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Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2012
The Qatar Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) was carried out in 2012 by Qatar Statistics Authority in collaboration with the Supreme Council of Health. MICS is an international household survey programme developed by UNICEF. The Qatar MICS was conducted as part of the fourth global round of MICS surveys (MICS4). MICS provides up-to-date information on the situation of children, women, and men and measures key indicators that allow countries to monitor progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other internationally agreed upon commitments.
This report presents selected results on some of the key topics covered in the survey and on a subset of indicators1. The results in this report are preliminary and are subject to change, although major changes are not expected. A full report is scheduled for publication in early 2013. The preliminary report is for all households. The full report will show many estimates for Qatari and non-Qatari households. Fieldwork was carried out between May and June, 2012. In order to ensure sufficient Qatari and non-Qatari coverage separate area frames based on the 2010 Census were constructed for:
Qatari households Non-Qatari households
Separate area frames means a set of PSUs, covering the entire Country, were constructed for Qatari households. Another set of PSUs, covering the entire Country, were constructed for non-Qatari households. There were approximately 600 PSUs for Qatari households and almost 1600 PSUs for non-Qatari households. A two-stage sample design was used, selecting PSUs at the first stage and a sample of households within each selected PSU at the second stage. The unit chosen at the first stage is called the Primary Sampling Unit and the unit selected at the second stage is called the Secondary Sampling Unit. As the Census was conducted in April 2010 an updated listing of the selected Primary Sampling Units was carried out before the selection of households in the second stage. Universe: The universe consisted of all the households in the state of Qatar. The population in labor gatherings were not included. Sampling Unit: The sampling unit in each stage of selection refers to the entities that are selected for the survey. In this survey, the ultimate sampling units were the household individuals residing within the selected household. Domain of Estimation: A domain is any subset of the population for which separate estimates are planned in the survey design. The survey aimed to provide reliable estimates for Qatari and non-Qatari household populations separately. Sample Size: The sample size was calculated using the formula proposed in the manual for MICS4. It was decided that the survey should provide results with the similar reliability for the two sub groups,. Qatari and non-Qatari. The resulting sample size was determined to be two times 2300 or 4600 households.
For more information on the definitions, numerators, denominators and algorithms of indicators covered in MICS4 see www.childinfo.org.
Table 1. Sample Size and Response Rates Household questionnaires Questionnaires for individual women (age 15-49) Questionnaires for individual men (age 15-49) Questionnaires for children under five Number completed 4502 5701 5632 2082 Response rate 99.1 98.1 98.7 98.2
The standard MICS4 questionnaires2 were adapted to the country context.
Table 2. Questionnaire Content Household Questionnaire for Questionnaire Individual Women (age 15-49) Household Listing Woman’s Background Form Access to mass media Education Marriage Child Discipline Child Mortality Desire for Last Birth Maternal and New-born Health Post-Natal Health Checks Illness Symptoms Contraception Unmet Need Attitudes Toward Domestic Violence HIV/AIDS Tobacco Use Life Satisfaction
Questionnaire for Individual Men (age 15-49) Man’s Background Access to mass media Attitudes Toward Domestic Violence Marriage HIV/AIDS Tobacco Use Life Satisfaction
Questionnaire for Children under Five Age Early Childhood Development Breastfeeding Care of Illness Immunization
See www.childinfo.org for standard MICS4 questionnaires.
Figure 3 shows the detailed pattern of breastfeeding by the child’s age in months. About 47 percent of 0-1 month old children are exclusively breastfed. Among children that are 2-3 months old the percentage of children that are exclusively breastfed declines and about 61 percent of children receive liquids or foods other than breast milk. By the sixth month, the percentage of children that are exclusively breastfed is 29 percent.
Figure 1. Percent distribution of children under age 2 by feeding pattern by age group, Qatar, 2012 Exclusively breastfed Breastfed and non-milk liquids Breastfed and other foods 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0-1 2-3 4-5 6-7 8-9 10-11 12-13 14-15 16-17 18-19 20-21 22-23 Breastfed and plain water only Breastfed and other milk/ formula Not breastfed
Age in months
Table 3. Findings for selected breastfeeding indicators Qatar, 2012 Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months Continued breastfeeding at 1 year Continued breastfeeding at 2 years Introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods (children 6-8 months)
29 65 32 50
Percent Percent Percent Percent
Antibiotic Treatment of Suspected Pneumonia
Less than one percent of children under age five had symptoms consistent with pneumonia during the two weeks preceding the survey. Overall, 36 percent of children with suspected pneumonia received antibiotics.
Percent Figure 2. Percentage of children under age 5 with suspected pneumonia who received antibiotics, Qatar, 2012 100 80 60 40 20 0
Treatment of Diarrhoea
Figure 3. Percentage of children under age 5 with diarrhoea who received ORT (ORS packet or recommended homemade fluid or increased fluids) and continued feeding, Qatar, 2012 100 80 Percent 60 40 20 0 Qatar 69
In Qatar 4.4 percent of the children under age five had diarrhoea in the two weeks preceding the survey. The recommended treatment for diarrhoea in children is oral rehydration therapy (ORS packet or recommended homemade fluid or increased fluids) with continued feeding. Sixty-nine percent of children with diarrhoea received this treatment.
Ninety-one percent of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the two years preceding the survey received antenatal care (ANC) at least once by skilled personnel. Eighty-five percent received ANC at least 4 times by any provider. Ninety-six percent of Qatari women received ANC at least once. Ninetytwo percent received ANC at least 4 times. One hundred percent of all women were attended by a doctor, nurse, midwife or auxiliary midwife at delivery and 99 percent delivered in a health facility.
Figure 4. Antenatal care coverage, Qatar, 2012 At least once by skilled personnel At least 4 times by any provider 60 Figure 5. Delivery care, Qatar, 2012 Skilled attendant at delivery Institutional deliveries 100 70 80 90
85 80 Percent
Figure 6. Qatari antenatal care coverage, Qatar, 2012 At least once by skilled personnel At least 4 times by any provider
Table 4. Findings for selected reproductive health indicators Qatar, 2012, Women Contraceptive Prevalence Rate Unmet Need
Only 38 percent of married women age 15-49 years use a contraceptive method and the unmet need for contraception (for either spacing or limiting births), is 6 percent.
Young children’s development in four key domains was assessed in the survey: literacy-numeracy, physical (motor skills, freedom of recurrent illness), social-emotional and learning (ability to follow simple instructions, ability to occupy herself/himself independently). The Early Child Development Index (ECDI) is the percentage of children who are developmentally on track in at least three of these four domains. In Qatar the ECDI score is 84.
Figure 7. Percentage of children age 36-59 months who are developmentally on track for indicated domains, Qatar, 2012
Literacy-numeracy Physical Social-Emotional Learning Early child development index score 0 Percent 20 40 60
63 92 76 87 84 80 100
Figure 8. Primary and secondary school net attendance ratios (NAR) (adjusted), Qatar, 2012
100 98 96 94 92 90 88 86 84 82 Figure 9. Gender parity index (GPI) in primary and secondary school, Qatar, 2012 1.00 1.00 97 Ratio 0.80 0.60 0.40 0.20 Primary school NAR (adjusted) Secondary school NAR (adjusted) 0.00 GPI (primary) GPI (secondary) 0.99
School attendance is high in Qatar. Ninety-seven percent of children of primary school age are attending primary school and 88 percent of children of secondary school age are attending secondary school. Girls and boys are attending primary school to the same extent; the Gender Parity Index (GPI) is 1.00. However, in secondary school the GPI drops to 0.99, indicating that a few less girls than boys attend secondary school.
Figure 10. Percentage of household members age 5-24 years attending school, by sex, Qatar, 2012 100.0 80.0 Percent 60.0 40.0 20.0 0.0 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Male Female
Age at the beginning of the school year
Many children of ages five and six are attending any form of school. Around 95 percent of 6 year olds are attending school; age 6 is the official school starting age in Qatar. School attendance remains at this level or higher for children of age 7-10 and starts to decrease for children of age 17 years. Fifteen to seventeen years is the official age range for upper-secondary school. Gender differentials are generally small. 7
CHILD PROTECTION Violent Discipline
Figure 11. Percentage of children age 2-14 years who experience violent discipline, by sex, Qatar, 2012 50 40 Percent 30 20 10 0 Male Female Qatar 47 41 44
Overall, 44 percent of children age 2-14 experience violent discipline, which includes both psychological aggression and physical punishment. Comparing the findings for girls and boys, a somewhat higher percentage of boys experience this type of discipline.
FAMILY RELATIONS ATTITUDES TOWARDS DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
Figure 12. Percentage of men and women 15 - 49 years of age who believe a husband is justified in beating his wife in certain circumstances, Qatar, 2012
100 80 60 40 20 0
A small percentage of males and females believe there are times when it is justified for a husband to beat his wife. These include at least one of the following: her going out without telling him, she neglects the children, she argues with him, she refuses sex, or she burns the food.
Eighty-six percent of women 15–49 years of age have heard of AIDS. Only 16 percent of young women age 15-24 years have comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention and 27 percent correctly identify all three means of mother-to-child HIV transmission. Calculated for all women age 15-49 years, these indicators are similar. Only 2 percent of young women express accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV. Among all women age 15-49 years the corresponding percentage is 3.
Figure 13. Percentage of women who have heard of AIDS, Qatar, 2012 100 80 Percent 60 40 Percent 20 0 Women age 15-24 Women age 15-49 83 86 100 80 60 40 20 0 16 21 27 28 2 3 Figure 14. Knowledge about HIV/AIDS prevention and transmission and attitudes towards people living with HIV, for women age 15-24 and 15-49 years, Qatar, 2012 Women age 15-24 Women age 15-49
Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention
Knowledge of Accepting mother-to-child attitudes towards transmission of people living with HIV HIV
Ninety-one percent of men have heard of AIDS. Only 25 percent of young men age 15-24 years have comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention and 28 percent correctly identify all three means of mother-tochild HIV transmission. Calculated for all men age 15-49 years, these indicators are similar. Only 5 percent of young men express accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV. Among all men age 15-49 years the corresponding percentage is 6.
Figure 15. Percentage of men who have heard of AIDS, Qatar, 2012 100 80 Percent 60 40 Percent 20 0 Men age 15- Men age 1524 49 84 91
Figure 16. Knowledge about HIV/AIDS prevention and transmission and attitudes towards people living with HIV, for men age 15-24 and 15-49 years, Qatar, 2012 Men age 15-24 100 80 60 40 20 0 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention Knowledge of Accepting mother-to-child attitudes towards transmission of people living with HIV HIV 25 30 28 28 5 6 Men age 15-49
TOBACCO USE Current Tobacco Users
Figure 17. Percentage of men and women who currently use tobacco products, Qatar, 2012 100 80 Percent 60 40
Only 17 percent of men age 15-49 years used a tobacco product in the last month and only 2 percent of women.
17 2 Men age 15- Women age 49 15-49
LIFE SATISFACTION Happiness and Life Satisfaction
Figure 18. Percentage of men and women 15 - 49 years of age who are somewhat or very satisfied with their family life, friendships, etc. and somewhat or very happy, Qatar, 2012 100 80 Percent 60 40 20 0 Men Women Happy Satisfied 93 82 95 85
Overall, 94 percent of people age 15- 49 years are somewhat or very happy with their lives. Comparing the findings for men and women, a somewhat higher percentage of women express happiness. Overall satisfaction with family life, friendships, school, current job, health, living environment, treatment by others, and the way they look is very high for men and women.
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