to the principles of KSSR, its aims and objectives and curri culum documents. Furthermore the modular approach will be explained. 8.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this Session, you will be able to: 1. state the aims and objectives in the KBSR English language Syllabus; 2. identify and categorise the language components and skills by listing th eir reference numbers; 3. state the goals and principles of the KSSR; 4. list and briefly describe the curriculum transformation; 5. explain the modular approach in teaching English in the primary school. 8.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS

CONTENT SESSION EIGHT (3 Hours) 8.3 Syllabus Design - Malaysian Primary School English Curriculum

Principles Techniques Strengths/Limitations Role of Teacher, Learners, and Resources Lets recap what you know about KBSR.

You have to read the extract of the KBSR English language Syllabus and answer al l the questions that follow. TASK 8.1

State whether each statement is TRUE or FALSE in the spaces provided. 1 English Language is taught as second language in all government-assiste d schools. 2 The key feature in KBSR is the integration of skills and topics in the t eaching-learning process. 3 The aims of the English language syllabus for the primary school is to e quip pupils with basic skills and knowledge of the English language to enable th em to communicate, both orally and in writing, in and out of schools. 4 Moral values should be inculcated in the teaching-learning process. 5 By the end of Year 6, primary school pupils will be able to listen and u nderstand simple spoken English in given contexts. 6 By the end of Year 6, pupils will be able to speak and respond clearly a nd appropriately using simple language. 7 By the end of Year 6, primary school pupils will be able to read and und erstand different kinds of texts for enjoyment and information 8 Teachers are encouraged to use a variety of texts, both verbal and non-v erbal in their lessons. 9 Proper pronunciation and the use of appropriate register are also emphas ised in the development of oral skills. 10 Through the reading component, study skills will be developed to enable pupils to locate and extract information from various sources. Check your answers with your tutor. TASK 8.2 Complete the grid below with reference to your KBSR English language syllabus. Language Skills Listening Numbering No.of skills to be taught Check your answers with your tutor. TASK 8.3 Fill in blanks in the grid below. Ref no. Skills Language Component Scope 1.2 Developing auditory memory. Listening Repeating sounds, number s and sentences. Ask for and give instructions. 3.3 To identify, to refute, to describe, to explain. 4.7 Use the dictionary activities, processes

2.8 4.10 Perform a variety of functions in a social context. to get the appropriate meaning in context Check your answers with your tutor. TASK 8.4 State whether each statement is TRUE or FALSE. No Statement T/F 1 The KBSR syllabus emphasized that language skills be taught in an integr ated manner. 2 The listening skill allows the development of inferencing skills.

3 Pronunciation is taught through listening as well as the speaking compon ent of the syllabus. 4 5 There is provision for teaching pre-writing skills. Teachers are encouraged to use authentic texts in the classroom.

6 There is a scope for acquiring word attack skills in both the listening and reading skills components. 7 Pupils are taught to use correct conventions of writing for different pu rposes. 8 Problem-solving skills are developed through the reading component of KB SR syllabus. 9 Pupils are exposed to the skills of filling in forms in the writing comp onent. 10 Besides the language skills, the sound system, grammar and word lists ha ve to be acquired by pupils by the end of Year 6. Check your answers with your tutor. 8.4 The 2011 PRIMARY ENGLISH LANGUAGE CURRICULUM or better known as the Kur ikulum Standard Sekolah Rendah (KSSR) 8.4.1

8.4.2

8.4.3

8.4.4 PRINCIPLES Back to basics building a strong foundation of competencies in basic literacy skills; reading t hrough phonics, penmanship, basic listening and speaking Learning is fun, meaningful, purposeful activities are contextualized, meaningful and purposeful; fun-filled activities Integration of skills

Teaching is learner-centred learners needs and salient learner factors (environment, family, language use con texts, entry behaviour) Integration of salient new technologies use of ICT to facilitate and encourage meaningful language practice creative and innovative use of the new technologies by pupils to enhance languag e learning in the classroom 8.4.5 CURRICULUM TRANSFORMATION Modular approach Curriculum Standards Content Standards Learning standards Assessment school-based, authentic Teaching and learning focus Language Skills Language Arts Phonics Grammar 8.4.6 GENERAL AIMS Primary ( exit after Year 6) The English Language Curriculum for Primary Schools aims to equip pupils with ba sic language skills to enable them to communicate effectively in a variety of co ntexts thats appropriate to the pupils level of development Secondary (exit after Form 5) Pupils will be able to communicate effectively, read and respond to texts indepe ndently, produce well-structured written texts, enjoy and respond to literary wo Character-building infused inculcating moral values

rks and make confident presentations.

8.4.7 OBJECTIVES By the end of Year 6, pupils should be able to: communicate with peers and adults confidently and appropriately in formal and informal situations; read and comprehend a range of English texts for information and enjoymen t; write a range of texts using appropriate language, style and form through a variety of media; appreciate and demonstrate understanding of English language or creative works for enjoyment; and use correct and appropriate rules of grammar in speech and writing. literary

8.4.8 CONTENT AND LEARNING STANDARDS LISTENING & SPEAKING 1.1 Pupils will be able to pronounce words and speak confidently with the correct stress, rhythm and intonation. 1.1.1 Able to listen and respond to stimulus given with guidance: (a) environmental sounds (b) instrumental sounds (c) body percussion (d) rhythm and thyme (e) alliteration (f) voice sounds (g) oral blending and segmenting 1.1.2 Able to listen to and enjoy simple stories. 1.1.3 Able to listen to, say aloud and recite rhymes or sing songs wi th guidance. 1.1.4 Able to talk about a stimulus with guidance. 1.3 texts by: (a) giving Yes/No replies (b) answering simple Wh-Questions Pupils will be able to understand and respond to oral texts in a variety of contexts. 1.3.1 Able to listen to and demonstrate understanding of oral

READING 2.1 Pupils will be able to apply knowledge of sounds of letters to recognise words in linear and non-linear texts. 2.1.1 Able to identify and distinguish the shapes of th e letters in the alphabet. 2.1.2 Able to recognise and articulate initial, medial and the final sounds in single syllable words within given context: (a) s a t p (b) i n m d (c) g o c k (d) ck e u r (e) h b f,ff l,ll ss (f ) j v w x (g) y z,zz qu 2.1.3 Able to blend two to four phonemes into recognisable words and read them aloud. 2.1.4 Able to segment words into phonemes to spell. 2.2 Pupils will be able to demonstrate understanding of a variety of linear and non-linear texts in the form of print and non-print materials using a range of strategies to construct meaning. 2.2.1 Able to read and apply word recognition and word attack skills by matching words with : (a) graphics (b) spoken words 2.2.2 inear texts. 2.2.3 guidance. 2.2.5 2.3 2.2.4 Able to read a paragraph of 3 5 simple sentences. Able to apply basic dictionary skills using picture dictionaries. Pupils will be able to read independently for information and enjoyment. 2.3.1 Able to read simple texts with guidance: (a) fiction (b) non-fiction Able to read and understand sentences (3-5 words) with Able to read and understand phrases in linear and non-l

WRITING 3.1 Pupils will be able to form letters and words in neat legible print including cursive writing. 3.1.1 Able to demonstrate fine motor control of hands and fingers by: (a) handling objects and manipulating them. (b) moving hands and fingers using writing apparatus (c) using correct posture and pen hold grip (d) scribbling in clockwise movement (e) scribbling in anti-clockwise movement (f) drawing simple strokes up and down (g) drawing lines from left to right (h) drawing patterns 3.1.2 Able to copy and write in neat legible print:

(a) (b) ( c) (d) (e) (f) 3.2

small (lowercase) letters capital (uppercase) letters numerals words phrases simple sentences

Pupils will be able to write using appropriate language, form and style

for a range of purposes. 3. 2.1 Able to complete with guidance: (a) forms with personal details (b) lists 3.2.2 3.2.3 Able to write 3-5 word sentences with guidance. Able to punctuate correctly:

(a) capital letters (b) full stop (c ) question mark 3.3 Pupils will be able to write and present ideas through a variety of media. 3.3.1 Able to create simple non-linear texts using a variety of m edia with guidance: (a) greeting cards (b) lists 8.5 LANGUAGE ARTS 4.1 Pupils will be able to enjoy and appreciate rhymes, poems and Songs through performance. 4.1.1 Able song through 4.1.2 Able action songs to listen to and enjoy nursery rhymes, jazz chants and action non-verbal response. to listen to and recite nursery rhymes, jazz chants and sing with correct pronunciation and rhythm.

4.2 Pupils will be able to demonstrate understanding of and express personal response to literary texts. 4.2.1 Able to listen to and talk about stories with guidance: (a) book covers (b) pictures in books 4.3 Pupils will be able to plan, organize and produce creative works for e njoyment. 4.3.1 Able to produce simple creative works with guidan ce based on: (a) nursery (b) (c) (d) rhymes action songs jazz chants stories

4.3.2 e based on:

Able to take part with guidance in a performanc (a) (b) (c) (d) nursery rhymes action songs jazz chants stories

8.6 GRAMMAR 5.1 Pupils will be able to use different word classes correctly and appropriately. 5.1.1 (a) (b) (c) (d) 5.2 Able to use nouns correctly and appropriately: common nouns proper nouns singular nouns plural nouns

Pupils will be able to construct various sentence types correctly. 5.1.2 Able to construct declarative sentences correctly.

8.7

8.8

8.9

Scheme of Work Weekly, Semester 8.9.1 ( Source : Curriculum Development Division, 2011)

Tutorial Task TASK 8.5 1. Draw up suitable graphic organizers to compare and contrast between KBSR and KSSR. 2. Explain briefly the educational emphases included in the KBSR.

3. 4. 5. 6. d KSSR?

Briefly describe the importance of pronunciation in KSSR. Explain with your own examples what you understand by Language Arts. What is the teaching approach employed by KSSR? Is there any difference between the lesson structure proposed by KBSR an Elaborate with concrete examples.

Check your answers with your peers and tutor. Take a break before you move on to the next topic.

TOPIC 9 SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING IN THE CLASSROOM 9.0 SYNOPSIS Topic 9 introduces you to some issues of second language learning pertaining to audiolingualism. It also introduces the PPP procedure in language learning. 9.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this session, you will be able to: 1. identify some issues of second language learning pertaining to audiolin gualism 2. explain the different stages in the PPP procedure 3. devise a teaching plan using the PPP procedure

9.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS

CONTENT SESSION NINE (3 Hours) 9.2.1 Issues of Second Language Learning

The issues that will be discussed here are related to audiolingualism as it were these issues that resulted in the introduction and use of the PPP Approach or p rocedure in the Communicative Language Teaching Method.

Exercise 1: 1. What is the language learning theory that audiolingualism is bas ed on? 2. 3. 4. State the principles of audiolingualism. Name three techniques used in audiolingualism. What are some of the shortcomings of audiolingulism?

You would have gone through in detail about audiolingualism or the au dio-lingual method in Topic 4. What we will discuss here briefly are the issues related to audiolingualism which resulted in the use of PPP Approach. Audiolingualism which is based on Behaviourist Learning Theory relie d heavily on drills to form habits in language learning. Emphasis on accuracy o f the language through repetition of correct utterances was supported by positiv e reinforcement. However much of the audio-lingual method of language learning remained at sentence level. There was limited placing of language in real-life context. Hence, there grew a need to place language in clear situational conte xt. This lead to introduction of the PPP Approach. 9.2.2 The PPP Approach

The "Three Ps" procedure is a variation of the audiolingual method. PPP stands for presentation, practice and production. It is based on structural-s ituational teaching where the focus is to place language in clear situational co ntexts. It is very important to understand what "Presentation", "Practice" and "Production" really are, and to see how they work in together to create effectiv e communicative language learning. Presentation is the beginning or introduction to learning language, with product ion being the end product of the learning process, whereby a learner becomes a " user" of the language in contrast to a "student" of the language. Practice is t he process that helps a learner to progress from the initial stage through to th e final one. This is how it works. At the beginning of a lesson, the teacher introduces a si tuation which contextualizes the new language to be taught. Then the language or linguistic "model" is presented. With this "model" in mind, the students pra ctise the new language through a variety of "controlled" activities such as cora l repetition, individual repetition and cue-response drills. After sufficient p ractice, the students move into "productive" activity, where a situation calls f or the language to be used naturally without correction or control. For example the students can construct their own sentences. In general, for communicative language learning to be most effective, the three stages need to occur and flow smoothly from one stage to the next. PRESENTATION This is the first and the most crucial stage of the language learning process. Presentation involves the building of a situation requiring natural and logical use of the new language. When the students recognize and understand the "situat ion", they will then start building a conceptual understanding of the meaning be hind the new language, and why it will be relevant and useful to them. When the situation surrounding the new language and the conceptual meaning of it has bee n achieved, the new language is introduced through a linguistic "model". It is this linguistic model or language presented that the students will go on to prac tise and achieve naturally during a productive activity without help. It is important for the teacher to build on whatever English the students have a lready learned or have some access to when introducing a situation and getting t he students to build the concept underlying the new language. At primary levels , using pictures and body language are common ways of presenting new language. Dialogues and text can also be used when the students have progressed. There are a various ways in which new language items or linguistic models can be p resented. What is important is that these presentations should have at least so

me of the following features: meaningful, memorable and realistic examples; have logical connection; contextualized; clear models; sufficient meaningful repetit ion; are brief and can be recycled PRACTICE: The practice stage is the important middle stage to communicative language teach ing. Sometimes this stage is over-done" or used ineffectively. This may be due to a poor or no presentation stage. In some cases it is not used as a natural p rogression or step towards production. The type of practice activities should be appropriate to the language being lear ned as well as the level and competence of the students. Practice is done to en sure that the students get the accurate language as well as to get the students to be familiar with the language. Hence an effective practice stage is one wher e repetition leads to competence and accuracy. Practice activities need to be clear and understandable and should promote a deg ree of confidence in the students. A well planned practice activity will genera te the students motivation. Practice activities should be challenging, but wit hin the reach of the students. Practice activities usually involve moving the students from the individual dril ls to pair work such as chain pair-work, closed pair-work and open pair-work. I t is this communicative practice that leads to final stage of production. PRODUCTION: The production stage is the most important stage of communicative language teach ing. A good indicator of a successful production is when students move from bei ng "students" or learners of the language to "users" of the language. The production stage involves creating a situation which requires the students t o use the language that was introduced in the presentation stage independently. The situation should allow the students produce more personalized language. A successful production stage depends on an effective practice stage. This is bec ause if the practice stage is not able to build the students confidence in the la nguage then they will naturally be hesitant to independently "use" it in the pro duction stage. One of the most important things you have to remember is that production activit ies should not "tell" the students what to say. In the practice stage, the stud ents have most or all of the information required, but in the production stage t hey do not have the information and therefore must think. As such it would be g ood if real life" situations are given in the production stage. Getting student s engaged in productive classroom activities can require a certain level of cogn itive ability. Hence, as teachers you should prepare well thought out and plann ed activities. Some good examples of effective production activities include situational role-p lays, debates, discussions, problem-solving, narratives, descriptions, quizzes a nd games. The following demonstrates the use of the PPP procedure: PRESENTATION: The teacher shows the students the following picture and elicits some facts abou t it. The teacher points to the man carrying the Malaysian flag to elicit the sentence He is carrying the Malaysian flag by asking Whats the man doing? The teacher then models the sentence The man is carrying the Malaysian flag. This is repeated with the other people in the picture.

PRACTICE: The teacher gets the students to repeat the sentences in chorus. The teacher picks individual students to repeat the sentences. The teacher gives a cue (woman in yellow) and gets the students to respond.

PRODUCTION: The teacher asks students to construct their own sentences e.g. think about what their family members are doing at the moment.

Tutorial Task Devise a teaching plan to show your understanding of the PPP procedure.

Relax and move on to the next topic when you are ready.

TOPIC 10 10.0 SYNOPSIS

SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING IN THE CLASSROOM

Topic 10 provides you with input on alternatives to Presentation, Practice, and Production. It also deals with the teaching implications of these alternatives in the primary ELT classroom. 10.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this session, you will be able to: 1. name the alternatives to Presentation, Practice, and Production 2. explain the alternatives to Presentation, Practice, and Production 3. explain the teaching implications of the alternatives in the primary ELT

classroom 10.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS

CONTENT SESSION TEN (3 Hours) 10.2.1 Alternatives to Presentation, Practice and Production The PPP Approach or procedure in the Communicative Language Teaching Method which was introduced in the mid 1960s came under criticism in the 1990s. Exercise 1: 1. Do you use the PPP procedure in your classroom? Why? 2. What are the strengths of the PPP procedure? 3. What are the shortcomings of the PPP procedure? One of the main criticisms of the PPP procedure is that it is teache r-centred. This is in contrast with the humanistic and learner-centred approach that was prevalent in the 1990s. The fact is that the PPP procedure assumes lear ners learn in straight lines, that is, starting from no knowledge, through very st ructured sentence-based patterns straight to instantaneous production was not fa vourable to many. According to Woodward (1993) language cannot be broken down i nto small bits and pieces to learn as it is full of interlocking variables and sy stems. Lewis (1993) was not in favour of the PPP approach as he felt that it did not reflect neither the nature of language nor the nature of learning. It could also be a waste of time and demotivating especially if you might be teaching wh at the students already know. One of the first people to suggest an alternative to the PPP procedure was Keith Johnson in 1982. His suggestion called the deep-end strategy was a var iation of the PPP procedure. He encouraged students into immediate production, in other words throwing them in the deep end. The teacher can see if and where the students have difficulties in the language in the production stage. The tea cher goes back to either the presentation or practice stage after the production stage if deemed necessary. Byrne (1986) had similar views as Johnson. However, he joined the th ree stages of presentation, practice and production into a circle. Here teacher s and students can decide at which stage to begin the procedure. Figure 1 below shows Byrnes alternative approach. .

Figure 1:

Byrnes Alternative Approach

Harmer (2007) suggested ESA: Engage, Study and Activate as an alternative to the PPP procedure. E is for engage. Getting the students emotionally engaged with what is going on is important to ensure effective learning. S stands for study.

Here the focus of the teaching and learning process is on how something is con structed. The study may focus on forms of the language such as relative clauses , specific intonation patterns, developing a paragraph etc. The teacher can dra w the attention of students to the form of the language during a communicative t ask or the students themselves may notice the form of the language. A stands fo r activate. At this stage students are encouraged to use all or any of the lang uage they know. Teachers can plan communicative activities to activate students knowledge. Reading for pleasure or interest also helps students activate their language knowledge. There are three basic lesson procedures in ESA. The first is the Straight Arrows lesson procedure. This procedure is sequential in nature. The teacher engages the students via the presentation of situations, pictures or other means. The s tudy stage involves the explanation of meanings and forms of the language by the teacher. The teacher models the forms of the language and the students repeat and practise them. Activation of the new language is done when students use the language to form their own sentences. The second basic lesson procedure is called the Boomerang procedure. The order he re is EAS. First the teacher gets the students emotionally engaged with the les son. Then the teacher gets the students to do a task for example a written task , a simulation activity or a communicative game. After the activity, the studen ts study some aspects of the language that were incorrectly used by them or what they lack. The final procedure is known as the Patchwork lesson procedure. Here the teacher m ay follow various sequences. The teacher may get the students engaged first, fo llowed by activating their knowledge before studying some language forms before moving on to other activation activities. These may be followed by re-engaging the students and ending with more study on language forms.

Figures 1 to 3 depicts the different lesson procedures of ESA.

Exercise 2: 1. List the alternatives to PPP procedure. 2. Explain the ESA procedure. 3. Discuss the similarities and differences between the three lesson proced ures of ESA. 10.2.2 Teaching Implications of the Alternatives in the Primary School Classroo m The various frameworks suggested as alternatives for the PPP pro cedure such as Johnsons deep-end strategy, Byrnes alternative approach and Harmers ES A imply that teachers should shift from a sequential, teacher-centred approach to a more humanistic and leaner-centred approach. Teachers should bear in mind that getting students emotionally engaged is vital for effective learning. As s uch, teachers should minimize their criticism and encourage their young learners

to be engaged in what is going on in the classroom. Students should have posit ive feelings about what and how they are learning. The teacher should be well-versed in the forms of the language. There would be teachable moments where the teacher needs to focus on the forms of the language. This is something that the teacher must be prepared for. In o ther words preparing for eventualities for the study phase. The teacher should be creative to design communicative tasks tha t will activate students language knowledge. Activities prepared should encourag e students to use of much knowledge of the language that they have. These activ ities should develop a desire for the students to communicate.

Tutorial Task Devise a teaching plan using any of the alternative frameworks discussed above. What are the possible challenges you might face in carrying out the teaching pla n?

Relax and move on to the next topic when you are ready.