 

+ + = + + +

\
(2a)
2 2 2
1
2 2 2
v v v p v v v
u v w
x y z y
x y z
 

+ + = + + +

\
(2b)
Energy:
2 2 2
2 2 2
T T T k T T T
u v w
x y z c
x y z
p
 

+ + = + +

\
(3)
PERIODIC FULLY DEVELOPED FLOW
In periodic flow regime, the velocity profile is periodically repeating over some periodic length L,
with an accompanying periodically constant pressure drop along the periodic length. The periodic thermally
fully developed regime also exists for boundary conditions such as constant wall temperature and constant
wall heat flux. In periodic thermal fully developed regime, the dimensionless temperature profiles (based on
the constant wall temperature or constant wall heat flux) behavior in a periodic manner. The wavy channel
geometry repeat itself in a periodic length L, the wavy channel.
Morteza Piradl 40
TREATMENT OF PRESSURE TERM
The pressure term in periodic flows is assumed to consist of a periodic part and a constant pressure
gradient part. The pressure gradient part is responsible for driving the flow and the periodic part is
responsible for the local variations in the flow field. Thus, the pressure term is expressed as follows:
*
( , ) ( , ) p x y x p x y = +
(4)
where is the constant global pressure gradient and is defined as:
( , ) ( , ) p x y p x L y
L
+
=
(5)
P* is the local pressure that exhibits periodicity, and their respective dimensionless forms are
2
( ) B S u
m
= ,
* 2
( ) p p
m
=
(6)
.TEMPERATURE FIELD
For uniform wall temperature boundary conditions, The following dimensionless temperature variable is
introduced.
( , )
( , )
( )
T x y T
w
x y
T x T
b w
(7)
Where T
b
(x) is the local bulk temperature, and it is expressed as:
( ( , ) )
( )
u T x y T dy
w
T x T
b w
u dy
(8)
And (x,y) explicitly satisfies the periodic boundary condition.
COORDINATE TRANSFORMATION AND NON DIMENSIONALIZATION
For arbitraryshaped geometries, generalized body fitted coordinates are employed, denoted by (,),
(Figure 3), where =(X,Y), =(X,Y), that (,) are defined as:
( ), x S = ( ) ( )sin(2 ) y S A S S L = (
(9)
41 Numerical Investigation of the Effect of fin Waviness, Spacing Ratio, and Flow Attack
Angle on Laminar Fluid flow and Heat Transfer in Wavy PlateFin Channels
Figure 3: Illustration of unit vector n and tangential vector t in the twodimensional physical domain
In the computational domain (,), the geometry of wavy platefin flow channels appears as a
rectangular for 2D problem.
The governing equations in the computational domain for the wavy platefin channel are expressed as
the following:
0
U V
+ =
(10)
In a compact form, the momentum and energy equation can be written as follows:
2 2
2
(1 )
2 2
U V S
 

+ = + + +

\
(11)
Where
U
V
=
`
)
,
1 Re
1 Re
1 (Re Pr)
S
S
S
=
`
)
,
(12)
And Re
S
is defined as:
Re
Su
m
S
=
(13)
And represents a scalar variable,
(
(
     
( = + + + + +
(   
( ( \ \ \
(14b)
( )
1 2
.
Re Pr Re Pr ( ) Re Pr
2
( ) ( )
.
d T T d
b w
S U
T T
S S b w S
d T T d d T T d
d
b w b w
T T d T T
b w b w
( (
(      
( ( = + + +
(   
( ( ( \ \ \
(
   
(
 
+
(
 
( \ \
(14c)
In the computational domain (,), the dimensionless velocity components (U,V) are given by:
( )
m
U u u = , ( )
m
V v u U =
(15)
where u
m
is the mean axial velocity, and
(2 )cos(2 ) A L S L =
(16)
2.4. Boundary conditions
1. No slip condition on the walls
2. Constant wall temperature
3. periodicity conditions
The latter essentially requires that
( , , ) ( , , )
0 1
U V U V
=
= =
(17)
Where
, , U V =
(18)
2.5. friction factor
The Fanning friction factor is often used to calculate the pressure drop; the Fanning friction factor f is
obtained from its usual definition as:
1
2
2 2
D BD
dp
h h
f
dx S
u
m
= =
(19)
43 Numerical Investigation of the Effect of fin Waviness, Spacing Ratio, and Flow Attack
Angle on Laminar Fluid flow and Heat Transfer in Wavy PlateFin Channels
NUSSELT NUMBER
The overall Nusselt number is computed from the temperature field by applying the energy balance over
the oneperiod flow domain, and the logmean temperature difference (LMTD) as:
( )
( )
( )
, ,
(RePr)
( ) ( )
0
mc T T
L d T T d
p b o b i
b w
Nu A A dx
c h
kA LMTD T T
h b w
(
( = =
(
&
(20)
where A
h
is the heat transfer area, LMTD is the log mean temperature and A
c
is the crosssection area of
the flow duct.
( , )
( )
uT x y dy
T x
b
u dy
(21)
( ) ( )
, ,
ln ( ) ( )
, ,
T T T T
w b o w b i
LMTD
T T T T
w b o w b i
=
(
(
(22)
DISCRETIZATION AND DIFFERENCING SCHEMES
To obtain numerical solutions, the governing differential equations were discretized on a structured,
nonorthogonal grid using the finitevolume method. Both the diffusion and convection terms are treated by
the powerlaw differencing scheme, and the source terms by central differencing. The SIMPLE algorithm
was applied to evaluate the coupling between the pressure and velocity.
VALIDATION OF NUMERICAL RESULTS
The numerical results were first validated with analytical solutions for a parallelplate flow channel,
which is obtained by setting the amplitude A=0 in the simulation. The variation of Fanning friction factor
and Nusselt number with Re, for a parallelplate flow channel, for both Numerical and analytical (Metwally
& Manglik, 2000) results, are presented in Figure 4(a), and (b), respectively. results are also listed in table 1a.
Morteza Piradl 44
(a) (b)
Figure 4: Comparison of numerical and analytical Results for a parallelplate flow channel:
(a) f.ReRe , (b) NuRe.
Also for the case of =0.25, and =1.0, friction factor and Nusselt number are compared in Numerical
and experimental [1112], [17] results, Figure 5 and table 1b. represent the results of this comparison.
(a) (b)
Figure 5: Comparison of numerical and experimental Results for a wavy flow channel
with =1.0, and =0.25: (a) fRe (b) NuRe.
45 Numerical Investigation of the Effect of fin Waviness, Spacing Ratio, and Flow Attack
Angle on Laminar Fluid flow and Heat Transfer in Wavy PlateFin Channels
Table 1: Comparison of numerical and experimental Results for :
(a) parallelplate flow channel, (b) wavy flow channel with =1.0, and =0.25.
(a)
Re f.Re(Ana) f.Re(Num) Nu(Ana) Nu(Num)
100 24 24.02834 7.54 5.9474179
200 24 24.09244 7.54 6.3340524
400 24 24.22755 7.54 6.8162444
600 24 24.35358 7.54 7.0742280
800 24 24.48402 7.54 7.2134776
1000 24 24.62656 7.54 7.3039890
(b)
Re f(exp) f(Num) Nu(exp) Nu(Num)
100 0.34487 0.34122 8.280670 6.62816870
200 0.17819 0.17662 8.817590 7.30639140
400 0.11394 0.10663 10.18411 9.43803476
600 0.10056 0.08829 11.71926 11.5568515
800 0.09414 0.07864 13.31012 13.8222700
1000 0.08982 0.07136 14.91055 16.0559861
Investigation the Figure 4, Figure 5, and table 1, show that the numerical model have the adequate
accuracy for modeling other geometries of the duct.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The computational results for periodically developed flows in the parallel wavyplate channels were
obtained; Different cases were run to study the parametric effects of aspect ratio (=2A/L), spacing ratio
(=S/2A), Reynolds Number (Re) on the flow behavior and heat transfer characteristics. The numerical
programs, which include the fluid flow solver and heat transfer solver, were developed in C++ to model and
simulate the convective behaviors in the 2D wavy plate flow channels. For the heat transfer problem,
uniform wall temperature condition is considered. Results for velocity distributions, friction factor, and
Nusselt number with different flow rates are presented, and the effects of channel geometry are discussed in
detail.
Morteza Piradl 46
EFFECT OF REYNOLDS NUMBER (Re)
Figure 6. shows velocity vectors for different flow Re , in a wavyplate channel of fixed aspect ratio (=0.5),
and plate separation (=1.0).
(a)
(b)
(c)
Figure 6: Velocity vector plots for different flow rates in a wavyplate channel with =0.5, and =1.0:
(a) Re = 100, (b) Re = 400, and (c) Re = 800
With increasing flow rate or Re, it can be seen that the size of the separated region increases with Re.
Also, the recirculation tends to grow laterally as well and occupy a larger portion of the flow cross section.
The corresponding velocity vectors for the different Re are depicted in Figure 6. It can be seen from this
figure that the strength of the recirculation region increases with increasing Re. Also, the velocity gradient at
the wall, upstream of point of separation, increases sharply thereby increasing the local shear stress.
The variation of Fanning friction factor and Nusselt number with Re, for the case of =0.5, =1.0, are
presented in Figure 7. it can be seen from this figure that with increasing Re, the friction factor decreases but
the Nusselt number increases.
47 Numerical Investigation of the Effect of fin Waviness, Spacing Ratio, and Flow Attack
Angle on Laminar Fluid flow and Heat Transfer in Wavy PlateFin Channels
(a) (b)
Figure 7: Variation of (a) Fanning friction factor and (b) Nusselt number with Re, for the case of =0.5,
and =1.0
EFFECT OF ASPECT RATIO ()
Figure 8 shows velocity vectors for different = 0.25, 0.375, and 0.5, in a wavyplate channel of fixed
flow rate (Re=400) and plate separation (=1.0). With increasing , It can be seen that the flow separation and
the size of this separationreattachment and recirculation region, increase.
(a)
(b)
(c)
Figure 8: Velocity vector plots for different wall waviness aspect ratio with Re=400, and =1.0: (a)
=0.25, (b) =0.375, and (c) =0.5.
Morteza Piradl 48
The variation of Nusselt number with , for the case of, =1.0, Re=400 are presented in Figure 9. with
increasing , it can be seen from this figure that the Nusselt number increases.
Figure 9: Variation of Nusselt number with , for the case of =1.0, and Re=400
EFFECT OF SPACING RATIO ()
The velocity vectors for different plate spacing ratios () but with fixed Re and wall waviness aspect
ratio of 0.5, are presented in Figure 10.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Figure 10: Velocity vector plots for different plate separation with Re =400, and =0.5:
(a) =0.5, (b) =1.0, (c) =1.5, and (d) =2.0.
49 Numerical Investigation of the Effect of fin Waviness, Spacing Ratio, and Flow Attack
Angle on Laminar Fluid flow and Heat Transfer in Wavy PlateFin Channels
The increasing channel spacing is seen to decrease the penetration of viscosity into the flow thereby
promoting early separation. As flow separates near one wall, there is a resulting local acceleration at the same
location on the opposite wall because of continuity. This localized flow acceleration produces regions of
high wall shear stress, which lend to higher friction factors in the flow channels.
Figure 11(a), and (b) graph the variation of f , and Nu with , for =0.25, 0.375, and 0.5, and flow
Re=400. As the spacing ratio increases, both the friction factor and Nusselt number is seen to increase to a
peak value and then begin to decrease. The decrease in friction factor and Nusselt number beyond a
specific value of is because the size of the separated region remains constant after this critical value, and
any further increase in plate spacing does not affect the magnitude of the wall shear stress.
(a) (b)
Figure 11: Variation of: (a) f, and (b) Nu with , for =0.25, 0.375, and 0.5, Re = 400.
Variation of Nu/f (also called Area goodness factor) with is plotted in Figure 12. The higher end of
is not taken into account because in practice >3.0 is not viable, so the actual range of , is between =0.5,
and =1.0. the peak value of Nu/f occurs between ~ 1.0 and ~ 2.0 depending on the value of .
Morteza Piradl 50
Figure 12: Variation of Nu/f with , for for =0.25, 0.375, and 0.5, Re = 400.
EFFECT OF FLOW ATTACK ANGLE ()
In the previous sections, we investigated the effects of Reynolds number (Re), aspect ratio (), and
spacing ratio (), on Nusselt number and friction factor, for =0. in this section, we are going to investigate
the effect of different flow attack angles (). Negative and positive angles of attack are shown in Figure 13.
Figure13: Negative and positive flow attack angles
For investigating the effects of different flow attack angles on Nusselt number and friction factor, the
dimensionless form of flow attack angle can be defined as:
1
tan (4 ) A L
(23)
We consider the following values for :
0.5, 1.0 =
(24)
The variation of Nu with , for the case of Re=400, and =1.0, for two different (=0.25, and 0.5), is
presented in Figure 14(a). it can be seen from this figure that the Nusselt number change due to the attack
angle change, is negligible. The variation of Nu/f , with , for the case of Re=400, and =1.0, for two
different (=0.25, and 0.5), is presented in Figure 14(b). as seen in this figure, by changing attack angle,
51 Numerical Investigation of the Effect of fin Waviness, Spacing Ratio, and Flow Attack
Angle on Laminar Fluid flow and Heat Transfer in Wavy PlateFin Channels
Nu/f increases significantly, due to decreased pressure drop or friction coefficient, as seen in Figure 14(c).
(a)
(b)
(c)
Figure 14: Variation of : (a) Nu, (b) Nu/f , and (c) f , with , for the case of Re=400,
and =1.0, for two different . (=0.25, and 0.5).
Morteza Piradl 52
As we saw in section 5.2, and Figure 12, with increasing , Nu/f decreases, due to increased pressure
drop. As seen in Figure15, for the case of 0.25 = , and Re=400, Nu/f can be improved by changing
dimensionless attack angle , to 1.0,
Figure 15: Variation of Nu/f with , for the case of Re=400, and =0.5, for =0, and 1.
The variation of Nu, and Nu/f with , for the wavy flow channel with =0.25, and =0, are compared
with the case of =0.5, and =1, in Figure 16.
(a)
53 Numerical Investigation of the Effect of fin Waviness, Spacing Ratio, and Flow Attack
Angle on Laminar Fluid flow and Heat Transfer in Wavy PlateFin Channels
(b)
Figure 16: Variation of: (a) Nu, and (b) Nu/f, with , for wavy flow channels with =0.25, =0, and
=0.5, =0.
Comparison of Figure 12, 15, and 16, shows that by changing the angle of attack, due to decreased
pressure drop or friction coefficient, Nu/f increases.
CONCLUSIONS
Laminar air flow (Pr = 0.7) and forced convection heat transfer in uniformwalltemperature, two
dimensional wavy platefin channels has been computationally simulated. Constant property, and
periodically developed fluid flow and heat transfer are considered. The steadystate governing equations
(continuity, momentum, and energy equations) were solved using finitevolume techniques, and the SIMPLE
algorithm was used to couple the pressurevelocity fields. Periodic boundary conditions were applied to the
solution domain, and the effects of thermal and hydraulic entry lengths were neglected. Numerical results
for a wide range of steady laminar flows (100Re1000) and ductgeometry variations (0.250.5, and
0.54.0), and different flow attack angles (), are presented. The wavywall curvature induces lateral
vortices in the trough region, which grow in magnitude and spatial flow coverage with increasing Re and/or
. The interplate separation, however, is critical for the development of this flow structure. With small
separation (<1.0), viscous forces dominate and a streamline, fully developed duct flow type behavior
prevails. With larger interplate gap (1.0), this effect diminishes and the boundary layer separation
downstream of corrugation peaks gives rise to a vortex flow structure in the valley region. The recirculation
is enveloped in the nearwall axial flow separation bubble, and its spatial growth is governed by Re, , and .
The consequent local fluid mixing and coreflow acceleration results in enhanced convective heat transfer,
though the associated flow friction also increases. Finally, we saw in section 5.4 that the angle of attack
change, will lead to increasing Nu/f ratio, due to decreased pressure drop or friction coefficient.
NOMENCLATURE
A : amplitude of wall waviness
B : dimensionless pressure gradient
C
P
: specific heat
Morteza Piradl 54
E
h
: hydraulic diameter
f : Fanning friction factor
L : pitch of fin waviness
Nu : Nusselt number
Pr : Prandtl number
P : pressure
P* : local pressure
Re : hydraulicdiameterbased Reynolds number
Re
S
: platespacing based Reynolds number
S : fin spacing
S
:
source terms
T : temperature
U, V : dimensionless axial and lateral velocity components
u, v : axial and lateral velocity components
x, y : Cartesian coordinates
GREEK SYMBOLS
: global pressure gradient
: flow crosssection aspect ratio
: channel spacing ratio
: channel corrugation ratio
: dynamics viscosity
: dimensionless temperature
: density
, : dimensionless bodyfitted coordinates
SUBSCRIPTS
b : bulk or mixedmean value
c : pertaining to the crosssection area
i : at inlet conditions
m : mean or average value
o : at outlet conditions
w : at wall conditions
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