# Developed by Scott Civjan University of Massachusetts, Amherst 1

Yielding on Gross Area, Ag

Tension Theory

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**Yield on Gross Area
**

When a member is loaded the strength is limited by the yielding of the entire cross section.

P=FyA L0 yL0

Tension Theory 3

**Yield on Gross Area
**

When a member is loaded the strength is limited by the yielding of the entire cross section.

P=FyA L yL0

Tension Theory

P

P

4

Yield on Gross Area

However, consider how this is affected by the stress-strain conditions. Consider L0=100 inch long tension member.

Tension Theory

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Yield on Gross Area

Fu Fy Esh

E y sh

u .1 to .2 Strain

Tension Theory

.001 to .002 .01 to .03

.1 to .2

u

.2 to .3

6

r

Yield on Gross Area

Fu Fy Esh

E y

**Δy = 0.0015(100) = 0.15”
**

sh

u .1 to .2

.1 to .2

.001 to .002 .01 to .03

Strain

Tension Theory

u

.2 to .3

7

r

Yield on Gross Area

Fu Fy Esh

Δsh = 0.02(100) = 2”

E y

**Δy = 0.0015(100) = 0.15”
**

sh

u .1 to .2

.1 to .2

.001 to .002 .01 to .03

Strain

Tension Theory

u

.2 to .3

8

r

**Yield on Gross Area
**

Δu = 0.15(100) = 15”

Fu Fy Esh

Δsh = 0.02(100) = 2”

E y

**Δy = 0.0015(100) = 0.15”
**

sh

u .1 to .2

.1 to .2

.001 to .002 .01 to .03

Strain

Tension Theory

u

.2 to .3

9

r

**Yield on Gross Area
**

Consider L0 = 100 inch long tension member. ΔYield = approx. 0.00172(100) = ΔOnset of Strain Hardening = approx. 0.02(100) ΔPeak Load = approx. 0.15(100) 0.172” = 2” = 15”

**Excessive deformations defines “Failure” for tension member yielding. Limit to FyAg.
**

Tension Theory 10

Rupture on Effective Net Area, Ae

Tension Theory

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Rupture on Effective Net Area

If holes are included in the cross section less area resists the tension force. Bolt holes are larger than the bolt diameter. In addition, processes of punching holes can damage the steel around the perimeter.

Tension Theory 12

Rupture on Effective Net Area

Design typically uses average stress values. This assumption relies on the inherent ductility of steel.

Pn

Tension Theory

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Rupture on Effective Net Area

**Design typically uses average stress values. This assumption relies on the inherent ductility of steel.
**

Initial stresses will typically include stress concentrations due to higher strains at these locations.

Pn

Tension Theory

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Rupture on Effective Net Area

**Design typically uses average stress values. This assumption relies on the inherent ductility of steel.
**

Highest strain locations yield, then elongate along plastic plateau while adjacent stresses increase with additional strain.

Pn

Tension Theory

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Rupture on Effective Net Area

Design typically uses average stress values. This assumption relies on the inherent ductility of steel.

Pn

Eventually at very high strains the ductility of steel results in full yielding of the cross section.

Tension Theory 16

Rupture on Effective Net Area

Design typically uses average stress values. This assumption relies on the inherent ductility of steel.

Pn

**Therefore average stresses are typically used in design.
**

Tension Theory 17

Rupture on Effective Net Area

Similarly, bolts and surrounding material will yield prior to rupture due to the inherent ductility of steel. Therefore assume each bolt transfers equal force .

Pn

Tension Theory

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Rupture on Effective Net Area

Shear Lag affects members where: Only a portion of the cross section is connected, Connection does not have sufficient length.

Tension Theory

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**Rupture on Effective Net Area
**

The plate will fail in the line with the highest force (for similar number of bolts in each line). Each bolt line shown transfers 1/3 of the total force.

**Pn Bolt line 3 2 1
**

Tension Theory

**Net area reduced by hole area Cross Section
**

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**Rupture on Effective Net Area
**

The plate will fail in the line with the highest force (for similar number of bolts in each line). Each bolt line shown transfers 1/3 of the total force. Pn

Pn

**Pn Bolt line 3 2 1
**

Tension Theory

**Net area reduced by hole area Cross Section
**

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**Rupture on Effective Net Area
**

The plate will fail in the line with the highest force (for similar number of bolts in each line). Each bolt line shown transfers 1/3 of the total force. Pn/6 2/3Pn Pn/6 Pn

**Pn Bolt line 3 2 1
**

Tension Theory

**Net area reduced by hole area Cross Section
**

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**Rupture on Effective Net Area
**

The plate will fail in the line with the highest force (for similar number of bolts in each line). Each bolt line shown transfers 1/3 of the total force. Pn/6 Pn/6 1/3Pn Pn Pu/6 Pn/6 Pu n

**Pn Bolt line 3 2 1
**

Tension Theory

**Net area reduced by hole area Cross Section
**

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**Rupture on Effective Net Area
**

The plate will fail in the line with the highest force (for similar number of bolts in each line). Each bolt line shown transfers 1/3 of the total force. Pn/6 Pn/6 Pn/6 0 Pn/6 Pn/6 Pn/6 Pn

**Pn Bolt line 3 2 1
**

Tension Theory

**Net area reduced by hole area Cross Section
**

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**Rupture on Effective Net Area
**

The plate will fail in the line with the highest force (for similar number of bolts in each line). Each bolt line shown transfers 1/3 of the total force.

Bolt line 1 resists Pn in the plate. Force in plate Bolt line 2 resists 2/3Pn in the plate. Bolt line 3 resists 1/3Pn in the plate. Net area Pn 0 1/3 2/3 Pn reduced by Pn Pn hole area Cross Section 1 Bolt line 3 2

Tension Theory 25

Rupture on Effective Net Area

**Consider how this is affected by the stress-strain conditions. Consider L0=1 inch diameter holes.
**

1 inch

Pn

Tension Theory

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Rupture on Effective Net Area

Fu Fy Esh

E y sh

u .1 to .2 Strain

Tension Theory

.001 to .002 .01 to .03

.1 to .2

u

.2 to .3

27

r

Rupture on Effective Net Area

Fu Fy = Esh

50 ksi

E y

Δ = 0.0017(1) = 0.0017”

sh

u .1 to .2

.1 to .2

.001 to .002 .01 to .03

Strain

Tension Theory

u

.2 to .3

28

r

Rupture on Effective Net Area

Fu Fy Esh

**Δ = 0.02(1) = 0.02” Δ = 0.0015(1) = 0.0015”
**

sh

E y

u .1 to .2

.1 to .2

.001 to .002 .01 to .03

Strain

Tension Theory

u

.2 to .3

29

r

Rupture on Effective Net Area

Δu = 0.15(1) = 0.15”

Fu Fy Esh

Δsh = 0.02(1) = 0.02”

E y

**Δy = 0.0017(1) = 0.0017”
**

sh

u .1 to .2

.1 to .2

.001 to .002 .01 to .03

Strain

Tension Theory

u

.2 to .3

30

r

Rupture on Effective Net Area

Consider L0=1 inch hole diameter. ΔYield = approx. 0.00172(1) = 0.00172” ΔOnset of Strain Hardening = approx. 0.02(1) = 0.02” ΔPeak Load = approx. 0.15(1) = 0.15” Failure at net area can achieve Fu so long as ductility is available.

Tension Theory

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Rupture on Effective Net Area

For a plate with a typical bolt pattern the rupture plane is shown. Yield on Ag would occur along the length of the member. Both failure modes depend on cross-sectional areas.

Rupture failure across section at lead bolts.

Pn

Yield failure (elongation) occurs along the length of the member.

Tension Theory

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Rupture on Effective Net Area

What if holes are not in a line perpendicular to the load? Need to include additional length/area of failure plane due to non-perpendicular path.

g s

Pn

Additional strength depends on: Geometric length increase Combination of tension and shear stresses Combined effect makes a direct calculation difficult.

Tension Theory 33

Rupture on Effective Net Area

Boundary of force transfer into the plate from each bolt.

Pn

As the force is transferred from each bolt it spreads through the tension member. This is sometimes called the “flow of forces” Note that the forces from the left 4 bolts act on the full cross section at the failure plane (bolt line nearest load application).

Tension Theory

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Rupture on Effective Net Area

Now consider a much wider plate. Pn

At the rupture plane (right bolts) forces have not engaged the entire plate.

Tension Theory

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Rupture on Effective Net Area

Rupture Plane

Now consider a much wider plate.

Pn

At rupture plane (right bolts) forces have not engaged the entire plate.

Tension Theory

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Rupture on Effective Net Area

Portion of member carrying no tension.

Rupture Plane

Now consider a much wider plate.

Pn

At the rupture plane (right bolts) forces have not engaged the entire plate.

Tension Theory

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Rupture on Effective Net Area

Portion of member carrying no tension.

Rupture Plane

**Now consider a much wider plate.
**

Effective length of rupture plane

Pn

At the rupture plane (right bolts) forces have not engaged the entire plate.

Tension Theory

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Rupture on Effective Net Area

This concept describes the Whitmore Section.

30o 30o

Pn

lw= width of Whitmore Section

Tension Theory

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Rupture on Effective Net Area

Shear Lag

Accounts for distance required for stresses to distribute from connectors into the full cross section. Largest influence when Only a portion of the cross section is connected. Connection does not have sufficient length.

Tension Theory 40

Rupture on Effective Net Area

Shear Lag

Ae = Effective Net Area An = Net Area Ae ≠ An Due to Shear Lag

Tension Theory

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Rupture on Effective Net Area

Pn

l= Length of Connection

Tension Theory

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Rupture on Effective Net Area

Pn

Rupture Plane l= Length of Connection

Tension Theory

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Rupture on Effective Net Area

Pn

Distribution of Forces Through Section

Rupture Plane l= Length of Connection

Tension Theory

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Rupture on Effective Net Area

Section Carrying Tension Forces Distribution of Forces Through Section

Pn

Rupture Plane l= Length of Connection

Tension Theory

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Rupture on Effective Net Area

Pn

Area not Effective in Tension Due to Shear Lag

**Effective Net Area in Tension
**

Tension Theory

**Shear lag less influential when l is long, or if outstanding leg has minimal area or eccentricity
**

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Block Shear

Tension Theory

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Block Shear Failure Tears Out Block of Steel Block defined by: Center line of holes Edge of welds State of Combined Yielding and Rupture Failure Planes At least one each in tension and shear.

Tension Theory 48

Block Shear Typical Examples in Tension Members: Angle Connected on One Leg W-Shape Flange Connection Plate Connection

Tension Theory

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Block Shear

Angle Bolted to Plate

Pn

Pn

Tension Theory

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Block Shear

Shear plane on Angle

Angle Bolted to Plate

Pn

Tension plane on Angle

Pn

**Tension plane on Plate
**

Tension Theory

Shear plane on Plate

**(Shorter Dimension Controls if Fy and t are the same)
**

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Block Shear

Angle Bolted to Plate

Pn

Block Failure from Angle Block Failure From Plate Pn

Tension Theory

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Block Shear

Flange of W-Shape Bolted to Plate

Pn

**First look at the W-Shape, then the plate
**

Tension Theory 53

Block Shear

Shear planes on W-Shape

Flange of W-Shape Bolted to Plate

Pn

Tension planes on W-Shape

**First look at the W-Shape, then the plate
**

Tension Theory 54

Block Shear

Flange of W-Shape Bolted to Plate

Pn

Block Failure in W-Shape

First look at the W-Shape, then the plate

Tension Theory

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Block Shear

Flange of W-Shape Bolted to Plate

Pn

Pn

Tension Theory

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Block Shear

Flange of W-Shape Bolted to Plate

Pn

Shear planes on Plate Tension planes on Plate Pn

**Tension plane on Plate
**

Tension Theory

**Shear planes on Plate
**

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Block Shear

Flange of W-Shape Bolted to Plate

Pn

Block Failure in Plate Pn

**Block Failure in Plate
**

Tension Theory 58

Block Shear

**Angle or Plate Welded to Plate
**

Pn

Weld around the perimeter Two Block Shear Failures to Check

Tension Theory

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Block Shear

**Angle or Plate Welded to Plate
**

Pn

Pn

Tension Theory

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Block Shear

**Angle or Plate Welded to Plate
**

Pn Shear plane on Plate Tension plane on Plate

**Pn Shear planes on Plate Tension plane on Plate
**

Tension Theory 61

Block Shear

**Angle or Plate Welded to Plate
**

Pn

Block Failure From Plate Pn

Tension Theory

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Bearing at Bolt Holes

Tension Theory

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Bearing at Bolt Holes Bolts bear into material around hole. Direct bearing can deform the bolt hole an excessive amount and be limited by direct bearing capacity. If the clear space to adjacent hole or edge distance is small, capacity may be limited by tearing out a section of base material at the bolt.

Tension Theory

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**Bearing at Bolt Holes
**

Bolt Pn

Bolt induces bearing stresses on the base material.

Tension Theory

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**Bearing at Bolt Holes
**

Bolt Pn

Which can result in excessive deformation of the bolt hole,

Tension Theory

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**Bearing at Bolt Holes
**

Lc Bolt Pn

When bearing stresses act on bolts that are near the edge of the material (Lc dimension is small).

Lc= clear distance, in the direction of load, between the edge of the hole and the edge of the adjacent hole or the edge of the material.

Tension Theory 67

Bearing at Bolt Holes

Pn

A block of material can tear out to the plate edge due to bearing.

Tension Theory

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**Bearing at Bolt Holes
**

Lc Bolt Pn

Similarly, when bearing stresses act on bolts that are closely spaced (Lc dimension is small).

Tension Theory

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Bearing at Bolt Holes

Pn

A block of material can tear out between the bolt holes due to bearing stresses.

Tension Theory

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