CHINESE LITERATURE

OBJECTIVES: 1. 2. 3. 4. Discuss facts and figures about China. Trace the history of Chinese civilization. Analyze the life and teachings of Confucius. Enumerate and explain Confucius’ Five Books and Six Principles.

Facts about CHINA
 CAPITAL : Peking (OLD) Beijing (NEW)  Located in East Asia.  3rd largest country in the world in terms of area (after Russia and Canada) and total of population. OFFICIAL NAME: People’s Republic of China (Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo) 1949 used by the Chinese which originated with the early Chinese concept that china was in the middle of the world.

Qin (Ch’in) dynasty (221 – 206 B.C) – the first unified nation and the word “China” was derived from. COASTLINE: bordering the Yellow East China, and South China Seas about 12,000 km. (7,500 mi.) long. LAND BORDER: 21,260 km. (13,210 mi) shares with other countries: North Korea,Russia,Kazakhstan,Kyrgyzstan,Tajikistan,Mongolia,Afghanistan,India,Pa kistan,Nepal,Bhutan,Burma,Laos and Vietnam.

 China disputes the ownership of the Spartly Islands and the Paracel Islands.  CHINA PROPER: Mongolia, Manchuria and Sinkiang  North China has cold winters and South China has a very hot summers.  Way of living: Cultivation of rice, corn, wheat, millet, barley, soybeans and peanuts.

Tibetans.includes the Turkic Linguistic groups (Kazakh. Uighurs. the practice of religion was discouraged.The Major Religions of China: 1.  Largest cities: Tientsin (the biggest seaport in North China) Shanghai (the Largest City) . Puland. and Koreans.believed in ancestor worship and Confucianism. 2. 2 Largest River: A. Taoism . and Tungusic Group. Salar. Yis. The Largest Beings are:  Huis.family of Southeast Asia is represented in Yunnam Province by the Wa. Miasos.was the religion of the Mongols and the Tibetans.612. Sino-Tibetan 3.The Mandarin Beijing dialect is now China’s National spoken language.338. Mongols.  LANGUAGES: Classified into FOUR major linguistic Families: 1. 1949 – under Communist government. Manchu’s.  RELIGION: . . 4. Buddhism 2. Ural-Altaic. Kirghiz. and the Penglung. Zhuangs(Chuangs). a system of social and political values.968 Multiracial state whose population includes about 92% Han Chinese and about 8% of some 60 other ethnic groups.)Hwang ho – later called YELLOW RIVER (CHINAS SORROW). Uzbek.  EDUCATION: . Mon-Khmer. TIBETAN BUDDHISM.)Yangtze – longest river in all Asia B. Mongolic Groups. Indo-European.represented only by Tajik Speakers. Buyis (Puyis). and Uighur).Canton ( the trading center)  PEOPLE : The population of China in 2009 is 1.

Workers. . made of thin brightly colored paper supported by thin wires “Encarta ® World English Dictionary © & (P) 1998-2005 Microsoft Corporation. with all authority resting in the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). All rights reserved. Epiphany. Christmas. Mardi Gras. Eid-ul-Adha.- During 1950’s and early 1960 educational policy was directed toward producing college and secondary school graduates who were politically reliable and technically qualified. Diwali. Chanukah. and difficult to solve Paper covering for light: a collapsible covering for a light. Eid-ul-Fitr. Kwanzaa. either in the form of a game or a problem that is extremely intricate.” I N T R O D U C T I O N TO C H I N E S E L I T E R A T U R E Chinese language is the most ancient still spoken and probably the oldest written. 1977 (the educational policies of the Cultural Revolution were abandoned. Thanksgiving Extremely intricate and difficult puzzle: a puzzle.  Nationalist Party is led by Chiang Kai-shek  Communist Party is led by Mao Zedong CONTRIBUTION IN MODERN ERA: Important Chinese festival: a festival day that falls between 21 January and 19 February and introduces two weeks of celebrations marking the New Year  Bastille Day. and soldiers were invited to lecture in universities. Passover. peasants. Easter. 1985 (Entrance Examination were reintroduce) - - 1989 (prodemocracy demonstration students were required to complete a year of political education before entering college)  GOVERNMENT: China is a Communist State. CHARACTERISTIC OF CHINESE LANGUAGE:  MONOSYLLABIC – each word has only one syllable. Cultural Revolution the emphasis was on political indoctrination in revolutionary ideology. ingenious. Chinese New Year. New Year. Independence Day. Does not have any polysyllable words.

proper name Fu. a traditionalist. TONAL LANGUAGE – the same word changes in meaning when it is said with an upward or a downward tone or with a high or low tone.C).) Spoken Vocabulary is considerably less than the written vocabulary. Held several minor government posts He advanced to become minister of justice in his home state.signifying teacher Was the Chinese sage who founded Confucianism. CONFUCIUS (551-479 B. He was best known as a teacher. a philosopher.” He refused to discuss Heaven or the Life Hereafter and religion instead he taught them ethics.000 disciples who carried on his teachings.signifying revered Tze.based on ideas and not by Phonetics -Chinese writing has the great number of characters. His disciples looked upon their Great Teacher as an educator and a statesman. The word Confucius is the Westernized form of his name which is Kung Futze. He was also called as “The Superior Man” because he taught his disciples that “He who does not recognize the existence of a Divine Law cannot be a superior man. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE CHINESE LANGUAGE AS SPOKEN AND AS WRITTEN: A. B. (214 signs) -it is written from top to bottom.) Chinese Writing does not represent the sounds of words. IDEOGRAPHIC.one of the truly great men that China has produced. Kung. - . He had taught a total of 3. the founder of Chinese Literature.

the child who was born on the same province where Confucius was born. 6. some are lyric.F I V E B O O K S OF C O N F U C I US 1. CONFUCIUS – the first sage of China.was a good organizer and proselytizer. It has little philosophical content. 4. Man is free to conduct himself as he wills. A man has five duties : to his ruler. 2. the book stresses the cherishing of thoughts and sentiments of forebears. Book Of ceremonies (Li King) – This voluminous work on etiquette was re-edited about 100 B. to his friends. Man should strive to become a superior man. Best known for his Book of Analects.so called because. . 5.C. but it is noteworthy for history of Confucius’ native province of Lu from 722 to 484 B. If one does good for a reward or avoids evil for fear of punishment – that is not a virtue. 2. Book of Spring and Autumn (Ch’ un ch’ ui). Book of Changes (Yi King) – ascribed to Wan Wang. according to its admirers. it is made up of a geometrical combination of six lines plus sixty four explanatory essays. MANG. This book was used by the Chinese for divination. to his father. Book of Poetry ( Shi King) – a selection of 305 best poems. Some of the poems are odes written for various occasions. Virtue is it own reward. and it was supposed by some to present a secret and profound philosophy but no key has been found. do not do to them. The rule for individual behavior is: what you do not want others to do to you. to his elder brother. 3. his wife (and she to him). and he is master of his choice. it’s praises were as stimulating as spring.C the two Tai cousins. while its censures were as withering as autumn. 3. MENCIUS. 5. 4. Human nature is good and evil is essentially unnatural. and the most important of these is the filial duty.  SIX PRINCIPLES: 1. based on documents allegedly written by Confucius. The book is valuable for insight into the manners and customs of the ancient Chinese. Book of Historical Documents (Shu King) – this is a formulation of the political ideals and the fundamentals of good government.

jen) artist.founder southern school of Chinese art and became the models for the later literati (wen.) The Cold Mountain B.themes are the sorrows of those separated by demands of duty. With a striking vividness they treat of love. . a figure of legendary stature is considered the founder of the pure landscape style of painting and was one of the masters of lyric verse in the T’ang dynasty. . .) Walking at Leisure   LI PO (701 – 62) – one of the greatest figures of Chinese Literature. and simple village living. Chinese painter and poet.Li T’ai Po was born into the minor nobility in what is now Sichuan province. CONFUCIANISM – a Chinese ethical and philosophical system developed from the teaching of the Chinese Philosopher Confucius. rich and exact imagery. and beauty of language.2000 poems collected in 1080 are remarkable for their musical quality.) Departure C. POEMS: A. POEMS: -  Conversation in the Mountains The moon over the Mountains Pass Saying Farewell to a Friend Drinking Along in the Moonlight . . -admired for their Sensitivity to nature . . the relief found in wine. or unworldly poet painter. friendship. Chinese Poets  Wang Wei (699-759). -The first painter to treat landscape as an evocation of nature rather than as a vehicle for colorful.the second sage of China.His writings deal with the good things of life and with pathos of human destiny. and a Taoist appreciation for the awesome tranquility of mountains and rivers and a sense of the mysteries of life. artificial decorations. wine.known for inadequate rubbings taken from stone engravings of his famous Wang--chuan hand scroll and in paraphrases of his paintings by later artists. nature. which was the accepted manner of his day.MENCIUS .

but as his own life became more difficult. Historical  This themes produced Poetry.    TU FU (710 – 70 ) .  THEMES OF WRITINGS 1.D DRAMA – another old and important literary form.was raise according to Confucian tradition in a family known for scholarly interests. . POEMS: - Those who Speak Buying Flowers  Early writings generally derived from Philosophical or Religious Essay such as work of: . .  Peking Opera – a variety of popular and standard themes are presented here.How people should act and how the society and political system should be organized and operated.Combines vernacular language with music and song and thus has been popular with the common people.Confucius (551 – 479 B.Lao Tzu ( 4th century B.was a well-known Chinese poet who represented the classical Tradition in Chinese Literature.C) . . Philosophical 2.Summer Night . feeling about the suffering of human kind enter his verse. and Dramatic Writings POETRY – well established as a literary form during the T’ang Dynasty from 618 to 907 A.C) .The Empty Purse . POEMS: .is regarded by many as the greatest Chinese Poet. .I (722 – 846 ).CHU.Early poetry is marked by lyrical praise of the beauties of natural world. elements of satire and expression of somber.Looking in the Lake PO. Religious 3.Seeing Hsia Chan Off By River . Politics. Novel.To the Distant One . and Morality.

it is believed.“ Shih Huang Ti was determined to be an absolutist ruler and opposed to writings on good government such as those in the Classics. NOVELS – often stressed character development and usually centered on an adventure or supernatural happening. all of which have been lost except for some poetry fragments.  Love Stories – “Dream of the Popular Chamber” . In 124 BC a national university was opened for the purpose of teaching Confucianism. essayist. She produced six volumes of poetry and seven volumes of essays. SUNG DYNASTY (960-1279) Li Ch'ing.actively promoted the restoration and teaching of the Classics.Li Po (701-762) and Tu Fu (712-770) were the well known poets of this dynasty. DYNASTY (1279-1368) . HISTORICAL THEMES – Romance of the Three Kingdoms . OR MONGOL.China's best woman poet. DYNASTIES: Ch'in Dynasty (221 to 206 BC).The major poet of this era was T'ao Ch'ien (365-427).written in the late Yuan Period. or Mongol. Her early poems dealt with the joys of love and were intensely personal. YUAN.is a favorite artistic and cultural medium. . He was a master of the five-word line and has been called the first of China's great nature poets because most of his writings deal with rural activities. he ordered the burning of all texts that appeared threatening to him.China’s most popular novel. a poet. Han Dynasty (206 BC to AD 220). Tang Dynasty . Dynasty  . th Lu Xun – Most famous 20 century writer.Kublai Khan The best-known ruler of the Yuan. His verse was in a plain style that was imitated by poets long after. Chinese Opera . In 213.Chao (1081-1141) .Civil Services Exam Sui Dynasty (AD 221 to 618) . and novelist whose work focused on the need to modernized through revolution.the singular feature in literary matters was what is called the "Burning of the Books.

- . and vernacular fiction was firmly established.the success of the Communist revolution in 1949. vaudeville acts.In literature Chinese drama came to the fore for the first time. genuine creativity was rare.fashioned. skits. imitative. .Literary revolution.fashioned and imitative. OR MANCHU. In 1915 Youth Magazine (later. and shadow plays of previous ages had laid the foundation for a full-fledged drama. POLITICAL AND LITERARY REVOLUTIONS .Most Ming literature in both prose and poetry was traditional. New Youth) was founded by Ch'en Tu-hsiu (1879-1942). and old.During its reign most Chinese literature tended to be old. DYNASTY (1644-1911) . Puppet shows. who soon became a founder of the Chinese Communist party. MING DYNASTY (1368-1644) . CH'ING.

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