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1 Introduction Bernoullis Law Bernoullis Law describes the behavior of a fluid under differential condition of flow and height. It states that a fluid which is non-viscous, the pressure is lower when it flows along a pipe of varying cross section making its velocity higher. As well as when the pipe opens, the pressure increases. It is expressed mathematically, (3.8) Based on the equation, the forms on the left hand side represent the pressure head, velocity head and elevation head. Total head is the sum of all these terms. The total head, h* is constant at any cross section based on Bernoullis principle. During the experimental set up, the value of z is zero since the centerline of all the cross sections are considered to lie on the same horizontal plane. Thus, (3.9) The static pressure us the pressure used in deriving Bernoullis equation. This pressure is the one to be measured by an instrument moving the flow. Alas, it is difficult to measure practically. Generally, there are no variations of pressure normal to straight streamlines. By knowing this fact, it is possible to measure the static pressure in a flowing fluid using a wall pressure tapping placed in a region perpendicular to straight streamlines, as shown in Figure 5.1.a. this pressure tab is a small hole that is carefully drilled in the wall. Accurate measurements can be made if it is perpendicular to the duct wall and free from burrs.

Figure 5.1.a

Accurate static pressure measurements can be measured by using a static pressure probe in a fluid stream far from wall or curved streamlines. It is designed so that the measuring holes are placed correctly. The availability of static pressure probes are commercially in 1.5mm the smallest. Obtaining the stagnation pressure is during the deceleration of a fluid flow by frictionless process. Bernoullis equation can be used to show changes in speed and pressure of an incompressible flow. Neglecting the differences in elevation, equation 3.8 becomes

If at a point in the flow where the speed is v and the static pressure is p, the stagnation pressure Po is where the stagnation velocity Vo is zero. Thus,

The equation 3.11 is valid only to incompressible flow. The term solving the dynamic pressure gives,

Or (3.13)

Thus, equation 3.13 would give the local flow speed if only the stagnation pressure and the static pressure could be measured.

Figure 5.1.c

When measuring stagnation pressure in laboratory, a probe with a hole that faces directly upstream as shown in figure 5.1.c is used. This probe is called the stagnation pressure probe or hypodermic probe or even Pitot tube. Similarly, the measuring section must be aligned with the local flow direction. By using equation 3.13, we can know the flow speed given that the stagnation pressure is known. The stagnation pressure is measured directly at A by the total head tube. Bernoullis Equation only takes place in incompressible flow where its Mach number is equals or less than 0.3

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