ADDENDUM CLASS III CULTURAL RESOURCE INVENTORY FOR ENERGY FUELS RESOURCES PIÑON RIDGE MILL PROJECT COOPER

PROPERTY MONTROSE COUNTY, COLORADO
Prepared for⎯ Energy Fuels Resources Corporation 44 Union Boulevard, Suite 600 Lakewood, Colorado 80228 Prepared by⎯ ERO Resources Corporation 1065 Main Avenue, Suite 200 Durango, Colorado 81301

Written by— Angela Whitfield Sean Larmore Kathy Croll

Sean Larmore Principal Investigator July 2009

For Official Use Only: Disclosure of Site Locations Prohibited (43 CFR 7.18) State Permit No. 2009-50 ERO Project #4483

ERO Project #4483

ABSTRACT
ERO Resources Corporation (ERO) performed an additional Class III intensive cultural resource inventory for the Energy Fuels Resources (EFR) Piñon Ridge Mill Project. The area of potential effect (APE) consists of one contiguous The parcel is located in Paradox Valley,

The inventory resulted in documentation of four new archaeological sites and two isolated finds. Most sites are open lithic scatters. Two sites include a historic component – one consists of a historic can scatter and the other is the remains of a homestead. All but one site are recommended not eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) due to their limited research potential beyond current documentation. A portion of site 5MN9206 is recommended eligible for the NRHP based on the potential for a buried thermal feature. Isolated finds, by definition, are not eligible for inclusion in the NRHP. A determination of “no historic properties affected,” pursuant to 36 CFR 800.5 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), is recommended for the project area, contingent upon concurrence by the Colorado State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO). All four sites will be avoided by further ground disturbance, where feasible, regardless of eligibility.

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CONTENTS
Introduction......................................................................................................................... 1 Site Evaluation Criteria....................................................................................................... 3 Methods............................................................................................................................... 4 Inventory Results ................................................................................................................ 7 Site Descriptions ............................................................................................................7 Isolated Finds ...............................................................................................................12 Summary and Management Recommendations................................................................ 12 References Cited ............................................................................................................... 13

TABLES
Table 1. Newly documented sites within the project area. .................................................7 Table 2. Attributes of projectile points documented during the inventory. .......................12

FIGURES
Figure 1. Project Location...................................................................................................2

APPENDICES
Appendix A: Cultural Resource Tables and Maps Appendix B: Isolated Finds Tables and Maps Appendix C: Artifact Photographs Appendix D: OAHP Site and IF Forms

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ERO Project #4483

ADDENDUM CLASS III CULTURAL RESOURCE INVENTORY FOR ENERGY FUELS RESOURCES PIÑON RIDGE MILL PROJECT COOPER PROPERTY MONTROSE COUNTY, COLORADO JULY 2009 Introduction
ERO Resources Corporation (ERO) performed a Class III intensive cultural resource inventory for the Energy Fuels Resources Corporation (EFR) Piñon Ridge Mill Project (Piñon Ridge project). The area of potential effect (APE) consists of one contiguous The parcel is located in Paradox Valley,

The original scope of the Piñon Ridge project included an 880-acre property proposed for a uranium processing mill. In 2007, that 880-acre portion of the project was inventoried by ERO (Whitfield et al. 2007). Mitigation work at two prehistoric archaeological sites within the original project area is detailed under Sheptow and Larmore (2009). A more detailed description of the original project and the results of the original inventory can be found in the 2007 cultural resource inventory report (Whitfield et al. 2007). The current inventory report pertains to an additional where EFR

intends to install ground water wells and construct access roads as part of the Piñon Ridge project. The additional are located on private property adjacent and

west of the original 880-acre project area. Regulatory review is being provided by the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE). The project is located in the N½ of the SE¼ of Section 7, Township 46 North, Range 17 West, New Mexico Principal Meridian (PM). The parcel is located on the Davis Mesa USGS 7.5’ topographic quadrangle (Figure 1).

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Addendum Addtional Class III Resource Inventory for Energy Fuels Resources Pinon Ridge Mill Project Montrose County, Colorado
T46N; R17W; Section 7 New Mexico Principal Meridian USGS Bull Canyon and Davis Mesa, Colorado 7.5' Quadrangles
500 250 0 500 Meters

1:24,000

±

Figure 1. Project Location

Prepared for: Energy Fuels File: fig1.pdf July 2009

ADDENDUM CLASS III CULTURAL RESOURCE INVENTORY FOR ENERGY FUELS RESOURCES PIÑON RIDGE MILL PROJECT COOPER PROPERTY MONTROSE COUNTY, COLORADO

Site Evaluation Criteria
Sites investigated during this inventory were evaluated for eligibility to the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). NRHP significance criteria are codified under 36 CFR 60.4 and are specified below. The quality of significance in American history, architecture, archaeology, and culture is present in districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects that possess integrity of location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association, and: a) that are associated with events that have made a significant contribution to the broad patterns of our history; or b) that are associated with the lives of persons significant in the past; or c) that embody the distinctive characteristics of a type, period, or method of construction, or that represents the work of a master, or that possess high artistic value, or that represent a significant or distinguishable entity whose components may lack individual distinction; or d) that have yielded, or are likely to yield, information important in prehistory or history. Ordinarily, cemeteries, birthplaces, or graves of historical figures; property owned by religious institutions or used for religious purposes; structures that have been removed from their original location; reconstructed historic buildings; properties that are primarily commemorative in nature; and properties that have achieved significance within the last 50 years shall not be considered eligible for the National Register. However, such properties will qualify if they are integral parts of districts that do meet the criteria, or if they fall within the following categories: a) a religious property deriving primary significance from architectural or artistic distinction or historical importance; or b) a building or structure removed from its original location but which is significant primarily for its architecture, or which is the surviving structure most importantly associated with a historic person or event; or c) a birthplace or grave of an historical figure of outstanding importance if there is no other appropriate site or building directly associated with his or her productive life; or

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ADDENDUM CLASS III CULTURAL RESOURCE INVENTORY FOR ENERGY FUELS RESOURCES PIÑON RIDGE MILL PROJECT COOPER PROPERTY MONTROSE COUNTY, COLORADO

d) a cemetery that derives its primary significance from graves of persons of transcendent importance, from age, from distinctive design features, or from association with historic events; or e) a reconstructed building when accurately executed in a suitable environment and presented in a dignified manner as part of a restoration master plan and when no building or structure with the same association has survived; or f) a property primarily commemorative in intent if design, age, tradition, or symbolic value has invested it with its own historical significance; or g) a property achieving significance within the past 50 years if it is of exceptional importance. Cultural resources were evaluated based on the criteria listed above. In addition, the research questions posed in the regional context (Reed and Metcalf 1999) were used as a guide. The contexts provide more specific guidance for the application of NRHP criteria, especially Criterion D. Eligible sites are those that display one or more of the criterion for eligibility listed above. In addition, sites evaluated as eligible must retain physical integrity. Eroded or otherwise heavily disturbed sites are not considered eligible. Sites evaluated as needing data are those sites that may conform to the eligibility criteria, but require further work to determine NRHP status. In most cases, these sites are prehistoric or historic sites with suspected buried cultural material or historic sites where additional research is necessary to determine historical significance. Sites that are evaluated as not eligible do not meet any of the eligibility criteria and/or have lost physical integrity.

Methods
The purpose of this cultural resource inventory is to provide compliance under Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) of 1966, as amended. No federal permit is required for this project and, therefore, Section 106 is not mandated; however, EFR is practicing due diligence efforts and is proactively considering effects to cultural resources prior to project development. A second file search was conducted with the Colorado Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation (OAHP) to determine whether prior cultural resource inventories have been conducted within the APE. At the request of EFR, a supplemental file search was conducted to determine whether prehistoric rock art is located in the vicinity of the project area; the results were negative.

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ADDENDUM CLASS III CULTURAL RESOURCE INVENTORY FOR ENERGY FUELS RESOURCES PIÑON RIDGE MILL PROJECT COOPER PROPERTY MONTROSE COUNTY, COLORADO

A pedestrian survey was conducted by walking transects spaced 15 to 20 meters apart. Once artifacts were located, the survey was halted and systematic inspection of the area was conducted by pinflagging all observed artifacts and features. Artifact concentrations were identified at the discretion of the crew chief based on artifact distribution. Two site overviews and all features and diagnostic artifacts were digitally photographed. A site datum, diagnostic artifacts, and site and artifact boundaries were documented using a submeter Trimble GeoXT Explorer Global Positioning System (GPS) unit. No permanent datum was established. A cultural resource is defined as the locus of previous human activity at which the preponderance of evidence suggests one-time diagnostically interpretable use, repeated use over time, or multiple classes of activities. Professional judgment is used to distinguish between purposeful activity and isolated occurrences of artifacts that are often attributable to “background noise.” Isolated thermal features, rock art panels, and isolated human burials are considered archaeological sites. Surface lithic scatters that occur in a condensed area and comprise a single raw material may be attributable to a single reduction episode that is not considered representative of purposeful activity or patterned behavior sufficient to be documented as a site. However, due to the paucity of documented sites in Paradox Valley, these types of activity loci were documented as archaeological sites. Project localities with surface lithic raw material may produce a preponderance of such occurrences; however, this is not the case in Paradox Valley where the surface is blanketed with eolian deposits. There is no precise threshold of lithic flakes required to advance an isolated occurrence of lithic reduction to that of an archaeological site, but a standard of 10 to 15 pieces of debitage is often used as an arbitrary threshold. An evaluation of raw material, flake density, and spatial distribution is required to make an informed decision of isolated reduction episodes. Lithic scatters with multiple raw materials and artifact classes are generally considered archaeological sites. The presence of ground stone or features in association with flaked lithic material qualifies as a camp location. A ceramic scatter representative of a single vessel is also considered an isolated find.

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ADDENDUM CLASS III CULTURAL RESOURCE INVENTORY FOR ENERGY FUELS RESOURCES PIÑON RIDGE MILL PROJECT COOPER PROPERTY MONTROSE COUNTY, COLORADO

Historic sites are evaluated using the same criteria outlined above. Isolated historic artifacts are generally recorded as isolates unless associated with purposeful activity such as habitation, ranching or agricultural, or mining complexes. Historic dumps are evaluated on a case-by-case basis. A single artifact class such as sanitary cans is recorded as an isolated occurrence; conversely, dumps that exhibit many artifact classes and date prior to the 20th century are documented as archaeological sites. Linear features such as water conveyance systems, transmission lines, and roads are documented as sites. An isolated fence line is generally not recorded as a site unless it demarcates a boundary significant to area history. An isolated mine adit with no associated artifacts or features is also recorded as an isolate. Prehistoric artifact descriptions use the following terminology in this report: Ground stone descriptions follow Adams (2002); biface stages are defined according to width/thickness ratios (Callahan 1979) and are illustrated and discussed in Andrefsky (1998); flake terminology follows the “triple cortex” typology of primary, secondary, and tertiary (Andrefsky 1998), which correspond to the amount of cortex present on the flake. A primary flake’s exterior surface is covered in cortex over 50% of its surface; secondary flakes have less than 50% cortex; and tertiary flakes exhibit no cortex. Although the flaws in this method of flake typology are inherent (Andrefsky 1998), it does characterize a site’s surface flake assemblage in an efficient manner while providing useful data. Projectile point analysis follows procedures adopted by Larmore (2002), which relies on metric attributes of the haft and morphological attributes that emphasize existing condition and cross-section; typological assessment is dependent upon project location, but general typologies consulted include: Buckles (1986), Frison (1991), Holmer (1978, 1986), Irwin-Williams (1973), Pitblado (1999), and Thomas (1981). Most typologies in the region borrow heavily from these sources. Grey literature sources are consulted when significant previous investigations have occurred in the area. Six hafted bifaces were collected during the course of the inventory and will be returned to EFR following analysis.

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ADDENDUM CLASS III CULTURAL RESOURCE INVENTORY FOR ENERGY FUELS RESOURCES PIÑON RIDGE MILL PROJECT COOPER PROPERTY MONTROSE COUNTY, COLORADO

Inventory Results
Four new sites and two isolated finds were documented during the additional inventory of the Piñon Ridge project (Table 1). Six hafted bifaces were collected during inventory and subject to laboratory analysis, the results of which are presented in Table 2. Table 1. Newly documented sites within the project area.
Smithsonian Number 5MN9206 5MN9207 Temporary Site Number PI-01 PI-02 Site Type Open Lithic Scatter Open Lithic Scatter Temporal Period Middle Archaic Unknown Prehistoric/Possible Late Paleoindian Unknown Prehistoric; Historic Middle Archaic to Early Formative; Historic NRHP Eligibility Field Eligible Field Not Eligible Field Not Eligible Field Not Eligible

5MN9208

PI-03

Open Lithic Scatter/Historic Can Scatter Open Lithic Scatter/ Historic Homestead

5MN9209

PI-05

Site Descriptions Site Number: 5MN9206 Site Type: Open Lithic Scatter Site Description: The site is located

. Scattered pinyon-juniper is the dominant vegetation with typical Upper Sonoran understory. The elevation is 5,475 feet (1,669 meters) above sea level (asl). Material culture includes flaked lithic debitage derived primarily from locally available Dakota quartzite and silicified sediment with some chert from an unknown source. Flakes are diffusely scattered over a large area and concentrated in two general areas. Burnt fragmented bone occurs as Field Specimen (FS) 2 in an area of small tertiary retouched flakes. Two artifact concentrations were identified as AC 1 and AC 2. AC 1 contains 20 to 30 flakes primarily of orthoquartzite, and AC 2 consists of about 30

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ADDENDUM CLASS III CULTURAL RESOURCE INVENTORY FOR ENERGY FUELS RESOURCES PIÑON RIDGE MILL PROJECT COOPER PROPERTY MONTROSE COUNTY, COLORADO

flakes and burnt bone fragments that probably represent an activity area. The site represents a short-term occupation with primary activities including stone tool manufacture and retooling. One diagnostic Duncan (McKean Complex) projectile point (FS 1) was located indicating a Middle Archaic occupation (3000 to 1000 B.C.) at the site (Larmore 2002). Management Recommendation: Avoid and protect. This site is recommended eligible for the NRHP. Although previous geomorphological studies (summarized in Whitfield et al. 2007) have demonstrated that sites on this landform are entirely surficial or near surface manifestations, the presence of fragmented burnt bone suggests the potential for a buried thermal feature and activity detritus. As such, AC 2 is considered the contributing portion of the site and the area peripheral to this concentration is recommended as noncontributing to the site’s overall NRHP eligibility. Site Number: 5MN9207 Site Type: Open Lithic Scatter Site Description: The site is located . Artifacts are located Dominant vegetation includes pinyon-juniper with rabbitbrush, snakeweed, and bunch grasses. The elevation is 5,518 feet (1,682 meters) asl. The site appears to be a limited activity area for lithic reduction, stone tool manufacture, and general retooling. Tools include discarded biface fragments (Stages 35) all of different raw material (FS 1-FS 4), a hammerstone (FS 5), a mano (FS 6), and an exhausted core (FS 7). One possible Late Paleoindian biface midsection (FS 8) was also identified; flaking is random but well executed, the cross section is bi-convex/diamondshaped, and the raw material is a high quality dendritic chalcedony. The debitage is light overall and limited to less than 20 flakes of primarily Dakota orthoquartzite. The high tool to flake ratio, coupled with FS 8, suggests the potential for a Late Paleoindian period occupation.

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ADDENDUM CLASS III CULTURAL RESOURCE INVENTORY FOR ENERGY FUELS RESOURCES PIÑON RIDGE MILL PROJECT COOPER PROPERTY MONTROSE COUNTY, COLORADO

Management Recommendation: No further work. ERO recommends the site not eligible for the NRHP. Given the site location in an area of colluvial sediments and near surface fan deposits, there is little potential for significant buried cultural deposits. Current documentation has exhausted the research potential of the site. Site Number: 5MN9208 Site Type: Open Lithic Scatter/Historic Can Scatter Site Description: The site is located . Artifacts are located Dominant vegetation includes pinyon-juniper with rabbitbrush, snakeweed, and bunch grasses. The elevation is 5,531 feet (1,686 meters) asl. The ridge slopes 5 to 7 degrees to the northeast. The site appears to be a limited activity area for lithic reduction, stone tool manufacture, and retooling. Tools include three biface fragments of Dakota orthoquartzite (FS 4, FS 7, and FS 8); an expedient projectile point/hafted knife manufactured from a retouched flake (FS 1); two cores (FS 2 and FS 6); a sandstone onehanded mano (FS 3); a petrified wood retouched flake (FS 5); and a serrated projectile point tip (FS 9). The debitage is light overall and limited to less than 20 flakes of Dakota quartzite, quartzite, variegated chert, and chalcedony. A stacked rock wall of unshaped sandstone (F 5) is located along the western edge of the drainage downslope of the main artifact concentration and appears to have been a hunting blind, and is L-shaped and measures about 2 meters long. No diagnostic artifacts were present to provide temporal or cultural-historical interpretation. The historic component is limited to a scatter of about 25 hole-in-cap and sanitary cans near the southern or upslope portion of the site and is probably related to the homestead documented as 5MN9209. General Land Office (GLO) records indicate the north half of the southeast quarter of Section 7 was purchased on July 16, 1913 by James M. Belisle. It remains unknown whether this person was responsible for the historic cultural manifestations, but they may be associated.

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ADDENDUM CLASS III CULTURAL RESOURCE INVENTORY FOR ENERGY FUELS RESOURCES PIÑON RIDGE MILL PROJECT COOPER PROPERTY MONTROSE COUNTY, COLORADO

Management Recommendation: No further work. ERO recommends the site not eligible for the NRHP. Given the site location in an area of colluvial sediments and near surface bedrock, there is little potential for significant buried cultural deposits. Current documentation has exhausted the research potential of the site. Site Number: 5MN9209 Site Type: Open Lithic Scatter/Historic Homestead Site Description: The prehistoric component of the site consists of cultural material scattered over a large area Artifacts occur primarily Vegetation in the area is pinyon-juniper with typical Upper Sonoran understory. The elevation is 5,498 feet (1,676 m) asl. Flaked lithic debitage is dominated by secondary flakes of Dakota orthoquartzite locally available in the area. Raw material also includes presumably local variegated chert and silicified sediment derived from the Morrison, Dakota, and Burro Canyon formations that outcrop in the general area. Tools include two retouched flakes (FS 1 and FS 20); seven manos (FS 2-6, 16, and 17); six metates or metate fragments (FS 7, 8, 10, 11, 18, and 19); a retouched flake/knife (FS 9); a Gatecliff Contracting Stem (Thomas 1981) projectile point (FS 12); a translucent chert Rosegate (Holmer 1986) projectile point (FS 13); a Stage 3-4 biface fragment (FS 14); and a Dakota orthoquartzite nondiagnostic biface haft (FS 15). Five of the manos (FS 2-6) comprise a cache (F 4) and one of the metates was incorporated into the wall of a historic feature (F 3). The Gatecliff Contracting Stem point and Rosegate projectile point indicate occupation during the Middle to Late Archaic and early Formative periods, respectively. The site represents short-term occupation primarily for lithic reduction and stone tool manufacture and vegetal resource (pinyon nut?) processing. Each interfluvial ridge probably represents an activity loci or discrete occupation. It is problematic to define concentrations due to significant colluvial slopewash, artifact redeposition, and the low intensity distribution of artifacts.

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ADDENDUM CLASS III CULTURAL RESOURCE INVENTORY FOR ENERGY FUELS RESOURCES PIÑON RIDGE MILL PROJECT COOPER PROPERTY MONTROSE COUNTY, COLORADO

The historic component of the site consists of two structures located on an interfluvial ridge of a larger alluvial fan; a third feature is located on the toe slope of the valley floor. Feature 1 (F 1) is a 10 x 5 foot dugout cellar excavated into the east side of the interfluvial ridge. F 1 was constructed of axe-cut juniper posts, much of which is still intact except for the material that once covered the roof. F 2 is a 20 x 30 foot milled lumber habitation structure that has largely been salvaged of material. Lumber detritus has been mounded in the middle of the feature with smaller debris cached as a packrat midden. The outline and distribution of lumber provides a fairly distinct structural shape. The pad for the structure was excavated out of the slope in the southwest and southern edge, and mounded and leveled near the northeast corner for the platform. The refuse dump is located east of F 1 and FS 2, and consists of a medium density of solder dot cans (EST 556); aqua, purple, clear, and pane glass; and porcelain fragments. Feature 3 (~8 foot x 13 foot) appears to be an extramural structure located east of the main historic site area. Feature 3 is U-shaped, opens to the west, and consists of a single course of unshaped local sandstone rock. No artifacts were located in association. General Land Office (GLO) records indicate the portion of Section 7 in which the homestead is located was purchased on July 16, 1913 by James M. Belisle. It remains unknown whether this person was responsible for the historic cultural manifestations. The artifact assemblage, in conjunction with the GLO records, indicates occupation of the site during the late 19th to early 20th centuries. The overall quantity and density of cultural materials indicates relatively short-term occupation by a small family. The artifact type indicates that females and small children were not primary constituents of the site. The site has limited archaeological potential; no privy was located and the habitation structure has no cellar. The landform (interfluvial fan deposits) is not conducive for buried deposits. Management Recommendation: No further work. ERO recommends the site not eligible for the NRHP. Subsurface testing at adjacent sites along the same landform indicates that buried cultural deposits are unlikely. No prehistoric features were located

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ADDENDUM CLASS III CULTURAL RESOURCE INVENTORY FOR ENERGY FUELS RESOURCES PIÑON RIDGE MILL PROJECT COOPER PROPERTY MONTROSE COUNTY, COLORADO

to provide additional information. Current documentation exhausts the research potential of the site. Table 2. Attributes of projectile points documented during the inventory.
Dimensions (mm) Smithsonian No. 5MN9206 5MN9207 5MN9208 FS No. 1 8 1 Max. Length 25.6 17.2 29.5 Max. Width 15.9 19.8 21.3 Max. Thickness 4.2 5.5 3.8 10.5 9.3 6.5 Base Width 9.5 Neck Width 9 Haft Length 7.5 Notch Depth .7 Material Pink chert Dendritic chalcedony unknown Type Duncan Paleoindian ? Hafted retouched flake Gatecliff Contracting Rosegate unknown

5MN9209 5MN9209 5MN9209

12 13 15

41.1 26.2 11.4

22.5 20.5 21.9

6.8 5.4 3.8 11 12

12 8.6 11.5

Dakota orthoquartzite Petrified wood Dakota orthoquartzite

Isolated Finds Two isolated finds (IF) were recorded during the inventory. Isolated find 5MN9210 consists of 14 primary and secondary flakes of Dakota orthoquartzite that collectively represent one reduction event; flakes have been redistributed downslope due to colluvial slope wash. Isolated find 5MN9211 is an isolated hunting blind located on the west side of an entrenched ephemeral drainage. Flood events have pushed large boulders to the edges of the drainage. A small (~1 meter diameter) circular hunting blind was constructed by removing boulders from the interior. No artifacts were found in association.

Summary and Management Recommendations
The additional cultural resource inventory related to EFR’s Piñon Ridge project resulted in the documentation of four new archaeological sites and two isolated finds. All but three sites are recommended not eligible for listing on the NRHP due to their limited research potential beyond current documentation. Previous geomorphological studies and site testing along the valley slope ecotone indicated that cultural resources located in this area are entirely surficial and of mixed material deposits due to episodic periods of eolian and colluvial aggradation and deflation (Whitfield et al. 2007). Numerous
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ADDENDUM CLASS III CULTURAL RESOURCE INVENTORY FOR ENERGY FUELS RESOURCES PIÑON RIDGE MILL PROJECT COOPER PROPERTY MONTROSE COUNTY, COLORADO

entrenched drainages now dissect the valley slope ecotone and have undoubtedly become entrenched over the last 125 years due to grazing and timber harvesting. Prior to entrenchment, these drainages would have redeposited cultural material from overbank flooding, particularly near the valley floor terminus of these drainages. Outwash boulders are clearly discernible as terminal deposits on the valley floor. Conversely, it appears the interfluvial ridges between the upper (southern) portions of the entrenched drainages have remained largely stable. However, sediment deposits on these ridges are extremely shallow, and are composed of unconsolidated large clast colluvium; the cultural material is entirely surficial or near surface in this context. Therefore, with the exception of AC 2 of site 5MN9206, all cultural resources are recommended not eligible for the NRHP. Ground disturbance associated with installing ground water wells and access roads will be designed to avoid cultural resources, where feasible. Isolated finds, by definition, are not eligible for inclusion in the NRHP. A determination of “no historic properties affected,” pursuant to 36 CFR 800.5 of the NHPA, is recommended for the project area, contingent upon avoidance of all significant cultural resources.

References Cited
Adams, Jenny L. 2002 Ground Stone Analysis: A Technological Approach. The University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City. Andrefsky, William, Jr. 1998 Lithics: Macroscopic Approaches to Analysis. Cambridge Manuals in Archaeology. Cambridge University Press, NY. Buckles, William G. 1986 Old Dallas Historical Archaeological Program, Dallas Creek Project. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation. Salt Lake City, UT. Callahan, Errett 1979 The Basics of Biface Knapping in the Eastern Fluted Point Tradition: A Manual for Flintknappers and Lithic Analysts. Archaeology of Eastern North America 7:1-180. Frison, George C. 1991 Prehistoric Hunters of the High Plains, 2nd Edition. Academic Press, NY.

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ADDENDUM CLASS III CULTURAL RESOURCE INVENTORY FOR ENERGY FUELS RESOURCES PIÑON RIDGE MILL PROJECT COOPER PROPERTY MONTROSE COUNTY, COLORADO

Holmer, Richard N. 1978 A Mathematical Typology for Archaic Projectile Points of the Eastern Great Basin. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City. 1986 Common Projectile Points of the Intermountain West. In Anthropology of the Desert West: Essays in Honor of Jesse D. Jennings. Edited by C.J. Condie and D.D. Fowler, pp. 89-115. University of Utah Anthropology Papers, No. 110. Salt Lake City. Irwin-Williams, Cynthia 1973 The Oshara Tradition: Origins of Anasazi Culture. Contributions in Anthropology 5:1, Eastern New Mexico University. Larmore, Sean 2002 McKean Complex Projectile Point Variability: Interaction and Mobility During the Middle Archaic. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Denver. Pitblado, Bonnie L. 1999 Late Paleoindian Occupation of the Southern Rocky Mountains: Projectile Points and Land Use in the High Country. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Arizona. Reed, Alan D. and Michael D. Metcalf 1999 Colorado Prehistory: A Context for the Northern Colorado River Basin. Colorado Council of Professional Archaeologists, Denver. Sheptow, Danielle and Sean Larmore 2009 Addendum: Class III Cultural Resource Inventory and Evaluative Testing Results for Energy Fuels Resources Pinon Mill Development Project, Montrose County, Colorado – Archaeological Treatment of Sites 5MN8269 and 5MN8270. Prepared for and submitted to Energy Fuels Resources, Lakewood, Colorado. ERO Resources Corporation, Durango, CO. Thomas, David H. 1981 How to Classify the Projectile Points from Monitor Valley, Nevada. Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 3(1):7-43. Whitfield, Angela, Sean Larmore, and Kathy Croll 2007 Class III Cultural Resource Inventory and Evaluative Testing Results for Energy Fuels Resources Pinon Mill Development, Montrose County, Colorado. Prepared for and submitted to Energy Fuels Resources, Lakewood, Colorado. ERO Resources Corporation, Durango, CO.

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Appendix A: Cultural Resource Tables and Maps
For Official Use Only: Disclosure of Site Locations Prohibited (43 CFR 7.18)

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Table A-1. Site locations and eligibility.
Smithsonian Number 5MN9206 5MN9207 Site Type Open Lithic Scatter Open Lithic Scatter Open Lithic Scatter/Historic Can Scatter Open Lithic Scatter/ Homestead Temporal Period Middle Archaic Unknown Prehistoric/Possible Late Paleoindian Unknown Prehistoric/Historic Middle to Late Archaic/Late Archaic to Early Formative/ Historic NRHP Eligibility Field Eligible Field Not Eligible Field Not Eligible Field Not Eligible UTM Coordinates (NAD 83) Zone 12

5MN9208

5MN9209

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Addtional Class III Resource Inventory for Energy Fuels Resources Pinon Ridge Mill Project Montrose County, Colorado
T46N; R17W; Section 7 New Mexico Principal Meridian USGS Bull Canyon and Davis Mesa, Colorado 7.5' Quadrangles
500 250 0 500 Meters

Site Locations
1:24,000

[

Cactus Site Boundary 2009 Project Area Prepared for: Energy Fuels File: figa1.pdf July 2009

Appendix B: Isolated Finds Tables and Maps
For Official Use Only: Disclosure of Site Locations Prohibited (43 CFR 7.18)

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Table B-1. Isolated occurrences located within the project area.
Smithsonian Number 5MN9210 5MN9211 Temp Number PI-04 PI-06 Description 14 primary and secondary Dakota orthoquartzite flakes Isolated hunting blind located on the west side of an entrenched ephemeral drainage. A small (~1 m) diameter circular hunting blind was constructed by removing boulders from the interior. No artifacts were found in association. UTM Coordinates (NAD 83) Zone 12

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Addtional Class III Resource Inventory for Energy Fuels Resources Pinon Ridge Mill Project Montrose County, Colorado
T46N; R17W; Section 7 New Mexico Principal Meridian USGS Bull Canyon and Davis Mesa, Colorado 7.5' Quadrangles
500 250 0 500 Meters

1:24,000

±

Figure B1. Isolated Find Locations

h

Isolated Find 2009 Project Area

Prepared for: Energy Fuels File: figb1.pdf July 2009

Appendix C: Artifact Photographs
For Official Use Only: Disclosure of Site Locations Prohibited (43 CFR 7.18)

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5MN9206. FS1, Duncan projectile point

5MN9207. FS8, Possible Late Paleoindian biface midsection

5MN9208. FS1, expedient point/hafted knife

5MN9209. FS12, Gatecliff projectile point

5MN9209. FS13, Rosegate projectile point

5MN9209. FS15, low sidenotched projectile point fragment

Appendix D: OAHP Site and IF Forms
For Official Use Only: Disclosure of Site Locations Prohibited (43 CFR 7.18)

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