UC-NRLF

75D

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REESE LIBRARY
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT .

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R. A.A. NEW YORK CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS r 53 J 57 FIFTH AVENUE 1896 . PROFESSOR OF ARCHITECTURE AT THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF ARTS NEW AND ENLARGED EDITION (UNIVERSITY) OF J V.THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT BY JAMES WARD HEAD-MASTER OF THE IUACCLE9FIELD SCHOOL OF ART EDITED BY GEORGE AITCHISON.

. LIMITED.RICHARD CLAY & SONS. LONDON & BUNGAY.

so the necessary information could only be picked up by extensive reading and independent observation. Ward's book on The Elementary Principles of Ornament was sent me. I was disposed to write a text-book. Having written the original Syllabus on the Principles of Ornament. In writing the new not other avocations prevented me. but as I thought it would be unfair to Mr. Syllabus this year I could not recommend it for a text-book as it stood. it contained some doubtful passages. and being printed from a course of lectures it was a little too discursive. and these are not to be expected from young students. and the book has no index. in fact I know of no book where the subjects treated show such keen observation and profound knowledge. had Last year Mr. and though it was a useful book and had a glossary. I found there was no good English text-book on the subject.EDITOR'S PREFACE As Examiner on the Principles of Ornament at the Science and Art Department. treated Certain parts of the subject have been admirably by Moody in his Lectures and Lessons on Art. Ward for me to write a text-book after . but they are embedded in lectures on other subjects.

Japanese. I consented to edit a new I may here say that I have left Mr. . GEORGE AITCHISON. and have not Ogham. Ward's edition. Assyrians. Burmese. musical comparisons as revised his views on found them. and Runic. nor those on I the symbolic ornament of the Egyptians. Buddhists. Siamese.viii EDITOR'S PREFACE the trouble he had taken. and Brahmins. Hebrews.

as little of the architecture was left plain to act as a foil to the enrichment. working under to Roman while the Romans. abstracted the beauties of conferred them on stone and marble to emphasize and adorn the rigid forms of Archihow the Greeks seized on the exquisite tecture beauties of flowers. but to all students. The ornamented nations. so as to . and used them in the most sparing way . figure sculpture apart. carefully revised the I have also book without altering added an Appendix containing a few remarks on the Orders of Architecture. retain the greatest purity of form. Va EDITOR'S PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION I HAVE its substance. while from the . * . used them lavishly . . and adapted them. with illustrations of some of the best classical examples believing that this would be useful. entirely different plants.x># 1 'HE (UNIVERSITY. or Greeks dictation. each parts of the Greek Orders. and Roman show how two cognate abilities with transcendent but of an and range. not only to carvers and modellers who have to execute enrichments on Architecture. and eventually were so procure magnificence with their ornament as to defeat the end in prodigal view.

The great art of the present day seems to consist in copying nature as exactly as it can be copied in hard but in materials to make a colourable imitation of floral . .x EDITOR'S PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION quantity employed no time could be spared to perfect the ornament. his experience GEORGE AITCHISON. Ward has added several illustrations which shows him will be useful to students. and the methods of drawing conic sections and spirals. The power such a way that its highest beauties are lost. Mr. and he has added an Appendix on the construction of some geometrical figures. of abstracting and applying the beauties form seems now to be entirely lost.

this belief is shared me by many of the principal art masters in the country. the Government Examiner in the subject and Professor of Architecture at the Royal Academy.AUTHOR'S PREFACE IN the preface to the first edition of this book. I was. I stated that the contents consisted of a series of class lectures given to art students. strongly without any attempt 'at revision. there are none that exclusively treat of the theory.A.R.. The present edition has been edited and revised by Professor Aitchison. and by many gentlemen whose names stand high in the list of decorative artists. and did SG ever. These lectures were not originally intended for publication. was gratified to find that the book received a the favourable recognition from the authorities of Science and Art Department. under the title of Elementary Principles of Ornament. or what is known as with the "principles of ornament". judging from the numerous I letters and opinions first I received after the publication of the edition. howadvised to publish them. A. To that gentleman I here . Although there are many excellent text-books on ornament published at the present time.

The illustrations must only be accepted as black- board diagrams. F. a few that appeared in the .A.xii AUTHOR'S PREFACE grateful thanks for his invaluable services in connection with the book. and. new introductory wish here also to express my best thanks to John Vinycomb. J. the thanks of all students in Professor Aitchison has also written chapter. for his valuable suggestions to me in the chapter on symbolic ornament.I.R. WARD. . they are merely intended as aids in explanation of the text more illustrations have been added to this edition.. former edition have been left out.. if I ornamental the I add. I am sure desire to record I my shall be right art. S. Esq.

CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. and Ceilings Relief Work on Ceilings 50 . CHAPTER The Laws of Composition in III Ornament enumerated and 40 explained CHAPTER IV The Shapes and Decoration of Mouldings Fluted and Reeded Ornament Treatment of Floors. Flat. Methods of Expression OutColoured. II forms line used in Ornament Straight and 26 Ornament The Greek Honeysuckle. and Shaded Ornament 19 Definition of Arabesques CHAPTER Elementary Curved &c. Walls. . BY THE EDITOR i CHAPTER Definition of I Ornament lined. Relieved.

. Candelabra..... .. and on Flat Surfaces thus. Modern Use and Treatment .. Raphael's Arabesques Christian Symbolism son of Symbolic and Esthetic Ornament APPENDIX ON THE ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE 145 A CHAPTER ON THE GLOSSARY CONSTRUCTION OF FIGURES AND CURVES IN PRACTICAL PLANE GEOMETRY 176 199 ..... of the Acan..xiv CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE Outline and Division of Surfaces Proportion of Rectangular Surfaces Spacing and Decoration of CirDecoration of Various cular and Curved Objects Shapes.... 108 CHAPTER The Symbolic and Mnemonic VIII Classes of Ornament .... . . . of Planes and of Large Flat Surfaces Abuses of Purely Natural Forms applied to Articles of Use Application of Ornament and Materials in Wall Decoration 68 CHAPTER The VI Ornament 80 Six Classes or Great Divisions of CHAPTER The in VII Plants Its Application of Plants in Ornament Historic Ornament The Acanthus Used Use by the Ancients in Capitals.. 130 CHAPTER IX Compari138 ...

from nature Acanthus (Spinosus).. olive-leaf variety.158 159 153 Ultor Arrangement of a wall-paper pattern Arrangements for wall-paper or room decoration. Greek Borders of Medallions in enamelled earthenware by Luca Delia Robbia Borders. sixteenth century Border.. olive-leaf variety...187 84 80-83 77 Bead and reel 78 Book-cover (German).. from a capital of Mars 156. &c. from a capital of the Tower of the Winds.. 119 140.. 157 . from a Roman capital . Persian Borders derived from the laurel Bracts used for " clothing" stems in Scrolls...^3t L ^i/4/Jju^x^ ^v OF THE I IVERSITT) INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS FIGS. Acanthus. upright lily. 152 1 Acanthus (Mollis). 137. modern varieties of sea-weed and poppyleaved Acanthus Acanthus. 113-117 144 118. Acanthus leaf (Greek). Astragal or bead moulding. from nature Acanthus. Greco-Roman 124 120 Borders. from the soffit of the architrave at the 49 150 155 Temple of Jupiter Stator ...141 .. Acanthus leaf (Greek). Acanthus used on candelabra and small pillars Acanthus. soft-leaved. with its ornament 154. with flowers from a capital of the jChoragic 151 Monument of Lysikrates .. improper .

Roman Corinthian Roman Composite .189 Capitals (Byzantine). showing at at B a proper arrangement 85-87 92 98. with the paterae on the fascia illustrating improper division at .Cento ornament composed of the acan. carved Cinque. . . Saracen .. German origin. Roman Doric Roman Ionic ... oak-leaf.. Entablature of the Erechtheum . sixteenth century . recta 58. Cyma Cyma . 96 A. Greek Doric Capital.. sixteenth century 107 Diaper.. Catenary. 187 188. .. Spirito .. Roman Tuscan 175 176-179 180......... .. 69 Diaper.. panelling of. 93 . by Sansovino Ceilings. . A an improper and 99 Checkers.... Capital. fillings of Ceilings.. . 101 ..107.. .110 100 Diaper. its page ornament - 68 Serlio's architecture . Door case at the Erechtheum. Capital..- 89 88 portion from the vestibule of St... convolvulus and wild rose Circle. Diaper. Sophia at Constantinople. Persian influence.... showing bossing out of ornament A and B 31 56. . (Florence). Italian. Capital. thus...... . Saracenic 172 ..181 182 183 . Capital... 64.. reversa and its ornaments...xvi INDEX Or ILLUSTRATIONS FIGS... See Ogee. explained at Cavetto and Ceiling from Ceiling... 184 185. Greek Ionic Capital.-. Italian. .. . ... sixteenth century 106. '...:. proper division at B . from Sta. D ... showing a portion of Door panels the Architrave. . ornament derived from Contrasting decoration on rectangular and circular floral 130 24-40 95 171 borders Counter-change Counter-change pattern. Capital.... Entablature of the Caryatid portico attached to the C Erechtheum .:. Greek Corinthian Capital.. and its ornament .. '.. .

Roman variety. ...... Parthenon .. .. Japanese decoration Japanese decoration... flat bands 76 Greek Egyptian 12-15 16 162 life Inscription from an Egyptian tablet Inscription (Japanese). Greek Ionic Temple on the .. .. ... Fluted ornaments for Frets. .... Roman . badge of the Empire of Japan 169 Lamp bottoms . 73 71 .. or swag Finger-plates of different outlines 186 .... "Jiu" or long 163 173. .. 175 Ilissus monument of Lysikrates .. 176 180 183 Theatre of Marcellus Temple of Fortuna Virilis 184 185 Entablature of the Pantheon.. Greek Ogee with water-leaf ornament from the Erechtheum Ogee. .... Meander Monograms 44~47 170 in Christian art Mouldings... .. . Ogee. profiles of Roman 61-66 5 5-60 Network.Roman 120 . with its ornaments 57... altered i . Ogee..... 7 1 63. Frets.135 139 145 Laurel from nature Lemon from nature Lily border.INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS Entablature of the Entablature of the Entablature of the Entablature of the Entablature of the xvii FIGS.. .. . 102 . 94 7 5. 2 Kiku-Mon.. ... Greco.70 70. Rome Entablature of Jupiter Tonans Entablature of the Arch of Titus Festoon.... profiles of Greek Mouldings.. . Japanese . . 134. ...'... 1 89 27 . 174 Interchange . .

.. 103. Egyptian symbolic form Scroll ornament on the roof of the Lysikrates Shield (Savage) cut shells E 76A. 121 .43. examples of spiral curves 132 24 ornament chiefly based on . nature .. from Stone Church. .. enriched in the Church 79 67 Panel ornament. ... design from the wild rose . Cinque-Cento .47-51 .. Panel with trophy of arms and armour Panel. 105 3-23 .. by Alfred Stevens Spiral Spiral curves. Frontispiece Pear-tree.. winter aspect... Patera .. Reeded ornaments for flat bands. Rome Ovolo.. illustrating "balance" in ... designed by D onatello .xviii INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS FIGS.. Spotting Straight-lined ornament 84. 766 138 136 161 Monument of 53 made of cane and ornamented with and zig-zags .45... . 160 Pilaster. . . from the Erechtheum. Root forms. 105 Powdering. Renaissance Panel (Venetian)...... ... . Cinque-Cento Pilaster decoration.. Italian 122 123 Placque..... . . Pilaster panel. composed of leaf and floral forms Scarab. .. ... Japanese Reduction of similar ornament in different spaces ... illustrating balance without symmetry Panel... .41.... teenth century German seven125 103...... 97 131 Spandrel (Gothic).. Mediaeval and Oriental Rosettes (Roman)........ .. in silver repousse work. . design for a carved wood panel from the 128 126 127 133 lemon plant .. 146 Panel arrangement from the tiger-lily 148 143 Paperhanging. &c. from a pavement of San Marco. Opus Alexandrinum. .. Kent Spandrel..

104 . asps. showing unequal divisions of the height and strengthening horizontal 129 bands 90. staff of the 168 167 147 god Bacchus Tiger-lily from nature Tree of life from an Assyrian bas-relief with wor- shippers 166 Tripod stand on the top of the roof of the Monument ofLysikrates 54 Vase.. 135 lamp bottoms Tchakra. sacred wheel of Brahma and Vishnu. from the Hildesheim treasures Vases (Modern and Greek). or " xix FIGS.INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS Superimposed Japanese powdering Symbolic ornament. Egyptian symbolic Winged globe and ornament 164 . the Egyptian lotus and water " Tail-pieces. also " wheel of fire " the Thyrsus. 142 See Vase. 165 134.. 91 Wild rose from nature Wine-crater.

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INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER IT not not be amiss to point out the advantages of studying ornamental art even to those who do may mean to be artists. studies to reverence the artists and to admire the of ornamental . the further he proceeds. will him in a cursory view the more his admiration . is to draw or model plants and to learn their anatomy. illustrations of plants are near enough to the originals to be unmistakable. for " art is the mirror of B . but that the grace of the plants As soon as he is sufficiently has evaporated. and receive a He will learn from these corresponding delight. how many to miss. The after acquiring the necessary course to be adopted." . nation that produced them a nation's civilization. he will find out the difficulties the ornamentalists have overcome in applying the great beauties of nature to works of art and will then take a deeper interest in these masterpieces. This will the student accurately acquainted with the forms of plants and of their parts. advanced to study with advantage the best examples art. and as he progresses he will find out beauties which have escaped make be excited by those subtle beauties he finds so hard to render and so easy The student will then notice. geometry.

and not unfrequently ornamentalists. on whom the . delmondo ( ' . art. but though we must all live.' The golden literature is people when couraged . so that their works fall short of the excel- lence of the all Greeks and for Italians. Nothing in this world can be had without paying for it. Amateurs too a rule as excellence only attained when there are many educated lovers of it. 'In the day when the Rhodians shall erect an altar to Minerva. and artist by their judicious admiration. though the figure. am . unfortunately deters amateurs. the following words of Emile de Laveleye. who can appreciate a beautiful creation. in his book on Luxtrty." I rain which falls on any and the fine arts are ena shower of pure and disinterested tempted to say something on the prospects of ornamental art. upon the isle. which of the demand a knowledge of the skeleton and muscles..2 INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER I have spoken only of is floral ornament. find the best kind of alleviation for his hard condition.. studies to The severity. will have more weight " Might not the man of the people. a rain of gold will fall bellezsa * . however. however. highest ornament the human and after that animal forms. who were above will is things figure greatly aid the draughtsmen. of the requisite become a figure draughtsman. delights. if his eyes were open to what Leonardo da Vinci calls la the beautiful things of the earth ? Pindar says. from learning to draw the figure. : reward the curse of matter weighs with so heavy a load. For twenty years I have pointed out that Nature offers her beauties gratuitously to mankind for its solace and delight perhaps.

and not that which is commonNovelty in art is not an absolute place or ugly. we we cannot as yet " love the beautiful make the Greek but until we can hardly expect art to rival those we do who The whole ornamental of the world is now before us. than to mere pecuniary the beautiful.INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER those 3 who have devoted more their lives to the creation of to the delight they give and the admiration they excite. but only that difference and that improvement which one instructed generation can give to the : tastes of former days. if there were a passionate desire for it among the people. charmed it is true that it gets novelty. for that is sure to be bad. difference from what has gone before. This can never be so long as the public is content with paraphrases of deceased art. art. love did. but it should want beautiful novelty. or merely asks for a Novelty we must needs have. praise of real fear boast " that it. unless he be rewarded judges. for this generation does not inherit the precise immediate and it is this generation that wants to be predecessor. master- artist will never devote his talents to an toil requisite to and undergo the ceaseless I create beauty. and it is not to be believed that artists would not elaborate something new and beautiful from all the knowledge they have gained. No The art will ever flourish unless there are its educated and enthusiastic admirers of pieces. jumble of discordant scraps. not even those of its past excellence for the student create it builds on. look rewards. and hopes to in the beauties of new loveliness. to art. be steeped nature and of To attain this a profound study . is It is who born an therefore necessary artist. by the .

Byzantine. Invention and it one of the greatest marks of genius. and . must be founded on precedent art. We have a novel phase of ornament. The highest ornament. is not congenial to our taste. knowledge and invention admirable draughtsmanship is requisite.4 INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER of nature and the masterpieces of former art are " wanted. is . and harmonizes with its architecture the Saracenic tions. Byzantine. or Saracenic sources. Natural foliage arranged on a basis makes a poor contrast to noble All ornamental arts> that are not realistic imita- architecture. conversant with the inventions of others by being " while to express our that we learn to invent is . as Sir Joshua Reynolds said. Much of this work is flabby or wire-drawn. is closely allied to architectural art. . to make them fit their places. geometrical and the framework. but even when the beauty of the plant is not left out. by its abstraction. feelings. the infinitely below the highest flights of which the artist had absorbed the graces of floral growth and had properly applied them. while all its higher achievements is ornament former art. and often omits the highest beauty of the plants it uses. or Gothic ornamental art is mostly too barbaric or too realistic to suit us. . We one complete system of decorative art that only an entirely new direction besides Gothic. we have nothing but Roman. in fact. in are in conjunction with architecture consequently there should be a harmony between the decoration . which consists in twisting or arranging certain plants into the shape required. have took that and that art desires. except when it is borrowed from Roman. for.

which gives the experience and skill of a lifetime by a few lines or touches and this art is more calculated to'captivate . took the place of the antique gods and art of its period . cannot expect to equal at once the masterwe pieces of Greek. this consolation for every true artist let his . by the means before mentioned. and the traces of painting. Little of secular Byzantine art remains. can. Every artist. and have been transfused into ornament by the alembic of his mind such ornament . though it is not probable that it materially differed from the ecclesiastical it was Roman art modified by the and by Greek and Oriental taste.INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER . there will even now be ample recognition of the creations of is any skilled artist who sincere. incised work. be sure of having conquered We the preliminaries of his art. while the Renaissance was an attempted Roman. however. moulded metal-work. genius take him where it will. The highest art is undoubtedly that which will : is the simplest and most perfect. with their attributes or symbols. painting on vases. new goddesses revival of . captivated him. Roman. be sure to find some congenial spirits to admire it and I think I may say that a public sufficiently cultivated to appreciate real art is gradually being formed. and he can be sincere he can give us those beauties from nature that have . . 5 of for ornament Renaissancejirt to fall back on Greek ornamental art we have some carved stonework. the best taste of the day than the complex or the intricate. or Renaissance art have neither the centuries of experience nor the cultivated public. There is. too. However. in religion which saints and martyrs.

and nourishment. and notice that every plant illustrates some. in after ages. and mostly sunshine. revert to the book. and . When he has done this. this is the work of a true artist and he may confer delight on unborn thousands. moisture. and direct attention. must attract insects by their colour or scent. have been followed. In this struggle the plant is often dwarfed or distorted. It is well that he should consider that the main object of every plant is to live and propagate itself: to live it wants air. I will now it.6 INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER : whose works remain that if there are few judges of his work now. To ensure the effect they intend. overlooked. of the laws and when he has clearly distinguished them. satisfy himself that the laws. should observe growing plants. and must allure the insects by the honey they distil to fertilize them so that beauty. consideration. to those beauties of nature that have been . is for the plant a secondary . and mostly many. there may be more hereafter judges who when they look at his work will say. and it must strive to get these necessaries amidst a crowd of competitors. when he has learnt and comprehended the laws. and more frequently some of its parts are deformed. except in still its flowers . he should note any divergence from the laws and endeavour to understand the reason for it. I and confine myself to such remarks as who study The hope may be useful to those student. great artists sometimes ignore the ordinary laws. he should examine the best ornament of antiquity and the Renaissance. involved in the particular example he is studying. the colour of the flowers.

and shows the characteristic beauty and vigour of plant form. This thinness is not to be got if the leaf be carved in stone. be it portrayed on some should conform to the shape of the object. and he succeeds in doing this. it is the lowest sort of convention. Any Gothic ornament was quite new for no sooner did the architects. If not interfere with the use of the object.g.INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER In ornament. on the contrary. masons. He should in cases expressed will in the that his design can be material to be used. will not be easily destroyed. with all the beauty left out. and by the use to which the object is to be put 'e. carpenters. This necessary abstraction we unfortunately call convention. will afford ample illustrations of conupon temporary convention in its worst form. his skill. the artist must therefore see what beauties he can abstract from the plant he has chosen or from floral growth generally. cheap speculative houses that have carving them. this is it is of the highest sort . be governed by the quality of the material. almost of the thinness of the real leaf. carvers. Roman. or they cease to be ornament. a leaf may be carved in certain woods. so that all it can be carved. Ornament has material. and others . and Renais- sance ornament. or carved also in to it . taste. . while when a coarse and clumsy imitation of nature is made. that it will know ornament the object. is 7 the only except . beauty consideration. and when it makes good ornament. and judg- ment will be admired. perhaps in mnemonic and symbolic ornament and these must have beauty. but then it must be preserved in a glass case. found in the best Greek.

their carved flora. and being able to see each figure and piece of ornament in its place. mouldings. . and flowers. or shafts. . All their ornament answered its main end. while much of it was vigorous but some of the early Gothic foliage has no grace. and might be mistaken for hanks of string on pieces of firewood. world arts. animals. and would not be beholden to them. or worm-eaten wigs. trees. leaves. and another to be able for every and to bring plants. is often destitute of floral character. that he knows and loves. or that he has gazed on to satiety.8 INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER had surpassed the old world in conthan they looked down on all the old skill. The first touch of the Renaissance brought a sweetness of proportion to architecture and a grace to floral ornament that is most striking. his townhis church ornamented with the flowers and hall. But it is one thing to have a longing. . . and sometimes they got that mys- high art. instead of with the plants conventionalized plants of other countries that he does not know. one must desire to see his house. they never missed their effect. as well as the Romans and Byzantines why should they not make as good statues and ornament ? There is much to be said in favour of this contention. and flowers into the domain of early Gothic sculptors did give a certain and in some cases even a monumental air to crispness. find that they structive They were determined to begin afresh they had human beings. plants. of giving a broken mass of light and shade to contrast with plain surfaces. The terious look of infinite complexity that is found in nature. From the sculptors working on the spot. and they had invention to a marvellous degree.

some ornament that. continued by the Romans. Stevens has given a peculiarly plastic character monument. and has been treated in an entirely novel way by Alfred Stevens in our own day. that it has been treated for ages by skilful men. so that its faults have been corrected. though new floral capitals may be invented. The egg and tongue may be cited as an instance. A coarse caricature of it is still the most popular ornament of . and used by the by the Renaissance Byzantines with a different character. To take the acanthus first. From the first. and it has been fitted to properly fill the requisite shapes. then adopted artists. and the ornament must have had some striking qualities to make it popular for why else should it have been preferred and persisted in. however. seems incapable of further improvement. It has never been improved since the perfecting of Greek architecture. the artist must have noticed some special beauties and fitness in the plant he chose. nor has any good substitute for it been found. with marked want of success. the ovolo. when so many other plants had great beauty ? There is. to its leafage in the Wellington it form of . after it has once been perfected. it was started by the Greeks. The Greek honeysuckle and the acanthus are the most striking examples of good traditional ornament. new graces have been added to it. that improvement on the old lines is scarcely to be expected. That which is used in the Corinthian capital has had such an infinity of pains bestowed on it. The Romans converted it into a floral form at the Temple of Jupiter Tonans.INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER Good traditional 9 ornament has these inestimable advantages.

old Greek and Roman Corinthian columns have been used together. has been perfected to the end the though. as in thing was sacrificed to was rather deficient in of the most exquisite sacrificed Romans destined it all human inventions. substituted the olive-leaf for the natural used but four or used. The Greek capital outline. and dignified. The top of the complete leaf curls over. and are also thrown up by the shade in their points. and thus .*o INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER leaf. In their colossal capitals. . Even when it was on a smaller scale. and dignity when it was used in colossal ticularly necessary monuments. in the latter the edges of the raffles are . we can see the advantages of the change. these qualities being parstrength. the Romans mostly . but when the two are seen in conjunction as parts of the building. Every portion of the to fulfil. while the Greek one is a confused mass. and this was it by the Romans to attain distinctness. but floral was possessed grace. the parsley. and the endive were occasionally of the variety is the only lines ribs. As an isolated ornament the Greek capital is greatly to be preferred. someattain it. bright against the half light of the leaflets above. In the best examples. the Roman capital is clear. and though the oak-leaf. In some Byzantine buildings. the upper edges of each leaflet are mostly clear of the one above or overlap it in the first case they are thrown up by the shadow behind. distinct. down to its rafflings. and olive-leafed Each raffle hollowed by a curve without being those made by each leaflet is hollowed out like a cockle-shell as well. five in each leaflet raffle. the edges of the hollows.

and then carve it. The lower leaves are cut through horizontally in the middle. and come straight down on to the necking. that come from the eyes between the leaflets. then model it. There is perhaps but one other ornament that the is radiating worthy profoundest study. taper downwards. so there the contrast between masses of light. and were of finer artistic fibre though scale. too. known as the Greek honeyThis ornament is full of subtle devices. besides having the best Roman examples for their models. of the . The acanthus and other floral ornament used by the deserve quite as Italian Renaissance artists . The Italian artists were. than above the necking. ornament of the Greeks. when the bell turns inwards The student will do well to carefully draw a good example. and introduced it wherever they could do so appropriately. for it has been the type from which most good floral capitals have been derived. graduated shade. If examples are compared. making no). and graduated shadow. in suckle. while the pipes. and this stem tapers upwards. The back of the leaf was used to get a wide stem. thus the whole leaf distinct and vigorous (Fig.INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER throws its u is shadow on the part below. and are deeply undercut. are nearly parallel with the stem. nearly as fond of the human figure as the Greeks. the superiority of the parallel pipes over those that run into the stem is at once seen. their it than the Romans. which gives much more vigour to the capital. much attention as the Roman for ornament was not on the same colossal was done by excellent figure sculptors who had studied ornament.

. and so improved on it. saved from monotony by the magical change of the patterns on the beholder shifting his position. Saracenic ornament affords the only instances of complete floral decoration without the figures of it is inclined to be forms are too pregeometrical dominant. artists possessed. and tained by trifling differences of level in the planes of the ornament and by gilding. and have no refined graces. in its even distribution. are usually coarse and poor. and when they wholly ornamented a profile. This effect is ob. When the sculptor had carved his ornament on an architectural monument " he seemed to say. and engraved or sunk other parts. in the proportioning of the masses. Many of the Greek running patterns are both original and effective. Its floral forms. that the . too. and in the making of the one another.12 INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER the elegant graduation of its forms. to attract attention to the ornament. " Better this if you can too. a horizontality verticality introduced. were pre-eminent in knowing the use of restraint and the value of plainness. some in low relief. ! The Byzantines understood the value of gradation. man or animals and although monotonous. The Greeks. it is. however. that gives the highest value to the composition all showing the intimate acquaintance with nature that the Greek . general effect of their best work resembles Greek art at the proper distance the subordinate ornament looks like a mere difference of texture. when coloured and gilt. they made some parts in bold. The Saracens learned this art from them. different curves enhance the value of suggestion of There or is often. and in some of them tangential junction is distinctly avoided.

in the Caryatid temple attached to the Erechtheum. Sepulchre at Jerusalem built. and so had to be smaller. A Byzantine which charmed Mr. One a device I think. by the propriety of using such an incident in the conventional stone ornaments of a The supporting member may be doubted. Mark's the leaves of capitals caught by the wind and blown aside. I may also draw attention to another device. pilasters (Figs. member. . still we must admire the observation and genius of the sculptor and there are many opportunities of using such an incident . and used in the marble capitals of its columns and and B). out ornament to catch the light. when he had the Church of the Holy that was. Ruskin at St. i.e. Sophia at Salonica. Constantine bossing the Great. Sophia at Constantinople. There are cases where architectural features have and at the same time to be emphasized No better example of this is to be found than too.INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER There are a few points not touched on which it 13 in the is book may be well to mention. and doubtless the silversmiths in working them hammered out some bosses to catch the light. Its entablature was below the main one. for the when the ornament is not on a supporting I point it out to show what fresh resources ornamentalist are to be found in nature. some of which were partly calcined late fire. when he has the industry to observe and the talent to create. and yet was wanted to be important to be reduced. Capitals with a similar device existed in Sta. had the capitals of the sanctuary columns made of silver. This device was seized on by the sculptors of Sta. only used by the Byzantines.

Byzantine Capitals from Sta. . showing the bossing out of the ornament. ^ FIGS. Sophia at Constantinople.t%g^r&sgjs&& A and B.

FIG. C.

Entablature of the Erechtheum.

o
FIG.

o
of the Caryatid portico of the Erechtheum.

D* Entablature

16

INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER

and weighty enough for the figures. All the frieze but the capping was consequently left out, the top fascia of the architrave was enriched with circular
discs,

and

and between the cappings of the architrave a deep dentil band was introduced. Mainly these means the due effect was gained (Figs. C by and D), Ornament has sometimes to be repeated in a composition on a smaller scale, and this should not be done by merely reducing the scale so as to have
frieze

a diminutive reproduction, but by keeping the general form of the ornament with fewer details. Several ex-

amples maybe found in M.Mayeux's book. Instances of the same motive being repeated in the same height and in a narrower width are sometimes found. An example may be seen beneath the double and single windows of an hotel in the Rue Dalbard, Toulouse 2
(Fig. E).
I

1

ll

FIG. E.

Reduction of similar ornament

in different spaces.

Much might be said on the subject of materials, but I will only make a few remarks. In making a
design, due consideration should be given to the material employed, so that the natural ornamentation

of one material
is

may not be put on another pottery turned on the wheel, and is adapted for painting, while hollow metal vessels are embossed, but it is
;

1

a

M. Henri Mayeux, La Composition Decorative, 8vo, Paris, s.a. See M. Cesar Daly's Motifs HiStorique^ fol, Paris, 1881.

INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER
common enough
it is

17

yet

to see pottery embossed, which can, true, be accomplished by casting or by inlaying, this sort of ornamentation always looks in-

Stone is usually of large and wood appropriate. of small scantling, yet in the front of a stone building
with arched openings the wooden door-head is often made a continuation of the stone impost, though the mouldings of the wood-work should be finer and the

ornament

different.

Although the young student should confine his attention to the best styles, the advanced one should
have some acquaintance with all traditional ornament, even the styles of Louis XIV. and XV., a grafting of Chinese and Japanese ornament on the current classic,
fof they are the only

modern styles, except the early The same that have complete unity. Renaissance, runs through the whole building, down to the style
door furniture and the damask of the chairs
;

the

handling, too, is often admirable, and the examples are full of hints to the advanced student, who is
unlikely to be infected with the rococo style. I have dwelt much on carving for several reasons
it

;

the most lasting of ornamental work, and as a it is susceptible of the rule the most important
is
;

greatest perfection when executed in marble, and all architectural ornament must eventually fall into the

hands of the sculptor, since he has devoted his life I may add that the French architects to its study.
look upon it as the weak point in English architecture. To the young student I may say that he can never become an artist until he has mastered the

fundamental principles of his art and that nothing can deserve the name of ornament that is not both
;

c

i8

INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER

appropriate and beautiful, and has been evolved from I would suggest to the nature by the mind of man.

young

artist that

the flora of the world

is

not confined

to the lotus, the honeysuckle, and the acanthus ; that if accident caused the original choice of these plants, it was the infinite pains bestowed on their treatment

that caused their persistence. There are, too, thousands of beauties still to be culled from plants and flowers that now remain outside the domain of art. Let the

student remember that knowledge, skill, truth, and sincerity are the main roads to real success, and that real success is, to have produced some beauty that

has captivated or will captivate mankind.
G.

AlTCHISON.

are good. may be called decoration. beautiful . and neither emphasizes the boundaries of the decorated surface nor harmonizes with them. but cannot in our sense of word be called ornament for however realistic the ornament may be. . It is the function of ornament to emphasize new the forms of the object it decorates. or forms as will give the thing decorated a while strictly preserving its shape and beauty. for the drawing and colour and the style of execution With the exception of frets and diapers. 19 vZRSITY . not to hide them.THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT CHAPTER is I ORNAMENTsurface object or and colours. it must show that it has passed through the mind of man. the lovely sprays of plants with birds and cognate subjects. This kind of decoration might be a literal transcript from nature. character. and been acted on by it. Decoration is not necessarily ornament for instance. painted on Japanese pottery. It possesses an exquisite beauty of its own. the proper enrichment of an with such forms.

but . order. . Japanese decoration altered. Something must be done with it before we can give it that name. I might have been made from a shadow cast on a window. I. \ To make an ornamental design. Japanese decoration. sketch at Fig.20 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT ornament is true rare in Japanese art. even distribution. 2. while No. the units of the decoration must be arranged and brought into order repetition and symmetry may not be required. having at the same time a due regard to the boundary-lines of the panel. The whole too must not appear to be accidental but designed for the object. a design is pretty. but we can hardly call it ornament. FIG. Fig. i is a Such Japanese decoration on an oblong surface. The. and balance are indispensable. I evenly distributed. FIG. 2 is an attempt to illustrate our notion of ornament by using the elements in Fig.

medallions. &c. or stippling. hatching. spotting.. as in modelling and sculpture. or shading. were used together. which may may be used alone. objects. and in combination with applied inappropriate ornament ornament. or sinking.METHODS OF EXPRESSION 21 Applied ornament is that which is specially designed and fitted for the position it occupies. Independent ornaments are such things as shields. if . but out of scale with one another or things were made to simulate what they are not or there were a great excess of enrichment. by pure as is traced with a point flat tints secondly. . . each of these examples might be considered . . thirdly. For inupright panels and pilasters were decorated may with ornament running in oblique lines. be attached to a surface. 133). or (Fig. or is falsely if As constructed. as inappropriate ornament. . festoons. relief. columns supporting nothing were used in decoration if consoles or brackets were turned upside down or if curved mouldings were decorated with frets. and other loose ornamental labels. any kind of ornament that is not suited to the surface ornamented. from an architectural point of view. . carpet pattern were designed to run in one particular direction or. where breadth added. Methods of Expression. by by by as in painting with the brush. be called inappropriate. three different Ornament is expressed outline. with or without enclosing frames paterae. or with a strongly-marked series of horizontal bands or if a . organic or otherwise. . stance. in ways: . or panels were overloaded with mouldings if forms. Firstly. Numerous examples may be given of a rule.

e. as well as sgraffito-work when expressed by outline. . in monochrome or colour. lac-work. and the incised work on the Greek. bronze dishes and tablets. mosaic. some enamels. both the prehistoric on bone and on pottery. including oil-cloth enamelled glass and some sgraffito-work. This class in- cludes painted ornament on the flat. the line decoration etchings on Assyrian cylinders. It is convenient to class under this head certain . . hand-mirrors. tile and plaster work. Ornament Expressed in Outline. printed. sectile and Alexandrine pavements damascened metal-work . and vases come under this head decorative . and . stone. Ornament Expressed by Flat Tints. . in two shades one for the ornament and one for the back" ground. All the early work of mankind. whether poly" chromatic or in " grisaille inlaid wood-work. . with no shading and without shadow. and Roman cistas.22 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT These three divisions may be subdivided. called . i. Shaded or painted ornament in the flat is an imitation of relief work. parquetry when used for floors. but all the subdivisions are but varieties or combinations of the first three genera. Relief modelled or pierced orna- ment has no other outline than that given by light and shade but it may also be coloured. . and marquetry when used for other purposes inlaid marble. embrondered. or with the forms and background picked " out in a variety of colours. is a common method of ornamentation. tesselated. Etruscan. cut in plaster showing a different-coloured plaster beneath. and stencilled stuffs. will be noticed again. and painted pottery woven.

were coloured. work pierced. &c. either in relief or sunk. fine filigree and wire. open. being outlined.work. stuffs. damascened work very pretty examples may be found in old Chinese lac. many different substances Tortoiseshell. Relief-work. in geometrical patterns.. Inlay under the name of "Tarsia" was greatly used by the Italians in the decoration of cathedrals and churches and in fittings and furniture in cathedral stalls and sacristy fittings. inlaid with figures and landscapes in black mother-of-pearl. and such compound as may be pierced. Ordinary modelled and carved work. the features. different coloured woods are largely employed for the same purpose by Orientals and others. the colour was . and silver. and A inlay composed of white and stained ivory. or turned and carved or incised as well. and Mediaeval bas-reliefs. Coloured Relief-work* All Egyptian. is much used by the cabinet-makers of India our Tunbridge ware it. mother-of-pearl. is too well known to need but under this heading are included description . boxwood was commonly inlaid in walnut. ivory. and turned work. &c. Greek.METHODS OF EXPRESSION 23 work of slight thickness or relief. silver. species of were sometimes employed. and some if not all of their figure sculpture in the round. and are often used in inlays and . applied work of paper.work. but when the figures were of white marble. is supposed to be an imitation of in Flat Tints enriched by Outline were sometimes used Greek vases. velvet. and . such as lace. ebony. gold. but ebony and ivory were largely employed for house furniture and fittings.

and hair. or alloys in the metal coloured mosaic has been used to clothe columns. plaster was bronze and the precious metals has been coloured by means of enamel. This is probably the largest class. .24 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT generally confined to the flesh. eyes. or the drapery of the figures and the ornament were coloured. which sometimes were embroidered. including the triglyphs. and parts of the ornament the uncut mouldings too were mostly ornamented in colour. smaller figures are wholly gilt. and some mosaic and pietra dura is in relief. mother-of-pearl. shaded ornament in . now in the Museum size are at Constantinople. white marble sarcophagi from Sidon. the figures or ornament were left white on a coloured ground. while figures of half lifeleft coloured and wholly white. was coloured and gilt some Burmese plaster-work in relief is gilt and inlaid with coloured glass. and includes engraving. relief. and certain stuffs have had raised ornament upon them. Italian is white on a purple Renaissance bas-reliefs in and some of the ornament All the ground. " gesso duro" were wholly coloured. coloured and All gilt. . and to In one of the the stripes or patterns on the dresses. and probably carved stone-work. In some enamelled pottery in were often gilt. inlaid with all fine stones. like the terra-cotta ones of Tanagra. In Greek temples the carved ornament was coloured. Roman embossed Much relief-work in . as well as lac and ivory work' and ivory and some Saracen embossed plasterMoresque work. as in some of the Delia Robbia ware. Shaded or Painted Ornament on tion tJie Flat in Imita- of Relief^work. formed by stuffing with wadding the applied pieces.

from whom the name was derived. 2 There are. phrases of Roman us Pompeii offers so wide painted decoration. 1 The chambers under Titus' baths in which the paintings were found. The Mohammedans. brass. mostly avoided the figures of men and 2 animals. . which are laid over sunk (intaglio) work. so spaces were filled with intricate geometrical patterns and coarse foliage. were originally parts of Nero's golden house. tin.METHODS OF EXPRESSION chiaroscuro. and shaded painting on china and glass. of fantastic buildings. Persian. The culminating point in Arabesque painting was the decoration of the loggias of the Vatican by Raphael and his pupil. cent enamels. landscapes. damascened work. or pewter. Mediaeval. and embroidery. The discovery of this kind of painting in the baths of Titus l at Rome led Raphael to adopt it and to improve on it. and embroidery. and in AraWhat we now call Arabesques were parabesques. commonly known as Giovanni da Udine. wood shaded ornament and figure subjects on woven or printed stuffs. . of which These a knowledge. and painters' enamels Boule work. and foliage. it being feared that the portrayal of living creatures might lead them to idolatry. or without 25 and shaded and coloured ornament with in it are included the cast shadows and Renaissance transluChinese. architecshape . which consists of . however. inlaid in ebony or . tortoiseshell with the metal-work engraved tural views. landscapes. Giovanni Recamatore. carpets. figures of men and animals occasionally found in their carved wood-work. animals. inlay in the of shaded natural flowers. even in their secular buildings or furniture. tiles. inter- decorations consisted spersed with figures.

3 to Fig. now advisable to give illustrations of the in various elementary forms used ornament. which may be subdivided. is given that we are required to ornament for example. 23 are specimens of straight-lined ornaments. It would be difficult to overrate the value of the straight line in ornament. and by reeded and fluted ornaments. As all lines. a wall.CHAPTER II THE next elementary forms used in ornament form the It is assumed that the space division. and marking off equidistant points on the upper and on the lower one. either straight or curved. All frets are composed of straight lines. The from Fig. or a carpet. by cornices and pilasters. Taking the band or two horizontal parallel lines in Fig. and repose given by upright and horizontal lines are well illustrated by the mouldings round rectilinear panels. The qualities of stability. and drawing vertical lines from these illustrations 26 . only alternating. . a panel. have now to think of the forms and character of the ornament we propose to It is We adopt. are the basis of ornament. The boundary-lines are the enclosing lines of our space or This subdividing is field. firmness. we begin with the straight line. a ceiling. called the setting-out. a frieze. 3.

6. 4. 13. 21.ELEMENTARY FORMS points. 8. n. and 8 show further developments of the Figs. and 14 izWH E! . of which Figs. 27 we Figs. Figs. 5 and 18 show the elements of some Saracenic or Moresque frets. and 22 are developments. obtain the basis of a large class of frets. 12. fret. 7. 6.

by radiating from the centre of the The square within square. Lozenges and diamonds are other elements of . and double and plate. 165). 8 to n. single frets. used conjunction by the Greeks.28 TfiE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT concave or convex ones they may.* . of plates or dishes .) The zigzag is another straight-lined form largely used as ornament it was used by the Egyptians and Early Greeks as the symbol of water (Figs. such as the inside bevels . Straight-lined ornaments. and alternating with spirals and circular ornaments. 16). shown at Figs. on the ceilings of their tombs (Fig. 43. however. 28. and earlier by the Egyptians. in both singly. then their vertical lines will compose well. 8 and 15. (See Fig. were often FIGS. be used on slightly concave surfaces.

Triangles. 1 . squares. paper-hangings. FRETS straight-lined ornament. 29 repeating patterns in and form the basis of many woven stuffs.ELEMENTARY FORMS. octagons. and tiles. hexagons.

The parabola.30 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT After the straight in ornament. the latter in We being composed of two arcs of a circle of the same radius. have closed curves tracing out the flowing curve. line. &c. figure of eight. hyperbola. oval. the eye takes a delight in FIG. ellipse. 29). such figures as the circle. curves . the wave. touching each other at their opposite extremities. the curved is the other pre-eminently the type of and the "line of beauty/' Whether seen in grace. Egyptian ceiling fret. 16. the outline of the cloud. and in the vesica piscis. or fish-shape. are open such figures as the meander (Fig. the . or the rounded element It is limb of the human figure..

CURVED LINES spiral (Fig. 18 FIGS. 31 is to circles intersecting each other. In the illustrations. 27). 17 to 20. and is practically identical with the lines of festoons and the loopings festoon is of drapery. it is called a catenary. 30 circles touching each other this is the framework of some .ELEMENTARY FORMS. we have at Fig. are also open curves. Next we come Fig. 31 swag or the When formed of links and hangs like a chain from two points. a pattern . diapers and repeating forms. 25). and the festoon (Fig. Straight-lined ornaments. 24). the scroll (Fig.

Egyptian. is shown at Fig. and a development of the latter is that of Fig. and in their flat painted ornament. 25. small oblong pieces of stone or metal. 38. 37. An tribes effective disc border. 34. 24. and 40). is common diapers. 21 to 23. 39. Spiral and Scroll. and often alternating with the guilloche (Figs. Greek moulding decoration. and Japanese a border ornament of the same FIGS. Straight-lined ornaments. taken FIGS. 32 pattern with a centre. . on which the pattern was incised. like that made by savage from cut shells. 33. Fig. The guilloche was an important pattern in Assyrian in work. from Assyrian tesserae.32 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT alike to Saracenic.

B. 26.ORNAMENT FROM THE CIRCLE 33 D FIG. D . E. C. 29. FIG. 28. FIG. 27. Festoon (catenary). Scale-work (imbricated). FIG. E. D. Meander. Zigzag. A.

Fig. C. 30 to 36. 35 and 36 are further examples of ornament obtained from the circle and its segments the former . 1 from which a great part of ornamental forms are derived. Examples are given at Fig.34 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT Figs. being the Gothic ball-flower. 36 Ornaments mostly derived from the circle. and 42 is the familiar We now Greek wave. Imbricated or scale ornament was much used for roofs. 41 is an Egyptian wave scroll. pass from the circle to the spiral. to ornament small columns and circular mouldings. 1 Fig. B. 43 is from an Egyptian spirals. and 35 FIGS. 26. Many of the frets are woven . A.

anders. 37 to 40. and 48 is the double spiral of the . all 35 these contain the spiral as their chief Fig. 44 shows two intersecting me- 37 39 eiomoioic FIGS.GUILLOCHES ceiling. 45 is the scroll or antispiral of the cyma recta. 47 is a scroll intersected by a meander. Ornaments mostly derived from the circle. 46 is an eccentric meander. characteristic.

Figs. called by the French is rais de cceur . 70 is the ornament on the Greek cyma reversa or ogee. and in Fig. 3OOO 44 45 46 47 FIGS. Fig. Fig. Fig. . 48 Ornaments chiefly based on spiral curves. 53 is one of the scrolls. 41 to 48. 71 a Roman variety. 50 shows the anatomy or centre lines of the purely aesthetic Greek pattern developed at Fig. 54 is shown the irregular meanders and spiral curves forming the stand for the tripod on the roof of the choragic monument of Lysikrates. 49. 51 and 52 are additional examples.THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT cavetto decoration.

49 to 52. 52 Greek borders from vases. ^^ FIGS. .37 !/SwS lW\ x-^Tx-v ^WMs.

THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT a o B .

ERSITTJ TRIPOD STAND 39 .

UNITY. but may be given as follows PROPORTION. . e. There must be harmonic proportion between the parts of the ornament. but we must look to works of art for their proper application. TANGENTIAL JUNCTION. SERIES. and besides this framework. Some these are preliminary laws. or with a recurring element of irregularity and as every nt and part of it are set out on a geometrical basis. SUPERPOSITION. SYMMETRY. GROWTH. as well as between the enrichment and the this last eleground. of SUBORDINATION. GEOMETRICAL ARRANGEMENT. laws that : VARIETY. we cannot have good floral ornament without such an arrangement. STABILITY. BALANCE.CHAPTER III THE from The laws of composition in ornament are deduced nature. to make ornament pleasing . FITNESS.g. the principal ones may be deduced are numberless. REPETITION. The same may be said of the setting out of the more complex schemes of ornament. REPOSE. RADIATION. 40 . we cannot have ornament without some geometrical arrangement^ even spots in a line must be set out at regular distances. CONTRAST. a whole class of ornament depends on geometrical arrangement.

while Fitness may be said to include serve for before-mentioned and more. Radiation alone is the basis of much ornament. as the mere alternation of and horizontal lines form a contrasted ornaupright ment Symmetry perhaps comes next. and not look After these preliminaries. at stated intervals of a succession of different objects. The descriptions just given will the . ornament. and Saracenic ornament it in some Indian. all generally called even distribugood work at the same time . we must have tangential junction^ for broken-backed Next comes Repose : curves are hardly ornament. and directly we get as far as the scroll. and Superposition may be looked on as the last addition to ornament yet lightful made by man all . though the law is observed.LAWS OF ORNAMENT ment of proportion and is found in it 41 is tion. or of similar ones of increasing or decreasing size. tonous. as anything repeated forms elementary ornament. Unity is necessary in any complex Series adds a new element by the repetition system. decoration that seems to crawl is not pleasing any but distressing. and is the repetition of any form on its axis even the rudest blot so doubled makes Contrast | | | | . as if it would fall down. Repetition may be looked on as the first law . As we advance we want Variety and An unsymmetrical ornament generally requires Balance . contrast. Subordination. : painfully monowhile in good Roman and Renaissance work. Growth gives us one of the most vigorous and de- elements in nature. that it never becomes tiresome. comes next. there is such variety and is admits of a variety of treatment Chinese. Ornament to be satisfactory must have Stability.

Proportion. or to the framework of the panel to bulky forms put on slight ones. and bear the strain of winds by their strength and the spread and tenacity of their roots. . C and D. study of Greek profiles (Figs. by which is harmonic " proportion is meant. p. one space should preponderate. We know from experience that trunks of trees support the enormous mass of branches and foliage above them by their solidity. to indicate superior supporting power. but in addition to the spaces. Instability is mostly found in creeping or twining plants. and as a rule. but others require further explanation. put vertically. and be a proportionate part of the narrowest width of the space or panel. The width of such border. and in panels. The methods of pro- portioning cornices given in Vitruvius are useful (the application of proportion to surfaces will be found at Chap. such as difference of texture between the supports and the mass above. composed of lines or mouldings. In the rare case in which such an arrangement is wanted in ornament.42 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT some of the " definition of laws.). we must resort to some device. that from their size seem unable to support the weight. IV. external work though Greek mouldings are unsuitable for in this climate. should design. or series of mouldings. . There are certain distances between more pleasing than others. Stability. 15) is most lines that are valuable. and not attached to a also central stem. In mouldings the same thing is true. there The are the projections and contours to be studied. applies also to the architectural features of a indispensable in designing borders.

as a rule. and in colour. very flat curves being contrasted with sharp ones. this may be seen in a long succession of similar windows in factories.LAWS OF ORNAMENT 43 Repetition is the first method by which things were turned into ornament. subtle contrasts are found in Nature's works. because the mostly enough figure absorbs the attention. be used sparingly. though cupids or very . which should be an open screen they are seen playing through. or diapers may be repeated up to a certain point without being tiresome. net-work. but even these should be so arranged as to compose with the foliage. young the former are children may be repeated imaginary creatures. and greatly add to the of : pleasure of the beholders. but' more . A afford a larger and more important post or a group them this infusion of Variety would correct the monotonous appearance. One human figure is in an ornamental panel. and the little more endless rows of iron railings to parks. but if it be carried too far it produces monotony. there are often spots of contrasting colour on flowers to . patterns in checkers. The difficulty of prevent- even cupids from absorbing all interest. besides the contrasts of the leaves and flowers. would put in proper places a larger or more thought and in the case of railings would ornate window . was probably the cause of the ancients so often making ing them half-floral. and the latter sportive ones. but symbolic and distinguishing forms must. The ornaments on mould- ings. Contrast in form or colour imparts vigour to the composition the commonest illustration of contrast in form is the circle and the straight line.

49. It is found in the human hand. and 115. and Frontispiece. and in much other plant growth. adds greatly to the interest and beauty of the ornament. or oblique." one of the most effective ornaments invented. 130. 51. The egg and tongue.) ornament (see Fig. lines Radiation like a fan.) Symmetry has been defined before . 132. and the curved eggs with the straight edge of the tongue. as the mere it is one of the most doubling of a form on its axis means of producing ornament.) If the centre of the radiating lines it is kept below the springing line. (See Figs. 52. 123. however. succession of festoons or of drapery hanging from two points are examples of one species A of curved radiation.44 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT heighten their brilliancy. as well as important one of the laws most commonly found in nature. 50. though this is mostly effected " by the pistils and stamens. varieties of foliage contrasting with vases. lines may be straight or curved. is and these and the axis of the radiating may be vertical. armour. . in the umbels of flowers. though there is a suggestion of symmetry about the bulk of its works. horizontal. animals. masks. in the wing feathers of birds. and human figures. Nothing in nature. in the scallop and simi- lar bivalve shells. 124. has the smooth curved eggs contrasted with the thin lines of the shells. 121. Renaissance and Roman (Fig. the spreading out of lines from a point. (See Figs. 67. shields. 126. 129) give the amplest illustrations of contrast labels. The Greek honeysuckle is the most beautiful instance of its adaptation as ornament. 127. is absolutely symmetrical. .

In ornament.) Variety is a difference of form or arrangement in the ornament from that which immediately precedes or follows it. " : 45 Euclid's definition of a tanstraight line is gent a circle." and is obtained by drawing a line perpendicular to any radius from the point at which meets the it touches the circumference. (Fig. In nature we see that every leaf varies from every other by subtle differences. however. and in the case of a curve being continued by a straight line.LAWS OF ORNAMENT Tangential Junction. straight line (see Fig. and it is for this reason that . and in patterns in woven The word repose is sometimes and printed stuffs. should line. and being produced does not cut it. though the foliage is roughly alike. In the best used to denote an absence of spottiness. following this rule is seen in the Ionic capitals of the Temple of Apollo at Bassse. 127. for contrast. . be continued by a straight A curve. 25). 179 in Appendix). the tangential point. The absence of a look of motion in orna- ment this appearance of motion may be seen in some flamboyant tracery and Saracenic patterns. tangen- tial junction means that where two curves of opposite curvature meet they are to meet at the tangential points of each (Fig. the point of junction is never but by a flatter curve. in some modern paper-hangings. when is as follows it A said to touch circle. and partly to give repose by checking the appearance of motion in the curved plant forms. where the two volutes are joined by a curve instead of The beauty imparted by by the usual Repose. horizontal lines are introduced partly pilaster panels.

subordination is obtained by the principal mass being larger than the rest.46 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT Nature's works never pall upon us. is made as it and the balance is got by the curve in the rib. is not great. one part should be chosen as the Subordination. and plants (Fig. of being inferior to another. . is Modern English carved ornament Balance. . The were great masters In some panels. in modelling. that takes off the insipidity of repetition. In simple oval leaves. equally employed. such as masses or flowers. 1 60) balance for were on a symmetrical basis. by greater size and relief. may re-echo in a fainter way the main motive. . shrubs. and yet the face is perfectly modelled. Renaissance bas-relief of a full face the greatest projection is about the sixteenth of an inch. and all the rest should lead up to it but certain distinct parts. balance employed in trees. In other cases absolute with slight variety Variety is the salt of ornament variety is permissible. example. too frequently deficient in this quality. the artists Romans and Cinque Cento In a lowest relief gradually sinking into the ground. state The most important. though the highest relief of this art. by the above and by the principal part being more vivid in . in leaves. and by its details being larger and more pronounced in painting. one side is more convex than the other. there is an infinity of gradation. a regular descending series. General similarity is the most proper for the highest and most dignified ornament. colour . In drawing. The making unsymmetrical masses of In the creations of nature we see equal weight. In any complex system of ornament.

but it is also found in Renaissance ornament. 54. or for the flowers to get the sun. ment.) This most frequently seen in Saracenic ornament. the upper one being more vigorous in form and of a colour. is the completeness of any system of ornament not marred by incongruous elements or forms. 67. examples of which are without number in Saracenic work. Superposition.) ornament. as in the Persian windows of more but the comthe Suleimanyeh at Constantinople monest case is that of inscriptions over floral orna. of two in : . Series is different forms the repetition of a limited succession of in the egg and tongue. The next case is where larger ornaments striking colour are put over a smaller and less obtrusive pattern. in with ornament between the texts. (Figs. and that twist to reach an object. seen in the turn of a leaf or the clasp of a The capitals and the tripod stand of the choragic monument 53 and is of Lysikrates are good examples. whose stalks are ornamentalists. This.LAWS OF ORNAMENT 47 Unity. where the same text is repeated sometimes reel. like nearly all other inven- . the edges of the stalk are seen to form a spiral. of many. This is at once the rarest and most delightful of the hints taken from nature by great In climbing plants. polygonal. the bead and of three . Long series may be seen in Saracenic (Fig. Sometimes this vigour of growth tendril is round a twig. The simplest form is in the case of meanders of different curvature when one is put over the other. branches of plants when the leaves regularly diminish in size. Growth.

or is tions in taken from nature. and parasitical plants overgrowing others.) sense. is arranging the not interfere with the proper may use of the thing ornamented. twining creeping diapers frequently have many planes superposed. The want of what is called "alternation " in design is analogous to a surface that is so elaborately decorated with a uniform repeating pattern that it is wearisome to look at. fatigued as they must be with the The " . stems. in a secondary sense a due consideration of the qualities of the material to be ornamented. and of the appropriateness is of the ornament to the purpose for which the article is intended and thirdly. whose completeness would be marred by anything being added or removed. and have therefore roots. (Fig. plants We see overgrowing trees or bushes. it .48 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT ornament. Fitness^ in its in the 101. jugs. nor render the most obvious it ornament so that proper wielding of the sword difficult or impossible and the same canon applies to the handles of flagons. design. . and flowers. or drinking vessels. any change of position in the beholder Saracenic brings out a new pattern. in Coleridge. says in finishing mercy. to repose your eyes upon. &c. one small white spot empty below. Charles Lamb. and as each pattern is differently coloured and gilt. it supposes a well-ordered . in one of his delightful letters to I will leave you. from which they get their sustenance. This may be seen Alhambra Court at the Crystal Palace. value of plain spaces in design is enormous. but no leaves. The enrichment of a sword-hilt must not hurt the hand.

which makes it doubly precious. do too much than to know exactly Excess of ornament defeats its own stop. have to some extent obviated this objection. every surface is covered without a spot to rest the eye on. E . Plain spaces as alternations in design. and may be compared to a refreshing silence after a continuous chatter or deafening noise. To have this vividly brought home to you. there is no foil to set it off. and it must be It is easier to where to guarded against. so that the whole becomes dull.LAWS OF ORNAMENT 49 wilderness of words they have by this time painfully To the designer this analogy travelled through." will be obvious and useful. in late Roman. The Saracens. you see a very small quantity of exquisite ornament surrounded by plainness. To know the value of plainness is to enhance the ornament used. the best Greek architecture In the Greek should be compared with late Roman. and monotonous. by the relative weight of their ornament. confused. are the oases in the desert. end.

but added a few . (See Figs. 55 66.) The to get variety of shade and shadow. but were not possessed of the artistic sensibilities of The with little the Greeks. The Romans. so.CHAPTER IV BEFORE words a few themselves. less clear. (See greatest efforts were made to have these mouldings as exquisite as possible. 6 1 64. segments of circles being rarely used. and their sunshine was not so Mediaevals. were as logical in their methods. curved sections to prevent monotony. The air of Greece is pellucid and the sunshine brilliant. used segments of circles for their mouldings instead of the Greek curves. and mouldings of the same species were rarely or never alike. so for their curved sections those that approximated to conic sections were preferred as having more subtle shade. must be said on the mouldings the first The Greeks were people who moulding or profiling to any perfection. and were slaves to easy rules. so as Figs.) They also had an atmosphere brilliant. who had much coarser artistic sensibilities than the Greeks. and they are still supreme they mainly used straight-lined sections for strength. who lived in misty climates sunshine. carried the art of speaking of the decoration of mouldings. although their mouldings answer the .

Profiles of Roman mouldings with their . 55 to 60. fillets. or cyma reversa. Cavetto. Ogee. Ovolo. 56. Torus. Scotia. 60. 57. 58. 59. Cyma recta. FIGS.ROMAN MOULDINGS 55.

66. or cyma reversa. . Cyma recta. 64. Ogee. 6 S. 61 to 66. Profiles of Greek mouldings with their fillets. Torus> Fies.63.Scotia.

. bright are alone treated of here. Classic and Renaissance mouldings. their effects fillets 53 The Mediaevals got by deep undercutting.GREEK MOULDINGS purpose. of its and to double it for the basis and nothing could produce a more decoration. however. they lack refinement. and by putting or leaving arrises on such parts as were to tell . In the best periods of ancient art it was the invariable custom to adopt a form nearly like the profile or section of the moulding.

for then the moulding never lost its character. at 69. at Fig. The diagrams from Figs. . . or hollow ." Fig. 70. yi." which resemble the section of the moulding doubled at 70 and 73 the Greek ogee is shown with the water leaf ornament . FIG. called : FIG. for y . used to enrich is it. a " cyma recta. ornamented with eggs. however elaborately it might be enriched. a Roman is cavetto.54 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT pleasing and artistic result. by the Greeks "turnip stones. 67 we have the Greek ovolo. The Greek ogee with water leaf ornament.-^Roman variety of the ornament on the ogee. 77 a curved "astragal" or bead moulding. which we have no distinctive " " name it Rais de Cceur called by the French and resembles the section of the moulding doubled at 71 is a Roman variation of this ornament at 68. 67 to 78 will help to illustrate this for instance.

(See also Figs. and what is unpleasant to use is . Beginning with the floor.GREEK MOULDINGS and 55 at Fig." and when raised in relief reeded. and ceilings. and beads. We may treatment of next briefly speak of the ornamental floors. it must be. ogee ovolo. walls. Whether the . 74. though the Assyrians used relief on their floors." FIG. and 76 are examples of ornament used for flat bands or fascias. 72 and 73 for examples of Greek bead and reel ornament. remembered that in floor decoration the sense of flatness should be preserved raised and especially angular surfaces are to be avoided. 72 Decorated mouldings from the temple of Minerva Polias at Athens.) Figs. unpleasant to be suggested for use. 78 is the bead and reel ornament. When these are sunk with semi-circular or elliptical channels they " " are called fluted. 75.

.

. Fluted ornaments. . 75. 76. From the Temple of Jupiter Stator. FIGS.57 74. From the Forum of Nerva. 74 to 76. From Jupiter Tonans.

by shading the forms or by imitating mouldings. A and Reeded ornaments for flat bands. FIGS. tiles. or parquetry. rugs. FIG. floor-cloth. or a All realistic renderings of animals ridge and furrow. mosaic. marble or metal. FIG. The colour may be varied. B. Bead and reel. 77.THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT decoration be obtained inlaid by carpets. but evenly distributed. though the Romans sometimes used lapis . and mostly sober. 78. or plants should be carefully avoided. 76 A. nothing should be introduced to disturb the flatness. 76 76 76 B. Astragal or bead moulding.

or 59 encrusted them with gems. and the Byzantines used gold or silver chased and enriched with niello. Opus Alexandrinum from a pavement Marco (Rome). they passages cannot be used on account with comfort . like those in the Baptistery at Florence and The use of marble or tiles the Cathedral at Siena. Mosaic work applied to floors was an early form of decoration. of their in baths. 79. museums. and is still of a high order in the scale of floor decorations. and coldness. in the Church of San being marble inlaid with other marbles or with mastic. the highest FIG. in this country halls is limited to the floors of .FLOOR DECORATIONS lazuli for their floors.

79. embedded. lozenge. black with pale red or cream colour. and black porphyry. either plain. though marble occasionally takes the place of porphyry in the smaller geometrical patterns. human figures. and yellows are to be preferred. may be treated with borders framing of a picture. and architecture are out of place on carpets. moulded. and should be treated flatly. they should have a simple outline. or low-toned reds. or covered with a pattern. (See Fig. with plaster flatly embossed or or in which stones. if properly designed to harmonize A with the centre. with painted or stencilled carved or incised . flowers. with furs or feather work . colours are used. Realistic direction. on a white marble ground. or to enhance its value. inlaid. landscapes. border always improves a carpet. greys. patterns . radiate .) Floor-cloths and linoleums are of modern introduction. Walls may be decorated with metals or marbles with wood panelling. Opus Alexandrinum is one of the most and white magnificent floor decorations yet used circular slabs of . with plain colour. so that the eye should not be carried in one particular If animals are used. greens. rectangular or porphyry are surrounded with bands composed of geometrical figures in purple. is sunk. birds. green. it is The decoration of these coverings flatly. with the field (or central space) either plain. the pattern should. from geometric points at least the more important spots should be on a circular. &c. or square basis. . with hangings of . shells or looking-glass.60 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT Mosaic ordinary rooms. as a rule. lines like the is If other the most dignified treatment. is best when of subdued colours treated In carpets. powdered with spots of Black and decoration.

matting. / \i/ \i/ Vl/ v O ) o ) o O ) Oo o OO O C C o o ) o o /7\ o C o "\ o CTN /7v o /" .WALL COVERINGS 61 velvet. either plain. enriched. silk. or calico. stamped leather or . satin. or embroidered by tapestry.

this. A pattern. predominate will have the effect of lengthening or widening the surface of the wall whilst the diagram 83. ments are bad as wall-coverings but by combining Fig. but will lead the eye from one corner of the room to the other. to be satisfactory as a background. 81 and 82 tend to exaggerate the height or breadth of the room for patterns in which vertical or horizontal . of 81. we may suppose and to the diagrams. but it may be influenced by the height of the ceiling. arrests the eye. any direc- In illustration 80. 82. and partly by the use to . will not only give a look of weakness to the wall. The height of a real dado generally depends on the height of the chair-backs. at 83. particular direction. 80. should neither arrest the eye nor carry it in any lines . particular form. Fig. decorated wall spaces. FIG. their elements. 84. being composed of oblique lines. Arrangement for the lines of a wall-paper. Figs.62 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT they should have a uniform pattern and be free from for the eye should not be arrested by any spots . nor be forcibly carried in tion. 84 a tolerably good paperhanging is produced that will form a background for furniture and pictures. represent All these decorative arrange. The diagram.

the upper part of the wall may have a stronger decoration with a more flowing pattern than would be admissible on a . small-sized pictures from being seen.CEILING DECORATIONS which the room is put . 85 to 87. be higher than the centre of the wall. high wainscoting prevents If the wainscot 87 FIGS. Fillings of ceilings showing various schemes of all-over effects.

64 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT .

are space sufficiently. On there is more room for variety and elaboraF . doors. a still freer and more pictorial treatment may be allowed on it. 89. adorned with figures of men or animals. a ceilings dado and a frieze are improvements. because was generally FIG. and fireplaces mostly break up the If the rooms.CEILING DIVISIONS 65 If there be a frieze in wall with lower wainscoting. The Greeks called the frieze it Zoophoros. though small. or life-bearing. high. as the windowopenings. Ceiling from Serlio's architecture. the room. Wall spaces need not be panelled in small rooms.

good examples may be studied of the best period of Italian Renaissance (Fig. 86). and in both cases the mouldings of the panels are usually given. the spaces should be (see Fig. 88). An effective treatment consists in lightly covering the field with a pattern steadied by labels. When the ceiling is unequally divided. take the cornice as the frame. shields. For flat ceilings. compartments. either by painting or by relief work. Care must be taken in designing the subdivisions of ceilings that the panels. 85). THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT There are many ways of decorating ceilings. which should be alike. should be corridors or long rooms across at discretion. We may the ceiling as the space to decorate the simplest way is to powder it (Fig. though there are excellent Renaissance ceilings divided into equal panels. however. Ceilings of may be harmonically divided ceilings Relief work or modelled ornament on should be so regulated that the light from windows . harmonic proportion. 89. so that no two series of panels shall be the same width this. mouldings are well contrasted. In dividing a ceiling into panels. repeated in the different admissible. and regard . the panelling. Where a ceiling to be decorated if is divided by beams. designer in A safe guide for the obtaining the requisite proportions is to be found in the Roman ceilings.66 tion. Figs. does not apply to the widths of the stiles and rails. and in . the centre panel or compartment should generally be larger than any of the others and 92 at B). interspaces. 87). or to cover it over with a scroll-work pattern (Fig. 88 and 89 show such arrangements. or medallions (Fig. although those of which drawings are preserved were mostly vaulted.

than in a misty one like ours.CEILING DECORATION or from artificial illumination should cause . and not compete in strength with the deeper shadows cast by the ornathe carved surface itself. confusion and obscurity are apt to be produced. and for this reason a bolder relief is necessary. but should be worked out of the material itself. where strong sunlight rarely occurs treatment of . it would be as well to state. . and also that where human figures are used on ceilings. Before leaving the subject of relief ornament. be remarked. nice balancing of light and shade is of the A It may here greatest importance in relief ornament. A preponderance of light in the larger masses. that no carved decoration should be fastened on to a ceiling or panel. they must be so arranged as to be seen from the heads at the most important point in the room seen from the feet the figures appear to be upside down. that for outdoor work in a sunny climate. If this be not attended to. only enough to define the outline the forms should be carefully rounded off in the more important masses to lessen the abruptness of cast shadow. 67 little cast shadow. On ment on its ground. a lower relief in the carving and more delicacy in the mouldings is admissible. is commonly adopted. the play of light and shade should be quite secondary. connected and softened by lower tones. . which allows of a coarser material being used.

obtain harmonious proportions. after or or falls short of that figure. and it is often useful to accentuate the corners as well . is Those an uncertainty always look feeble and unsatisfactory. so it is necessary that the ornamentation chosen be calculated to emphasize the shape and not give it the appearance of an oblong. the proportion of if to I is fairly when the space required approaches a agreeable . an oblong that approaches the square. an educated eye can mostly. double square. the most subtle proportions being chosen by them. e. Roughly speaking. a marked a few trials. or an ellipse that approaches a circle. it looks better if it length should be given to every oblong used in decoration. The Greeks were the great masters of this art. and with those rough rules. but not space here to enter into refinements. the ornament should be symmetrical on both the axes. i. e. In the case of the square there should be forms about which there no doubt about its being a square. preponderance in the height As somewhat exceeds a rule. if the square be surrounded by 68 .g.CHAPTER V IN should there is setting out spaces for decoration the chief aim be to get them in harmonic proportion.

arranged. and its place must be then supplied by an ellipse. that form the centres of ornamental comthe front view of animals in bas-relief is positions : still less admissible. The repetition of squares is knees. much more endurable than a repetition of similar oblongs. The circle is by far the most beautiful not always available. looking-glasses. which sometimes necessary oblong panels. but long ceiling or in oblong panels. in bas-relief. so the middle rail is get variety form as the it commonly put below the centre to Even in so graceful a in the panels. A common case of the monotonous effect is of similar oblong panels is to be seen in a fourpanelled door with the middle rail in the centre. ETC. unless . it should be tied to the vertical and horizontal framework to prevent an . as in the case of a central feature in a very it is and useful closed curve. from the drawn. human figure. the straight line the circle being only extreme cases of the ellipse and but when the choice is unfettered the long (major) . a few figures in front view.PROPORTION. &c. symmetrically are. its proportions are infinite. which has this merit. circle too much resembles one ellipse is is that is ill- When an placed with the long in axis vertical. however. the square will be taken for an oblong.. a border it 69 sometimes advisable to strengthen its If this be done it is necessary to corners by have them at the four corners if they be applied to the two upper or the two under corners. sculptors rarely represent attitude. particularly it in a perfectly symmetrical be to express some marked or for the sake of the composition there emotion. that axis should so far exceed the short (minor) as to afford a contrast an ellipse that differs but slightly . .

and strengthening horizontal bands..o THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT FIG 90. . appearance of instability. and when this cannot be done it should be supported by foliage. Vase by Stevens showing unequal divisions of the height.

the predominant space for the most important decoration must be placed where the curve is nearly uniform. lines themselves have a strengthening effect. but the question is where they are best applied if the curves : of the object vary considerably. and in this case. or else the ornament will be The Greek painted vases. the vase FIG. with a few exdistorted. have the main ornament confined to the shoulder. some of the Greek vases. Vase showing unequal divisions of the height. . however. several things have to be considered. are the best examples of excellence Due consideration must divisions (Figs. in their ceptions. 91. is to be decorated. also be given to the placing of the vase . if. variety and the predominance of one division are to be adopted . and strengthening horizontal bands. with lines or The bands. intended to stand on the ground. such as vases.VASE DECORATION In 71 horizontally dividing objects circular in plan and curved in section. as in all others. the points at which the variations begin are the proper places. 90 and 91).

72 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT In the division of objects in the round. and at B a better arrangement. the upper and under forms should then be identical. There is. and balusters. care must taken that they neither have a weak outline wholly made up of curves. such as finger-plates. e. Panelling of ceilings showing at A a bad. in the case of certain vases. and that the two parts should however. candlesticks. but that the upper or under part should be distinctly predominant. nor one that is . rule. like A.g. for when certain FIG. symmetrical on their horizontal axes. it is a rule that they should not be divided in the general middle. In the case of ornamental objects whose outline is be a matter of taste. an exception to this objects are wanted to be be different. 92.

. Door panels illustrating an ill-proportioned division at A. 73 C seems to obviate FIG 93. like B the design both these defects (Fig. 6 FIG. 94. and a well- proportioned one at B.PROPER AND IMPROPER DIVISIONS too angular. of different outlines. Compositions wholly formed of parallel straight . Finger-plates for a door. 94).

and rigidity. On large surfaces the best forms of applying ornaments is within : When when carved lines of checkers. strengthen the composition there is a fair amount of contrast between the oblique lines . made of black and yellow cane ornamented with cut shells. of the ends repetition is is excessive and monotonous. Archivolts to circular openings without imposts. frieze. and Damascus. that Greeks corrected sometimes called dryness. that borders upon the is lines.74 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT such as entablatures. and some door and window have a severity. Similar devices in may be employed to correct In the shield planes of varied outline. 96) curved figures to correct the dryness. the painted or inlaid ornament upon it should not be shaded nor have cast shadows. of the ornaments. lack firmness 95). Cairo. of the savage (Fig. architraves. which be imparted by inserting frets or flutes radiating may from the centre. on the fascia of the archivolt (Fig. monotonous. circular paterae are used on the fascia for this reason modern ornamentalists have introduced (Fig. by straight lines. the two horizontal weakness bands. network (Figs. 97). just below the junction of the semicircles with the straight lines. or . and not enclosed . a surface requires ornament and yet to be kept flat. and the circular. 98 and 99). or it should be sunk what beauty can be got by flat colours may be seen in the tiles from Rhodes. The by this defect in their entablatures introducing figures in the while the Romans mostly ornamented their friezes with festoons and In the door architrave at the Erechtheum foliage. slanting. Extreme a common fault of savage art. and horizontal lines though the circular cut shell-work .

95. IN CONTRAST WITH BOUNDARIES 75 and except in the case of very large surfaces. Michael Angelo enriched a string there with copies . the ornament should be uniform in general FIG. Contrasting decoration on rectangular and circular borders. it is leaving the varieties to be discovered by closer One of the best examples of this. effect. where striking variety may be introduced at set intervals. inspection. though not in diapers.ORNAMENT diapers. is in the Medici Chapel at Florence.

though the best shapes have mostly been suggested by natural FIG. checkers. the horns and hoofs of animals including the horn of the rhinoceros. To adopt forms directly from nature for the shape of any article of use is rarely successful. except in the case of the . and Renaissance work. flowers. forms. of shells. 96. cocoanuts. Gothic. each one diapers. is seen to be different. especially those of the extreme East. have been very fond of this direct imitation. but they mostly want stands or feet. them. Moresque. but on going near chapel . which partly removes them from pure realism. Innumerable ornament within network. The Orientals. &c. of gourds with both single and double bulbs. of eggs. as in vessels made in imitation of a piece of bamboo. Door case at the Erechtheum showing the paterae on the fascia. and examples of maybe found in Saracenic..THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT in looking at the sides of the of antique masks the masks seem all alike.

to articles of use was unknown. Sprays of fuchsia with a large flower on each were used for curtain hooks . 97. in is 77 not particularly When the ancient traditions had died out England. Shield made of cane and ornamented with cut shells and zigzags. branches of plants . the form of which too beautiful.CONTRASTING FORMS bamboo. and the proper application of ornament FIG. it occurred to many that such objects might be directly imitated from nature.

98 and 99. whether for use or^ornament. carry their in yet spite of these cases. and wicker-covered bottles FIGS. not to speak of the poverty of invention they betray. are not milk there in is unknown here. It is true that the Japanese sometimes protect their porcelain with an outer covering of woven cane. too. wickerwork. Every first article. and only be ornapurpose. should be constructed as elegantly as possible for its . gold brooches in imitation of twisted bread. but they are by no means extinct. since/the creation of museums and schools of ornamental art. an apparent absurdity Such vagaries are happily disappearing. woven baskets The . Kafirs. but only .THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT were used for gas brackets with the flame coming from the flower and vases were made in imitation . in such designs. Sometimes nature was not vast enough for imitation earthenware bowls and wine-coolers were made in imitation of of the blossom of itself . or supposed purpose mented when the ornament does not appear incongruous. Carved checkers. the arum. and other adaptations were made that were equally incongruous. and does not interfere with its use.

mainly confined to outlines Although this chapter and divisions of surfaces. wood panelling. with the eye should have greater finish bestowed unless there be a frieze with figures or a higher class of ornament to a larger scale. . or else simple floral decoration was used. level The part of the wall on a on it. The part of the wall above this may be treated with greater freedom and elaboration. or tapestry. and Byzantines mostly used marble for the lower treated with . something has been said about the application of ornament. . and when the walls were wholly painted. The Romans furniture. but when less that was not easy to obtain. Geometrical figures or diapers are most appropriate for when it is painted or papered.The Saracens also employed marble.WALL DECORATION emphasizes its 79 form or relieves is it from monotony. tiles took its place. The Mediaevals used marble. so it may be remarked that the lower part of a wall should be more severity and sobriety than the the lower part is partly hidden by upper part and is most liable to injury. though in magnificence marble was either imitated by painting. this part. they often imitated the more costly materials. for parts of walls in houses of magnificent buildings.

span- panels of curved and straight curved Unsymmetrical spaces founded by straight or lines. 3. 80 . arrangements. and these may roughly be divided into six classes or great divisions. as panels. and ceilings. either rectangular or of closed curved figures. painted. as panels of piers. &c. Perpendicular bands. or one-sided. 5. checkering. or by both. or The typical pattern. as follows 1. powdering. Symmetrical and curved drels. and are drawn. : Uniform surfaces. All-over patterns may be symmetrical. lines or of compound curves. if symmetrical. by diapering. The uniform siirfaces of large undivided areas are mostly decorated in the following ways by all-over patterns. or spot: ting. has no carved. balanced. as &c. as lines. stripes. 2. friezes. walls. Horizontal bands. 6. it is now advisable to classify ornament in accordance with the spaces it has to fill. pilasters. Symmetrical arrangements composed of straight 4.CHAPTER VI HAVING ments previously considered the principal eleof ornament. modelled. as floors.

stamped velvet. Italian. i6th century.gl FIG. showing . Saracenic influence. 100. Waving pattern.

unless the artist does it own delight. that suggested the appearance of the flowering of jasper. The name the Low floral patterns (Fig. if . diapers are mostly found. 109. 143). and if balanced or onesided has no two pieces alike so that the whole is full of interest from its variety. as. for his It is however. and was originally applied to woven stuffs from the East. (See Figs. at the Sainte Chapelle at Paris. art. few amateurs care to pay for it. Assisi and . 101. a geometrical framework being laid over some interlaced 101).) These were mostly of silk covered with small patterns in colour. This is one of the cheap substitutes for the real thing which . or French diapre. In vulgar parlance. Checkers and network enclosing carved patterns is . through Latin diasprum. It is. dado painted in imitation of marble panels. Francis. the diapers are on painted hangings at the Arena Chapel at Padua the . painted and by cast repeats. Dados in painted decoration were mostly diapered. Italian diaspro. diaper comes from jasper.82 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT two pieces of the ornament alike in the one half. rarely seen. The Chinese formerly sup- plied paper-hangings that would cover a whole room one contained in A diaper pattern is properly some repeating geometrical figure not composed of In Saracenic and Moresque work real straight lines. as may be seen in one of the churches of St. called a repeat by stencilling or pouncing the repeat. 106. 107. if in plaster. it is now applied to all patterns enclosed in a repeating geometrical form. . the width of the paper (Fig. simulated in paper-hangings by the repetition of a piece. and no. pervades European without a repeat.

102). Care must be taken to make the network and pattern of the proper scale for the building or room. 102. 104). . 99). or diapers is not too large the patterns should so far resemble one another as to give a uniform appearance. CHECKERS. 98. Powdering was. Diapers are found in Chinese and Japanese decoration. patterns may sometimes alternate. network. are found AND NETWORK 83 on the walls of Gothic cathedrals and When the space covered (Figs. the variations being churches only Two enough to prevent disgust on a near view. The Greeks were pre-eminent in the use of horizontal bands in their sculptured and (Fig. at certain intervals. -a favourite method of ornamenting in the Middle Ages. The second division is ornament arranged in horizontal bands. but in very large surfaces another distinct pattern should be introduced. Moresque diaper. to relieve the FIG. and for the other decoration. 101. with checkers. monotony. too. FIG. although rectilinear network is more common (Fig. 103 105). Japanese network.si DIAPERS. but powdering is most favoured by them Sometimes it is put over a pattern (Figs.

84 0> @ FIG. FIG. 106. Japanese powdering. 105. Superimposed Japanese powdering. Italian brocade. 103. 6th century. 1 Diaper. . 104. FIG. Japanese powdering. FIG.

107.FIG. . Italian (German origin). Diaper in velvet brocade. i6th century.

45. 42. 109. istic Thefrzeze is a characterGreek architecture. 113. 37. 52. 51. 108. on their dresses. feature in . Construction lines of Fig. shawls. were mainly painted FIG.86 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT The embroidered or woven decorations. and patterns the beautiful ornament on their vases. and if you take the band ornaments out of Greek work there is very little ornament left. designed on this system. Figs. and curtains. 49.

. Velvet brocade.FIG. 109. Italian. i6th century.

The circular flower that usually formed the spot in Greek ornament was composed of a greater number . and usually form divisions between wall-spaces in the shape of panels in piers and pilasters. (See Figs. of arches are wide in proportion to their height they may be panelled. 116 has chariot races.of petals than the Roman. Figs. patterns. 116. birds. though some purists say the it soffits When gives a look of weakness to the arch. the bottom of each side .) affords good examples of horizontal band treatment. the decoration of the soffits of beams and of ribs and groins in Gothic. Museum Demetrius). Triglyphs in friezes may even be classed in this division. the sacred shawls of Minerva at the Parthenon (pepla) are only known by description. and so may the soffits of arches in the Classic and Renaissance styles. winged cupids. and another was ornamented with the portraits of Antigonus and Demetrius Poliorcetes (Plutarch's British . One had the battle of the gods and giants woven or embroidered on it. and is probably of Assyrian origin. and dolphins in the successive bands animals.) The third division : perpendicular bands are not so are common in decoration as the former class. 118 and 119. they mostly architectural in character. The shawl (peplum) of Demeter on a vase at the 114. Saracen work also (See Fig. Spotting at regular intervals was the favourite way of decorating the larger surface of dresses. and if narrow be treated like pilaster panels.88 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT and 115 are some of their favourite band and 117 show some of the patterns on dresses taken from the Greek vases.

i6th century formerly for dress purposes.89 FIG. . Italian or Spanish. but now only employed for furniture. Diaper in silk brocade. used . no.

112. .FIG. Italian. i6th century. Stamped velvet.

. Greek border from a vase. 113. '- FIG.FIG. Greek border with fret bands. 115. FIG. 114. Greek ivy meander^border.

.92 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT FIGS. Greek borders. 116 and 117.

118 and 119.PILASTER DECORATION . or be separated by a circular panel. supporting feature. The latter may be seen in the well-known pilasters of Louis XII. there should be nothing vague. The decoration of pilaster panels in relief should be comparatively low. The artists of those times paid the same attention to pilaster decoration that the . 93 being at the springing the tops may nearly touch at the crown. in this The best examples of this kind of decoration are Roman. Italian. and although some of the minor details may almost sink into the ground. the danger to be apprehended being a loss of architectural severity 119 FIGS. and French Cinque-Cento work. The ornament on a must be symmetrically built with the strongpilaster est elements at the base and the lightest at the top. Persian borders.

. Greco-Roman. 120.94 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT FIG. Upright lily border.

T/te fourth division.PILASTER DECORATION Greeks did to horizontal band-work. we sometimes meet with Pilaster designed cupids or children at the very base of the panel. be solved obtained. by Donatello. alists rise w/. It is sometimes well to accentuate certain portions if care be taken to avoid spottiness . 122. 121. Ceil- . so that the ornament may not have the air of being cut out with a fret-saw. only the greatest subsidiary projection should be less than the Modern ornamenthave insisted. with the face slightly carved and pinned on. the next problem to is to get the greatest possible variation in the planes of the carving. 95 Figs. in scale of importance as they get higher . but this method does not seem been adhered to by the or Renaissance artists. that if animal forms are introduced they should be repeated. Ornament in panels. latter to have Romans In the FIG. occasionally the main piece of ornament that has the greatest projection may be echoed up the pilaster with a sort of ebb and flow. [2i. and main one. &c. and 123 show some examples of When the main ornamental effect is pilaster decoration.

123. Italian Cinque-centc pilaster panel. 12^.96 FIG. Italian pilaster decoration. FIG. .

date 1572. German book cover.97 FIG. in four enamel colours and gold II . 124.

98 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT .

or after the manner of pilaster panels. if the Their simplest ornamentation is mouldings have stopped ends. or the centres alone may be varied. by moulding. either purely floral (Figs. they known as linen panels.. these narrow panels are in a long succession. and floors cannot have real panels. Venetian panel illustrating "balance" without symmetry. 148 and 120). 126. so upright rectangular panels may are be taken first. or they may have central medallions circular or oval. 127). filled When narrow and un- moulded they may be with symmetrical ornament FIG.PANELS AND BORDERS 99 ings have been treated in Chapter IV. on either side of an upright stem. each one may be varied. if the . or the ornament may spring from vases at the bottom (Fig. paterse or bosses and in cases where .

spotted. or filled with it filled by diapers. panels are mostly European work and sometimes the panel interlaced work. Cinque-cento panel. to form a centre. 127. powdered. leaving the rest of plain. and was common to enrich the in late In ornamental panels the mouldings of the frame . and weight of the centres be preserved circular and oval panels in moulded frames should be avoided in woodwork on account of the chances of the mouldIn Saracenic and Moresque work the ings splitting. size FIG.loo THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT . corners.

. 128.PANEL ORNAMENT 101 FIG. Renaissance panel ornament.

. 129. Antique Roman. Wine crater in silver from the Hildesheim treasures.102 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT FIG.

convolvulus. compound panels. never be carved when enriched panels are used. oak leal. there be several mouldings. and the panels are carved. inlay or incised ornament is the best form of enrichment for the stiles and rails. but 103 if Fig. 130.PANEL ORNAMENT must never be wholly ornamented (see sometimes they may be wholly plain. Compound shapes such as spandrels. The fifth division. When great richness is required. it is well to slightly enrich member to connect the frame with the panel one and detach it from the plain stiles and rails . Cinque-cento floral ornament composed of the acanthus. and . segmental pediments. 128). these should FIG. &c. and wild rose.

the last " tail-pieces (Figs. If the arch mould- . but it requires great the sides are well to skill render the ornament satisfactory (Fig. under the name of -In spandrels between two arches a slight deviation if from symmetry may be allowed balanced. 133). 131). known in France lamp bottoms." some arms and pieces of armour and some utensils (Fig.104 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT 134. 135).

SPANDREL DECORATION ings are 105 have a free properly emphasized. 132. 131) from Stone Church. the spandrels may and unsymmetrical treatment. in Kent. The Gothic spandrel (Fig. do not appear so constructively important as the panels of pilasters. Spandrel by Stevens. . and so greater freedom is allowed to the artist. for they FIG. is a good example of balance.

cases. . .io6 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT The sixth division. Unsymmetrical spaces to be filled with ornament are rare. 133. Fig. the work of the late Alfred Stevens. 132 shows a well-balanced design for a right-angled spandrel between a round arch and a vertical line. being mostly found in Saracen work and in arms and utensils. 132) in all these balance must be the principle employed. except in the case of angular spandrels composed of a vertical and FIG. Panel with trophy ot arms and armour. horizontal line and a segment (Fig.

FIGS. 134 and 135. Tail-pieces (Renaissance). or lamp bottoms. .

CHAPTER VII more indebted to plants and suggestions in design. and its 108 . while embody- ing the best qualities of plant-growth . the Assyrians. ornament was the outcome of the study of plants and flowers. Another phase of floral and leaf growth. and later the children of those ancient flower- worshippers. for in it we see vigorous life combined with grace and elegance. or the Sacred Horn. and well adapted . developed the pattern into more ornate forms. but full of : vitality as ornament. and not from the honeysuckle the conventional . That characteristic Greek ornament. as to lose all traces of any particular plant. than to any other division in the domain of The best conventional and aesthetic floral nature. is said to have originated from the Egyptian lotus flower. The Greeks in their turn are supposed to have copied the anthemion from the Assyrians at first it was archaic and stiff. is both for materials the honeysuckle or anthemion. rendering of this flower in ornament is said to have been adapted from the Egyptian forms by the Chaldaeans . for its various uses and positions and at last perfected to such a degree of aesthetic purity in the Erechtheum. THE and ornamentalist flowers.

Leaflets and 136. in fact." or illustrated some varieties of which are Figs. but are mostly a cluster of leaves. and Mediaeval decoration abound in examples of the . ornament. the bedstraw and the madder that have their sets of leaves arranged in a whorl round the joints of their upright stems looking down on these leaves we notice that . called clothing stems. radiating like the spokes of a wheel. Rosettes or paterae from Roman forms. in obtained by grouping a cluster of leaves together this manner. are finer and stronger in than any imitation of flowers. L FIG. Saracen. particularly appearance in sculptured work. Root forms are not much used in European ornament. 137 and 157. but more use " is made at of these bracts in what sheaths. composed of leaf and fldral The results. There are many plants for instance.) bracts growing at the junctions of stems and leaves also furnished ideas and forms for the making up of rosettes and similar ornament is . at first These are circular in plan. though Indian.PLANT FORMS proper development studied in the into IN ORNAMENT ornament. and would appear sight to be derived from flowers. 136. This idea may have occurred to the ancients when designing their rosettes. either straight or curved. (See Fig. very good ornament is often composed of a stem or meander clothed with these bracts alone. the plan appears like a rosette. can 109 pure be many rosettes of the various styles.

no

THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT
(See Fig. 138.)
it

treatment of roots.
their use
is

The objection

to

ornament the of having been pulled up and hung to dry, appearance This must always be an objection to their use, unless the root can be shown in the ground consequently the Roman and Renaissance artists let their ornament
this,

that

gives the whole

;

FIG. 137.

Bracts used for "clothing" stems in

scrolls,

&c.

spring from vases or clusters of leaves. When roots are used it is clear that the general outline of the root

must alone be taken, and the character of the growth
expressed simply, to prevent confusion and obscurity.

FIG. 138.

Mediaeval and Oriental root forms.

As

a rule, all redundances, excrescences, and accidental waywardness of growth, that might be interesting to a botanist, ought to be avoided in the
decorative rendering of plant form the average form and the higher beauties should alone be expressed. Though this may seem a paradox, the less realistic
;

PLANT FORMS
we make our

IN

ORNAMENT

in

designs, the more nature we put into should strive to put the most perfect forms of nature into our ornament, avoiding those that are poor and stunted, as well as over-nourished

them.

We

and rank ones, though nature abounds in fyoth. In Persian l ornament we find flower and plant
forms treated
in

a

thoroughly decorative manner

FIG

139.

Laurel from nature.

and 119); the pink and hyacinth were as great favourites with Persian decorators as the maple and vine were in mediaeval work, the lotus and
(Figs. 118
1

>

There are many

styles of Persian

ornamentation

that of

the Achaemenides, probably that of the Macedonians after the conquest of Persia by Alexander the Great, that of the Sasanides,
that of the Saracens after they conquered the country,

and

their

ornamentation was

doubtless

influenced by the subsequent
called

Mongul conquest. That ornamentation which is generally Persian, except modern work, seems to be Saracenic,

112

THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT

papyrus in Egyptian, the peony in Chinese, and the chrysanthemum in Japanese while such styles as the Greek, Roman, Celtic, and Saracenic are more purely
;

still

conventional, and, without having based pn natural forms.

much

realism, are

design cannot be too strongly advised the habit of making correct drawings of to cultivate

Students

in

FIGS. 140 and 141.

Borders derived from the

laurel.

all

kinds of plants, both in flower and fruit, especially those of single flower and of simple growth, ac-

companied by careful notes of the construction at the stem and leaf junctions.

The

botanical

analysis of a

plant

may

serve a

and be useful to show the student the construction of the plant, but it makes a very poor show in an artistic design. Landor the poet said it
scientific end,

PLANT FORMS

IN

ORNAMENT
:

113

was an act of cruelty to cut a flower from its stem it would be interesting to know his opinion of that school which believes in dissecting plants to find " new forms," many of whose designs present novelties that nature never dreamt of, such as leaves neatly cut in half, elevations, and sections of petals, stamens, pistils, seed pods, and other curious forms suggested

FIG. 142.

Wild rose from nature.

by these
is

dissections, so that the design

when com-

an anatomical preparation, and certainly pleted of any violation of the second commandment. innocent

A

section through some flowers may, however, give suggestions of outline for some flat ornament. The testimony of the best old decorative design is against It is refreshing to see that in England this practice.
I

cottons. mainly owing to the efforts of such men as Sir Crane. and to choose the kind best adapted to the purpose as the hareit bell. lemon. it is well to bear in mind the material to be decorated. whether FIG. rigid What is of most importance is to adhere to the growth . others. grasses. Morris. orange. adherence to these principles is not to be advised. the wild poppy. and a few Edward Burne-Jones. In selecting plants for particular purposes. the oak. be woven stuff. and for iron-work. who prefer nature to novelty. and delicate ferns for . wood. At the same time.and for stonepomegranate. a too carving. Messrs. or metal-work. and lace and the mallow for wood. 143. muslins.114 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT is a reaction setting in. Design for a paper-hanging from the_wild[rose.

BORDERS FIG. 144. . Borders of medallions in enamelled earthenware by Luca della Robbia.

. and the iris. Lemon from nature. &c. &c. 145.THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENf and character of the plant we use or .) The wild rose (Fig. 142) and the lemon (Fig. Design for a carved wood panel from the lemon plant. suitable for panels of almost any form. 139) is best suited for an upright (See Figs. such as the For narrow upright panels. 140.) growth. FIG. for all-over patterns. 146.. a plant like the laurel (Fig. 145) are both horizontal border. (See Figs. 141. or for paper-hangings. the ox-eye. 143 and 146. plants of upright lily. for instance. FIG.

FIG.. . 147. FIG. 147 and A trailing vine makes a good ceiling decoration. might be best adapted for a floor. the daisy. or a table* Lastly. such as the dandelion. plants of horizontal growth.PLANT FORM IN ORNAMENT are most suitable. 148. cover. &c. a carpet. and was so used by the Byzantine mosaic workers. Panel arrangement from the Tiger lily. looked at from above. Tiger lily from nature. 148.) 117 (See for illustrations Figs.

i).ii8 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT varieties The well-known conventional acanthus and its must now be described. the sculptor Callimachus having the Corinthian capital suggested to him. like the anthemion of the Greeks. but. 4. is a plausible and certainly a pretty one (Vit. There have been various suggestions concerning the identical plant from which the acanthus ornament is derived. lib. At any rate. . The story told by Vitruvius oi obscurity about it. Vitruvius with the first use of the acanthus in The ornamental forms of the acanthus capitals. Callimachus is credited by cap. Acanthus Mollis from nature. 149. there is some FIG. by finding the plant growing round a basket covered by a square tile.

.) The two latter are FIG. the first two have been drawn from nature. leaves from Greek capitals. 150. Acanthus Spinosus from nature. 151. The acanthus. little IN NATURE leaf. and 152.ACANTHUS LEAVES bear Figs. as we know it in the capitals of the Greek and Roman Corinthian. 119 resemblance to 150. the natural (See 149.

to the base of the leaf (See Fig. taper downwards these pipes. to nature. Greek acanthus leaf from a capital of the Tower of the Winds. is an artistic adapted to suit the ends of a grand style of architecture. together with the central stalk. . such as may it adorns the bell of a capital. especially when and.120 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT and the Roman Composite orders. and not an imitation of a particular creation. The characteristic difference of the classic ornament from the natural leaf lies in the " pipes " " that start from the " eyes at the base of the leaflets. FIG.) The are less important. somewhat contrary . leaf. 154. 151. and are consequently less pipes marked in examples of smaller work. impart that strength and dignity which is necessary for architectural foliage.

more serrations and more detail may be put into them. more serrated and smaller variety is used. for the smaller the scale the more detail is necessary. the Corinthian capital. On modillions a : FIG. and owing to the fact that the leaves are smaller in scale and nearer to our eyes. stalks . with the and pipes still prominent while on candelabra and small pillars the leaves lie flatter. Greek acanthus Monument leaf with flowers from a capital of the Choragic of Lysikrates. the acanthus presents a simple edge exactly repeated on each leaflet. with far less serration this On than is imparts dignity to the seen in the natural foliage leaf. 152. OF XJKIVERSIT . and the leaflets overlap. in which constructive strength is not required.ACANTHUS LEAF ORNAMENT 121 be found in the acanthus of candelabra and panels.

153. Roman leaf of capital. Chapter. the olive leaf acanthus variety. and undercut channels of Fig. 153. see Introductory Plan showing stalk.122 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT FIG. . pipes.

light. the Romans preferred the Acanthus mollis. The olive-leaf has been used for the raffles of the leaves in the capitals of Jupiter Stator. thus giving a rich The Greeks mostly used FIG. while . or the soft-leaved kind. and at the Temple of Vesta at Tivoli the 1 88). that kind of acanthus that is known as the Acanthus spinosuSy or the prickly variety . as it would naturally do with an overlapping edge much cut up.) 123 To prevent the foliage in the latter examples from appearing flimsy.ACANTHUS LEAF ORNAMENT (See Fig. Acanthus . 154. 154. the edges of the leaves should be slightly thickened and rounded so as to catch the quality to the decoration. and the Pantheon at Rome (see Figs. 156. 185. olive leaf variety from a capital of Mars Ultor. Mars Ultor.

) The in a lavish more modern type of acanthus used on majolica . is capitals A bit of the soft-leaved acanthus soffit shown at at Fig. 186. Soft-leaved acanthus from the soffit of the architrave at the temple of Jupiter Stator. 156. (See Fig. way. Acanthus used on candelabra and small pillars. overloading mouldings with it the cornice of the Temple of Jupiter Tonans. Stator. FIG. for instance. 155. 155 from the Jupiter of the architrave the temple of FIG. is overdone with decoration. The Romans sometimes used the acanthus .J24 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT have the oak-leaved variety.

125 .

126 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT FIG. . 159. Modern varieties of sea-weed and poppy-leaved acanthus used in decoration.

and many but no lasting results It can . else. The foliage is more like sea-weed than anything mentalists. perhaps in time stamp it with a traditional character. 159). be good. leaf We are advised by in ornamentalists and writers on art to seek for a that new might in time rival the acanthus ornament. the We even is ox-eye. can we hope to vie with the ornamental . have no fixed principles of ornamental ornamentalists themselves disagree as to what lives How good. and the Italian cinque-cento ware. allowed in the painted forms of the acanthus this being logical enough when we consider is generated by J 590 The arabesques of the Vatican. so that nothing long enough to become national ornament. afford the best examples of this painted foliage. have as yet been obtained. few be in this world but its persistent things from illumination to stone-carving. but it also has a faint resemblance to the acanthus. the free that the greater part of the leafage play of the brush. being character. generally found in combination with animal forms and grotesques. The advice may have given their attention to it. The acanthus was the parent Fig.ORNAMENT DERIVED FROM THE ACANTHUS plates 127 in painted decoration is of a very free but it only holds a secondary place. art . (See subsequent styles of decorative foliage down to the Saracenic and late Romanesque. will application. and the wild poppy (Fig. . and what is bad. and its modifications have shown the difficulty of of nearly all the improving on the Classic type. Of late years there is a kind of scroll-work much favoured by some ornacannot of course be called new. The utmost freedom in the curve and and reflex curve may be .

128 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT FIG. Winter aspect of a pear tree. 160. . illustrating "balance" in nature.

ACANTHUS ORNAMENT art 129 of Greece. and gloried in the worship of the beautiful ? To gain a fuller insight into the delicate varieties of the acanthus. The late Alfred Stevens has done more than any one of late years to properly apply the acanthus.'s tomb. 132. is when the . artists disagree and the nation indifferent while the Greeks enjoyed unity of artistic thought.) K . (See Fig. the student is advised to carefully examine and draw the foliage in the pilasters of Louis XII.

in the case of the 130 ornament begins.g. facts. of luxury . but . All writing came . ornament abounds in mnemonic characters Japanese the walls vases. inscriptions can be found on their buildings. and the student of art. THE ornament "symbolic" and as the latter skirts the ground of the former so that class closely. hieroglyphics. and and articles some illuminated not only difficult to know where utensils. and natural forms as aids to memory. and are interesting alike to the historian. or may not be in relation to the thing decorated e. or ideas so recalled may . The scenes. used to decorate and gateways of mosques. It is not easy to draw the line between them. it is the lettering ends. and other articles of domestic use. with or without other forms. signs. and on the other for ideas. candlesticks. Mnemonic ornament is which includes written characters.CHAPTER VIII "mnemonic" classes of are large. and as manuscripts. and dresses. from the picture-writing of barbarous tribes the of these pictures were used on the one symbols hand for letters. the antiquary. In the decorative art of most nations. we see texts from the Koran in Kufic and other characters.

to record the names and virtues of the deceased kings and persons of note. and stone tablets." meaning longevity or everlasting life. : but at the same time they were made pleasing to the eye the perfect balance and even distribution of these inscriptions render them highly decorative. while a cipher it cannot have more than one particular form or else defeats its purpose. 162. Ra-user-ma. and to those who could not read the illumination In the hands of artists have often been arranged as a highly ornamental cipher. Monogram and cipher are almost terms the former differs only from synonymous alone was of importance. The art of illumination or decorative writing really begins when there is a desire to have the written matter presented in a beautiful form. Ramases is : and thus translated " Mer-amen. the latter in this respect. and still have the same meaning. Chieftain enriching the lands with memorials of his name. of ancient Egypt are mnemonical in character. if used as a signet or as a trade-mark. . Sotep-en-ra. that a monogram may have different forms of the letters in different positions. &c. The decorations found on the tombs. and they become mnemonic ornament.) This diagram is the hieroglyphic inscription taken from the famous " Tablet of Four Hundred Years. 163 occurs frequently in Japanese pottery it represents the word " Jiu. Son of Ra. and this was the primary reason of their existence they were sculptured on the granite slabs." The inscription at Fig. letters .SYMBOLIC AND MNEMONIC FORMS 131 whether the main end was not ornament rather than instruction. .." It is the third line of the twelve on this monument. sarcophagi. . King of Upper and Lower Egypt. (See Fig.

where it is buried. as an attribute. The disc or or Maker. . from the earliest Religion gourd period of man's history. the hieroglyphic or priestly compositions of the . and sometimes by a stork or a sacred tortoise. holding a scroll in his hands. and nine-tenths of symbolic ornament pertains to religious ordinances and ceremonies. and accompanied by a crane. the beginnings of art expressed religious thought by means of symbols the picture writing of barbarians. The winged globe so common in Egyptian art 164. . has had.132 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT : The Japanese symbols of longevity are the following the god of longevity. the outspread wings the overshadowing presence of Providence. 161). from life is derived. a very old man with a large head and merry countenance. The globe sun. has been found sculptured on the lintels of temple doorways almost thirty is feet said to symbolize the in length. and the plum together make a second is another. or asps dominion or the monarchy. its is an emblem of the Creator that it ball holds between claws is said to represent the Sun. winged beetle (Fig. the Runic and Ogham inscriptions of the Northmen and ancient Celts. The crane itself is a symbol of long life the bamboo. Nearly all . good A example of symbolic ornament may be seen at Fig. This emblem occurs as a . the and the fir. Art for its earthly handmaid. and in course of time new life will spring from it. and the The Scarab. but they were symbols to the initiated only. were alike endowed with an occult meaning. which all Another and more natural meaning attached to the disc is that it represents the ball containing the egg which the beetle usually rolls to a place of safety. Egyptians on papyrus and granite.

the offerings to their gods. 161. Nearly Egyptian ornament was symbolic. and immediately after the subsidence of the plenty. appeared just before the springing of the crops. bears fruit. Next . is The blue Nymphea or lotus flower pre-eminently characteristic of Egyptian ornament (see Fig. it was sacred as the type of coming FIG. so there need be little wonder that it was worshipped by them as the emblem of . and it lotus There is is a species of lotus that said that the form of the Jewish it. and was also presented was used as a peace offering to strangers and visitors. Egyptian Scarabeus. earthly goodness. . The canons or laws laid down by the Egyptian priests and chief scribes for the guidance of artists were for centuries unvarying of the rule. was drawn and sculptured by and no one was allowed to alter the type under human severe penalties. seven-branched candlestick was derived from The in the decoration of everything the fresh flowers were used in garnishing Egyptian. every ornament. as it Nile it was therefore to the Egyptians the harbinger of their daily bread. including representations figure. 165).EGYPTIAN ORNAMENT central all 133 ornament in some Egyptian ceilings.

134 .

had symbolical meanings. ye obtain an inebriating liquor and also good nourishment. birds. alcoholic drink. and hybrid creations." it is said.SYMBOLIC ORNAMENT in 135 importance to . and shelter. The 1 fircone. Many animals. affording them 1 food. 166). Museum). "and of the fruit of the palm-trees and of grapes. In the sixteenth chapter of the Koran called the " Bee. Sacred tree of life or horn (British bas-relief. which grew on the slopes of the Hindoo Kush. life the tree of to The date-palm was certainly Eastern nations. The date-palm is here surrounded by the sacred horn. the this It symbolical plant their bas-reliefs. and was the plant from which inebriating drink was first FIG. from an Assyrian made by the Aryans. 166. called the "tree of life" (Fig." . when surrounded by the sacred horn. such as the Egyptian sphinx and the winged bull of Assyria. so common in Assyrian ornament. lotus came the palm as a was used by the Assyrians in was.

1 36 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT was an emblem of fire. Three forms of the thyrsus or staff of Bacchus. The head of the thyrsus was often made of ivy leaves instead of the pine-cone. wine also was made from elements in these its cones. 167. or staff of Bacchus. was sacred (See Fig. and this cone placed on a staff. from its supplying turpen- FIG. tine to make torches . was carried by the Bacchanals and Maenads when celebrating the festivals of Dionysus. 167. as the lotus was an emblem of water.) The pine-tree to Dionysus. This is known as the " thyrsus. and adorned with ribbons. both important festivals." the Greek Bacchus. and Bacchus is said to have concealed spears under this head of leaves. and thus overcome those who were inimical to him (Diodorus .

or the world. called " Hope. 667). bending her ear to catch the strains of a lyre which she plays. Ovid's Metamor. cherub's face. Allegory is a kind of parable. 1 " A Eve's tempter thus the rabbins have express'd. iii. lib." &c. are often called indifferently emblems/' attributes. The vine and the ivy were also sacred to Bacchus. Watts. just relieved from utter desolation by the music that is left in the one string. in a figure seated on a sphere. and is mostly expressed 1 In a recent picture by human or animal forms." "symbols. . POPE. which has only one string left there is a weird feeling of loneliness about the . a reptile all the rest. iv. iii. we have a fine allegorical illustration. sculpture. and the word is often applied to allegorical painting or " " which is a representation of one thing under the image of another. These ornaments ation. 137 cap.ALLEGORICAL PAINTING Sic." . and are symbolical of him in Greek and Roman decor- Early Christian and mediaeval art are also teeming with symbolic ornaments." by Mr. composition.

Raphael. as the symbol of eternity. was adopted by the 138 . from its having neither beginning nor ending it often appears is as a serpent with its tail in its mouth. a cipher or a sign conveys to our minds an idea. the queen having the club. and the expulsion Scripture subjects are also introduced of Adam and Eve from Paradise is balanced by one . and . painted by Perugino. we call it a "symbol" particularly if the idea is connected with of Omphale and When religion. for this. also in the . being one of the greatest modern painters. Raphael's master. in symbolic art the circle. The commonest form met with . or an association of ideas. like many other Pagan symbols. however.CHAPTER IX Vatican there were. THE arabesques of the have been noticed before Borgia apartment at the Vatican. added to the beauty of this sort of decoration by the exquisite drawing and composition of the figures. Some of the medallions at the Loggias contain subjects said to be taken from antique gems. in the Villa Madama arabesques of the latter are said to have been copied from the plaster work in Hadrian's villa near Tivoli. Hercules. arabesques on the ceiling of the Sala del Cambio at Perugia.

it is derived. 170 another form of this is shown at B. the Chi forming the cross as shown at A in Fig. the kikumon or 1 68. or sacred wheel. FIG. badge of the empire of Japan. or sun-wheel. . and the symbol of eternity. 169. X . used only a few symbols such as the fish. to the Siamese a type of universal dominion. consisted almost The first Christians were fearful entirely of symbols. and so avoided images and being persecuted they .SYMBOLIC SIGNS AND FORMS early Christians. The "tchakra. the lamb. (See Fig The wheel form at Fig. as a wheel of . lest their new converts should relapse into Paganism. The tchakra. the dove. in which a cross has the Rho formed on the upright stem. and the monogram of Christ. 169 is. and has the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet (Alpha consisted of two Greek letters . The wheel of fire." called the art. Christian from the beginning of the first century of our era to the fourth.) badge of the Empire of Japan from the chrysanthemum. was an emblem of the Teutonic sun-worshippers. Kiku-Mon. also " wheel of fire. 139 The circle in the shape of a wheel has perhaps had the widest signification in art. FIG. a sign of disaster." or sacred wheel of Brahma and Vishnu. This last and P (Chi and Rho). it is fire . is the the shield of it is emblem of the religion of Brahma Brahma and Vishnu. 168. however.

Every allegorical representation of the Founder of the Christian religion was rendered pleasing to the eye of the new converts. after his conversion it was woven gold on purple cloth. 170. at the bottom of which issue four streams. with a lyre in his hand. and anything was. the . in which He was always represented young and beautiful. Good Shepherd caring for His sheep. B FIG. however. as the pertaining to the dreadful scene of the Crucifixion Him was avoided. with our Lord as the pilot and the congregation as the passengers whence we . This form sometimes appears on the nimbus over the head of a lamb the latter sometimes stands on a round hill. . Christ was sometimes repre. in Imperial standard. or At C. Lamb world. Sacred Monograms in Christian Art." of God/' the streams whose gospels are the water of "the four evangelists life to the whole Fig 170.140 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT and Omega) written beneath the arms. amid the birds and beasts the commonest personification of . the whole " symbol signifying Christ the first and the last. we have the monogram that the Emperor Constantine placed on the labarum. The Christian Church was symbolized under the form of a ship. sented as Orpheus.

was also the Greek name for the is the emblem of fidelity and of the Holy Spirit. One of the symbols of our Lord is a fish. from navis. a ship. " 'Ix^s (Ichthus) contains the initials of Jesus Christ. as the fish is sweet.SYMBOLIC SIGNS AND FORMS 141 may have . a naus. the pelican of the Atonement. form. Spanish embroidery. with the monogram The Vesica piscis. often encloses the Virgin and Child. in the soft stone of the Roman catacombs (where the early Christians took refuge). Counter-change ornament. because its Greek name FIG. The dove in Christian art ." the symbol of a Christian passing through the world without being sullied by it. 171. It was also used as the Son of God. and is the . or fish a'nd other inscriptions. ship inner part of a temple. in spite of its living in salt water it is found engraved . the Saviour. and the phoenix of the Resurrection. the word nave (of a church).

John. inlaid marble. the man St. a calf. passion-flower. Matthew. during Byzantine times FIG. the calf St. a man. and used as lily is an the The emblem of the death of Christ. emblem of purity. and the Middle Ages. Many plants are used as symbols in Christian art : the vine. &c. Luke. name denotes. as typical of Christ. 172. The four evangelists are represented common form colleges. and an eagle. Moresque Counter-change pattern. allusions to the vine and grapes its In Scripture we find frequent the wine-press is . respectively as a lion. abbeys. typical of the "Passion. St. and has always . as we read in Isaiah. was. and the eagle St." as The is. Mark being the lion.142 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT of the seals of religious houses.

formerly called a lily. ing during the thirteenth and following centuries.THE IRIS OR FLEUR-DE-LIS 143 been used as the attribute of the Virgin Mary in We find this plant pictures of the Annunciation. and is a common form in on her shield and on her was used in the crowns of coin. From the iris. bore it it and many sove^igns. the fiorino . often engraved on the tombs of early Christian virgins. from King Solomon down to our own Queen. or fleur-de-lis^ one of the finest conrenderings of any flower it was much . is derived the ventional flower de luce. used as a decoration in sculpture. It was the royal insignia of France mediaeval Florence . and weav- FIGS. The trefoil is an emblem of the Trinity. Interchange ornament. 173 and 174. Gothic decoration. classes have The symbolic and mnemonic now been . painting.

only in a minor : degree. and being thus freed from other disturbing elements. . form we owe to the clearness and directness of the Greek mind. solely created for their beauty. as the eye is by the latter. in . symphony A music is a composition of harmonious sounds it has little subject-matter. correcting the peculiarities of the individual study of the best specimens of a whole class . of the colour applied to the carved patterns of the Saracens and Moors they are both aesthetic works. which was to beautify what they had in hand. away from it without spoiling its The same may be said. on flat and curved surfaces. If they wanted allegorical subjects they confined them to their figure subjects. This ornament has perfect fitness. and is analogous to aesthetic ornament. and of adapting it to sculpture and painting. and the cesthetic alone remains. The Greeks were contented with the simple solution of the problem before them.144 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT ^Esthetic described. they concentrated their whole attention on perfecting floral form. for you can neither add thus succeeded in to it nor take perfection. only the ear is charmed by the former. by by a and making the most perfect type of radiating ornament. They attained perfection in this as they did in their figures.

but make the undulations of carved ornament precious. I include the highest form of it. and without some slight knowledge of architecture the subject. not only because ornament is used as an enrichment to itself. demands high qualities in the ornament. are apt to spoil one another. the ornament and the architecture. The rigid lines of architecture should act as a foil to the graceful curves of ornament. I think it L brilliant . but also because a very much larger proportion of it is used in conjunction with architecture. and I may point to the Doric frieze of the Greeks as a example of success. however. and the plain faces should not only set off fretted surfaces. When I speak of ornament. .APPENDIX ON THE ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE seemed to me that a short chapter on the orders IT would so much be useful to students. This conjunction of ornament and architecture. instead of setting off each other's characteristic beauties. and insight in the artists as to what is wanted for mutual contrast or emphasis and if this be successfully accomplished. the human figure.

tends to degrade the architecture with which it is associated. Sophia . Mouldings which form so great a feature in architecture as " the saying that mouldings are architecture.146 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT finer result must be conceded that the combined work gives a than the uncombined excellence of each. sculpture. that to rise have given to are useful to the ornamentalist who has to design the shapes of small objects . which is so important in architecture as to be its main characteristic. Mean ornament. The elaborate system of proportioning parts to one another and to the whole." give lessons in elegance of shape. Michelangelo. finest mental colouring as well as monumental form the examples of such colouring may be seen in : many of the grand buildings in Italy and at Con- stantinople. sculptor. notably at St. has by use of gigantic figures dwarfed the vast chapel I may add that there is monuinto a doll's house. and . Mark's and at Sta. I have seen in modern work. and in the proper contrast bf forms. while the Corinthian capital has been the prototype of most of the floral capitals It is up to the present day. or by the ornament being on too large a scale. the painter. in admitted that those periods of history when architecture. in his superb ceiling at the Sistine Chapel. whether of figures or plants. coloured to look like French plum-boxes. the stately dignity of a grand room utterly destroyed by colossal figures. and may spoil it by the main lines not properly contrasting with the adjacent architectural forms. is equally valuable for the division of spaces for ornament. and painting attained their highest excellence. but you may also see magnificent halls and churches.

and a base. The metopes were left open in early Greek temples. musicians. after the wooden hut had been converted into a marble temple. it. which is called the metope. which is called the architrave. and the filling in between them. by carpenters mer. . At artists the Renaissance. and some few who were poets.ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE 147 architect have not only sympathized with one another. columns of the Greeks and early Romans. The cornice was the projecting boarded eaves while the slanting were eventually filled . painters. and engineers as well. a capital. and immediately before are to be found who were goldsmiths. and bore the trusses of the roof. the fascias show that in some instances this bressummer was composed of three balks of timber. The capital was the capping-piece which you now see put on the tops of story-posts An order consists frieze. which is not archaeology. except in the Doric shaft. and architects. The architrave to shorten the bearing of the bressumwas what we now call a bres- summer. In some of the paintings on the Greek vases may be seen the processes by which the Doric and Ionic capitals were evolved but for our sculptors. only some of the best examples need be referred to. purpose. The frieze was the wide band immediately above the architrave and below the cornice. of a column supporting an and cornice. The column generally consists of a entablature. The origin of the orders was probablyin the verandah of the Greek wooden hut. comprising the triglyphs or ends of the trusses. which were baseless. but each one has been no mean judge of the sister arts. but of the architrave with sculpture. each projecting slightly over the one below. .

175.FIG. Greek Doric . enlarged section of annulets at A. . The Parthenon.

mainly inthe sea-shore. with its ornamented with drops called guttae. is capped with a carved astragal. which consists of a thick square cap called the abacus. habiting and the edges of Asia Minor. called annulets. The ovolo moulding that was most used was called the cyma or wave. and narrow sunk chase has no base. it inscriptions called the taenia or . the architrave is plain. from which the word triglyph takes its name below the taenia is a narrower square moulding the width of the triglyph. and beneath it. I may point . and is divided longitudinally by the triglyphs. The echinus of the Doric capital resembles the shell of the seaurchin. the islands of the Archipelago. ornamented with two whole and two half vertical channels. not only the earliest. and the shaft The Greeks were a seafaring finished at the under it. when it has lost its spines. the finest example of the Doric. I 149 from the will speak they first because were of the Greek orders. and fluted with twenty shallow segmental flutes that finished under the capital. and was once adorned with golden shields and moulding square cymatium. but because the Greeks showed the greatest artistic sensibility in their choice of forms. with a circular echinus bottom with rings a little below them is a deep called the necking. or echinus. projecting pieces. and were thus acquainted with the forms of the sea and of shells. people. is capped by a square band the frieze. . At the Parthenon. and in I their arrangements for light and shade. . The shaft is conical.THE GREEK DORIC ORDER undersides of the mutules were copied slanting timbers of the roof. in the composition of lines. and was probably called after it. begin with the DORIC.

150

THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT
most
artistic

to this as a

device both to relieve the

monotony of the
with the
frieze.

taenia

and to weld the architrave

triglyphs begin at the angles of the frieze, and range centrally over all the rest of the columns, with an additional triglyph between
each, though in the frieze over the larger central opening of the Propylaeum there are two intermediate

The

the nearly-square metopes between the are filled with figure-sculpture. The cornice triglyphs consists of the square mutule band, from which the
triglyphs
;

mutules project, whose slanting underside
;

is

enriched

and above the mutules is their capping, with drops a narrow fascia under the corona the corona or main projecting member of the cornice is throated at the
;

capping consists of a wide fillet, with a hawk's-bill moulding under it. deeply-throated, These together form the most superb piece of archiits

bottom, and

tectural

work that

exists,

and has called forth the

rapturous admiration of all the tasteful in the world, from the time it was built to the time of Ernest

Renan, one of its latest distinguished admirers. I have lingered over this order because it masterpiece for all time. Those who have seen

is
it

a
in

England alone are possibly convinced that this praise has been ill-bestowed yet even these would change their opinion if they saw it when perfectly white on
;

a clear day in bright sunshine but in London, even at its best, the clear air and fierce sun of Athens is
;

wanting, as well as the pentelic marble, and the chances are that the sculpture in the metopes has been
left out.

This Doric of the Greeks

is

true architect-

ure, fitted to the climate,

and made by men of genius

to

charm the most

gifted race the world has seen.

To

THE GREEK IONIC ORDER

151

the Greek architect no thought and no labour was too great in designing his building, to form it so that the

sun would play melodies on

it

from dawn to dusk. Such

truly national architecture cannot be imported into a different climate without losing most of its effect, nor

can

it

be transferred to a coarse and opaque material
;

without losing much of its charm while its sculpture, the finest the world has yet seen, portrayed national traditions or events connected with its faith. But even
here in London,
if

you see paraphrases of Greek

archi-

tecture just painted white on a clear sunshiny day, you will see a faint reflex of its pristine glory. The rising

moon
with

that the sun
soft
is

makes on the

echinus, contrasted

graduated warm

shadows,
passed.

shades and sharp blue the finest thing an architect has ever comsculpture that adorned its the Elgin room of the British
is

metopes

The splendid may be seen in

Museum. This one example

a model for those

who

seek perfection in exquisite simplicity, for almost all the mouldings are square ones, and there is no enrichment beyond the highest figure-sculpture, and one
little

carved astragal and I may add, that the perfection of the whole composition of the Temple is as
;

great as that of this part.

THE
is

IONIC.
its

The example, given on account of from the Temple on the river
differs

simplicity,

Ilissus.

The

column

slenderer proportions,
elliptical flutes

from that of the Doric by being of by having twenty-four deep with fillets in its shaft, by having a

cushioned capital inserted between the thin moulded

FIG. 176.

Entablature, capital and base of the Greek Ionic

Temple on the

Ilissus.

THE GREEK IONIC ORDER

153

abacus, and a shallow echinus carved with the egg and tongue. The peculiarity of this cushioned cap is,
that each side of the front

and back faces are formed and come down considerably below the into volutes, bottom of the capital, and are carved on the faces with

a shell spiral. 1 The junctions of the plain surfaces of the volutes with the projecting circular echinus are

masked by a half honeysuckle.
the shaft
is

At

the bottom of

a circular pedestal or base of slight projection, consisting of an upper and lower torus joined by a hollow (trochilus), the upper torus being horizontally fluted and the lower one plain,

and there

is

no square
fascias,

plinth.
is

In this case the architrave
the
Ionic

though its capping (cymatium) consists of a fillet with a plain cyma and astragal beneath. The frieze, which has no triglyphs, is supposed to have been sculptured with figures its cymatium consists of an ogee and astragal, to admit which the underside of
fascias
;

order has

deep and without mostly three

;

the corona

is

deeply hollowed out

;

the corona consists of a narrow

fillet

the cymatium of and a cyma.
existed on the

The crowning member probably only
raking sides of the pediment.

As

this

is

not

a treatise for

architects,

but a

sketch of the subject for ornamentalists, one example is enough to show the difference between the Doric

and

Ionic, but the capital of the most ornate example, that of the Erechtheum, is given its main differences from the former one being these, that the
;

1

From

Dr. Richter's discoveries at Cyprus,

it

that the Ionic volute

may have

taken

its rise

seems probable from an enlarge-

ment

of the Egyptian lotus.

Side elevation. from the Temple on the Ilissus. Section. and the sweeps of the capital as well as the spirals of the volutes are more numerous. and section of the Ionic capital. Plan.154 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT ornaments on the mouldings are carved instead of only being painted. that in the entablature there are three fascias to the architrave. a neck carved with floral ornaments and a carved necking. . that the column has Side Elevation. plan. 177. Section. FiG.

178. A is half of the Capitol from the north portico of the Erechthenm at a regular guilloche with coloured glass beads in the eyes. . Greek Ionic Athens. .THE GREEK IONIC ORDER 155 FIG.

Greek Ionic. to show how much it is improved by making the top of the capital curved instead of not so more graceful and as a Doric. THE CORINTHIAN. capital.1 56 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT have given too the capital of the internal Ionic I columns of Apollo Epicurius at Bassse. from the Temple at Bassae. according to Vitruvius. from the FIG. Capital from the Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassse.C. invented this and is supposed to have lived about 396 B. 179. from the last at Ephesus. Temple of Diana Erechtheum. and from the Mausoleum are at the British Museum. but is The Ionic is straight. Callimachus. rule more ornate than the Capitals majestic.. .

The acanthus root meanwhile. pressed by the weight. put forth its leaves and shoots about spring time these shoots growing against the sides of the basket. were forced to bend . covered them with a tile. her nurse ill gathered the things in which the maid most delighted when she was alive. (Vit. "A taken marriageable maid." i. those whose hand and eye are trained will only observe what they see. it is the only undoubted and complete Greek its intrinsic specimen is its that we have the in Europe. that invention. and carried them to the grave and put them on the top. by the weight of the corners of the tile and to make themselves into volutes. 10. 9. put them into a basket. By chance this basket was put on an acanthus root. noticed the basket and the tender growth of leaves round it. besides The main importance beauty. pp. lib.THE GREEK CORINTHIAN ORDER forty years 157 before Alexander the Great was born Besides the beauty of this order of the choragic monument of Lysikrates. the Corinthians after that pattern. cap.) . they may get notions for inventions. After her burial. a citizen of Corinth. made his columns their tops among 4. Romans tells being adopted by the as their favourite order and used throughout I their dominions. of it its story. and charmed by the style and novelty of its form. passing by that grave. Then Callimachus. and so that they might last the longer in the open air. who from the elegance and subtlety of his sculpture was called Catatechnos by the Athenians. was and died. if give you here the story Vitruvius Besides the prettiness of the serves as an incitement to the reflection. of invention.

Greek . 1 80. Entablature.lUUUUUUUl FIG. Corinthian. capital and base of the Lysikrates monument.

the lowest cauliculi form two volutes touching one another at the centre. touching . do not look on work as Greek that was done after the second century B. blossom between each pair of leaves. is hollowed out horizontally on the four sides in plan. supposed by him to have been used there. out of each sheath spring three cauliculi the one most distant from the centre forms a . The abacus of the capital is deep and moulded. and the Ionic capital of the Erechtheum about eight-tenths.C. Above the top. volute under one side of the angle of the abacus. and has the sharp angles of the abacus cut off. Another was found at Athens by Inwood. of unknown I date. spring two acanthus sheaths. on each of the four sides of the capital. and at the sides of the centre leaf. and forms much smaller volutes than those immediately below them.. and there is a graceful capital of one of the engaged Corinthian columns at the Temple of Apollo Didymaeus. The third cauliculus comes from between the two former. near Miletus.THE GREEK CORINTHIAN ORDER 159 A erell in Corinthian capital was found by Professor Cockthe Temple at Bassae. about half the height of the eight acanthus leaves of the upper row these have a . The floral cap consists of a bottom range of sixteen plain water leaves. while the Doric capital of the Parthenon is only about half a diameter to the necking. and is supported by the turned-over top leaf of the sheath . capital of the The Corinthian is monument of Lysi- more than one and a half times as high as the lower diameter of the column. when Greece became a Roman krates province. at Branchidse.

Greek Corinthian. . Capital of the Lysikrates monument.i6o FIG. 181.

have noticed that the perfecting of the human shape by training was brought about by slight variations. turning some pirates into dolphins. The entablature is Ionic. . artists. Above the cymatium of the frieze is The Greeks were consummate mind the adage that " a cornice with a heavy dentilled bed mould. segments of circles being and there was in Athens. great people as they were in sub- M . but the outline of the capital is not happy. excellent figure sculptors. to relieve the bareness The foliage of this capital is of the basket or bell. The Romans. and a cymatium. and were greatly due to of the nude human figure. the fa$e of each one inclined inwards. to leave the frieze clear for the sculptured history of Bacchus".THE GREEK CORINTHIAN ORDER at the centre. exquisitely graceful. their intimate knowledge All their recruits were exercised naked. and they must their passion for simplicity. profiles of their in The different . It has always seemed to me that the slight variations the Greeks made in their profiles to get perfection. from the middle of these springs a honeyis whose top as high as the top of the abacus.an affluence of rarely used wanted. who bore in rules are good for those who can do without them. but turning the reverse 161 way to those beneath suckle." and adapted every part of their buildings to produce the effect of light and shade they mouldings were mostly every jexample we have. and there is a' little floral sprig between the angle volutes and the honeysuckle. The architrave is deep with three equal fascias. so as to have jnostly approximate the shade less uniform. THE ROMAN ORDERS. and slightly to conic sections.

and civilizing so great the world. were X t c FIG. . and possibly on that very account. governing. The Tuscan order. The most. 182. not artistic in the sense that the Greeks were. Romans were slaves to easy rules and methods .162 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT a portion of jugating.

ROMAN ORDERS; THE TUSCAN AND DORIC
if

163

the profiles of their mouldings were struck with compasses, and they were almost destitute of good

not

all,

figure sculptors.

They

had, however, a passion for

magnificence, and for ornate stateliness and dignity, and they rarely, failed to get these in their public monuments." Besides the three orders which were taken from the

Greek examples of their own time, the Romans added two, the order of the Tuscans, and an invention of their own called the Composite.
debased

THE TUSCAN.
The Tuscan is described by Vitruvius, lib. 4, cap. 7, as an incomplete Doric, but with a base and a round The portico of St. Paul's, Covent Garden, by plinth.
Inigo Jones,
is

the best example

we have

of

it

in

London.

The example
Vitruvius.

given

is

from the learned

Newton

THE ROMAN
One

DORIC.

of the earliest examples, with the exception of that at Cora, which is rather debased Greek than

Roman, is the example on the Theatre of Marcellus at Rome, finished by Augustus. The column is not
and has no base, and the capital has been greatly altered from that of the best Greek examples. The abacus has a cymatium the echinus has been reduced in depth, and is an ovolo, and the annulets are merely three plain fillets the column too has a neck and a necking. In the entablature the architrave is
fluted,
; ;

J

J

FIG. 183.

Roman

Doric.

From

the Theatre of Marcellus.

The crowning members

of the cornice are conjectural, for the whole has been broken

away

See Desgodetz.

OOflXDOKIXJ

IG. 184.

Roman

Ionic.

the

Entablature, capital, and base of an angle column, at Temple of Fortuna Virilis.

1

66

THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT
In the frieze
;

shallower than in the Greek examples.

the triglyphs are over the centres of the angle columns the guttae are the frustums of cones, while those of the

Greeks were cylinders or with hollowed sides the and the mutules cornice has a dentilled bed mould
; ;

have disappeared, but their edge runs through and the soffit is slanting, and ornamented alternately with coffers and small guttae, six on face and three deep
;

and

besides, the cymatium of the corona is capped by a large cavetto this in the Greek examples was only
;

the crowning

member

pediment.

There are

Roman

of the slanting sides of the Doric columns at the

Colosseum, at Diocletian's Baths at Rome, and elsewhere. The Doric, best known to us, was elaborated

by the

Italian architects of the Renaissance.

THE ROMAN

IONIC.
the

The Ionic was not much more to the taste of Romans than the Doric, for, with the exception of
in
tall

the

examples buildings, where the orders were one over the other, the Temple of Fortuna piled up Virilis is the only good example, although there is a very debased one at the Temple of Concord. The columns of the Temple of Fortuna Virilis somewhat
resemble the Greco-Roman ones of the Temple of Bacchus at Teos they have similar paltry capitals, and
;

an Attic base, but their truly Roman entablature is very notably worse than that at Teos, in fact, it might be used as an example of what to avoid in profiling. The cornice is crushingly heavy for the frieze and architrave, the parts are disproportionate, the corona
having almost disappeared to make room for the

7 FIG. and base of the Pantheon. Roman Corinthian. . Entablature. 185. capital.

however. The best Roman example I can give you is that of the Pantheon the existing portico is believed by M. As I said before. by making it a greatly improved four-faced capital. the only so that The magnificence undoubted Greek Corinthian order that has come down to us is that of the Lysikrates monument. At any rate. the outer ones form the volutes under the angles of the abacus. From some foliage on the top of the upper . and the floral ornaments on some of the mouldings are gigantic. . of this capital took the Romans. the inner ones finish under the rim of the basket. made in the of Septimius Severus. and above these a curled leaf masks the overhanging of the angles of the abacus. its festoons from the eyes. the upper row not rising to quite so great a height above the lower ones as these do above the necking. good examples of the other orders. to be a copy of Agrippa's. are rare. THE ROMAN CORINTHIAN. rows of eight leaves. Its main importance to us is from the use made of it by the some of whom. and there is space between the upper leaves to show the stalks of the sheaths of the cauliculi. by adding a necking and putting Renaissance architects. it has the days comparative simplicity that characterized some of the Chedanne The capital has two buildings just before our era. appearance. thus giving the capital greater depth and importance. though we have many Greco-Roman examples. except of the Composite.i68 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT extra crowning member.

Entablature of Jupiter Tonans. 186. Roman Corinthian.i6 9 FIG. .

middle It a stalk runs up behind the cauliculi. bed mould consists of an uncut dentil band. a reel. I shall only draw your attention to two points in ornamentation. which is overladen with ornament. the omission of the tongues between the eggs. it but the and its cymatium on a its is that of the is architrave the counterpart of The smaller scale.170 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT leaf. leaving only the upright line. and that blossoms in the abacus. a cornice heavy. and the attempt to turn the egg and tongue into a foliated form. We must praise the boldness of the author. have added the fine and gigantic capital of Mars Ultor and the entablature of Jupiter Tonans. being of granite. may be observed the cauliculi of the centre and of the volute have lost the floral character and become stony. the bottom edge of whose projections are moulded. and has nothing on inscription. The egg itself is covered with ornament. with two scotias separated by double astragals and fillets. a plain upper and a lower torus. who has given us this . The shafts are unfluted. and have the favourite Roman base. and shallow corona. as a contrast to the almost stern simplicity of that of the Pantheon. and an astragal carved with the bead and modilion band with carved modilions. than the architrave. an ovolo carved with the egg and tongue. the whole architrave is capped with a cymatium consisting of a wide fillet and an ogee with an The frieze is slightly shallower astragal beneath. and is set in the centre of acanthus leaves. and a deep cyma-recta-cymatium with I fillets. The entablature consists of an architrave of three fascias.

main thing to be remarked is the capital for the . COMPOSITE. and from each side of the calix spring curved bands running into the hollow of the abacus and ending in heavy volutes coming down to the tops of the upper row of leaves. Corinthian.D. We must. The worst fault of the capital that the upper part has no artistic connection with the lower. They . less ornate than that of Jupiter Tonans or Jupiter Stator. give the Romans credit for the merits of the invention. that a carved Ionic echinus has been put in at the level of the bottom of the Corinthian cauliculi. The parts of the bell thus left of the cauliculi have two bare by the omission of the sheaths little scrolls of foliage to cover is. that on the centre of the echinus there flower runs is a calix. erected The to celebrate the taking of Jerusalem in 70 A.THE ROMAN COMPOSITE a 171 new ornament. but deplore his want of tasteful invention which has forced him to give a bad one. its volutes are too ponderous for the rest. The varieties of leaves in the used in capitals have been mentioned body of the book. them. THE ROMAN This order has been called the Composite. from the mixture of Ionic and Corinthian motives in its capital. the lower parts of the bands and the spaces between the spirals being filled with foliage. It may be imagined entablature is that in a all the foliage above the upper row of leaves Corinthian capital has been removed. from which a up above the top of the abacus. The example given is from the Arch of Titus. and very inferior to the latter in its proportions. however. and taken merely as an isolated capital.

Half of the capital of Mars Ultor.innnnm FIG. . 187. Roman Corinthian.

THE ROMAN COMPOSITE 173 saw that in tall columns. and in this case the columns are on pedestals. Roman composite capital from the Arch of Titus. and was applied everywhere. This capital when once invented took the Romans. . the volutes of Corinthian Columns FIG. 188. were too insignificant.

tnnnnnnnnff FIG. . Arch of Titus. capital. Entablature. 189. Roman Composite. and base.

Elements and Mathematical Principles of the Greek Antiquities Architects gives in many examples of profiles: "The Les Edifices Antiques de Rome. Those who wish to study this subject will find the Greek examples in Stuart and Rivett's Antiquities of in Athens . Penrose's Principles of Athenian Archithe books in ." godetz Cresy and Taylor's Architectural Antiquities of Rome . and in Wilkins' Pennethorne's of Magna Grcecia. . Society at in Cockerell's in ALgina . and we can imagine that if such a solution had been offered to the Athenians in their palmy days.TEXT BOOKS ON ARCHITECTURE It 175 was the practical solution for a practical people felt. and Mr. I may mention that the orders that have passed through the hands of the Italian masters and been altered by them are not Classical. it was no solution. J. Normand's Parallel of the Orders . the author would have been howled at. Mr. by DesRoman. tecture . Artistically speaking. . Phene Spiers' Orders of Architecture. but Renaissance. and of a want that was hunted out of the city. published by the Dilettanti Temple of Jupiter Panhellenius Inwood's Erectheion .

and a rhomboid are species of parallelograms. 6.) Rhombus is a four-sided figure which has sides equal.) is a triangle which has three equal sites. (Fig. 5.) A square.) is A sides. an oblong. 3. Scalene triangle (Fig.A CHAPTER ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF SOME FIGURES AND CURVES IN PRACTICAL PLANE GEOMETRY USEFUL IN ORNAMENT. (Fig. a rhombus. . A its Parallelogram a four-sided figure which has all A its opposite sides parallel. all a square set angle-wise. 70 is A Lozenge NOTE. 8. Isosceles triangle is that which has only two sides equal.) that which has three unequal is A An Right-angled triangle (Fig. 4. (Fig. (Fig. Acute-angled triangle (Fig. DEFINITIONS and names of figures from i to 13. An An Equilateral triangle I.) that which has a right is angle. (Fig. 2. but its angles are not right angles.) is that which has three acute angles.

177 FIG. FIG. FIG. 5 FIG. 2 FIG 3 FIG. 6 FIG 7 .

) A set of two equilateral triangles back to back.iy8 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT Diamond is composed (Fig. If one opposite pair of sides be parallel. All other four-sided figures are called Trapeziums. A polygon having . 9. 10. the figure is called a Trapezoid.) Polygon is a plane rectilineal figure Polygons. An Irregular Polygon may have unequal sides and unequal angles. Regular Polygon is that which has its sides and its angles also are equal. and the other pair not. or equal sides and chapter regular polygons are only treated of. (Fig. A A equal. In this unequal angles. or unequal sides and equal angles. Polygons are named according to the sides or angles they 5 side number of may have. contained by more than four straight lines.

179 FIG. 12 and 13 FIG. 14 . 9 FIG. 10 TANG EN T LUNETTE: SEGMENT SECTOR. FIGS.

given circles B E and F D. 4'. and draw the lines 4. and radius K F describe a semicircle and radius F P describe a circleThe semicircle cuts this circle at H. The points of contact are A and C. the centres E and F cutting the circumference Join From K Bisect E F in G. Join A C. parallel to 5 F With A and F as centre and to meet the diameter. and produce it to C. in the line K F cut off a part K P equal to the radius Fig. given circles of the smaller circle E B. &c. Join F H cutting the larger circle at C. Within a given circle to describe any Regular Polygon say a Pentagon.. circle mark off K J and E F equal to the radius of the smaller circle. From . sides Fig. draw any angle to A F. Join the centres E and F. 3'. of the larger circle at K. Draw the diameter A F and divide it into the same number of parts as the required polygon is to have To divide in this case it will be five parts. At E draw E A parallel to F C. the diameter into the a line AX number of equal parts. 15. 17. and with F as centre and F J as radius describe an arc passing through semicircle at H. 1 6.i8o THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT To draw an Exterior Tangent to two A B and C D K. Join point 5 to F. Bisect E F in G. 3. which is the exterior tangent required. Set off any convenient measurement five times on this line. and From K on the larger describe a semicircle on E F. To draw an Interior Tangent to two Fig. A F as radius describe arcs intersecting at L. and draw E A parallel to F H. through which the interior tangent is With centre G with F as centre drawn. Join F H. .

FIG. 17 . x6 FIG.

D E. K C.B. Mark D C D. line L draw a 2' is point A F at A B. Join the points A. With each corner of the square as centres. Produce the lines HD HK at right angles K B K D in K A. making the distances ABC. Special method of drawing an Octagon in D a given circle. B around the the length of the side A circumference at C. circle A Regular Hexagon may be its inscribed in a by setting off the length of radius six times round the circumference. describe arcs . Divide the semicircle into as many parts as the Draw a polygon is to have sides in this case five. Bisect A B and B C to find P. and E A to complete the required polygon. Polygon. 20. C. Produce the given line A B to R. and half the diagonal of the square as radius. This Set off the length of the side of the required polygon. meet the circumference at G and E. B. On a given line to construct any Regular Fig. and E A each equal to A B. Draw two the lines to diameters B F and to each other. which will be the centre off the points of a circle passing through the points and E. To inscribe an Octagon in a given square. Fig. Fig. and joining the points. The eight thus found on the circumference are joined to points make the required octagon. Join C D. E. D. 1 8. line from point B to the second division point Q C. and E. E to complete the required pentagon.1 82 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT through the Second division on Join cutting the circumference at B. N. KA Bisect angles B and and C. 19. say a Pentagon. D. and with B as centre and A B as radius describe a semicircle A C R.

FIG. 19 . 18 FIG.

3. i E and 4. lines of bisection intersect at With D and distance DE inscribe the required circle. 23. 24. Produce B D ABC. K. 22. A C. centre as The to E. Join these points to complete the required octagon. A Draw the diagonals and two lines through the centre parallel to the sides of the given square B C D. inscribe the four required circles. D DC as radius describe the required circle.1 84 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT cutting the sides of the square at F. &c. Bisect the angle perpendicular to as centre and B A in A D. square being given. Produce A the line of bisection until line at point i. H. Fig. G. Bisect any one of the angles made by a diagonal and one of the sides of the square. 2. meeting AD a At C draw a With at D. With these points as centres. To describe a circle to touch two given Fig. one point of contact being given. Fig. it meets the vertical centre With the central point O as centre . straight lines A B and A C C. 21. to inscribe four equal circles each touching two other and one side of the square. to inscribe four equal circles each touching two others and two sides of the square. To inscribe a circle in given triangle at B and C. Bisect any two of the angles D. Join the extremities of the latter lines to obtain the points I. Fig. and drawn perpendicular to C A as radius. square being given. A Draw the diagonals and two lines parallel to the sides through the centre of the given square. as at D.

23 FIG.i8 5 FIG. FIG. 22 E A FIG. 24 .

25. With D as centre and D K as radius inscribe one of the required circles. a form common in archi- N. circles tecture. the remaining parts of the circles would form a figure known as the quatrefoil. &c. i. &c. 2. These are the centres of the required If the central portion made by the meeting of the four were removed.B. and draw the bisection lines through to meet ABC. and produce them a little beyond these E. Fig. by produce the hexagon within the given Bisect the angle the circle at point R. E.186 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT and O i as radius. F. a circle to obtain the points circles. (2) KO H. &c.. (i) hexagon. and Join the points G. and with the same radius and F. i. To inscribe six equal circles in a given equilateral triangle Bisect the angles of the given equilateral triangle as at E. 3. describe 4. the line of bisection will cut B C. Draw the three diameters A D. 26. (3) Within the inner hexagon to inscribe three equal circles each touching each other and two Fig. With Through R draw H K parallel O as centre and O H as radius describe a circle cutting the produced diameters at K. 2. D. H. off the length of the radius of the given six times on the circumference as at Mark B D F D E F. Bisect the angle ABJ to on C K. lines to straight circle. . (2) sides of the (i) circle hexagon. Through D draw G F to B. also F H and H G parallel to the parallel sides of the triangle. Within a given circle to inscribe a Without the same circle to describe a hexagon. the centre of each side. to points. B G F. L. and G as centres obtain the point D A inscribe the remaining circles. M.

26 . 23 FIG.J8 7 FIG.

Fig. 27. (3) Join the points G. 3. circles To inscribe a trefoil. E. as radius describe the remaining required This problem circle. 29. 3 on the diameters. From the centre D to these six Bisect points draw radii. 28. and to . perpendicular to five. A. Draw 1. or three equal semi- having adjacent diameters in a given circle. This will obtain the points i.4 perpendicular to G B. a triangle any two angles of which and E. Divide the circle in the same number of parts as Fig. 3 and 2 are the centres of the other two required circles. From D and D i as radius describe a circle cutting the five radii in i. E. Within a given circle to inscribe any circles. seven circles being inscribed instead of five in a given Fig.188 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT Join the latter points to produce the required hexagon without the given circle. is circles. points and i A With the latter points as centres 4. Draw E C obtaining any of the six sectors as at F on one of the radials. With i. From point i thus obtained D A and D DEF bisect as at D on D A and as centre A inscribe a circle. 4 as radius and i as centre describe one of the required circles. lines On either side of F draw from it alternate radials perpendicular to B D meet the and D C. 27. 2. radius i Draw E F required in this case Bisect the angles B A. Divide the given circle into six equal parts by marking off the length of the radius six times on the circumference. each touching the circumference and two other circles. 5. worked in the same manner as Fig. number of equal the number of circles radii. Draw is the five ADC. 2.

FIG.i8 9 FIG. 29 .

were placed around points B and smaller triangles. within the Draw tangents to the circle at L M and N. I. if six of the L M. On and 3 as centres. 2. A B C circle. 3. Join their alternate extremities as at Draw L M N.IQO THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT their join extremities. This makes the required equilateral triangle circle. 30. thus making the equilateral the sides of this triangle describe triangle the three semicircles required by using points I. M O. It will be seen that the triangle B C is made up of four similar triangles each equal to L N. and the inscribed three semicircles have their diameters adjacent. and without a given circle. To describe an equilateral triangle within Fig. or lines at right angles to L O. Also. Produce the latter radii to meet the tangents at ABC. is the equilateral triangle without the N. 2. C a hexagon would be . is figure the and 2 F as radius. The completed trefoil. This figure is very useful in designing geometrical and other repeating all over patterns in ornament.B. as A M A A formed. six radii dividing the given circle into six equal parts. and N O.

as at X 3. > triangle. 31. but not through Fig. is the curve of the section made by its a plane passing through a cone parallel to one of The Hyperbola is the curve of a section made by a plane passing through a cone parallel to its axis. . of a cone is The elevation shown at ABC. is a Hyperbola. Ellipse is the curve of the section made by a plane passing obliquely through a cone from side to The Parabola sides. or a section through X at any other angle greater than the angle made by the side and base. the Parabola. The figures known as the Conic Sections are the and the Hyperbola. The side. X and 34 show the actual shape of the X 2. but is an Ellipse. as at X 4. X A X parallel to the axis. or inclined at a greater angle to its base than its side. 32. as at X i. section through X Figs. side is A AC section through parallel to the opposite a Parabola. its apex. sections I.THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT 191 CONIC SECTIONS. X A at right angles section passing through and across the cone not at right angles to the axis. from point X. A section through point to the axis of the cone is a Circle. 33. . and X 3 respectively. such as the section through any point below the apex. and taken parallel to the base this would be a circle and a section through the apex perpendicular to the base would be an isosceles Ellipse. on the axis. as at 2. The Cone may have other sections in addition to these.

into any number of equal parts. This point E is found by drawing the line from 7 on D B to E on produced. 31). through these meeting points the curve of the Parabola will between the working the Hyperbola and the Parabola is of this figure that the lines which in the Parabola were drawn parallel to G B. To describe an Archimedean tliree. and A G into the Draw from C lines through the same number. and join the points of the divisions to C. 35. 33. divisions as i. . To find the minor I (Fig. and from D lines to i' 2' 3' &c. while B is twice the length equal to B into any number of 2 (Fig. In this figure.192 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT * Fig. difference The only CD 31). k h is then half the length of Divide A E the minor axis of the Ellipse. spiral of any number of revolutions say the longest radius A B being given. Divide of is D X A D G equal parts. 31). the Parabola. draw B. 2. B into the same number of equal parts. Fig. it H to/. are here drawn to a point E on C D produced. 32. B. 31). lines drawn from B G . and produce drop a perpendicular to F From A to The curve of the required Ellipse will pass through the intersections of these lines. Fig. 31) in H. 3 &c. as C D. In this figure the of the Ellipse is equal to major or transverse axis X i. and Divide C draw lines from the points of division parallel to D D to meet the similar numbered be drawn. where C E equals twice Fig. C D being equal to X 3 (Fig. 34. as at i" 3" 5" &c. the line C 2 (Fig. and describe the semicircle/ kg. drop a perpendicular or conjugate axis bisect parallel to through it F X G A from to h meet the semicircle. X O (Fig..

THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT c o 193 4 <T6 7 B O .

With centre B and the point of FIG. Archimedean Spiral. describe arcs. and divide it into any number of equal parts say eight.194 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT Divide the radius the three revolutions. AB With B into three equal parts for as as centre and B A radius describe a circle. each succeeding division as radius. B In these two divisions arcs are drawn as . &c. meeting as in following order the next nearest diameter shown 8 with radius circle. 2 2". describe a 8. 3 3''. Through point the second division. and through point 16 with centre B describe a at arcs I i". circle. by drawing four diameters. 35. B is divided into Each of the three divisions on A eight equal parts.

a perfect catenary curve at best we can only obtain . By joining T' S' parallel to S' F'. 36. and 3 4 to G. AE B -J- to form the eye of the A C and C B I 3.> to the next then drawn through the points thus formed on the diameters. The V A' and method at right angles to F' A" and equal to C V T for obtaining the inner spiral is the same as for the outer. To draw Goldman's given. making the diameter 3 of these parts. 5.. to 3 4. I C into three equal parts. F (Fig. H. To A' F' in Fig. 36). &c. 195 A 8. The points 1. from 7 and 1 1 to &c. until it ends in its centre spiral is The at B. F' S' is made equal to the equal to F' is drawn breadth of the fillet at the top F S. 2. 3'. Produce the sides i 2. There is no geometric means of drawing . On i 4 draw a square. Draw lines parallel to I through the points of division to P and Divide G and L. which cut the line C 2 in the points 6 and 10. I. series of quadrants which are to form the outer spiral that begins with the radius i F. the cathetus C F being Divide C F into 15 equal parts. Bisect in I and 4. Fig.. 4. these points (6 and 10) draw lines to and Through O parallel to E H. 3. 2 3. With C as centre describe a circle volute. cutting C 3 in 7 and n.THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT described above for the division nearest diameter. Volute. In the M same way draw lines parallel N and R. A V I. will then form I the centres of the.2. &c. which mark its path as at i'. respectively. 2'. Fig. 36 (a) is describe the inner spiral. then drawing is obtained which will be the length of half the side of the square for drawing the inner spiral. 37.

36. 38. mark the path To draw a cycloid curve when \hzgenerat- . Goldman's volute. points will Fig. In the of the catenary. These V' (a) FIG.196 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT The curve is it by an approximation in geometry. formed by suspending a chain from two points and pricking points along the curve of the chain. accompanying figure three catenary curves are drawn from a chain suspended from points A and B.

38. Catenary curves. three times the length of the radius of the make an angle of 30 at E. D DM D and make circle . the following method. and which circle. FIG. Draw at right angles to C. Cycloid curve. 37. Draw the vertical diameter of the circle C. A B on which In order to find the length of the circle rolls. must be the length of the circumference of the given we must first find approximately that length by FIG. and draw a line it .THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT ing circle the line is 197 given.

and equal to parallel to draw a line from E S A M L. 2'. draw &c. E A B = 22 of those parts. and r with radius them at i" 2". Complete the cycloid by drawing D B in a similar manner. Join is the approximate length of half the Make C and C B each equal to circumference.. The curve A D. lines parallel to A From the points C. With centres &c. 3. and B. The length A B can also be found approximately by dividing C D into seven equal parts. 3". i'. the angle of 30 cuts C B in L. &c. M L A the length approximately of the on circumference.. E S into eight equal parts. will then pass through these points. 3'. Divide I. describe arcs cutting . Divide now half the circle is M L. which must be drawn by freehand. 2. .i 98 THE PRINCIPLES OF ORNAMENT The line of any convenient length. and taking C. Then A B D into eight equal parts. parallel to DM E L making ML. drawn at right angles to C which the circle rolls.

two different forms in succession. In compositions that are not Balance. Anthemion. See page 143. symmetrical the iveight of the masses must be alike on either side of . &c. equilibrium or counterpoise. saintship. 67. the trident to Neptune. and each had its proper attributes. Among . the things assigned to any one. the pea- cock to Juno. other. or alternating with each Figs. a man holding a lamb. Alternation.GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED IN ORNAMENT Many of the terms which appear in this Glossary have been explained The reader should refer back to the text when in the previous chapters. not only means "beautiful. It was mostly confined to human figures. the honey- Attributes. were represented as gods with crowns of sedge or rushes towns as gods or goddesses with mural crowns. the representation of one thing under the image of another. Among the Christians. and distinguishes it from symbolic and mnemonic ornament. was an allegorical representation of Christ the Good Shepherd . as Hercules with his club rivers health as a the Pagans strength was shown woman with a serpent . any of the terms are inadequately described here. the science of the beautiful. when applied that beauty Allegory. but to aid its comprehen^ sion attributes were added. or martyrdom. ics . 75. to ornament. ." but was the sole aim of its production. Amongst the Pagans the eagle and thunderbolt to Jupiter. . or a shepherd with his flock. and 76. ^Esthetic. the lily of chastity. Amongst the Christians the nimbus was the attribute of divinity. &c. the seven cardinal virtues and the seven deadly sins were represented by allegorical figures. a radiating ornament with a palmate outline suckle ornament of the Greeks.

180. It is also characteristic of the decadent periods of Contrast. formed by equidistant vertical and horizontal lines crossing one another. Cauliculus. 27. These early conventionalized forms were sometimes perpetuated through religious conservatism. decorating by means of horizontal ornament. in those of symmetrical outline with different fillings fillings. by which one contributes to the effect of the other . 181. natural objects were highly conventionalized through the want of skill in the artists. The styles most characterized by conventional ornament are the Greek and the early Gothic . Checkering. 126 and 131. while Gothic has mostly only the vigour. All ornament is more or less conventional. the shoot or stem of a plant forming the volutes under the angles of the abacus. the opposite of simplicity. interweaving or intricacy . In early decoration This is a word of great elasticity. thus the Egyptians and early Greeks represented water by the zig-zag. is mainly . page 43Conventional. 98 and 99. 185. See page 46. in modern works this name is mostly confined to the central spirals. . g. Colour. all historic styles. but only portray their impressions. Figs. and Gothic ornament. Figs. See circle. or vice versa. they are equally effective as ornament in their respective countries. the outer ones being called volutes. Banding. covering a surface with a square pattern like a chess-board. The outline is in which the colour or the ornament alternates. &c. a plain space alternating with an ornamented one. apart from the literal meaning of the word. after the artists had become skilful.200 a central axis GLOSSARY . the straight line with the . stripes. vertical white. or an enriched moulding round a plain panel. and 188. the opposition of dissimilar figures or positions. who could not copy. there must be equality of weight in the Renaissance orna- ment affords many admirable examples of balance. to be found in Celtic. &c. but the is usually applied to designate that ornament in which the most beautiful and characteristic floral forms have been abstracted and adapted to the material employed and the effect wanted. Ornament in which the leading forms are not apparent. and Figs. in colour black with ornamental forms where flat and sharp curves contrast with one another . Fig. e. the curve formed by a chain hanging from two points. but the Greek has all the grace and vigour of term the highest plant form. 187. . Catenary. Complexity. and those in the centre of each face of a Corinthian capital . Saracenic. Figs. and horizontal lines alternating . is a vague technical term to express character and contrast in ornament. Moresque. filled mostly with n6and 117.

54. Eurythmy. perhaps the least conventionalized of fairly good ornaConventional is also used Counterchange. or point . as a satyr. too often means leaving out all grace and vigour. means embossed ornament on vessels. 143. used as an cock say the an emblem of watchfulness . rocks. 201 49 54. in Latin. Even the plain space and ornament proportionately distribution. a pattern in which the ornament and ground are mostly similar in shape but different in colour and alternate with each other. 130 and 160.GLOSSARY Figs. maenad. in opposition to realistic ornament. a quality obtained by the use of contrasted but harmonious and dignified forms. arranged . 101. by the brush . and 119. in painting. Doric. a thyrsus. and no. the capping abacus of the corona. as in outline by the pencil. allegorical representation of some virtue or quality. while good Roman and Cinque Cento pilaster panels give the It is sometimes imartistic examples of this arrangement. e. 109. 102. 101. the figure of Bacchus is wanted for a given space which it does not fill . derived from jasper. but the latter may be used as a is We symbol of the Virgin Mary. &c. trees. 49. Indian ornament gives the most mechanical instance of this.Persian ornament ment. including checkers and net-work. originally employed to designate those coloured patterns on stuffs that suggested the flowerings of jasper . Figs. Cymatium. See Figs. the scales. pen. g. the method of representing ornament by various means. &c. of justice . Figs. the lily. 171 and 172. 118. 91 and 129. subsequently a pattern enclosed in repeating geometrical forms not composed of straight lines . and was the animal or thing that was painted on a shield to show the temper or striking It is also quality or achievement of the warrior. properly used to designate the balancing of masses in a design. See Balance. of purity . of courage . Emblem. the due filling of the space may sometimes be attained by the addition of his attributes. The Romans and the Renaissance architects also Convention now Figs. of the architrave. but unhappily employed of late years to designate any repeating patterns enclosed in geometric forms. the lion. harmony or elegance in ornament . to a vertical member. In modern English it is a device. and mosaic. Also Figs. successfully conventionalized. expressed in a measured or proportionate quantity. 107. Enlargement of Subject. is Figs. Roman of the Diaper. accessories even may be wanted. Saracenic. of the See Appendix on the orders. a vine and grapes . Equilibrium. inlaid work. most Expression. 53. . as the cymatium of the frieze. as a leopard.

&c. and were imitated The word is mainly used now &c. which gradually overspread all buildings. 54Fluted. When the fantastic arabesques decoration were discovered under the baths and in grottoes. of ancient in the Roman grotto. and in early Gothic. 75 and 76. . and other polygons. octagon. 134. they Vatican. Guilloche. snare-work . . semi-circular.202 GLOSSARY in relief is and expression or sunk work by modelling. square. a concise expression for those forms which denote the special vigour shown by plants at certain epochs of their growth. to describe the coarse and humorous carvings of heads. also the bounding lines for ornament constructed on a basis of geometry. the twist of the stem of creeping plants to get light to the flowers. used to decorate the built grottoes of the late Renaissance. or elliptical in section . the triangle. Geometric." the setting out of all good ornament . met with in Pompeian and other decorations. and word grot or 172. channelled in hollows. or the clasp of a tendril. and angular lines which produce a look of inflexibility. Fitness. 122 and 128.) were originally called grotesque. segmental. in opposition to . diamond. in flowing and crossing each other an ornament composed of parallel curved lines . gargoyles. that serve to decorate the ends of dripstone mouldings. See Flexibility. is &c. grinning monsters. (See Figs.. and 135. the circle. such as winged dragons. 107. to the hybrid animals. met with in the volutes of Greek Corinthian Examples the base of the tripod on the choragic monument Renaissance sculpture. Fanciful. a quality derived growth rigid from the appearance of plants of free the freedom and elasticity found in natural forms when converted into ornament give a look of flexibility. Figs. like those on some of the shafts of Greek and Roman columns. the hexagon. See also Figs. the bursting of the are to be bud from a capsule. as in diapers. lozenge. capitals. 131. and the figures ending in foliage. Grotesque. decorations are pre-eminently geometric in construction. or "geometrical arrangement. 102. The word is also used to denote the quaint class of Gothic sculptured creations originally (Fig. in of Lysikrates. a term sometimes applied to grotesque creations. are Saracenic the chief geometrical forms for patterns in ornament. 122. for example. ioi. satyrs. interfering with the use of the object ornamented. . these forms may best be illustrated . and Growth finials. 1 06. &c. In another sense giving the proper treatment and character to ornament. See Figs. bosses. See Fig. 131). absolute propriety beautiful ornament adapted to its purpose and not page 48. from the no.

panelling without sufficient variety in . modelling. interlaced work may be mentioned braided. Seepage 130. Fig. that which is improperly applied. 174. when running side of Interlacing. ornament in which written for the signs or other elements are used purpose of aiding the memory. Mnemonic. as festoons. The bark of the Chili pine is is a peculiar instance of horizontal im- brication which as decoration something like that of a roofs. size . &c. also Fig. Figs. &c. as seen in fir-cones. carved ornament of nearly equal relief the in short. mostly applied to Egyptian picture and Idealistic See Fig. the points at lines or other forms cut one another. mostly found in the ornament of savage tribes. torus mouldings.. in opposition to " realistic. Hieroglyphic^ sacred carving. ribbons. or crossing at intervals. woven work. 162. 133. and Saracenic ornament . It is used on a common way of and small columns. is See page 21. symbolic writing. or redundant." Imbrication. variety in composition. the hop. rushes. which . Naturalistic. out of scale. . See page 21. so as to spoil the appearance. as seen in Byzantine. another. Celtic. 163. overlapping scale-like ornaments . among examples of trellis. quaint. B. 173. is false. used by some writers as equivalent to conventional. ropes. 22. or the markings on the skins of reptiles and quadrupeds. filling certain Roman roof. and 40. Figs. 38. that resemble the spots and eyes on butterflies' wings. the ornament on each side of the axis See Figs. A. or curious. those forms that are used for decoration. or colour of any lack of ornament produces monotony. ornament composed of bands. and Intersection.GLOSSARY 203 by the bending of ropes round circular pins so as to cross one See Figs. 23. C. osiers. the colour of the ground on either it being different. and curved tiles on roofs. vertical or horizontal patterns are divided Interchange by a vertical or horizontal axis. and is See spaces on Italian majolica. 37. are examples of imbrication. basket. shields. Independent ornaments. 162. 39. sameness of tone often shown in excessive repetition a very undesirable feature in ornament : patterns within diapers without contrasting elements mouldings coming together whose widths and profiles are nearly equal . or on the feathers of birds . that may be attached to a wall or surface. being of the colour of the opposite ground. Monotony. trophies. . Inappropriate ornament. or interfere with the use of an object . medallions. 26. Things that are beautiful. woven together.

&c. and the relation between the spaces occupied by the ornament and its ground. . 102. and 105. however. and 51. may have its decoration larger in scale than the panels . and . sprays.204 GLOSSARY Network. See page 45. heads. filled medallions. 63. the relative proportion of the different parts of a decorative composition to each other. the divergence from a point of straight or curved lines. . rest the absence of apparent movement in ornament . as with landthe frieze of a room. as a keep their natural proportion to each other. as in isolated panels. are squares set lozengewise or forming diamonds but the word is commonly applied to any figures in See Fig. and other decorative units sprinkled on a ground. the harmonic spacing of lines and surfaces the ratio between succeeding units width. the inclosed spaces may be with other subjects of smaller or larger scale. of the length. Realistic. 9. Repose. it is opposed to the conventional. 80. and Figs. being sculptured to represent a bundle of reeds tied together. and Figs. pilasters. from its greater scapes. and projection of solids in flowing ornament. Order is of such vital importance in a design that . "powdering" is a favourite method of decoration See pp. For explanation Reeded. some of the columns in Egyptian architecture are reeded. absence of spottiness. Order. See Figs. as opposed to checkers. Attributes are. this . and 32. often made to a much larger scale in Greek coins and engraved gems. 76A and 763." and is rarely found in the best periods of good historic styles. . leaves. producing the reverse effect of "fluting" . spandrels. and in some bad paper-hangings. see pages 40 43. Repetition. apparent movement may be seen in some flamboyant tracery and also the Saracenic work. and to the thing ornamented. Explained at page See Figs. with the Japanese. Powdering. 103. 85. Radiating ornament is improved by the point being below the straight or curved line from which the radiation starts.. If a design rule. &c. a style of decoration in which forms are applied without alteration from natural forms or objects. convex forms applied to a flat or curved surface. is composed of different organic forms. covering a surface. 50. flowers. See Figs. and was with the Medisevals. I and 146. Scale. Proportion. . or without apparent altera" tion . ornament can scarcely have any existence without it. regular disposition a pleasing sequence in the arrangement of opposed forms. 83. Equality in scale need not be used when parts are cut off from each other by inclosing mouldings. outline. rectilinear or otherwise. 49. they should. to the whole. Radiation. 44. 3. a succession of the same decorative unit. or inscriptions importance.

the sequence of the same text in Saracenic work. or a vault. the convex side being outwards. rooms. Also Figs. or cone. Setting out. except in rare instances. the elevation of a wire continuously twisted round a cylinder. as branches of from bottom to top. And this precaution is equally important in the use of plants . mostly means the latter ineffective. D. (as in the Ionic capital) and the outline of the wave ornament univalve shells. Soffit. the marking of widths in mouldings. 24. Equality of division in decoration is. and strength in the general appearance of a design . usually composed of a meander with spirals. they destroy the scale of the feet in room or floor diameter or six Scalloping or scolloping. C. an architrave. each spiral coiling the reverse way. as the bead and reel in bead-mouldings. the planning of a scheme of decoration . and may want to be much smaller. when used as a substantive. See page lines are used in the decoration of long panels. stiles and rails. Spacing.circles or segments. 205 in the decoration of The scale employed increase or destroy hence. borders. 123 and 128. the straight line is 42. 88 and 89. and 68 71. a cornice. 41. 178. .GLOSSARY of the door or shutters. of floors. 65. the first constructive lines or marking-out of the ornament . as the soffit of a beam. each attached to the opposite ends of a curved stem. but the word is often applied to ornament Series. an arch. . and 68. &c. the sequence of several dissimilar forms at regular intervals. Where many curved the chief factor of stability in ornament. or of pieces of furniture. Spiral. See pages 26. As a unit in ornament. harmonious variety in good effect. See pages 42. 42. in most cases. and also a sequence of forms similar in shape but in plants. . panels. the human figure should not exceed its natural size. The curved line forming a volute . straight-lined forms must be introduced to counteract the effect of instability in the curved ones. &c. it is usually applied to two spirals. with leaves getting smaller an increasing or decreasing order. 43. forming an edge with semi. Stability. may their importance . the skeleton lines of a design. an architectural term applied to the under side of any fixed portion. and should be guarded against is such widths and distances desirable for getting a form. also the plan of one twisted round a cone . 40. feet a roll of paper or parchment. 62. in ornament the word spiral. if the flowers or leaves in ornament are made gigantic. Scroll^ though it may be known that leaves four long actually exist. See Figs. firmness the line of construction in See Figs. in climbing plants this appearance can only be given by their attachment to a central upright or to the vertical sides of the frame .

Bygone styles are useful for study. regular gradation from the most important feature See the central panel of ceiling. the complexity 102. or painting. or figurative representation. opportunities. is applied to a composition in which those qualities are expressed. wall-patterns of the Alhambra.2o6 This GLOSSARY is especially the case in pilasters which are architectural features of support . . Symbol the meant a token or a ticket among the Greeks by meant the same. Stripe^ usually applied in Suitability. 101. Spotting. knowledge. the great thing to remember the nature. 80. See Figs. classify them under the head of conventional We It is also (sometimes called idealistic). emblem. In historic styles it means the expression of the taste and skill of the people who produced the work of art. or commonplace. surface. 89. In modern English it means a sign. realistic. and may be copied or paraphrased. but can never be re-created. and to design the ornament accordingly. See Fig. and for the same reason the heavier forms should be kept at the bottom and the lighter ones at the top. ribbon-like . Superimposed or superposed^ an ornament which is laid on the surface of another. three. and shape of the object to be decorated. such as a large flowing pattern on a ground covered with a smaller pattern. which conveys the Sometimes it elegance. either geometric or floral or a broad. flabby. the judicious use of different colours and gold preventing confusion in the pattern . and surroundings of any later period are unlikely to be the same. and 104. we often find two. whether it be architecture. sculpture. Fig. This word has nearly the same meaning as powdering. the ground occupying much larger space than the ornament. in contradistinction to the ill-drawn. In ornamental art it is mostly used to express some beautiful thing that by knowledge or association brings to the mind some power or originally Romans it . or vigour of the best natural forms. This mostly seen in the decoration of the In the Saracens. used to express good drawing or modelling. is of ornamentation sometimes of a well-ordered kind. because the genius. Subordination. Style originally meant handwriting. ." the only difference being that the units of form in such decoration have " a geometrical basis and are mostly equidistant. A to the least important. and naturalistic. and sometimes four different designs superimposed on each other. for it is evident that what would be a good ornament for one object or position might be bad and practical fitness for another. ornament sort laid on a pattern formed of narrow and is fine lines. aesthetic is ornament to narrow bands. and also a signet. but occasionally in that of the Renaissance artists. grace.

See p. 25 and 53- scroll patterns the square and circle are uniform Uniformity. to two The judicious use of variety things that are absolutely unlike. an emblem. perfect accord in all the parts of a design. equality of form and mass on either side of a central absolute sameness in the two sides of a piece of ornament. 127 and 130. so that they flow into one another without making an angle. and Figs." i. results in monotony. The Greek temples had apparently absolute. and monotony was avoided by delicate variations in the size and spacing of the columns. Luke. but if . It is sometimes difficult to determine when anything should be called a symbol. -it is one of the main causes of grandeur and dignity. Symmetry. Unity is often a characteristic of designs that are very monotonous. the meeting of curves at their tangential points. and the trident of Neptune. or an allegorical representation of St. See the word Variety. but uniformity with slight variety gives the most dignity. the thyrsus of Bacchus (Fig. the smallest or simplest complete expression of ornament in any scheme of decoration. Unity. line . uniform columns placed at uniform distances. from two things that are not absolutely alike. 45.GLOSSARY dignity 207 often connected with religion. Unit. being of one shape figures . the branches and curves should flow out of the central stem. Attributes are used as symbols of the divinity to which they belong the bow of Diana. 167). The principal constructive lines in foliated ornament and should illustrate " tangential junction. an emblem. whether the Apocalyptic calf is a symbol. &c. In Christian ornament the fish and lamb are mostly symbols of the Saviour. Figs. See Tangential Junction. or an allegorical representation . so by itself it will scarcely render a design pleasing. the absence of similarity . Un symmetrical. Balance. . without symmetry. a word embracing an infinity of differences. such as the volute. for instance. gives interest to ornament. e.

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