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MtE-204

Fluid Mechanics

Dr Farid Khan
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Dr. Farid Khan


Assistant Professor in UET Peshawar since 1997
B.Sc Mechanical Engineering 1997 M.Sc Mechanical Engineering Design 2005

PhD MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) 2011


sfaridkhan@gmail.com
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Course outline
Introduction: Definition of Fluid, Density, Specific Weight, Specific Volume, Specific Gravity, Surface Tension, Compressibility and Viscosity of Fluid. Fluid Statics: Pascals Law, Pressure Head, Different Pressure Gauges, Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Planes and Curved Surfaces, Buoyancy and Stability of Submerged and Floating Bodies. Fluid Mass Under Acceleration. Types of Flow: Uniform and Non-Uniform Flow, Steady and Unsteady Flows, Laminar and Turbulent Flow, Path Line, Streamlines, Stream Tubes. Basic Equations and Their Application: Continuity Equation, Bernoullis Equation, Flow Through Venturimeter, Flow Through Orifice, Time of Emptying of Tank, Flow Through Nozzle, Pitot Tube, Weirs and Notches, Free and Forced Vortices. Flow Through Pipes: Major and Minor Losses, Flow Through Mouthpieces, and Power Transmission through Pipes, Hydraulic Gradient. 3

Recommended Books:
1. Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machinery, By K. R. Arora, Standard Publisher, India 2. Fluid Mechanics, By Victor L. Strecter. McGrawHill

Fluid Mechanics
Fluid

liquids (such as water)

Gases (such as air)

Mechanics = Study of forces


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Fluid Mechanics Classification


1. Hydrostatics: is the study of fluid at rest 2. Hydrokinematics: deals with kinematic quantities such as velocity and acceleration 3. Hydrodynamics: deals with forces exerted by fluids or upon fluids in motion

Fluid Mechanics Applications Why we study Fluid Mechanics

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Practical applications ?
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Fluid Mechanics Applications


Dams Water tanks Flow through pipes Open channels

Fluid Mechanics Applications


Hydraulic machinery (Pumps, water wheels and Turbines)

Fluid Mechanics Applications


Hydraulic machinery (Construction machinery, hydraulic press etc)

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Fluid Mechanics Applications


Cruise Ships Power boats

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Fluid Mechanics Applications


Aircraft carrier Submarine

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Fluid Mechanics Applications


Submersible autonomous robots

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Fluid Mechanics Applications


Air applications

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Fluid definition
Fluid - A substance that deforms continuously under a constant shear force Fs

Solid
Case 1: shear stress < shear yield strength Case 2: Shear stress > shear yield strength Case 3: Shear stress > Ultimate shear strength

Fs

T=t1

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Fluid definition
Fluid - A substance that deforms continuously under a constant shear force Liquid

T=t1

T=t2

T=t3
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Fluid definition
Fluid - A substance that deforms continuously under a constant shear force Liquid

T=t1

T=t2

T=t3
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Basics
Mass density

Mass density of water at 4oC is 1000 kg/m3

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Basics
Specific weight

g = Acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 m/sec2


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Basics
Relation between Mass density and specific weight

Specific weight of water = 9.81 kN/m3 unless mentioned otherwise

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Basics
Specific Volume

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Basics
Specific Gravity or relative density

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