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Zinc Plating Introduction

PT Astra Honda Motor 29 August 2006

Type of Zn Plating Working Condition Post Treatment (Passivation)

Type of Zinc Plating

Acid based
Potassium based
Conventional Zinc Plating & Hot Acid Zinc Plating

Ammonium based

Alkaline based
Cyanide based Non Cyanide based

Acid Based Zinc Plating (K Based)

Most of platers now has been using hot acid zinc i/o conventional due to :
Higher plating speed Wider temperature operating range Better metal distribution and covering Improve ductility Higher production rate

Environmental friendly compare to NH4 based

Acid Based Zinc Plating (NH4 Based)

Ammonium based has no longer popular due to environmental issues Good throwing power mostly used for plating bolt and nuts on barrel

Working Condition
Hot Acid Zinc Conventional Zn 35-40g/l 20-30g/l Cl 140-160g/l 75-105g/l H3BO3 20-25g/l 15-20g/l Temp 25-45C 20-30C pH 5,0-5,3 4,5-5,3

Working Condition
Temperature : 20 45o C Current Density : 3A/dm2 (2 6A/dm2) Rack 0.75A/dm2 (0.5 1A/dm2) Barrel Voltage : 3 10 Volt (Rack) 2 3 Volt (Barrel) Filtration : Required Agitation : Required Anode Material : Zinc 99.995%

Additive for acid zinc

Normally use 2 type of additives :
Carrier As a base brightener that give uniform moderate brightness at all c.d area Brightener To give shiny, luster and smooth deposit and work together with carrier Wetter - To improve cloud point (if necessary)

Alkaline Based Zinc Plating

Cyanide Zn Plating
No longer popular due to environmental issues Simples and easy process no need good pretreatment

Alkaline Zn Non Cyanide

Replacement for cyanide friendly environmental Improved efficiency Better metal distribution Ductile deposit (no blistering) More bright

Working Condition
Cyanide zinc
Low Cyanide

Zinc Metal Total Sodium Cyanide Sodium Hydroxide Temp

75 15 g/l 11.0 26 g/l 85 100 g/l 20 45 C

Medium Cyanide 15 30 g/l 26 80 g/l 80 100 g/l 20 45 C

High Cyanide 30 40 g/l 80 120 g/l 80 100 g/l 20 45 C

Alkaline non cyanide zinc

Zinc Metal Sodium Hydroxide Temp Rack 10 g/l 130 g/l 20 30 C Barrel 15g/l 120g/l 20 30 C

Working Condition
Current Density : 2A/dm2 (1 3A/dm2) Rack 0.75A/dm2 (0.5 1A/dm2) Barrel Voltage : 2 6 Volt (Rack) 6 12 Volt (Barrel) Filtration : Required Current Efficiency : 50 95% Anode Material : Zinc 99.995%

Additive for Alkaline Zinc

Cyanide based Single additive only Non cyanide based 4 type of additives
Additive Maintained Zn distribution Brightener Give the brightness of deposit Make Up Solution Prevent burnt @ hcd Modifier Impurities complexing agent

Post Treatment ..

Process sequence
Zink Drag out t rinse Drag out t activation Oxide development t passivation Active surface t rinse Active surface t
c /0 .9 /G F U H /0 2 o 3 7 M /F C S 2

structure organic codeposition drag in / out l (katalysts) l cleaning of surface Neutralisation homogene surface brightness ca. 0,1 m Zink is dissolved pH / T / agitation t / replenishment Volvonorm leaching T "cold" T < 60 C demage of layer

drying deloading Storage (24 h) t transport

Passivation Quality Influences

Bath age pH
Too acidic Too alkaline

Concentration of (Cr III, Zn2+, FeIII) Zn dissolution

No film development Too slow, Zn (OH)2 development

Immersion time Temperature High Temp Low Temp

Time optimum fast reaction, low viscosity, less diffusion influence wrong colour (reddish) Passivation is too soft Low corrosion protection Influence of diffusion


Blue Passivation
Color of chromate film is
Higher thickness, more corrosion protection

What we have to change

r: te me ure wa ip ti rat e e ns r d p Ri nge tem r Lo ghe Hi

Final color is

Reduced dip time Lower pH Lower temperature Shorter pull over Lower salt conc.


Color influences depends on working conditions.

Ri Sh nse Lo ort wat w dip er: te m tim pe e ra tu re

Longer dip time Higher pH Higher temperature Longer pull over Higher salt conc.