HAMSAJA

monogamy
yajiiic

307

HANftMAN
with her. After that Vayu (Wind-god) also had coitus with her. Thus as a result of the sexual act by both

Krsna finding that Arjuna's life was in danger them both. Also Krsna requested Hamsadhvaja to be a supporter of. Arjuna in future. Hamsadhvaja had five sons called Suratha, Sudhanva, Sudarsa, Subala and Sama. (Jaimini, Aivamedha Parva, 17,
Sri

prevailed in the country. He took the horse of Yudhisthira captive, and in the fight to release the horse Arjuna killed Sudhanva and Suratha, sons of Haihsadhvaja. Grieved and enraged at their death Hamsadhvaja took the field against Arjuna, and

pacified

HAMSAJA. A warrior

21).

the Devas Anjana got pregnant. Later, Anjana was her about to throw into the valley of the mountain new-born child as it was an ugly one when Vayu child. Hanuman ( Wind god) intervened and saved the was the child thus born of Siva and Vayu. (Bhavisya Purana, Pratisarga Parva). was Siva. Ganapati (4) Hanuman's actual father was born to Siva and Parvati as they played in the

HAMSAKAYA. A Ksatriya
present at the rajasuya

Chapter 45, Verse 68)

of Subrahmanya.
.

(Salya Parva,

by

caste,

of Yudhisthira.

HAMSAKUTA
to Satasrriga Chapter 1 18,

Chapter 52, Verse 14).

Harhsakaya was (Sabha Parva,
lying

Hastinapura and the Satasrnga mountain.

(M)

.

A

mountain

Pandu

crossed

it inDvaraka. (Bharata, Chapter 38) HAMSAPATHA (M) A region famous in the Puranas. The armies from this place fought in the great war.

of the mountain and established

Verse 50).

his way Hamsakutam. (Adi Parva, Sri Krsna once tore off a peak
.

On

between

became mature, when it was deposited in monkey woman. The monkey called Kesarl was her husband. Thus Hanuman was born as the son
thither
till it

elephants. After that Siva and disguised as Parvati played about in the forest disguised as monkeys as a result of which Parvati got pregnant. Since Parvati did not like the idea of being the mother of a monkey, Siva, by his yogic power entrusted the child, (in embryo) that was in the womb of Parvati to Vayu (Wind god), who carried it with him hither and
forest

Anjana, the

Southern

text,

of Anjana.

.

taking their position at the grlvasthana (neck position) of the Garuda vyuha (A particular array of soldiers) set up by Drona. (Drona Parva,

They fought

HAMSAPRAPATANA TlRTHA. A
.

Chapter 20, Verse

7).

sacred

of Subrahmanya and defeated the Asuras. (Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 75) HAMSl. A daughter of Bhagiratha whom sage Kautsa married. ( Anus asana Parva, Chapter 137, Verse 26). HAMSIKA. A daughter of Surabhi. This cow is said to be supporting the southern region. (Udyoga Parva,
.

Prayaga on the banks of the Ganga. (Vana Parva, Chapter 85, Verse 87) HAMSAVAKTRA. A warrior who fought on the side

place at

Anjana also has a story of her own. Once upon a time called she was the maid-servant Punjikasthala of Brhaspati. One day she went out to gather flowers when the love-makings of other young women attracted her so much that, without gathering flowers, and her erotic sentiments being aroused much, she returned home and covered Brhaspati with kisses. Brhaspati got
really angry with the misbehaviour of his maid-servant and cursed her into a female monkey. She was told that, after she had lived for sometime with a monkey-

husband she would get a child from the vitality of Siva, after which she would return to him as maid of old. And, accordingly, Punjikasthala as servant became a female monkey under the name Anjana and lived at Anjana forest with a handsome monkey called
Kesarl as her husband.
It was while Anjana was doing tapas so that she might become pregnant by Siva that Siva and Parvati played as monkeys, and Parvati that forest disguised in conceived and the child ultimately came out as the son

HANUMAN. A
Hanuman.
Birth.

of the elements and of Devas. In the epics of no other country could aspects be found a character that belongs to the animal kingdom who is as powerful, erudite and philosophic

Chapter 102, Verse

7).

monkey

born

as
1)

the birth of Hanuman told in they are briefly noted below.
(1)

Many and

different

are the stories about Puranic literature, and

whose erotic discharged by Siva, were excited by the sight of Visnu disguised feelings as MohinI was received by the Saptarsis and deposited in the womb of Anjana, and Hanuman was born out of it. (Siva Purana, Satarudrasamhita). divided among his wives the divine (2) Dasaratha payasa (pudding) got from the putrakamesti yajfta which was p3rformed so that he might be blessed with children. Somehow or other a kite snatched some

The semen

.

of Afijana. Even while Anjana was pregnant the child in her womb had much to suffer at the hands of Bali. Hearing from Narada that Siva's son had been born in Anjana's womb Bali feared that the actual birth of such a son would jeopardise his lordship over the monkeys. To ward off the threatened contingency, Bali, as advised by Narada, let in the five metals ( gold, copper, iron, tin and zinc) in watery form into the stomach of But, Anjana. (This is a means of causing abortion) the attempt misfired. Instead of the five metals killing became ear-ornathe child in Anjana's womb, they ments for it, and Hanuman was thus born with orna.

ments
2)

pudding and flew

the pudding fell down from the beaks of the kite on the fingers of Anjana doing tapas in the forest. She ate that pudding and Hanuman was born as the son of Anjana due to the extraordinary powers of the pudding. (Ananit.

off with

On

its

way

3 ) Siva, once in his fierce and effulgent form (aspect) ( entered Kesarl, the husband of Anjana and had coitus

da Ramayana)

.

in his ears. ( Karhba Ramayana Purvakanda) Naming and boons. As soon as Hanuman was born Anjana was released from the curse, and she wanted to return to heaven. The monkey child asked its mother what its future would be and how it was to earn its She assured him that he would never be living. destroyed and that fruits as ripe as the rising sun (she pointed the sun out to him) would form his food. And, Anjana returned to heaven.
.

HANOMAN
Thinking that the glowing and
for

308
6) Sivalinga

KARA

(M)

glittering Sun was food be eaten, the monkey child made just one jump at it (Sun) and quite neared it. But seeing Rahu, bigger than the Sun he jumped at it. Then it was that it saw Airavata and it tried to eat it. And, seeing this attempt of the monkey-child, Indra used his vajrayudha (Thunderbolt) against it. The weapon hit its chin and wounded it, and in precarious condition it fell down

him

to

at Ramesvaram. There is a story in the Yuddhakancla of Ramayana connecting Hanuman with
.

on earth. Vayu (Wind god) who saw

his

child

down wounded carried it off to Patala. When Vayu (air) quitted the earth everything
came
to a dead-stop. Living things of death due to suffocation. And,

falling

the Sivalinga installed in the temple at Ramesvaram. (See under Ramesvaram) Once due to a curse of sage 7) Lost his divine power. Trnabindu Hanurnan lost his great strength and vitality. But, he would regain the lost power when one reminded him of it. During the- search for Sita Hanuman felt it difficult to jump across the southern sea to Lanka due to the above curse. But, when Jambavan

thereon

described to

him about

his
lost

others went to lated the monkey child. On the basis of Indra's vajra having made a scar on its hanu (jaw-bone or chin) the monkey child was named Hanuman by the Devas, who, one by one blessed him as follows
:

were on the verge then Brahma and Patala, comforted Vayu and congratu-

Hanuman
successfully

noble origin

regained his

power and
sea
to

vitality,

and powers and
(See

Trnabindu
8)

jumped
II,

across

the

Lanka.
his
tail

saved
9)

A fort made of tail. He made a fort of Rama and Laksmana within it.
Hanuman and Sahasramukha
.

Para 2).

and

(See (See

Patala-

Ravana.

Sahasra-

Brahmadeva
exists.

;

May

you

live long,

so

long

as

Brahma

mukha Ravana).

Mahavisnu May you live all your life as the greatest devotee of God. Indra No weapon of any kind will wound or hit your
: :

10) Hanuman and Salrughna Satrughna, who conducted the horse in connection with the Asvamedha performed by Sri Rama after his return from exile in the forest,
fell

body.

Agni Kala

:

not death ever court you. None will ever equal you in strength and speed. Brahma blessed Hanuman again giving him more physical power than Garuda and Vayu blessed him to have more speed than himself, (air). (Valmiki
:

Fire will never affect you.

All the

May

Devas

:

down unconscious in his fight with King Viramani, and then Hanuman brought a herbal medicine called 'Drona' from the Himalayas and with its aid brought back Satrughna to consciousness. (Padma Purana, Patala Khanda. Chapter 44) Taken captive by Kusa and Lava. The Yajnasva 11)
.

.

Ramayana, Balakanda, Canto 15; Uttararamayana; Kambaramayana, Purvakanda; Adbhutaramayana). 3) Education. Being born of Siva and on account of the Sivasakti in him, Hanuman reached boyhood immediately. To learn the four Vedas and the six sastras he chose Surya mentally as his preceptor, and approached him with the request to be taught the Vedas etc. Surya agreed to have Hanuman as his disciple subject to the condition that the latter would not
with the Balakhilyas inliis (Surya's) chariot and study. Hanuman agreed to the condition to learn from Surya walking in front of him. With book opened in his hand and concentrating all his attention on the face of Surya Hanuman traversed the sky and within a short period of sixty hours he mastered all the Vedas and the sastras thoroughly well. Though Surya said that he would consider the great interest Hanuman took in his studies as daksina (tuition fee)
to sit

rushed over to the spot on receiving intimation of the news was bound hand and foot with creepers by Kusa and Lava and dragged to the hermitage. Sita, was then in the hermitage brooding over the past, and the repetition of the word 'Rama' by the humiliated Hanuman awoke her from her reverie. She was taken aback to
see

(sacrificial horse) of the Asvamedha yajiia of Sri Rama led by a contingent of Rama's army was resting in a tent put up near the hermitage of Gautama when Kusa and Lava together captured the horse. Hanuman, who

Hanuman

be permitted

there in that plight

from

captivity
.

by
to

her

sons.

and got him released (Kamba Ramayana,
(incar-

very end, Hanuman, who had by now become quite old, spent his days guarding the Kadall forest. Bhlma, who happened to go there to collect Saugandhika flowers got defeated in fight by

Uttarakanda) 12) Old age.
nation of

Having witnessed Ramavatara
its

Rama)

Hanuman wanted Surya
way

to accept something more by of daksina, and Surya said as follows "If you are so very particular about offering me something more as daksina I shall tell you. son Sugrlva is living on earth with Bali and he is not as strong and powerful as Bali. You be of help to Sugrlva as his minister and constant companion." Happy at Surya's words Hanuman returned to the forest and lived as Sugriva's minister for the rest of his
:

My

HANYAMANA. A

life.

From the day he met Sri 4) Sri Rama's servant. after the abduction of Sita by Ravana till Rama's death his story is inextricably connected with that of Rama.
Once in a musical competition Hanu5) His music. man defeated Narada. (Adbhutaramayana; also see Para 8 under Narada)
.

Rama

HARA HARA HARA

ground under them. (Agni Purana, Chapter 51). south India famous place in mentioned in the Puranas. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 69). HARA I. A famous Danava, born to Kasyapa of his wife Danu. He was reborn as King Subahu. (Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 23)
.

(See Bhima, Para 7) Arjuna 's flag-Symbol (See under Arjuna 17 B). When an idol of Hanuman is 14) Idols of Hanuman. installed in a temple, he must be represented as holding Vajra in one hand and his feet must seem to tear the
.

Hanuman.

13)

II.

One

of the

eleven

Rudras. (Santi

Parva,

Chapter 208, Verse 19).
III.

(See under

Rama)

.

jugated the King of Hara by a simple command without any resort to arms, and the King attended Yudhi-

(M).

A synonym of Siva. A region of Puranic

fame.

Nakula sub-

HARAKALPA
sthira's

309

RARISCANDRA
saintly

II

HARAKALPA. One

51, Verse 54).

Rajasuya with presents. (Sabha Parva, Chapter

HARIMEDHAS. A

HARAKEYURAKA.

HARDIKA

See under Lavana. II HARAVA. An asura born from the tear drops of Brahma. He was burnt to death in the flames emerging from Sivalinga. (Skanda Purana, 5, 2, 48). HARDIKA I. A Ksatriya King born from an aihsa of the asura called Aiivapati. (Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 15).
II.

of the sons born to Vipracitti by SimhI. Parasurama killed him. (Vayu Purana, 68, 19).
'

Krtavarman.
.

He was

called

Hardika

dynasty. (See under Krtavarman) HARI I. synonym of Visnu. (See under Visnu HARI II. warrior of Subrahmanya. (Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 61). HARI III. warrior who fought on the side of the

because he was the son of Hrdika of the

Yadu

once conducted a yajua and a daughter called Dhvajavatl was born to him. She lived in the western regions (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 110, Verse 13) HARIMITRA. A brahmin, who had his asrarna on the banks of the Yamuna. Owing to his association with Harimitra a sinner called Vikundala took his bath in the sacred waters of the Kalindl during two Magha months. The first bath released him from all his sins and the second bath made him eligible to go to heaven. Thus Harimitra was responsible for the attainment of heaven by the sinner Vikundala. (Padma Purana, Adi
.

King of ancient

days.

He

A A

HARITiLA.

.

Khanda, Chapter 31). A naga which belonged to the Airavata family. It was burnt to death at the Sarpasatra of Janamejava. (Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse

A

HARIIVASVA.

HARI

Pandavas and was
IV.

killed

powerful and proficient in archery as Mahavisnu, and equal in prowess to Indra in war he got into the hands of his enemies and was killed. (Drona Parva, Chapter 52, Verse 27) HARI VI. A particular sect of the attendants of Ravana. They attacked the army of monkeys. (Vana Parva,
.

son of Tarakaksa, who got from Brahma a boon enabling him to prepare Mrtasaiijivani. (a medicine to revive dead people) (Karna Parva, Chapter 33, Verse 27). HARI V. Son of King Akarhpana. Though he was as
asura, the
.

An

by Kama.

presented to King Sunaka. (Santi Parva, Chapter 166). A daughter of Hiranyakas ipu, also called Rohinl. She was married to Visvapati, ah Asura. Vana Parva, 211, 18). HARIPII^pA. A female attendant of Subrahmanya.

from King Raghu

A King

11).

ancient India. He once got a sword with divine powers which he
in

HARIRI.

HARISCANDRA

HARI

very powerful bird born in Garuda's Parva, Chapter 101, Verse 13). HARI VIII. particular species of horses. They possess long hairs on the neck and are golden in colour. (Drona Parva, Chapter 23, Verse 13).

Chapter 285)
VII.
dynasty.

.

A

(Udyoga

A

HARI

IX.

A

wife Krodhavasa. Lions and monkeys originated from this Hari. (Valmiki Ramayana, Aranyakanda, Canto

daughter born to Kasyapaprajapati by

his

HARI

14).

X.

A A

son of Dharmadeva.

four sons, Hari, Krsna, Nara and Narayana of the daughters of Daksa. (Devi Bhagavata, 4th Skandha) HARI XI. sect ofDevas. During the Tamasamanvantara there were four such sects, viz. Haris, Satyas, Suparas and Sudhls. (See Manvantara) .
.

Dharmadeva begot

he cleared his debts to Visvamitra with the money got by selling his wife, Candramati, his son, Lohitasva and finally himself. And, he earned his livelihood with the wages he got for cremating corpses, himself doing duties as guard at a burning ghat and as the slave to a Candala. Ultimately the Trimurtis (Brahma, Visnu and Siva) appeared and heaped on him all the boons he desired and rewarded him with high honours. (See for details para 4 under Visvamitra). HARISCANDRA II. An emperor of ancient times, to whom Brahma gave as a gift a palace which automatically produced everything desired by its owner. He was lord over the seven islands. About his former birth and

A brief life-sketch. To keep his plighted word and for the sake of truth he gifted away the whole of his kingdom to Visvamitra. When that was not sufficient
2)

Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 24) A King of the solar dynasty very I. much reputed for his unique truthfulness and integrity. He was the son of the famous Trisariku. 1 See under Trisaiiku. ) Genealogy.
(
.

HARIBABHRU. A
Verse 16)
.

great sage, who was a member of Yudhisthira's assembly. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 4,

HARIBHADRA.

Daughter of Kasyapa by Krodha. She was given in marriage to sage Pulaha and from them were born the monkeys, Kinnaras, Kirhpurusas etc. (Brahmanda Purana) HARIDASA. A monkey King, son of Pulaha by Sveta.
.

HARIDHAMA. A

sage who was reborn in his next birth as RangavenI, a gopi in Gokula (Cowherds' colony) as he had chanted the Krsna mantra of twenty letters during his life as sage. (Padma Purana, Patala
great

(Brahmanda Purana)

.

the plenitude of his riches the Padma Purana (Uttara khanda, Chapter 32) has the following story to say:Hariscandra himself was surprised that he became so very rich in the matter of children and of wealth. Wondering what actions of his entitled him to so much wealth and to his position which was equal to Indra's the emperor went to Sumeru by vimana where he questioned Sanatkumara, a brahminical sage seated in meditation on a golden stone as to who he was in his past life and to which actions of his past life he owed all the present wealth and prosperity. The great sage

HAR1DRAKA. A naga

Khanda, Chapter

72)

.

Parva, Chapter 35, Verse 12). HARIJATA. One of the Raksasa guard over Sita in the As'oka grove.
yana, Sundara Kanda, 23, 5)
.

born in Kasyapa's dynasty. (Adi

women who kept (Valmiki Rama-

you were a truthful and purehearted vaisya; you gave up your own profession and so you were ousted from home by your own people. At that time a famine and other scarcity conditions occurred there. One day you got into a pond along with your wife, collected lotus flowers from it and went
to

"In

replied as follows :the past birth

Kasi

to

sell

flowers.

At

last,

the flowers. But, no one purchased the Candramati, daughter of Indradyumna

HARISCANDRA

III

310
the Deva-loka to

HARYASVA
Indra.

II

purchased the flowers for a yajna she was performing. When you saw Visnu installed along with Adityabhagavfm (Sun-God) and worshipped with flowers, feelings of devotion swept your mind and you too worshipped the idols with lotus flowers. You enjoy today

(Kamba Ramayana, Yuddha
appendix
to the object of it contains three

HAR1VAMSA

Kanda)

.

(M).

An

Mahabharata

HARISCANDRA

the fruits of that action in the past life. (It is not quite definite whether Hariscandra I and II are one and the same person) III. A Sanskrit poet who lived in the 9th century A. I). The mahakavya called "Dharma.

sarmabhyudaya"
called

is hi?

comprises of 21 cantos.

main work. This mahakavya He has composed another work

HARITA

I. A King who was the grandson of Haris"candra and son of Rohita. (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha) HARITA II. A King, who was the son of Vapusman and grandson of Svayambhuvamanu. He was King of Haritavarsa in the island of Salmali. (Markandeya Purana 50, 28; Brahmamla Purana, 2, 3).
.

HARITA

"Jivandharacampu".

is to sing the praises of Mahavisnu. It parts called respectively Harivamsa Parva, Visnu Parva, and Bhavisya Parva. Creation of the world, kings of the solar dynasty and of the lunar dynasty, Yadu dynasty and the birth of Sri Krsna form the theme of Harivamsa Parva. Visnu Parva deals mainly with the pranks and games of Sri Krsna in his childhood. Though there occur certain hints about the future at the beginning of the Bhavjsya Parva, the creation of the world, the incarnation of Visnu as Vamana (Dwarf) and as Narasiiiiha (half man and half lion) , Siva and Visnu constitute its

in 10,000 verses.

The main

main theme.

The

following verses prove that the Harivarhs a also was

composed by Vyasa.
Harivaihsastatah parva-

III.

called Dhumravarna. He founded an independent kingdom in the Naga island and became a prominent

A

son born to

Yadu

of the naga

woman

leader of the
34).
I.

Madgura

tribe.

(Hari

Vamsa,

2,

38; 29,

A great sage who visited Bhisma in his bed (Sarasayya). (Santi Parva, Chapter 47, Verse 7). Once he attended Yudhisthira's assembly and spoke on eternal truths conducive to mental peace. That talk of his became famous as Haritaglta. (Santi Parva, Chapter 278) HARlTA II. An author on Smrtis (codes of conduct) He has written two texts on the subject called Laghuharita smrti and Vrddhaharitasmrti. HARITALA (M) A mineral (yellow orpiment) got from mountains, which is red like the clouds at dusk. (Vana Parva, Chapter 158, 94)
of arrows
.
. .

HARlTA

HARITASVA.
1)

2, Verses 83-84) northern part of Mount Hemaparvata. Arjuna, during his triumphal tour of the northern regions conquered this region and took away a lot of costly gems. (Bharata, southern text, sabha Parva, Chapter 28) HARIVlRA. See Dhanasarman. HARSA I. One of the three sons of Dharmadeva, the other two being Sama and Kama. Harsa married Nanda. (Adi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 32). HARSA II. A great poet in Sanskrit, who nourished in
.

HARIVARSA (M) The

Visnu parvasi soscarya Visnohkamsavadhastatha // Bhavisyam parvacapyuktam Khilesvevadbhutarh mahat / Etat parvaSatam purnam Vyasenoktarh mahatmana // (Adi Parva, Chapter

puranam khilasamjiiitam

/

.

General.

music he defeated Narada and shamed SarasvatI (Gcddess of language) pleased Brahma and by the melody of his music sent Visnu to sleep. The mounting achievements of the King in the art of music evoked jealousy in Sivasankara, the lord of music. When Sankaramurti in a competitive spirit played the raga
art of
,

A King

born

in the solar dynasty.

In the

the 12th century A.D., his most reputed work being the called Naisadha, one of the five Mahakavyas (Epic Poems) in Sanskrit language. Another wellknown work of his is Khandanakhandakhadya. He was a member of the literary assembly of King Jayacanda ofKanauj. Hira was his father and Mamalladevi, his

Mahakavya

Sankarabharana
suited to

HARSA

the calmness and poise) which was ( that raga had given place to raudra rasa which was a serious mistake. Enraged at this Siva opened his eye of fire at the King who retorted boldly thus, 'even if the eye of fire was opened a mistake was a mistake'. This stand of the King pleased Siva so much that he bestowed on the King boons and good wishes as presents for his (king's) victory over all. Andhakasura conquered Svarga 2) Killed Andhaka. and took Indra prisoner during the period when Haritasva was King. The combined efforts of Brahma, Visnu

out that Santarasa

(a particular tune) Haritasva) pointed

III. King Harsavardhana who ruled over North India between A.D, 660 and 668. He is remembered and respected more as a poet in Sanskrit than any thing else. Nagananda, Ratnavall and Priyadarsika are his more important works. The poet Bana has written the biography of Harsa. HARYA&KA. A King born in the royal dynasty of Aiiga. He was the son of King Carhpa and father of King Brhadratha. (Agni Purana, Chapter 277).

mother.

HARYASVA
by
his

I.

The

five

wife
.

Asikni

are

thousand sons born to Daksa known as Haryasvas. (See

and Siva could not

HARYASVA
bharata.
(1)

Asikni II)

kill

Andhaka.

At

last at

the ins-

tance of Brhaspati a representative of the Devas visited Haritasva at Ayodhya and sought his help to kill Andhaka and accordingly the King set out for war against

II A King of the solar dynasty. The following information about him is culled from the Maha-

had a

He was king
fully

of Ayodhya.

A

Powerful ruler,

he

demon. Agastya told the King in secret that Andhaka treasured an image of Siva and Parvati in his stomach, and after removing, with his arrows the idol from his stomach, Harita'iva killed him and restored
the

equipped army.

(Udyoga Parva, Chapter

He took Madhavi, daughter of Yayiiti as his wife (2) and thus solved the problem of gurudaksina for Galava. (See under Galava)
.

115. Verse 18).

HARYASVA
(3)

III
flesh.

311

HAYAGRlVA V
King of
is

Father of Sudeva, King of Kasi. He by the sons of Vitahavya. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 10). HASINl. An apsara woman of Alakapuri. She once danced in Kubera's assembly to welcome sage Astavakra (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 19, Verse 45).
III.

HARYASVA
was
killed

Never in life did he eat Chapter 11, Verse 67).

(Anusasana Parva,

the
.

lunar dynasty.

(Adi

HAVYAGHNA. A
story

HASTAMALAKA. A

under Saiikaracarya, Para 7) HASTI I. A King born in the lunar dynasty. (Adi Parva, Chapter 94 Verse 58). HASTI II. Another king of the lunar dynasty. His father was Suhotra and mother Suvarna, who belonged to the Iksvaku dynasty. This Hasti married Ya.sodhara, daughter of King Trigarta, and a son called Vikantha was born to them. Hastinapura was the city newly built by Hasti. (Adi Parva Chapter 95, Verse 34) HASTIBHADRA. A naga born in the Kasyapa dynasty. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 103, Verse 13) HASTIKASYAPA. A great sage who lived in North India in very olden days. He once met and talked with Sri Krsna, who was doing tapas on the mountains. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 139, Verse 11).
. . .

disciple

of

Sri

Sankara.

(See

HAYAGRlVA
Canto 14) As a child
Sarasvati,

Raksasa about whom the following Brahmanda Purana. Havyaghna was born from the smoke which rose from the fire of a yajna which sage Bharadvaja along with his wife Paithinasi conducted on the banks of river Gautami, and he began eating the havis. Questioned about it by Bharadvaja Havyaghna answered as follows "I am an unfortunate fellow called Krsna cursed by Brahma. If you would kindly sprinkle on me the Ganga water, Suvarna, ghee and soma I will be redeemed from the curse. Bharadvaja complied with the request of Havyaghna and he got redemption from the curse.
told in the
:

Verse 59)

Parva, Chapter 94,

I.

An

by

his wife
.

Danu. (Valmiki Ramayana, Aranyakanda,

Asura, the son of Kasyapaprajapati

HASTINAPURA.
under Hasti

Capital city of the Pandavas.

(See

the Asura began tapas on the banks of river and after a thousand years Devi appeared and asked him to choose any boon he wanted, and he wanted to become invincible by Devas and Asuras, and also deathless. When Devi told him that such a boon was out of question, he wanted the boon that he (Hayagriva) should not be killed by anyone but by a Hayagriva (one with the horse's neck) Devi granted him
.

II).

the boon.

HASTIPADA.

naga born in the Kasyapa dynasty. (Adi Parva, Chapter 35 Verse 9) HASTI PI NDA. A naga born in the Kasyapa dynasty (Adi Parva, Chapter 35, Verse 14) HASTISOMA. A famous river mentioned frequently in the Puranas. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 19)
. .

A

HATAKA
layas,

HATAKAM

Arjuna, during his triumphal tour in the north made the guhyakas his allies. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 28, Verse 3). A drink (rasayana). Those who live in II. Atala a section of Patala drink this tonic. ( See Patala) HATAKl. A river. Paramesvara and Parvati once had intercourse at Vitala, a section of Patala and their semen formed itself into the river called Hatakl. (Bha-~
.

A region (M) I. where the guhyakas

to the
lived.

north of the Hima-

Hayagriva, who became haughty and overconfident on th? three worlds receiving such a boon, went about troubling good people, and at last he clashed with the Devas. As he could be killed only by one with the head of a horse the combined attack of Mahavisnu and the Devas did not succeed in defeating him and Mahavisnu decided to rest for some time to recoup himself from weariness. During his rest his head was hit by the end of his own bow and the head was severed from the trunk. Mahavisnu replaced the head thus lost with that of a horse and killed Hayagriva in fight. (For

HAYAGRlVA

details see Cital).
II.

of Narakasura.

HAVANA. One

gavata, 5th Skandha) of the
.

HAYAGRlVA HAYAGRIVA
nasty.

Parva, Chapter 130 Verse 50).

An asura who guarded the kingdom He was killed by Sri Krsna, (Udyoga
dy-

eleven

Rudras.

HAVIGHNA. A King
and the evening.

Parva, Chapter 150, Verse 13). of ancient days, who was one of those who were to be remembered both in the morning

(AnuSasana

HAVIRBHU.

Verse 58)

(Anusasana Parva,

Chapter
.

155,

.

HAVIRDHAMAN.

Wife of Pulastya. (See Pulastya) Son of Antardhaman of the Manu dynasty. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 147, Verse 24) HAVIRDHANA. A grandson of emperor Prthu, who had two sons called Antardhana and Vadi and to Antardhana was born a son called Havirdhana by SikhandinI, and they had six sons called Pracmabarhis, Sukra, Gaya, Krsna, Vraja and Ajina. (Visnu Purana,
.

HAYAGRlVA V. An
:

IV. A saintly king. Though he defeated his enemies, yet, as he had no backing and support, he was finally killed. The story of Hayagriva was told by Vyasa to teach Dharmaputra the lesson that even the greatest of heroes requires the support of others. Though killed, Hayagriva secured a place in heaven. (Santi Parva, Chapter 24, Verse 23)
.

A King born in the Videha III. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 74, Verse 15).

HAVISMAN. A
assembly
13).

Part

1,

Chapter 14).

great sage who was a member of the of Indra. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 7, Verse

HAVISMATI. A

daughter of Angiras. (Vana Parva, Chapter 218, Verse 6) HAVlSRAVAS. A King born in the family of Kuru, a
.

incarnation of Visnu. 1 In Vedic literature In Vedic literature incarnation ) as Hayagriva is attributed not to Visnu, but to Yajna. But the Taittiriya aranyaka depicts yajna as a protoform of Visnu. The inference that may be drawn from the above is that the root of the Hayagriva story detailed in Vedic and Puranic literature is one and the same. About the Hayagriva incarnation the Pancavirhsabrahmana contains the following story. Agni, Indra, Vfiyu and Yajna (Visnu) once began a the yajna on the understanding that havirbhaga obtained from it should be divided among all the

HAYAJNANA
Devas. But, in violation of the agreement, yajiia left the place carrying away the whole Yajnabhaga with and he drove back the Devas who followed him him, with the help of the bow presented to him by Devi. Finally the Devas got the string of the bow bitten off

312

HIMAVAN
II.

HEMAMALI
in

the great

A son of King Drupada. He was killed war by Asvatthama. Parva, (Drona

HEMANETRA. A

by termites and the bow which got straightened up cut off yajna's head. Yajna then apologized for his offence and then the devas got the Asvinldevas to fix the head of a horse -to the trunk of Yajna. (Panca-

HEMAPRABHA. See under Vallabha. HEMAPRABHAVATI. Sec under Varatanu. HEMARATHA. A King of the solar dynasty.

Yaksa. He worships Kubera in his assembly. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 17).

Chapter

156, 182).

Grandson

HEHAYA

in every respect, cursed that Visnu head. Visnu, who got thus bereft of his head attended a yajna conducted by the Devas with the head of a horse attached to his trunk. After the yajna was over he went to dharmaranya and did tapas there and by the blessings of Siva got back his former head instead of that of the horse. HAYAJNANA. The science of controlling horses. (Vana Parva. Chapter 77, 17) HAYASlRAS. Hayagriva. (See Hayagriva V). (HAIHAYA). See Ekavira and Paras urama) lover (wife) of Maya, the asura. HEMA. (For details see Maya, Indra, Para 61 and sub para 3 of
it

viihsabrahmana 7, 5, 6; Taittiriya aranyaka 5, 1; Taittiriya Samhitii, 4-9, 1). The above story is told in 2) In Purdnic literature. Skanda Purana with slight modifications as follows :Once Brahma and other Devatas conducted a test as to which one amongst them was the greatest, and when

HEMA

HERAMBAKAM.
Herariibas.

became evident tha tMahavisnu was,
the
others

superior to all should lose his

Brahma

of Citraratha, Hemaratha was the son of Ksemii and father of Satyaratha. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha). VARNA. Son of King Rocamana. He fought in the great war on the side of the Pandavas against the Kauravas, (Drona Parva, Chapter 23, Verse 67) A region of South India, the inhabitants of which are known as the Herariibas. Sahadeva, during his triumphal tour of the South defeated the
.

An Asura. (See under Praheti) HIDIMBA. A Raksasa, whom the Pandavas
HETI.
.

(Sabha Parva, Chapter

31,

Verse 13).

confronted

.

in the forest after their escape from the lac palace. Bhlma killed him and married his sister, Hidiihbl. Ghatotkaca was Bhima's son by Hidiihbi. (For details
see Ghatotkaca)
.

HIDIMBA (HIDIMBl).
Ghatotkaca).

Mother of Ghatotkaca. (See

.

HIDIMBAVADHAPARVA. A

.

A

HIDIMBAVANA
dwelt.

sub Parva of Adi Parva. (Adi Parva, Chapters 151-155 form the sub Parva).

(M).

The
.

forest

where

Hidiriiba

HEMAGANDRA. A

King, son of King Visala and father of Sucandra. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha) HEMAGUHA. A naga born in Kasyapa's dynasty. (Adi Parva, Chapter 35, Verse 9)
.
.

Para, 24,

Rama and

Svayamprabha.)

.

HlHI.

HEMAKANTA.

Son of King Kusaketu of Vanga. He committed the sin of brahmahatya as he killed the sage, Satarcas. Later on he redeemed himself from the sin by giving water to Trita, a brahmin. (Skanda
Purana).

(Bhagavata 10th (PiSacas). Skandha). HlKA. A Raksasa who lived in the river Vipasa. He was a companion of another Raksasa called Bahi and to them, jointly was born a son called Biihlka. (Kama Parva, Chapter 44, Verse 41)
class

HIDIMBl (HIDIMBA).

(See Ghatotkaca)

A

See Ghasotkaca.

of fiends

.

HIMAVAN. (THE HIMALAYAS).

HEMAKUTA

HEMAKUNDALA. A
(M)
I.

A mountain in
.

vaisya.(See

Vikundala) the North. Arjuna
.

once went to Harivarsa after stationing his army here. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 28) HEMAKUTA (M) II. A mountain on the banks of the river Nanda, known also as Rsabhakuta. Once Yudhisthira went to this mountain and enjoyed the many
beautiful scenes there.

The great mountain on the northern General. 1) borders of India. In the literature and the religious thought of India the Himalayas occupy a position of universal respect and adulation. The Indian belief is that the mountain has got a divine soul. ( e. g. it is referred to as "devatatma" in Kalidasa's Kumarasarhbhava) The Himalayas are referred to very often in the Puranas and epics. 1 The 2 ) Other information ( ) from Mahabharata.
.

HEMAMALI
vana.
felt

He had

II). He used to supply flowers to VaisraI. a beautiful wife called Visalaksi. Once

(See

Rsabha

turned him into a leper afflicted with eighteen varieties of leprosy, and separated from wife he fell from AlakaHemadri where he met sage puri. At last he came to Hemamali told him all about his misforMarkandeya. tune and the sage advised him to observe Asadhakrsnaikadasi. Hemamali did so and got cured of the fell disease and returned to Devaloka. (Padma Purana,

flowers from Manasasaras he an onrush of love and spent time at home in love pranks with his wife. Kubera went to the temple for worshipping Siva at noon and though he waited there till dusk time for Hemamali to bring the flowers the latter did not come. Kubera got angry and sent for Hemamali and he came trembling with fear. Kubera's curse

when he returned with

Balakhilyas had performed tapas on the Himalayas. (Adi Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 3) named Sesa once resided there to (2) The Naga (Adi Parva, practise control of the mind in solitude.
.

Chapter
(3)
1

36,

Verse
.

3)

.

14, Verse 24) (4) Pandu, father of the Pandavas had to cross the to reach Kalakuta mountain and the Himalayas Gandhamadana. (Adi Parva, Chapter 148, Verse 48).

Vyasa performed tapas

there.

(Adi Parva, Chapter

in the Himalayas (5) Bhargava women hid themselves at the time when the Ksatriyas were hunting out people of the Bhrgu dynasty. (Adi Parva, Chapter 177, Verse

20).

The whole fire of the yajna conducted by sage Paras, ara to annihilate the Raksasas was deposited in the extensive forest near the Himalayas, (Adi Parva(6)

Uttarakhanda, Chapter

54)

.

Chapter 180, Verse 22)

.

HIMAVAN

313
(29)

HIRAI^YA
The peaks of Himavan have an area of 100 yojanas; Brahma once conducted a yajiia there. (Santi

sojourned on the Himalayas. (Adi (7) 'Arjuna once Parva, Chapter 214, Verse 1). (8) The Devata of the mountain worships Kubera in his assembly. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 31) (9) As suggested by Surya, once Narada did penance for 1000 years on the peaks of the Himalayas so that he might see Indra's assembly. (Sabha Parva, Chapter
.

11,

Verse 8).

the forest came to the top of the life in exile in Himalayas, and visited the asrama of Vrsaparvan there.

the Himalayas imagining himself to be emperor of the whole world. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 4) (12) It was at the Himalayas that Merusavarni imparted advice to Yudhisthira. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 78, Verse 14) (J3) Bhagiratha performed tapas on the Himalayas. (Vana Parva, Chapter 108, Verse 3). The kingdom of Subahu, King of Kalinda was on ( 14) The Pandavas stopped the plains of the Himalayas. there for a night and left for the Himalayas the next day. (Vana Parva, Chapter 140, Verse 24). (15) The Pandavas, on the seventeenth day of their
.

(10) Arjuna once crossed the Himalayas and encamped at Dhavalagiri. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 27, Verse 29) . (11) Bhlmasena once stopped for a short time near

.

Garuda.
(32)

Parva, Chapter 166, Verse 32). Daksaprajapati once conducted a yajfta at the (30) place called Gaiigadvara on the slopes of Himavan. (Santi Parva, Chapter 284, Verse 3) In Chapter 327 of the Siinti Parva the following (31 ) statement occurs about Himavan. According to the advice of King Janaka Suka brahmarsi mounted the Himalayas. Siddha-caranas lived on the mountain. Celestial women walked all over the place. The mountain always reverberated with the noise of different varieties of living beings. The noise produced by Kinnaras, peacocks and many other birds could always be heard there. Himavan was the permanent abode of
.

appeared as though the Himavan was being cut open. He saw two divine peaks of mountains on the two sides of the path; one of them was the peak of the Mahameru and the other that of Himavan. Both the
peaks gave way to Suka. (Santi Parva, Chapter 333). Siva desired to secure Uma, the daughter of (33) Himavan as his wife. Meantime sage Bhrgu demanded that Uma be wedded to him. When Himavan told the sage that it had already been decided to gave Uma in marriage to Siva, the Sage cursed that there would not

When Suka moved up

The Astadikpalakas

also lived there. to the world above

it

was while Bhlmasena was hunting in the Himalayas and appreciating the beauties there that a python caught him by the leg. (Vana Parva, Chapter
(16)
It

(Vana Parva, Chapter

18).

178). (17) Sage Markandeya once saw in the stomach of child Krsna mountains like the Himalayas, Hemakuta
etc.
1

Parva, Chapter 199, Verse 4)
(19)

188, Verse 112). anterior to sage Markandeya an owl called ( 8) Pravarakarna had lived on the Himalayas. (Vana

(Vana Parva, Chapter

Much

.

Kama

Himalayas and collected taxes from Parva, Chapter 254, Verse 4).
115, Verse 5).

conquered

all

the

kingdoms on the them all. (Vana

342, Verse 122). Narada had his aSrama there, on the Hima^an. (35) (Santi Parva, Chapter 346, Verse 3) . Sri Krsna once visited the aSrama of Upamanyu (36) on the Himavan. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 14, Verse

Himavan. (Santi Parva, be, in future, gems in the Chapter 342, Verse 62) Visnu and Siva once fought with each other on (34) the Himavan, and then it seemed as though the mountain was being cleft into pieces. (Santi Parva, Chapter
.

On the northern heights of the Himalayas live ( 20) Siva and Parvati for ever. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter
is one of the six rain-producing (21 ) Himavan mountains stretching from the east to the west. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 6, Verse 3 ) (22) Arjuna during his tour of Kailasa in dream with Sri Krsna saw all the peaks of Himavan. (Drona Parva, Chapter 80, Verse 23) (23) When Siva burnt to ashes the Tripuras, Himavan and Vindhya served as the axles of Siva's chariot. (Kama Parva, Chapter 34, Verse 22). (24) The River Gariga deposited Siva's semen on a high peak of Himavan and Subrahmanya was born from it. (Kama Parva, Chapter 44, Verse 9) Himavan, the Devata of the mountain, also was 25)
.

and Gandharl were burnt to death in a wild mavasika Parva, Chapter 37, Verse 33)
.

43). (37) King Marutta performed a yajna on the Himalayas and brahmins went away leaving a lot of wealth there. (Asvamedhika Parva, Chapter 3, Verse 20). (38) Sanjaya left for the Himalayas after Dhrtarastra
fire.

(Asra-

.

(39) During their mahaprasthana (great journey) ths Pandavas travelled by the Himalayas and Dharmaputra ascended to heaven from the top of the Himalayan peak. (Mahaprasthanika Parva, Chapter 2, Verse 1) HIMGULA. A mineral (vermillion) obtained from mountainous regions. It has the colour (red) of the sky at sunset. (Vana Parva, Chapter 158,. Verse 94). HIPPOCRAITUS. A Greek scientist and thinker. Father
.

.

(

present at the installation of Subrahmanya as chief of the army. (Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 14) Himavan presented to Subrahmanya two atten(26) dants called Suvarcas and Ativarcas. (Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 46) Sri Krsna once performed tapas on Himavan, (27) and as a result of it was born his son Pradyumna from
.

.

of the Allopathic system of medicine. He has written a book on medicine consisting of nearly seventy parts, His theory is that the heart is the centre of origin of life and the heat of the body is the manifestation of life. Out of the five elements of the Indian system of medicine he accepts four, viz. Prthvl (earth ), Ap (Water) , Agni (fire and Vayu (air). Till the 18th century A.D.
1

*

his theories

were very popular.
.

HIRAlVfMAYA (M)
HIRAI^YA.

A

Rukminl. (Sauptika Parva, Chapter

Verse 30). (28) Himavan presented inexhaustible wealth to emperor- Prthu. (Santi Parva, Chapter 59, Verse 113).
12,

island, to the south of Nila

mountain and to the north of mount Nisadha. (Bhagavata, 5th Skandha).
(Hiranyakasipu, Hiranyaksa)

particular

region in

Jambu

HIRANYA
1 )

HIRANYANABHA

II

General. Owing to a curse Jaya and Vijaya who were gate-keepers at Vaikuntha were born as two asuras, Hiranyaksa (elder brother) and Hiranyakasipu (younThese brothers are known also as the ger brother) Hiranyas. (See Jayavijayas) 2) Birth. Three sons called Hiranyaksa, Hiranyakasipu and Vajrariga and a daughter, Siriihika were born to Kasyapaprajapad by his wife Did. To Hiranyakas ipu were born four sons called Anuhlada, Hlada Prahlada and Samhlada. (Visnu Purana, Part 1, Chapter 15). There is yet another story relating to the birth of these asuras. Though the other wives of Kasyapa became mothers Did alone was not blessed with a child for a long time. One day at dusk while Kasyapa was immersed in meditation Dili rushed into his room and began lamenting and complaining about her having not yet been made a mother, and urgently asked Kasyapa to make her one. But, Kasyapa pointed out that it was not the proper time for such things. It was dusk when Siva with his attendants would be out sight-seeing covered with ashes from burning ghats spread all around by storms. So KaSyapa wanted to wait for some time more. But, she was not in a mood to pay heed to his advice and Kasyapa had to yield to her proposal. After obliging her, once again he took his bath and began meditation. Did became pregnant. She also got alarmed about the indiscretion committed at dusk time that day and,
. .

Patala was none other than Mahavisnu and he challenged Visnu to fight. After replacing the earth in its old position Visnu fought with Hiranyaksa and killed him. 4) Hiranyakasipu. With the killing of his brother, Hiranyakagipu's hatred and enmity towards Visnu increased very much. He, by doing tapas for very long years, secured boons from Brahma and conquered the three worlds and ruled them as Triloka Cakravarti (Emperor of the three worlds) He prohibited throughout the empire not only the chanting of Visnu's name,
.

even thinking about him (Visnu) by his subjects. "Hiranyaya namah" (salutations to Hiranya) replaced the old custom of chanting 'Narayanaya namah' (salutations to Narayana ) Meantime; a son called Prahlada, a great devotee of Mahavisnu was born to Hiranyabut
.

kasipu. (For the story of Hiranyakas'ipu's death see Prahlada). (Kamba Ramayana, Yuddha Kanda; Padma

Purana, Bhumikhanda, Chapter 20). about the name Hiranyakasipu. once conducted an Asvamedha yajna.
5) Story

A

was put up there

for the great sages who came to partithe time cipate in the yajna. Dili was pregnant during of the yajna, and while it was duly progressing she one day came and sat on the above-mentioned golden seat, and very shortly she delivered a child. As the child was delivered on the golden seat the child came to be called
8, 5, 7-12;

Sage Kasyapa golden seat

did not obey me, you insulted the Devas also. There are two kids of a very low type in your womb. They will oppress the three worlds and kill innocent people.

Kasyapa

told her

:

"Your mind became impure, you

Hiranyakasipu. (Brahmanda Purana,

Vayu

Mahavisnu

will never

tolerate

such

tilings.

He

will

kill them. But since you feel peninow, a grand-son of yours will become liked by all good people, and he will be a great devotee of Mahavisnu. (This was Prahlada). At any rate, one hundred years after her getting pregnant Dili delivered twin sons. The first born was named Hiranyaksa and the next one Hiranyakasipu. (According to certain Puranas Hiranyakasipu was the first

incarnate himself to
tent

3 ) Hiranyaksa. The boys grew up to become a growing to the whole world. Hiranyaksa toured all the three worlds with a club. He besieged svarga. Devas ran away in fear. Hiranyaksa, shaking his club, jumped from the sky into the sea and engaged himself in the sport of thrashing the waves with his club. Years passed by like this, and at last he went to Vibhavari, the capi-

born)

.

menace

expanse of water. Brahma then meditated upon Maha visnu, who came out through Brahma's nose in the form of a tiny boar. It grew up into a very big boar within no time, and jumped from the sky into the ocean, and within a few minutes it picked up from under the ocean the earth on its tusks and appeared on the surface of the water. Hiranyaksa understood that the boar, which without the least fear picked up the earth from

visnu. Accordingly he set out in search of Mahavisnu. It was during this period of time that the earth got engulfed in water. Svayambhuvamanu requested his father, Brahma to raise up the earth from water. But, nowhere could be seen the earth, everywhere it was only a vast

tal of Varuna and challenged him to fight. Varuna came out of the palace, admitted his incapacity to fight Hiranyaksa, and suggested to him to challenge Maha-

naga born in Vasuki's dynasty. burnt to death at the sarpa satraof Janamejaya. (Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 6) HIRANYABINDU. A sacred place near the Himalayas. During his pilgrimage Arjuna visited this place also. A bath in this tirtha will wash off one's sins. Hiranyabindu is situated on the top of Mount Kalanjara. HIRANYADHANUS. A King of forest tribes. Ekalavya, the great master of archery was Hiranyadhanus's son (See Ekalavya) HIRANYAGARBHA. A synonym of Sri Krsna. (Sand Parva, Chapter 342, Verse 96) HIRANYAHASTA. A son born to princess VadhrimatI thanks to the blessing of the Asvinidevas. She was married by a eunuch. Sorrow-stricken at such a marriage the princess requested the Asvinidevas for children and they gave her a son, (Rgveda, Mandala 1, Anuvaka 17, Sukta 116) who was called Hiranyahasta. He became a sage and married the beautiful daughter of King Madirasva. (Sand Parva, Chapter 234, Verse

HIRANYABAHU. A
He was

Purana

67, 69).

.

-

.

.

(See Hiranya). A danava. He once shook Mount Meru and Siva granted him welfare and prosperity. (AnuSasana Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 73) HIRANYAKSA I. A brother of Hiranyakasipu. (See
I.

HIRANYAKASIPU HIRANYAKASIPU

35)

.

II.

.

HIRANYAKSA
was
a Verse 57).

Hiranya)

.

II.

One

Brahmavadin. (Anusasana
the

of the sons of Visvamitra, who Parva. Chapter 4,

A King born in the solar dynasty. I. son of Vidhrd and the father of Pusya. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha) HIRANYANABHA. II. A son of Srnjaya. A child named Suvarnasthivi was born to Srfijaya, but it died before long, and then it was Narada who brought it

HIRANYANABHA
He was

.

HIRAJVYAPURAM

315

HRINISEVA
head and thence on Bindusaras, and therefrom flowed in Three seven tributaries. tributaries, Hladini, PavanI and Nalini flowed eastwards, Sucaksus, Sita and Sindhu westwards, and the seventh tributary

back to life again. After its rebirth the child came to be called Hiranyanabha also. Hiranyanabha lived for 1000 years. (Sknti Parva, Chapter 149) HIRAIilYAPURAM. A city of the Daityas. The Daitya woman, Puloma got the city for her children by tapas. Puloma is called Kalaka also. (Certain Puranas aver that Kalaka was the sister of Puloma) The children of Puloma are known as Kalakeyas for whose safety and 1000 years. And, when security she did tapas for Brahma asked her to choose any boon she desired, Puloma said as follows:- "There should arise no reason
. .

HOMA.

HOMADHENU.
for yajfia.

followed Bhaglratha. The mortal remains of the sons of Sagara were flooded with its waters, and their souls attained heaven. A king belonging to the dynasty of Bharata. He was the son of Krsadratha and father of Sutapas. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha).

or cause for my sons to feel sorrow in their life; Devas, snakes or Raksasas should not kill them and they must have a beautiful city to live in. Brahma granted her all the boons. Hiranyapura was built by Brahma for the

The cow, which

offers

milk needed
offerings

HOMAKU^DA(M).

The

Kalakeyas

to live in. It

was

full

of gems and

it

could

When life became impossible for the Devas due to the of the Indra depredations Kalakeyas, brought Arjuna to Devaloka. As the Kalakeyas were granted the boon that they would not be killed by the Devas, Arjuna's help had thus to be sought by Indra. Arjuna
killed the

easily travel in the sky.

(inches) space on all the four sides of the pit make three divisions in it. The three divisions should be 12" X 8" and 4" deep; the inner division 12" deep, the middle one 8"

during yajnas. Rules about making the pit are described in chapter 24 of the Agni Purana as follows: First, demarcate a piece of ground one yard square with thread and dig it one yard deep. After leaving two arhgulas

pit

for

making

and

the

sions

one outside of it 4" deep. All the three divishould be four feet in width. The above three
are called

HIRA!^YARETAS.

HIRAl^YAROMAN. A
suzerainty over
the

One of the sons of Priyavrata, Hiranyaretas was king of the Kursa island and had seven sons called Vasu, Vasudana, Drdharuci, Nabhigupta, Satyavrata, Vivikta and Vamadeva. (Bhagavata 5th Skandha)
.

a correct description of Hiranyapura to Matali, the charioteer of Indra. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 100).

Parva, Chapter

Kalakeyas and destroyed Hiranyapura. (Vana 1 On one occasion Narada gave 73)
.

divisions

Tamasamekhala, and

Satvamekhala, Rajomekhala and
this
is

On

the

pit, viz.

Homakunda.

known as Bhismaka. (See Bhismaka) HIRATilYASARAS. An ancient tirtha of the western regions. Candra washed off his sins by bathing here.
.

king of Vidarbha southern regions.

who

He was

exercised
also

HIRANYASR&GAM. An
of
a

HIRANYASTUPA. A
(Rgveda, Mandala
1,

Mount Kailasa. This mountain is mine of gems. (Sabha Parva, Chapter Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 6, Verse 42).
Anuvaka
great
sage,
7,

(Santi Parva, Chapter 342, Verse 57) . extensive mountain to the of Mount Mainaka, which is to the north north
said
3,

to be Verse 10
;

was married by Sikhandi. )See Amba) HITOPADESA. A book written in Sanskrit on the
.

HIRAl^YAVARMAN. A
basis

the son of Angiras. Siikta 31).

king of Dasarna, His daughter

of the Pancatantra. It is a collection of fortythree stories, and twentyfive of the stories are found in the Pancatantra. There is also not much difference in the stories, about the origin of the two books. The author of Hitopadesa is considered to be one Narayana Pandita, a dependant of King Dhavalacandra. Of the manuscripts available of the book, the oldest one is dated 1373 A.D. It has been surmised that the book was written somewhere between the 10th and 12th centuries A.D. There are four parts to the book called Mitralabha

saintly king, who was the grandunder Amba) HRADA I. Also called Hlada, a son of Hiranyakas ipu. (See under Anuhlada). HRADA II. A naga. Hrada was also present in the company of nagas, which carried the soul of Balabhadrarama to Pa.ta.la. (Mausala Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 16). HRADODARA. A Raksasa, who was killed by Subrahmanya in the war between the Devas and the Asuras. (Salya Parva, Chapter 46, 75) HRDlKA. A Yadava. He was the father of Krtavarman. (Adi Parva, Chapter 63, Verse 105). HRDYA. A great sage. He lives in the assembly of Indra. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 7, 13).

HOTRAVAHANA. A
father of

western side of it a yoni (receptacle) 10 x 15 arhgulas should be made. Its depth should gradually decrease in the descending order 6, 4, 2 arhgulas. In shape the yoni will be of the shape of the peepal leaf. (Yoni is that of Sakti the Kunda is her stomach. The conception about Sakti is that of a woman lying on her back, head towards the east.) The priest performs the rites, himself seated to the west of the yoni and his head turned to the east.
the
;
.

Amba.

(see

.

.

HRI.
1)

Birth.

One

vamanu by
Skandha).
2)

of the 16 daughters born to
called Satarupa.

his wife

(Bhagavata, 4th

Svayambhu-

Other information. (1) Hrldevi worships Brahma in his assembly. (2) When Arjuna started forlndraloka DraupadI meditated upon Hri so that no dangers might overtake him.

between

(gaining

friends)

,

friends)

Suhrdbheda (creating dissensions Vigraha (separation) and Sandhi

HRlMAN. A
universe).

(Vana Parva, Chapters 37, 38). (3) Hri too was present at the installation ceremony of Subrahmanya. (Salya Parva, Chapter 45, 13).
Sanatanavisvadeva. (eternal Deva of the

HLADA (HRADA). A
HLADINl.
Hiranyakas ipu.

(union).

A

(

See Hrada)
to

synonym
.

for

Hrada,

son

of

down by Bhaglratha

tributary

of the Ganga. Ganga brought the earth first fell on Siva's

(Anusasana Parva, Chapter 91, 31). HRlNISEVA. A saintly king born in the Asura dynasty. He was one of the ancient kings whom fate had made to relinquish their kingdoms. (Santi Parva, Chapter
227, 31).

HCHO
Ht}Ht).
Pradha.

316

IKSVAKU

A

Gandharva, son

of

Kasyapaprajapati by

(1) He was present at the birthday celebrations of Arjuna. (Adi Parva, Chapter 122, Verse 59).

2 ) Huhu was among the Gandharvas who welcomed ( Arjuna in Devaloka. (Vana Parva, Chapter 48, Verse 14).
(3) (4)

Huhu

lives in

Indrasabha.
into

alligator on account of the curse of Devala. (See under Indradyumna) HUftJA. A tribe. There are a number of references in the Puranas to the Hunas, who were created from the froth in the mouth of Nandini, the cow which was in Vasistha's asrama. (Adi Parva, Chapter 174, Verse 18) Nakula conquered the Hunas in the western regions. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 32). The Huna kings took part in the Rajasuya of Yudhisthira and made costly presents. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 51, Verse 24). HUI^DA. An asura, the son of Vipracitti. (He abducted Asokasundari, sister of Subrahmanya. (Padma Purana) (See under Asokasundari) HOl^DA(M). An urban region in ancient India. The people of this area were known as Hundas. In the great war they fought on the side of the Pandavas. They took their positions in the Krauncaruna vyuha formed by Nakula and Sahadeva. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 50, Verse 51).
. .
.

Once he was turned

an

.

homa. That was why he got the name Idhmavaha. (One who brings the necessary things for homa) (Idhma ^fuel; vaha=one who carries). IKSULA. An important river. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 17).
.

Ghrtaprsdia, Savana, Meclhatithi, Vitihotra and Kavi. youngest sister. (Maha Devi Urjjasvati was their Bhagavata, 8th Skandha), IDHMAVAHA. Son of Agastya and his wife Lopamudra. The actual name of Idhmavaha was Tridasyu. There is a story in the Mahabharata about the birth of this boy. When Lopamudra was pregnant, Agastya asked her "1000 sons of average ability; or 100 sons, each of them having the worth of 10 sons; or 10 sons, each having the worth of 100 sons; or a single son having the nobility and greatness of more than a thousand sons; which would you prefer ?" Lopamudra chose a single son with the greatness of a thousand sons. Tridasyu or Idhmavaha was the son born according to her wish. The child was in the womb for seven years before he was born. He began to recite Vedas even from the moment of his birth. As the boy grew up, he used to bring small pieces of firewoods and twigs to feed the fire for his father's
:

IKSUMATl.

A

river.

It

flows

near Kuruksetra.
.

The

HUTA(M). One
hutam
)
.

of the

five

great yajnas.

(See Pra-

HUTAHAVYAVAHA. One
the Vasu,
the

of the two sons of Dhara, other son being Dravina. (Adi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 21).
I
.

nagas, Taksaka and Asvasena lived in this river. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 3, Verse 138) Ku> adhvaja, brother of the King of Mithila used to live in the Iksumati river valley, (Valmiki Ramayana, Bala Kanda. 7th Sarga, Verse 2). There is a reference to this river in Kathasaritsagara,

This letter means Kamadeva. (5) (Agni Purana, Chapter 348) This letter means 'Rati' and Laksmi. Agni I. (f). Purana, Chapter 348) IDA I. Daughter of Vayu (wind-god). Ida had a son Utkala by Dhruva. IDA II. Daughter of Manu. In Taittirlya Brahmana, we find the following reference to this Ida Once Manu came to know that Devas and Asuras had performed an Agnyadhana (consecration of the fire). To ascertain whether it was deposited at the proper time, Manu sent Ida to them. Ida found that both She said to parties had followed the wrong method, Manu "Your yajfia (Agnyadhana) should not be as ineffectual as that of the Devas and Asuras. Therefore I myself shall deposit the Trividhagnis (the three Agnis which are to be set in the proper place) at the proper place." Manu agreed and began his yaga. As a result of it the Devas attained plenty and prosperity. Once when Ida was in the presence of Manu. the Devas invited her openly and the Asuras invited her invitation of the covertly. Since Ida accepted the Devas, all creatures abandoned the Asuras and joined the party of Devas. (Taittirlya Samhita) IDHMAJIHVA. Svayambhuva Manu had two famous sons Priyavrata and Uttanapada. Of them. Priyavrata married Surupa and Barhismatl, the two daughters of Visvakarma Prajapati. Idhmajihva was born to him by his first wife. Idhmajihva had nine brothers Viz, Yajnabahu, Mahavira, Agnldhra, Rukmasukra,
I.
.

IKSVAKU. 1 AsonofVaivasvata Manu.
1 )

Madanamancukalambaka, 2nd taranga
Genealogy.

also.

.

:

:

.

Vaivasvata Manu Iksvaku. Sraddha, Vaivasvata Manu's wife bore him ten sons Dhrsta, Dista, Karusa, Iksvaku, Nrga, Saryati, Narisyanta, Nabhaga, Prsadhra and Kavi. Vaivasvata Manu had six more sons by another wife, Chaya. They were Manu, Yama, YamI, Asvimkumara, Revanta, Sudyumna. The Iksvaku family takes its source from Iksvaku. The Kings of the solar dynasty were all born in the Iksvaku family. This dynasty is named "Solar Dynasty" because Iksvaku was born to Vivasvan (Sun) the son of Kas yapa. In Devi Bhagavata, 7th Skandha we see that Iksvaku was born from Manu's spittle. The descendants of Iksvaku up to Sri Rama's sons Lava and Kusa are given below Iksvaku had three sons Danda, Vikuksi, and Nimi. from Sasada, PuranFrom Vikuksi was born Sasada from Purafijaya, Kakutstha; from Kakutstha, jaya; Anenas; from Anenas, Prthulasva; from PrthulasVa, from Prasenajit, Yuvanasva; and from Prasenajit; Yuvanasva was born Mandhata. Ambarlsa, Mucukunda and Purukutsa were the sons of Mandhata. Besides them he had fifty daughters also. The sage Saubhari married them. The family-tree continues again from Purukutsa, one of the sons of Mandhata. From Purukutsa, Trasadasyu was born; from Trasadasyu, Anaranyajfrom Anaranya, Aryasva; from Aryas" va, Vasumanas; from Vasumanas, Sutanva; from Sutanva, from Traiyyaruna, Satyavrata or Trairyyaruna;
:

following order

From Visnu were descended in the Brahma Marlci Kas yapa Vivasvan

;

i.

Mahf.bharata Asvamedha

Parva

Mahabahu, Ksupa was

the son of Prasandhi

(Chapter 4) says that Mahabahu was the son of Vaivasvata Manu, Prasandhi was the son of and Iksvaku was the son of Ksupa.

ILA
Trisaiiku; from
;

317
4)

ILINA
Ila expressed to Vasistha, her Transformation again ; grief at having been turned into a woman, the sage requested Sri Parame'-vara to restore her to her former
as a

Rtuvarna was the son of Ayutayus; Sarvakama was the son of Rtuvarna Sudas was the son of Sarvakama Mitrasaha, the son of Sudas; Kalmasapada was the son of Mitrasaha; Asmaka was the son of Kalmasapada; Mulaka was the son of Asmaka; Khatvanga wa the son of Mulaka; Dlrghabahu (Dillpa) was the son of Khatvanga; Raghu was the son of Dlrghabahu; Aja was the son of Raghu; Daxaratha was the son of Aja.
; ;

him Haris candra from Hariscandra, Rohitasva; from Rohitawa, Harita; from Harita, Cuncu; from Cuncu, Sudeva; from Sudeva, Bharuka and from Bharuka Sagara was born. Sagara had two wives Sumati and Keginl. Sumati gave birth to KesinI had a single son, 60,000 children, while Asamafljasa. Amsuman was the son of Asamanjasa; Bhaglratha was the son of Amsuman; Srutanabha was the son of Bhaglratha; Sindhudvipa was the son of Srutanabha; Ayutayus was the son of Sindhudvipa;

man. Siva said that Ila would be a man and every alternate month, throughout life. During the month when she was a man he would engage himself in matters of Government, and the next month, when a woman, she would stay in the inner apartments in the palace. Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 32 says that Iksvaku, brother of Pururavas ruled the state till the latter became a major. As soon as Pururavas attained majority Sudyumna handed over to him the reins of Government and retired to the forest for tapas,
form
a

woman

and during this period he was taught the Navaksara mantra by sage Narada. Sudyumna adored Devi with this Mantra. She appeared to him and blessed him with
the state of salvation. (Bhagavata) Pururavas married Urvasi, and ruled the country. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha; Devi Bhagavata, First Skandha; M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 75 and Anusasana Parva, Chapter 147, Verse 26)
.

Laksmana and Satrughna. Lava and Kusa were Sri Rama's sons Sita. the word Kalaby (See

three wives. Kausalya, Kaikeyi and Sumitra. Sri Rama was born to Kausalya, Bharata, was the son of Kaikeyi and Sumitra had two sons,

Dasaratha had

ILA

ILA

The name taken by Sudyumna when, after becoming woman, he became man again. (See under ILA I) ILA I. Daughter of Vaivasvata Manu.
.

brahmana)

1

Descended from Visnu in this order Genealogy. -Marici Manu Ila. Kasyapa Vaivasvata Vaivasvata Manu was the son of Kasyapa by his wife Aditi, and Ila the daughter of Vaivasvata Manu by his wife, Sraddha. Iksvaku, the ancestral father of the solar

Brahma

1)

:

dynasty of Kings was brother of Ila. Vaivasvata Manu and Sraddha had, for a long 2) time no children. Manu got performed once by Agastya a yajiia to propitiate the Mitravarunas so thaf a son might be born to him (Manu) Soon a daughter was
.

along with the brahmins bathed in this river. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 156, Verse 8) ILASPADA. An ancient holy bathing ghat. A dip in the holy waters wards off ill-fate and confers the benefits of the Vajapeya yajna. ( M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Verses 77, 78) ILAVARTA (ILAVRTA) A King in the line of Priyavrata, son of Svayambhuva Manu, (See Genealogy). ILAVRTA (ILAVRTTA) A locality. (See Bhugunita) ILAVRTA VARSA. That part of the country in the centre of Jambudvlpa. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter
. . .

At the birth of Subrahmanya this river paid homage to him with fruits and roots. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 86, Verse 24) Dharmaputra
II.

A

.

river.

.

.

.

28).

born

to

asked

whom the yajna was performed by Agastya. At once, Vasistha by his will-power turned the girl Ila into a boy, and the boy was named Sudyumna. (Bhagavata).
instead of a son for

Then Manu Vasistha why a daughter was born to him
him and she was
called
Ila.

the great forest Kumara Vana near Kailasa to salute Sri Parame^vara ignorant of the fact that just then Parvati and Parities vara were enjoying themselves. The sudden appearance of Sunaka and others was not relished by the divine couple, who were then naked. They therefore, pronounced the curse that anybody who entered the forest in future would be turned into a woman. (Bhagavata)

and some other sages went

3)

Sudyumna again

turned

into

woman.

Once Sunaka

to

See Vayu, Para 6. The wife of Visravas and mother of Kubera. Visravas was born as the son of Pulastya, one of the Prajapatis by Maninl. Visravas had two wives, Kaikasi and Ilibila alias DevavarninI and Vaisravana (Kubera) was born of Ilibila. Hence Kuber.i is called Ailibili also; To Visravas was born by Kaikasi, Ravana, Vibhlsana, Kumbhakarna and Surpanakha. ILILA. A King of Puruvarhsa; father of King Dusyanta. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 71). Rathantarl was Ilila's wife. (Adi Parva, Chapter 74). Some Puranas call Ilila by the name Ilina and Rathantarl as Rathamdarl

ILAVU.

ILIBILA.

also.

.

Sudyumna, now a young man, went Wrounting one day.

^

Sudyumna who was
forest

ignorant of this curse entered this with his friends while hunting. At once all of them were transformed into women. Grief-stricken, they stayed in the forest for some days, and then started
for the palace. Sudyumna bearing the name Ila at the head of the party as a beautiful woman.
Ila,

Matinara, the most righteous of Kings had four sons endowed with great prowess named Taihsu, Mahan, Atiratha and Druhyu. Tarhsu was responsible for the growth of the Puru dynasty. He conquered the whole of earth and won famg. Ilina was Tarhsu's son. He also conquered the whole world, and he had five sons. (M.B.
.

On

walked

ILINA.

the

way Budha met

each other and got married. A son, Pururavas was born to Budha by Ila. (Bhagavata).
they
fell

in

love with

Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verses 14-18) Son of king Tarhsu of the Puru dynasty. His wife was Rathantarl. Ilina had five sons by her. They were: Dusyanta, Sura, Bhlma, Pravasu and Vasu. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapters 16-18. See also under the

word

Ilila)

.

i.

There

Certain

Agni Purana.

variations in the genealogy according to

some Puranas. The genealogy given above

is

based on Bhagavata and

ILLAKA
ILLAKA.
very

318

INDRA
had no children, the distressed King with his queens worshipped the goddess Durgu. Durga gave the King two fruits. She blessed that the queens would bear
children when they ate the fruits. Adhikasamgama ate both the fruits without showing them to the other wife. Two sons were born to her. Indivarasena was the elder
son.

A

Son of a Vaisya

person

who

led

a very\ ideal

in the city of beautiful wife. Illaka had

ther place and his wife wanted to accompany him. But, Illaka did not allow that and went alone. Then she waited at the gates looking towards the husband moving
fast

Mathura, Illaka had a one day to go to ano-

family

life.

away. And, when he completely disappeared from sight she, who could not bear the separation, fell down on the spot and expired. Illaka heard about the death and without delay, he hurried back home. He placed the dead body of his wife on his lap and wept. Weeping thus he also expired. (Kathasaritsagara, Lavanakalarii.

INDRA.
1) 2)

(Kathasaritsagara, Taraiiga)
.

Ratnaprabha

larhbaka,

8th

Genealogy.

Visiiu

Brahma

Marlci

Kasyapa

Indra.
Birth. Kasyapa was born to Marlci, the eldest of the spiritual sons of Brahmfi. Indra was the son of Kasyapa and Aditi, the eldest daughter of Daksa. The twelve sons who were born to Kasyapa and Aditi are called Adityas. The twelve Adityas are Dhata, Aryama,

baka, Tarahga I ) ILVALA. An Asura, who lived in the Manimati city. Ilvala and his brother Vatapi ate up a number of brahmins and Agastya cursed them to death. (See Agastya) INDIA. 'South Sarakh', a newspaper published from the United Arab Republic with the assistance of the Indian Embassy gives the following account of how the land originally known as 'Bharata' came to be called
.

INDlVARAKSA.
:

this was 'INDIA'.

India. The name 'India' was given to "Bharata" by the Arabs. Even from very early times, Arabs used to give the name 'Hind' to their girls. In ancient Arabic love poems, this name could be seen very frequently. There were commercial and cultural contacts between Bharata and Arab lands, from very old times. The words 'Kharan Ful' (spices) 'Pulful' (Pepper) etc. may be seen in Arabic poems of the pre Islamic period. These contacts became more intimate in later years and the Arabs began to take very great interest in the products and the people of this country. They began to 'Hind' which they call 'Bharata' by the pet name used for their little children. They began to use the term 'Al Hind' when referring to Bharata in their poems, records and trade agreements. In course of time
'

Mitra, Rudra, Varuna, Surya, Bhaga, Vivasvan, Pusa, Savitii, Tvast, and Visnu. In addition to them, Aditi had twentyone sons more. Indra is the eldest of the 33 sons. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 65, Verses 9-15). Indra became the ruler of the Devas. Airitvata is Indra's elephant, Uccaissravas, his horse, and Vajra his
,

weapon. (Agni Purana, Chapter 5 1 M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 18). 3) Indra and Garuda. Kasyapa had two sons, Garuda and Aruna by Vinata and a large number of Nagas by his other wife, Kadru. Kadru and her children kept Vinata and her son Garuda as their servants. Kadru agreed to set them free if they brought Amrta from
Devaloka.

Once Kadru and her
them
to the beautiful

children asked

Garuda

to

Nagalaya ocean. Garuda carried them on

in the

middle of the

carry

shortened

to

'Hind'

and

finally

became

A Gandharva. He was the son of Nalanabha, the chief of the Vidyadharas. There is a story about this Gandharva in Markandeya Purana, Chapter 60 Indlvaraksa went to the sage Brahmamitra to learn Ayurveda. For some unknown reason, the sage did not teach him. Indlvaraksa decided to learn by overhearing what the guru taught the other pupils from a hiding place. In six months' time he learnt Ayurveda. Overjoyed at the thought that he was able to acquire as
much
learning in this science as the other pupils, within such a short time, and oblivious of his surroundings, he laughed loudly. The guru who understood the secret, uttered a curse that he would become a Raksasa within

his shoulders and flew very high near the sky. The excessive heat of the sun made the Nagas unconscious. Kaoru, in her distress, prayed to Indra. Indra showered rain and cooled the atmosphere. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 25, Verses 717). They reached the lovely island in the middle of the ocean.

Garuda decided to earn his freedom by bringing Amrta from Devaloka. With determination, he flew up into heaven and secured Amrta. The enraged Indra attacked him with his weapon, Vajra. But Garuda spread his feathers in such a way that he was not wounded. Indra was struck with wonder, and pleased with the named him beautiful feathers (Parna) of Garuda, At last Indra was pleased and allowed 'Suparna'. Garuda to take Amrta with him. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 32, Verses 'l 8-25).
4)

How
.

Indra came

to

have 1000

eyes.

(See Tilottama,

2nd

seven days. The repentant Indlvaraksa begged for his pardon. Then the sage told him that he would be restored to his own form and give up the Raksasa shape when he was shot with arrows by his own children.

Once when he approached
devour her,

his

daughter

to

his son-in law, Svarocis

Mahorama who had learnt

the science of archery from that girl, defeated him. In form. After this way, Indlvaraksa got' his own former that he taught Svarocis, the sciences of archery which he had learnt from his own daughter and also from

wife had KuntI, Pandu's 5) Indra Mi Arjuna. (1) received five mantras from Durvasas for begetting sons. One of those Mantras was chanted meditating on the sun even before she was married and Kama was born. After marriage she used three more of the Mantras and three sons were born to her from Yama, Vayu and

Para)

Madrl

Indra respectively. The

fifth

the other wife of Pandu.

INDlVARASENA.
ruled the city

Brahmamitra.

Son of Parityagasena
Iravati.

a King

who

of

queens

Adhikasarhgama and Kavyalankara.

Parityagasena

had two As they

son of KuntI by Indra. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 123). and (2) There is a story of a rivalry between Indra

Mantra was presented Thus Arjuna was

to

the

Arjuna

in the
.

Mahabharata.

(See

under 'Khanda-

vadaha')

INDRA
their life in the forest, once (3) During Arjuna started to Kailasa to worship Siva. On the way Indra appeared before him and showered his blessings on

319
Trisiras.

INDRA
With one face he used to recite Vedas, with the second he drank alcohol and he used the third face for observing the world. He performed a rigorous at it, sent goddesses to tapas. Indra, who was alarmed allure him, but in vain. At last Indra himself went to

him.
(4)

(M.B.

During Arjuna who
arva

named taught him music, dance,
Chapter 44, Verse 9).

Parva, Chapter 41, Verses 15, 16). the forest, Indra presented to visited him in Indra's residence, a GandhCitrasena as his companion. Chrasena
his life in
etc.

Vana

(M.B.

Aranya

Parva,

(5) At the palace of Indra, as secretly instructed by Indra, Urvasi approached Arjuna with advances of love. Arjuna who refused to yield to her temptations was turned into a eunuch by her curse. But Indra lifted the curse by saying that this curse would be an advantage to him during the incognito life of the Pandavas. It was Citrasena who was used as a tool by

Trisiras, begot another son Vrtrasura. (Devi Bhagavata,
.

the forest riding on his elephant Airavata and killed Trisiras with his Vajrayudha. In his violent fury he had the three heads of Trisiras cut by a carpenter. From that day, it was ordained that the head of the cow sacrificed at yagas should be given to a carpenter. Tvastr who was enraged by Indra's killing of his son

9)

ear-rings. (M.B. Aranya Parva, Chapter 310). famous exploit of Indra was 6 ) Indra and Vrtrasura. Under the leadership of the killing of Vrtrasura. Vrtrasura, the Kalakeyas and many other Raksasas besieged the Devas. The battle raged furiously. Indra fell down unconscious owing to the shower of arrows from Vrtra. At once Vasistha with his divine power restored Indra to consciousness. Finding it impossible to kill Vrtra, the nonplussed Devas under the leadership of Indra approached Mahavisnu. Visnu told them that Vrtra could be killed only with the bone of the sage Dadhlca. So all of them approached Dadhica. Realising the situation, Dadhica let Indra have his bone for the purpose. Indra made his weapon Vajra with that bone and receiving a fatal stroke from it, Vrtra fell down dead. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 101, Verses 14, 15; Santi Parva, Chapter 281, Verses 13-21). By killing Vrtra Indra incurred the sin of Brahmahatya. To expiate for that sin the Devas and Rsis took Indra

Kama's

Indra to test Arjuna's self control. (M.B. Aranya Parva, Chapters 44, 45) (6) In order to ensure Arjuna's victory in battle, Indra, disguised as a Brahmin, obtained by begging
.

A

6th Skandha) See the word Agastya. Indra and Nahusa. When Indra defeated and drove Indra and Bali. 10) away the Asuras, Mahabali, the Asura emperor assumed the form of an ass and hid himself in an empty house. Brahma informed Indra of this. Indra found him out there, but set him free without killing at the behest of Brahma. (M.B. Sand Parva, Chapter 223). 1 1 Indra and Yayati. Yayati was the son of Nahusa. In ) his old age, he handed over the kingly duties to his younger son Puru and went to the forest for performing After performing penance, he reached. penance. Indraloka in the end. Indra did not like Yayati's boast that there was none who had greater power of tapas than himself. Indra pushed him down to the world. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 88). Saradvan was born as the son of 12) Indra and Saradvan.

Sarayu river and performed his holy bath there. (Valmlki Ramayana, Bala Kanda, 24th Sarga) (For further details about Vrtrasura see under Vrtrato
.

Indra did not allow the Asvinidevas to drink soma juice. The sad Asvinidevas left Indraloka and while passing through a forest, they met Sukanya, wife of the sage Cyavana. She was extremely beautiful. The Asvinidevas advised her to become their wife instead of being the wife of the blind Cyavana. But Sukanya rejected their advice. Pleased by her
7)

sura) Indra and Cyavana.
.

Sage Gautama. Saradvan started a penance for acquiring divine arrows. Devendra who was alarmed, sent the Apsara woman Janapati to obstruct his tapas. Deeply affected by her irresistible charm and fascinated by her temptations, he had an involuntary emission of semen, which fell on the Sarastamba and split itself into two parts. Two children a boy and a girl, were born from it. The King's servants brought them to Hastinapura. The boy was named Krpa and the girl was named Krpi. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 130). 13) Indra and King Kuru. The King named Kuru was once ploughing the field at the place known as Kuruksetra. became (This was long before Kuruksetra famous as the battlefield of Bharata Yuddha ) Indra
.

who happened

to

come

Visvarupa had three faces and so he was

they restored Cyavana's eyesight and a youth with beautiful eyes. In his gratitude, Cyavana promised to get permission for them to drink soma juice. He performed a yaga. Indra, AS vim devas and other gods attended it. Indra insisted that the Asvinis should not be allowed to drink Soma juice. Cyavana disputed with him and in the dispute Indra was defeated. From that time the Asvinis were allowed Soma drinking. See also 'Cyavana'. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 124, Verse 14; Anu-'asana Parva, Chapter 156, Verses 16-31). Indra's brother Tvastr did not 8) Indra and Trisiras. With the object of like some of Indra's activities. rebuking Indra, Tvastr begot a son named Visvarupa,

conjugal

made him

fidelity,

enable the men who fell dead there, to attain Heaven. Indra returned to Heaven, smiling. Other devas came to know of this from Indra. They said that if all men came to Devaloka, the share of yajna which was to be received by the gods, would be diminished and so they advised Ind:a to go and give some boon to King Kuru. Indra returned to earth and gave his blessing to Kuru
as follows
:

King tilling the land, The King replied that he was performing a yaga

way at the time, seeing asked him why he was doing

that

the
so.

to

The

men in their previous life, but (3) Those whMvere who have bee^born as animals. From that time Kuruksetra became an important
place. (M.B. Salya Parva,' Chapter 53). Indra's friend, a Naga named 14) Indra and Taksaka. Taksaka lived in Khandava forest. When Agni burned Khandava forest, Indra caused the rain to fall in order

following classes of people will attain they die there (at Kuruksetra). 1 Those who die of starvation. ( ) (2) Those who die fighting heroically.

heaven

if

also

called

INDRA
to save

320 Taksaka. See under 'Khandavadaha'.
.

INDRA
Indra, accompanied by other gods came When the Devas asked how the child was going to drink milk, Indra put his index finger into the child's mouth and the child began to suck it. Indra said 'The child will drink me". The Sanskrit words dhata" mean "one who drinks me". Thus the child was named "Mandhata" by Indra and the other
forth a son.
to see the child.

(M.B.
the

For the story of how Indra saved Taksaka Sarpasatra see under 'Astika'. At and the Khandavadaha. 15) Indra

Aranya Parva, Chapter 235)

from
time

of

Khandavadaha,
Devendra.
16) Indra Sabha. (assembly hall)

Sri

Krsna and Arjuna fought against
the

"Mam

Maya
for

When
to

it was being discussed, the sage Narada described them Indra's sabha as given below Indra has a Sabha which dazzles with divine effulgence. It is 150 yojanas in length and 100 yojanas in breadth.
:

undertook to build a sabha Pandavas at Indraprastha.

It has a height of five yojanas. Beautiful storeyed buildings and divine trees add to the grandeur of the sabha. Indra is seated within the holy light in it. SacidevI takes her seat near him. Indra is very handsome. He wears a crown, he is dressed in spotlessly pure clothes, and wears a garland round his neck. Maruts, Siddhas, Devas, Rsis and a host of others stand around attending on him. They are all bright with the halo of fire. Parasara, Parvata, Savarni, Galava,

gods. (M.B. Aranya Parva Chapter 126). Once Indra and Agni tested the 20) Indra and Sibi. of Emperor Sibi's 'dharma'. Indra took the strength form of an eagle and Agni that of a dove. The dove flew down into the lap of Sibi. The eagle pursued it. The dove entreated Sibi to save it from the eagle. Sibi promised to do so. The eagle argued that the dove was its prey and should be returned to it. But Sibi offered to give the eagle his own flesh, equal in weight to that of the dove. Accordingly, the dove was placed in one pan, but even when all the flesh from his body was cut and placed in the other pan, it did not weigh equal to the dove. At this stage, Indra and Agni appeared to Sibi in their own forms and blessed him to be more happy

and prosperous than
Indra

before.

(M.B. Vana Parva, Chap-

Samkha,

Sabha

Gaurasiras, Durvasas, Akrodhana, Syena, Dirghatamas, Pavitrapani, Bhaluvi, Yajnavalkya, Uddalaka, Svetaketu, Pandya and other famous sages ire members of Indra's assembly. In this way, Indra's
Likhita,
is

named

the most magnificent.

(M.B.

Sabha Parva,

Chapter

7).

Surabhi, the asked her why she was crying. Surabhi answerd: "My Lord, the cattle, who are my children are groaning in the world under the yoke of the farmer. I was overwhelmed with grief at the sight of their sufferings" Indra's heart meltted due to Kamadhenu's tears. He caused very heavy showers in the world when ploughing the fields became impossible. In this way as a result of Surabhi's tears Indra caused heavy rainfall which gave rest to the cattle in the world. (M.B. Aranya Parva, Chapter 9). Nala proceeded to Vidarbha to 18) Indra and Nala. attend Damayantl's Svayarhvara. On the way, the four gods, Indra, Agni, Varuna and Yama met him. (For

17) Indra and Kdmadhenu.
in

Once Indra saw
Indraloka.

Kamadhenu, crying

the

He

and Yavakrila. Long ago there was a sage Yavakrita. He started a tapas with the ambition of acquiring all knowledge by himself, without the help of a Guru. Indra was alarmed at the sternness and rigour of the tapas. He induced Yavakrita to stop tapas, but it was in vain. At last Indra disguised himself as an old Brahmin and went to the bank of the Ganga where Yavakrita was performing tapas. He began to build a dam across the river with sand. Seeing this Yavakrita ridiculed him. The old Brahmin retorted that Yavakrita's tapas was also equally ridiculous. But Yavakrita was not shaken even by his taunt. He resumed his tapas with renewed strength. At last finding no other alternative, Indra appeared to Yavakrita and
21)

ter 131).

granted his wish.
22)

further

details

see

the

word

'Nala')

.

Nala

married
the

devas returned, they met Kali and Dvapara. to whom they described Nala's marriage. Kali and Dvapara who wished to marry Damayanti, naturally felt disappointed and angry. Kali was about to pronounce a curse on Nala. But on the advice of Devendra he did not do so. Still he decided to gain secret entrance into Nala's body and to bring about the loss of his Kingdom. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 58). A King named Yuvanasva 19) Indra and Mdndhata. was born in the Iksvaku dynasty. He earned great
reputation by performing many Asvamedha yagas. But he was very much distressed because he had no children. So he entrusted his kingly duties to his ministers

Damayanti with the

blessings

of these gods.

When

Grief-stricken Indra complained to Sri Krsna. Accompanied by Satyabhama and riding on the back of Garuda, Sri Krsna went to the city of Pragjyotisa, the residence of Narakasura and razed it to the ground. He recovered the umbrella and ear-rings and returned to heaven with Satyabhama. Indra and Aditi were overtheir return joyed on getting back the lost articles. Sri Krsna at the request of Satyabhama cut journey,

(M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 135). Loss of Indra's umbrella. Once Narakasura went to heaven, fought with the gods and robbed Indra of his umbrella and the earrings of Aditi, Indra's mother.

On

One day during his wandeasrama of the sfce Bhrgu. He was tired and thirsty. Bhrgu had fillecw a pot with water by reciting a mantra and placing it on a low stool, he had gone to sleep. Not knowing that it was a pot of water intended to cause pregnancy, and in his intense thirst, Yuvanasva drank water from it. He became pregnant and in due course Yuvanasva brought
and proceeded
to the forest.

gavata, 10th Skandha). 23) Indra and Narakasura. The Asura called Naraka once performed a very severe penance on the Gandhamadana mountain with the object of usurping Indra's place. Indra was alarmed and rushed to Mahavisnu
for help. Visnu went to Gandhamadana mountain and killed Narakasura. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 142).

Parijata tree. This made Indra angry and he fought against Sri Krsna. After defeating Indra and other gods, Sri Krsna accompanied by Satyabhama returned to Dvaraka with the Parijata. (Bhafor her a twig of the

ring he arrived at

the

the war between 24) Indra and the sage Baka. After Devas and Asuras, Indra, in a peaceful state of mind, was going around the world, riding on his elephant, Airavata. When he reached an Alrama on the eastern coast of the sea, he met the great sage Baka. A conver-

INDRA
sation

321

INDRA
Indra sought refuge under Brahmfi. Brahma advised to bathe in Sonapunya tirtha to expiate for the sin. Accordingly Indra bathed in the river Sarasvati

about the happiness of longevity took place between Indra and sage Baka who was hundred thousand Indra returned to Devaloka. years old. After that (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 193). 25) Indra and Kesi. Long ago a terrible war took place between Devas and Asuras. At that time an Asura called Ke;'I attempted to abduct Devasena, daughter of a Prajapati. Hearing her shrieks, Indra rushed to the spot. In the clash between Kesi and Indra, Kesi's club was broken into two with Indra's weapon Vajra. Suddenly Kesi lifted a mountain and threw it at Indra. Indra broke that mountain also into two. One part of it fell on K.e;' I himself, who fled frightened. After that, Indra asked Devasena how she happened to fall in Ke'i's hands. Devasena answered thus "I am the daughter of Prajapati. My name is Devasena. Kesi had abducted my elder sister, Daityasena. My sister and I used to come to take our bath in this Manasa lake. Kesi had expressed his wish to abduct both of us. My
:

him

and washed

of!"

his sin.

about how Sarasvati There were frequent between Vasistha and Visvamitra. Once quarrels Visvamitra got angry when he came to know that Vasistha was performing a penance on the banks of the

There is a story River Sarasvati. river became Sonapunya tirtha.

river Sarasvati.

He summoned

Sarasvati

and ordered

produce Vasistha before him immediately. Sarasvati was in a dilemma. If she brought Vasistha to Visvamitra, Vasistha would curse her; if on the other hand, she did not bring him Visvamitra would curse her. At last she decided to produce Vasistha before Visvamitra. By eroding the earth on her bank little by little near the place where Vasistha was performing his penance, Sarasvati managed to bring him down into her own
her
to

current.

worshipped by gods and Having heard these facts, Indra held consultations with Brahma and arranged the marriage between Subrahmanya and Devasena. See also the word "Subrah-

father has given

me

his

blessing that a person who is asuras will become my husband.

manya". (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 223).

After killing Vrtrasura, Indra 26) Indra and Arlgiras. hid himself in a lotus flower in the Manasa lake, to expiate for the sin of Brahmahatya (killing a Brahmin). It was at that time that Nahusa became Indra. After Nahusa had been forced to go back to the earth as a serpent by the curse of Agastya, the Devas brought back Indra. At that time, Arigiras praised Indra with mantras from Atharvaveda. From that day Angiras Indra was pleased got the name of 'Atharvarigiras'. and blessed Angiras that his name would become famous throughout the world. (M.B. Udyoga Parva,
27)
Indra and the Bow called Vijaya. Karna had a called Vijaya. It was made by Visvakarma according to Indra's liking. (M.B. Parva, Chapter 31.

Then she carried him floating down to the place where Visvamitra was waiting. When Vasistha reached his presence, Visvamitra was pleased. But without allowing Visvamitra to capture Vasistha she took him away in her current, eastwards. Enraged at this, Visvamitra pronounced a curse that blood should flow through the river Sarasvati. Thus the water in the river became blood-red. The great sages who came there afterwards sympathised with Sarasvati in her ill-luck and as a result of their prayers Siva made her Sonapunyatirtha. Indra took his bath and It was in this river that
washed
31)

Chapter 18).

off his sin. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 43). and Srutdvati. Indra Bharadvaja's daughter Srutavati (Sruvavatl) performed a very severe penance test her character, to get Indra as her husband. .To Indra assumed the shape of Vasistha and went to Srutavati. She received the guest with due reverence. Pleased with her treatment, the guest handed her five

raw

fruits

and

a>ked her to cook

them

for

bow

him.

Kama

Verse 42). 28) Indra and the Tripuras. The Tripurasuras performed penance and received boons from Brahma. After that they clashed with Indra. Indra was not able to kill them. The vanquished Indra had the Tripuras killed by Siva. See the word "Tripura". (M.B. Karna
Parva, Chapter 33) 29) Indra and Surya
.

Srutavati gladly undertook that service. She proceeded to cook the fruits but even after burning all the fuel she had, the fruits were not properly cooked. So she began to use her limbs one by one as fuel and burned
sacrifice

them up. Indra was deeply impressed by her selfand appearing to her in his own form married
.

Arjuna came into

troversy raged in heaven between Indra and Surya. Indra argued that Arjuna would win, while Surya asserted that Karna would gain victory. The Devas joined the side of Arjuna and Asuras joined Kama's side. In the end, Arjuna came out victorious and thus Surya was defeated by Indra. (M.B. Karna Parva, Chapter

When Karna and (the sun-god). conflict at the Bharata battle, a con-

Srutavati, (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 48) Indra performed one Satakratu. Indra became hundred sacrifices at the place called Indratlrtha. Thus he became Satakratu. It was there that he gave much

32)

wealth to Brhaspati. Verse 2)
.

(M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 49,

Once Indra took the form of 33) Indra became a bird. a bird and went to the forest and preached moral and spiritual duties to the sages who had gathered there.
(M.B. Sand Parva, Chapter 11). 34) Indra and Dantideva. Once Dantideva received a boon from Indra that he should have plenty of food and enough travellers to eat it. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 29, Verses 120, 121). Once Brhaspati told Indra 35) Indra and Brhaspati. that everything in the world could be achieved with soothing speech. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 84, Verse
2). Brhaspati's wife

87). once 30) Indra and Narnuci. The Raksasa Namuci evaded capture by Indra by remaining hidden in the rays of the Sun. Indra went to him and pretending friendship, promised not to kill him either with wet thing or dry things or at night or in day time. Trusting his words, Namuci came out. Then Indra cut off Namuci's head with the froth scraped from the waves of the sea at the time of dusk. The head pursued him shouting, "You murderer of a friend, by breaking your promise!"

Tara once
.

fell

in

love with

(the
live

Moon
in

Candra

She deserted Brhaspati and went to god) Candra's residence. Brhaspati complained

INDRA
about

322
it

INDRA
King of birds in his sleep. Virupaksa who came to know of this, killed Gautama and gave his flesh as food
that
for
'

and

Indra promised to bring her back to Brhaspati by whatever means possible. Accordingly he sent a messenger to Candra. Compromise talks with Candra ended in failure. So preparations were started for a dreadful war between Indra and Candra. Sukra, the preceptor of Asuras also joined the side of Indra. Brahma who came to
to Indra.

to restore her

know
ciled

of

all this,

came

Indra and Candra. As directed by Brahma, Candra agreed to restore Tara to her lawful husband, Brhaspati, (Devi Bhagavata, First Skandha) 36) Indra and Prahldda. The great King Prahlada once conquered Heaven. Indra, who lost his kingdom and glory, accepted Brhaspati's advice and went to meet Sukracarya. Sukra told Indra that Prahlada was the noblest person and that he had earned that nobility by his good qualities. Indra decided to acquire those good qualities from Prahlada. Indra disguised himself as a Brahmin boy and approached Prahlada with a request for moral and spiritual advice. Prahlada accepted him as his pupil and gave him moral and spiritual advice. Pleased with the pupil's devotion, Prahlada agreed to give him whatever boon he wanted. The pupil said that he wanted only the good qualities of the Guru. Prahlada agreed to it. Then a shadow-like figure appeared to emerge from Prahlada's body. Prahlada who]] was puzzled asked the "Who are you" "The figure answered "I figure am your virtuous character. Now I am leaving you and entering this boy's body." Saying thus it left Prahlada's and entered Indra's body body. Following it, all the good qualities of Prahlada, like charity, truth, glory etc. entered Indra's body one after another. It was only in the end that Prahlada came to know that the cunning pupil was Indra. Thus from that day, Prahlada began to decline in his good qualities and Indra began to prosper. (MB Santi
.

riding on his

swan and recon-

Dasyus. Virupaksa, with tears in his eyes, made a funeral pyre and cremated Nadijaihgha's body. At that time, as directed by Brahma, Surabhi caused milk to flow from heaven and revived Nadijarhgha. Virupaksa told the whole story to Indra who came there at that time. Indra said that Nadijarhgha died as the result of Brahma's curse. He had offended Brahma on a former occasion by refusing to attend Brahma's assembly, although he was invited. Nadljamgha who was restored
to request Indra to life, was noble enough bring back Gautama also to life. Accordingly Indra revived Gautama. Nadijarhgha returned the gold to Gautama and sent him away with his good wishes. Indra returned to heaven. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 173). Indra and Ahalya. Indra, once fell in love with 38) Ahalya, the wife of Gautama. Sage Gautama who came to know of it, cursed Indra. For further details, see under Ahalya. to

;

:

:

Parva, Chapter 124). There 37) Indra and Gautama. bharata, of how Indra restored

is

a story in
to

the

Maha-

life

Gautama was a Brahmin who had left and settled down to live in the village
.

a dead Brahmin
his

own home
and
(an

of Dasyus aboriginal tribe) He married from a low caste followed the customs of Dasyus. At that time

Brahmin

happened Gautama who had

to
lost

come
his

there.
caste. to

He

another

ridiculed

Gautama
lived

left his

residence

Tired after his long journey, he fell asleep under a banyan tree. A King of birds named

and went

Next morning
another
place

carrying the gold on his head," Gautama who was quite tired after his long walk, was hospitably received by Nadljamgha. That kingly bird lay Gautama. An evil desire to eat theasleep/ flesh of NadI jamgha dawned upon the mind of Gautama. He

brought fish from the river Ganga to feed Gautama and fanned him with his wings. Gautama told the bird that he was a poor Brahmin and that he was anxious to get some wealth. There was a wealthy .aksasa King named Virupaksa in that country, who was a close friend of Nadljamgha. Nadljamgha sent Gautama to Virupaksa with a request to give Gautama some wealth. VirQpaksa gave plenty of gold Gautama. He returned to the foot of the tree

on that tree. Nadljamgha who was Nadljamgha the son of Kasyapa became very friendly with Gautama He

banyfn

cSTb?
killed

and spoke to him, dwelling upon the evil aspects of suicide. At last the young sage gave up the idea of committing suicide and returned to his hermitage. (M.B. Sand Parva, Chapter 130). 40) Indra and Subrahmanya. Long ago the Asuras led by Tarakasura, persecuted the gods in many ways. Tarak^sura had received a boon from Brahma that only the son born to Siva could slay him. So, to distract Parame^vara from his penance, in order to make it possible for him to beget a son, Indra sent Kamadeva (god of love) to him. But Kamadeva was burnt up in the fire from the third eye of Siva. After that Parvati won Siva as her husband as a result of her austere penance. She praytd to Siva that Kamadeva should be brought back to life and that a son should be born to her. Siva replied to her "Kama was born from Brahma's mind. As soon as he was born, he asked Brahma "Karh Darpam ?" which means whom shall I tempt and conquer ?" So Brahma called him "Kandarpa". Brahma had advised him even at that time that he should never tempt me. Disregarding that advice he came to attack me and I burned him up. Now it is not possible for him to be born in a physical form I shall beget of you a son with my spiritual power. I do not need the urge of Kamadeva for this, as in the case of ordinary mortals". As they were discussing this problem, Indra and Brahma arrived there. At their request Siva agreed to beget a son by Parvati. Since it is not desirable that all living beings should perish, Siva allowed Kamadeva to be born in the minds of all creatures. Brahma and Indra returned quite happy. One day, Siva and Parvati began their amorous dalliance. They did not The whole world stop it even after a hundred years. began to shake to its very foundations. Fearing that the world might perish, the dcvas, as ordered by Brahma prayed to Agni, to interrupt the amorous play of Siva and Parvati. Agni, who understood that it was not possible to achieve their object, fled and concealed himself under water. The Devas went out in search of Agni. By that time, the creatures in the water who
fox
:

39) Indra turned into a Fox. Once a haughty Vaisya knocked down a young sage named Kasyapa, with his chariot. The disgraced sage decided to commil suicide. Knowing this Indra went to the sage in the form of a

INDRA
could not bear the heat of Agni, told them the secret. Then Agni deprived them of the power of speech by a curse. After that he went and hid himself on the Mandara mountain. Elephants and parrots disclosed the secrets of Agni, who was hiding within the hollow of the trunk of a tree. Agni deprived them of their tongues by a curse. At last the gods discovered Agni. They sent him at once to Siva to stop him in his amorous dalliance. Agni succeeded in his mission by his intense heat. Siva transferred his semen to Agni who became pregnant. Being unable to bear its weight Agni deposited it in the river Gariga, who at the behest of Siva himself, left it in the woods on the Mahameru mountain. Siva's attendant bhulas (spirits) offered Puja to it there. After a thousand years a boy with six faces (Subrahmanya) was born out of it. He was suck-

323
its

INDRA

up war and was living in Mahameru. The Devas and the sages used to go to Subrahmanya for protection. When Devendra knew it, he became angry and went to war with Subrahmanya. Subrahmanya was wounded on the face with Indra's weapon. From the wound two sons named Sakha and Visakha were born to Subrahmanya. With their help Subrahmanya encountered Indra again. At this stage Siva appeared there and informed Indra that Subrahmanya had been born with a mission to kill Tarakasura and to restore Indra's kingdom to him. It was then that Indra recognized Subrahmanya. He begged pardon
sura, decided to give

by the Krttikas employed for that purpose by Parvati and the boy grew up with astonishing rapidity within a few days. Having been suckled by the Krttikas, the boy got the name "Karttikeya". In those days, Devendra who was defeated by Tarakaled

into a woman The bewildered "woman" somehow reached Bhamgasva's palace. All the members of his family were deeply grieved over his change of sex. To avoid embarrassment to himself and others, Bharhgasva returned as a woman to the forest and there lived as the wife of a sage and became the mother of a hundred sons. After some years "she" went back to the palace with the sons and leaving them there returned again
!

mystic power. In the conversation between them Devendra advised the bird to leave the tree and find some other suitable place for its residence. The bird did not accept his advice. Indra was pleased at the bird's loyalty and gratitude towards that tree which had been its shelter all along. So he took the bird along with him to Devaloka. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 5) 44) How Indra turned Bhamgasva into a woman. There was a King named Bhamgasva. Once he performed a sacrifice called "Indradvista" which was believed to have the power of blessing him with children. Indra being not invited was displeased with him and was waiting for an opportunity to wreak vengeance on him. One hundred sons were born to Bharhgasva. Once he went to the forest after entrusting the affairs of the kingdom to his sons. Indra cunningly misguided him and made him lose his way in the forest. Wandering alone with his horse in the forest, he reached the bank of a river. Weary and thirsty, he stepped down into the river. To his amazement, he was instantly transformed
.

of

as his military

Subrahmanya and expressed his desire to commander. When he tried

instal

him

to

the ceremony of installation by sprinkling the holy water on Subrahmanya 's head, the water refused to come out of the pot. Siva told Indra that it was because he had tried to perform the installation before propitiating Ganapati. Indra then offered worship to

perform

VighneSvara (Ganapati) and the ceremony went off without any hitch. Subrahmanya who thus became Indra's commander, killed Tarakasura shortly afterwards. 6th (Kathasaritsagara, Lavanakalambaka, Taranga) 41) Indra and Mahabali. The vanquished Mahabali who had left his home and country was in gloom when once Indra paid him a visit. and despair At that time Mahalaksmi emerged from Mahabali's body and entered Indra's body. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 224). Once Indra asked 42) Indra and Goddna (gift of cow) Brahma about the efficacy of godana or giving a cow as gift. Brahma told him that there is a world free from
. .

this time and made the of hundred sons quarrel with one another until all of them perished in fighting. Hearing about this the mother who was in the forest, wept bitterly. Indra visited her (Bharhgasva) there and she told him the whole story of her misfortunes and begged his pardon for performing Indradvista sacrifice without Indra inviting Indra. Pleased with her repentance promised to resuscitate one set of her hundred sons. She wanted all the hundred sons who were born when she was a woman, to be restored to life. Indra was ready to restore her manhood too, but she preferred to continue as a woman. Indra restored to life all the 200 sons of Bhamgasva and leaving Bhamgasva as a woman, returned to Devaloka. (M.B. Anusasana

to the forest. Indra went to the palace at

two

sets

Parva, Chapter 12). story is found in the Maha45) Indra and Matamga. Bharata under the title of "Indra-Matamga-Sarhvada" which illustrates that a Ksatriya, Vaisya or Sudra can

A

the infirmities of old age

"Goloka".

He added

would get a place

in Goloka.

and diseases and it that those who perform

is

called

Godana

hunter in Kas I once went to 43) Indra and a bird. arrows shoot birds with poisoned arrows. One of his hit a big tree accidentally and the powerful poison dried up the whole tree. In the hollow of the trunk of that It did not tree there lived a bird with mystic powers. its like to leave that tree which had been refuge ever since its birth. One day Devendra, in the guise of a Brahmin came to the bird, who recognized him by

A

It was told by Bhlsma to Arjuna as follows "Long ago a Brahmana's wife gave birth to a boy. The boy was given the name Matamga. His father sent him in a chariot drawn by a donkey, in connection with a yaga which he wanted to perform. Matamga whipped the donkey mercilessly. Seeing this, the donkey's mother to said Matamga "You are not a Brahmana. Brahmanas cannot be so cruel. You are a Candala (a man of the lowest caste) born to your mother by a
:

never become a Brahmana by any means.

barber."

him what he had heard from
to

Matamga

becoming a Brahmana. Devendra appeared to him and asked him what he wanted. Matamga asked for a

sadly returned to his father and after telling the mother-donkey set out an austere penance with the object of perform

INDRA
boon whereby he could become a Brahmana; Indra vanished after saying that it was impossible. After that Matamga performed penance for hundred years, Indra appeared again and standing on one foot. repeated that it was impossible for Mataiiiga to become a Brahmana. Then Mataiiiga continued his penance for a thousand years, standing on his toe. Indra appeared again and transformed Matamga into a Deva named "Chandodeva". Indra told him that though he could become a Deva, he could never achieve Brahminhood. In his extreme grief Mataiiiga renounced his life and entered Heaven. (M.B. Anus"asana Parva, Chapters 27, 28 and 29) 46) Indra and Sambara. There is a story in the Maha Bharata in which an Asuia named Sariibara explained the greatness of Brahminhood to Indra. Once Indra approached the Asura, Sambara and asked him what was the source of his glory and prosperity. Sariibara replied that it was all due to his whole-hearted worship ofBrahmanas. From that time Indra began to offer worship to Brahmanas and thus he won the place of Indra. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 36) There is a story in the Maha47) Indra loved Ruci. bharala of how a sage named Vipula who was born in the family of Bhrgu once saved Ruci, his Guru's wife from Indra. Long ago, a great sage named Devagarma lived in a forest. His wife Ruci being enchantingly Chief beautiful, many suitors were attracted to her. among them was Indra. DevaSarma was aware of this. Once he had to leave his a<rama in connection with a yaga. So he ordered his disciple Vipula to guard his wife Ruci during his absence. He had given a hint to Vipula that Indra who was an expert in disguises, might appear in the asrama in any form. Vipula, by means of his mystic power entered into his guru's wife and guarded her. After some time, Indra reached the Asrama in the guise of a handsome youth. He disclosed his real identity to Ruci and told her that he had come there to spend a night with her. Ruci fell in love with him. But since she was under the mystic control of Vipula, Indra was unable to fulfil his desire. At last Vipula sent him away in disgrace. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 4, 44). Indra once stole Agastya's 48) Indra 's theft of Lotus. lotuses. (See under Agaslya) 49) Indra's theft of an Elephant. Indra once stole an elephant belonging to the great sage Gautama. The sage complained to Dhrtaraslra, who advised him to
.
.

INDRA
by the dog without turning back or looking behind. At the end of the journey, Indra was waiting for him with his chariot. He told Dharmaputra that his brothers and wife had already taken their places in Heaven and that he should leave behind the dog and get into the chariot to go to Devaloka. Dharmaputra pleaded that it was not right for him to enter Devaloka after deserting the dog which had followed him so far. Even though Indra

pressed him very much to enter the chariot without the dog, Dharmaputra did not yield. At last the dog assumed the form of Yama who appeared and explained to them that he had taken the form of a dog and followed his son Dharmaputra to test his noble nature. They were all happy and all the three of them proceeded in the chariot to Devaloka. (M. B. Mahaprasthanika

In Uttara Ramayana there is a 52) Indra and Bali. story as given below, about the birth of Bali, a son of

Parva, Chapter 3).

Indra Aruna, the charioteer of Surya (the sun-god) went one
:

were not allowed to enter the dancing hall. So, Aruna managed to enter the hall by disguising himself as a beautiful lady. The moment Indra saw her he fell in love with her. The name she assumed at that time was Arum. Indra secretly took her outside and they had a sexual union. Bali was the son born from their union. 53) Indra's theft of a Horse. A King named Sagara once performed a sacrifice. Devendra stole the sacrificial horse. Sagara sent all his 60,000 sons in search of the horse. They dug up the earth and went to the Nether worlds where they saw the horse tied in front of the The enraged sons of Sagara tried to sage Kapila. capture and bind the sage. But Kapila reduced all
the 60,000 princes
to

night to Indraloka to see the goddesses dancing.

Men

Dili and Aditi were 54) Indra cut an embryo to pieces. the daughters of Daksa. Kasyapa married them. Indra was born as the son of'Aditi. At this birth of a son to Aditi, Dili became jealous of her sister. One day she told her husband Kasyapa that she too wanted to have a virtuous, heroic and brave son who would be equal

Ramayana, Balakanda, Chapter

ashes by his 39)
.

curse.

(Valmlki

.

offer prayers to Indra. Accordingly Gautama pleased Indra by his prayers. Indra appeared and after return-

Indra in every respect. Kasyapa promised to grant her wish. In due course, Dili became pregnant. Now it was Aditi's turn to become jealous of Dili. She could not bear the thought of Dili having a son equal to her own son Indra, in glory and splendour. So she called Indra
to

and

elephant took both the elephant and Gautama with him to Devaloka. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, along
ing
the

50) Indra and Marutta. Long ago there was a famous king named Marutta. Indra was closely associated with him in many of his activities. (For more details see
51) Indra

Chapter 102).

Another anecdote about part of Dharmaputra's life is given in the Mahabharata. The Pandavas, towards the end of their lives entered the forest and were travelling to the north. Dharmaputra who was walking in front, was followed by a dog. On the way the four brothers and Pancati fell down
and Dharmaputra. Indra which deals with the
last

Marutta)

.

dead. Dharmapulra continued his journey accompanied

mother, Indra approached Did and spent a lot of time in her pretending friendship company. He soon won her confidence and love by his affectionate attentions. On one occasion, when she was in sound sleep, Indra, by his mystic power, entered into Dili's womb with his weapon Vajra and cut the child in the womb into seven pieces. The child began to cry loudly, but Indra said "Ma ruda" which means "do not cry" and cut each of the pieces again into seven parts. Thus the embryo (child) was finally cut into forlynine forlynine pieces, which laler became the "Manilas" or "Maruls". When she woke up, Dili realized Indra's Ireachery and in her fury she cursed Indra and Adili. She cursed thai Indra would lose his kingdom of Devaloka and lhat Aditi would be im-

womb, by whatever means.
In obedience
to

secretly instructed
his

him

to destroy Dili's child in the

INDRA

325

INDRA
Sita entered Dandakaranya. Sri Rama's chief object in going there was to give protection to the sages and their hermitages in the forest. But seeing that he had made the him that killing of Raksasas his main purpose, Sita told
this

prisoned and her sons would be killed. As a result of this curse Devendra lost his kingdom on one occasion. Aditi, in her next birth, was born as Devaki, wife of Vasudeva and was imprisoned by Kariisa who killed her children. (Devi Bhagavata, Fourth Skandha) 55) Indra and Ambarisa. Ambarisa had a minister named Sudeva. (1) King Sudeva fell fighting in the battle-field. After some years, Ambaii.sa also died. When Arhbarlsa arrived in Heaven, he was surprised to find that Sudeva had already secured a place there long ago. Ambarisa had performed many more acts of holiness than Sudeva. Yet Sudeva attained Heaven earlier than Ambarisa. Ambarisa asked Indra
.

change in the objective would

matters.
story:

To

illustrate

this

she

spoil other important told him the following

many sacifices, Sudeva had performed many He added that 'war-sacrifices were as war-sacrifices.
performed
efficacious for attaining

why

it

was

so.

Indra answered that just as Ambarisa had

Heaven

as other kinds of sacrifices
.

and resumed his austere penance. (Valmlki Ramayana, Bala Kanda, 65th Sarga) 58 ) Indra., Sri Rdma and Sarabhahga. At the time when Sri Rama and Laksmana were (1)1 leading their life in the forest, one day Indra paid a visit to the Asrama of the sage Sarabhanga. Devendra wished to take the sage with him to Devaloka. As they were talking, they saw Sri Rama coming to the Asrama. Indra advised Sarabhanga to speak to Sri Rama and left the
.

tions. Valmlki RamJiyana, B.lla Kanda, 61st Sarga) 56) Indra and Trisauku. There is a story that Indra once pushed down from Heaven, Triianku a King of the Surya varhsa (Solar dynasty) See under TRISAlsIKU. Once Visvamitra observed a 57) Indra and Visvamitra. vow of silence for a period of one thousand years. At the end of that period, when he was about to take his food, Indra appeared in the form of a Brahmin and asked for that food. Visvamitra gave that food to the Brahmin
. .

animal. To continue the sacrifice without interruption, the King decided to substitute Suna.'sepha, the son of Rclka, for the cow. But Sunar'scpha prayed to Indra who came and rescued him from the jaws of death. (This story is given in other Paranas with slight varia-

(M.B. Sand Parva, Chapter 98) (2) Ambarisa, King of Ayodhya was performing a sacrifice. At that time, Indra had stolen the sacrificial

'Once upon a time, a great sage was observing holy with great austerity. Indra was alarmed at it. He went to the sage's hermitage in the form of a warrior armed with a sword. Indra handed over his sword to the sage for safe custody. The sage accepted it and from that time all his attention was concentrated on the sword. All his time was spent in guarding the sword and he began to neglect his devotional duties as a sage. As a result of it his mystic power declined and ultimately he fell into Hell. (Valmlki Ramayana,
rites

place. As suggested by Indra, the sage had a conversation with Sri Rama. After it Sarabhahga offered his
to

Maya set his eyes on a goddess named Hema. When Indra knew this he became angry and killed Maya with his weapon Vajra. From that time Hema got Maya's golden mansion. This was told by Hema's maid, Svayamprabha to Hanuman. (Valmlki Ramayana, Kiskindha Kanda, 51st Sarga). 63 ) Indra cut off the wings of Mountains. In Krtayuga all the Mountains in the world had wings. They used to fly about here and there like Garuda with the speed of wind. The sages and the Devas feared that they might fall on their heads. The Devas held a conference and elected Indra to find a remedy for this. Indra cut off the wings of the mountains with his Vajra. The Mainaka mountain was a friend of wind. When Indra was about to cut off the wings of that mountain, Wind suddenly removed it and deposited it in the
.

on that mountain also. Indra and Maya. 62) Maya, the carpenter of the Asuras, performed penance to Brahma and acquired complete mastery in the science of carpentry and architecture. After that he constructed a forest mansion of golden colour and took up his residence in it. Once
for Sita

60 ) Indra and Kabandha. See under Kabandha. Indra was anointed as 61) The Post or Office of Indra. King of Devas on Meghavan mountain. In the 42nd Sarga of Kiskiridha kanda of Valmlki Ramayana we find that Sugrlva had ordered the monkeys to search

Aranya Kanda, 9th Sarga)

.

body
was
(2)

the

fire

and went

to

Devaloka.
.

(Valmlki

ocean.

It

is

the battle between Sri Rama and Ravana in progress, Indra presented to Sri Rama, an excellent chariot along with the horses. The chariot and horses were handed over to Sri Rama on the battlefield by Matali, Indra 's charioteer. Sri Rama fought against Ravana from that chariot and slew him. (Valmlki

Ramayana, Aranya Kanda, 5th Sarga)

Mainaka mountain

out of his gratitude for this
rose

that

the

When

yana Sundara Kanda,
,

vided a resting place for Hanuman, the son of Wind god, when he jumped to Lanka. This story was told by Mainaka mountain to Hanuman. (Valmlki Rama1st

up from the ocean and

pro-

Ramayana, Yuddha Kanda, Sarga 103). (3) After the war with Ravana, Indra appeared before Sri Rama and asked him what boon he wanted. Sri Rama replied that all those monkeys who died in the war should come back to life and the forests in which they lived should abound in fruits and flowers in all the seasons of the year. Indra restored all those monkeys to life and made all the forests in which they lived, green and rich with luxuriant vegetation. (Valmlki Ramlyaaa, Yuddha Kanda, Sarga 129)
.

59) Indra gives his sword for safe-custody. in the forest Sri Rama and Laksmaaa,

During their life accompanied by

accepted a sage named Visvarupa as his preceptor for a sacrifice. Visvarupa's mother was a Danava partisan. So this priest, as directed by his mother, performed the sacrifice with the prayer "May the gods and the Asuras prosper." As a result of the prayer, both the the sacrifice and the Asuras gods who performed who did not perform it, prospered. At this Davendra became furious and he cut off the head of the Guru. (Devi Bhagavata, 3rd Skandha). See under Mahisasura. 65) Indra and Mahisdsura. 66) Indra became a bull. Long ago there was a King called Kakutsrha in the Iksvaku dynasty. When he was ruling over the kingdom of Ayodhya, a war broke

64)

Indra

cut

off his preceptor's

Sarga). head

Once Devendra

INDRA

326

INDRA
and took Indruni Kanda)
.

out between Devas and Asuras. In that war, the Devas were not able to defeat the Asuras. Indra in distress approached Visnu for refuge. Visnu advised him to seek the help of Kakutstha, King of Ayodhya. So Indra with the other gods went to Ayodhya. When Kakutstha heard about their appeal for help, he glady offered his help but only on condition that Indra became his assumed the vehicle. Seeing no other way, Indra form of a bull and Kakutstha, riding on the back of the bull fought against the Asuras and defeated them. It is from that day that the King came to be called "Kakutstha", "Indra-vahana" and "Puranjaya". (His original name is unknown). "Kakut" means the ''hump of a bull". Because he was seated on the "Kakut" he got the name "Kakutstha". Because he made Indra "vahana" (vehicle) he got the name of "Indravahana". As he defeated the Asuras and conquered their city (pura) he was called "Puranjaya". Kakutstha was the son of Sasada and the father of Prthu. Sri Rama is he was born in the called "Kakutstha" because family of Kakutstha. (Devi Bhagavata. 7th Skandha) 67) Indra's Task. Devi Bhagavata, 8th Skandha says that Indra is one of the "Astadikpalakas (the eight
'

to Kailasa.

(Skanda Purana, Asura

Mucukunda, a King of the 72) Indra and Mucukunda. Iksvaku dynasty, once went to Devaloka at the invitation of Indra. In the war between the Devas and Asuras, Mucukunda helped Indra and the Asuras were defeated. Indra was pleased and asked Mucukunda what boon he wanted. Mucukunda asked for a boon which would give him long and sound sleep. Indra
granted

it and in addition declared that anyone who disturbed Mucukunda's sleep would be reduced to ashes. After that Mucukunda went to sleep in a cave in the middle of a dense forest. A King of the tribe Yavana performed penance to Brahma and obtained his boon which would enable him to defeat the Yadavas (Sri Krsna's clan) and he began to fight with Sri Krsna. Because of Brahma's boon, Sri Krsna was not able to kill him. He drove Yavana into the cave in which Mucukunda

.

protectors of the
is

quarters)

and the name of his

was sleeping. Mucukunda suddenly woke up from his sleep and looked at him with great anger. Yavana 10th was at once reduced to ashes. (Bhagavata, Skandha).
73)
Indra's favourite
is

city

"AmaravatI".
.

Plant
of Life.
that

the

Drink. The juice of the Soma favourite drink of Indra. (Rgveda, 1st

68)

Indra's term

Skandha

one day of Brahma is made up of one thousand "Caturyugas." There are fourteen Manvantaras during the life of the present Brahma (See under Manvantara) This means that fourteen Manus will be born and will die one after another during this period. Each Manvantara will have its own Indra and the Devas. The first Manu was
.

Visnu's life-span. Siva has double the life-span of of Brahma, fourteen that during the life Visnu, Indras will drop down from Heaven and perish, and

says

two

The Devi Bhagavata 5th life-spans of Brahma make

Mandala,

1st Anuvaka, 1st Sukta). 74) Indra became a Goat. Sage Angiras began worshipping the Devas, hoping to have a son who will be equal in glory to Indra. Indra who did not like another person to be his equal, took birth himself as the son of Angiras. Savya is the name of that son. Once Savya assumed the form of a goat and ate up the soma plant of a sage called Medhatithi. The sage then called him Mesa (goat). Indra is still known by the

name, Mesa.

(Rgveda,

1st

Mandala,

1st

Anuvaka,

51st Sukta). 75) Indra turns woman.

Svayambhuva. Uttama, Tamasa, Raivata and Caksusa, have passed away. The present Manu is Vaivasvata the son of Surya. The current Vaivasvata Manvantara is the seventh. At the end of seven more Manvantaras, the present Brahma will perish and a new Brahma will be born. For the names of the Indras of different Manvantaras, see under Manvantara. (Visnu Purana, Part 2, Chapter 1). 69) Indra became a Calf. (See under Prthu) Purandara. Sardar K. M. Panikkar 70) The name
.

After

him

five

more Manus, Svarocisa,

Once Indra took birth as the daughter of a king named Vrsanisva and assumed the name Mena. (Rgveda, 1st Mandala, 1st Anuvaka,
Indra and Rjisvan. Once Indra helped a King named Rjisva to defeat the Asuras, Karanja, Parnaya and 1st Mandala, 1st Anuvaka, Variigrda. (Rgveda,
76)

52nd Sukta)

.

in

his

preface

to

the cities (Puras) of the Dasyus. But in Chapter 71, of Vamana Purana, we are told that he got this name because he killed "Pura", the son of Mahabali. got

the

name Purandara because he

Rgveda Sarhhita

says that

Indra

53rd Sukta).' 77) Indra and Surya. A King named Svasva offered prayers to Surya to bless him with children. Surya himself took birth as his son. Once a great sage called Etasa got involved in a fight with this son (Surya) When the sage was about to collapse, Indra came to
.

his

rescue.

destroyed

62nd Sukta).

(Rgveda,

1st

Mandala, llth

Anuvaka,

some cows and hid them

Once an Asura named 71) Indra in the land of Konkana. Surapadma obtained from Brahma, a boon to enable him to conquer the whole world. He persecuted the
inhabitants of
to bring
all

the three worlds.

He
to

Indra.nl

Indra, who came to know of this, secretly went away Indrani to the Koiikana land and lived in a temple there. After some days, entrusting Indrani to the protection of Sasta, he went to Kailasa. Just at this time, Surapadma's sister Ajamukhi came there and tempted Indrani. Sasti cat off the hands of Ajamukhi

(Indra's

wife)

him

sent his followers as a captive.

with

some unknown place. Indra asked Sarama, the bitch of the Devas to find out and inform him where the cows were kept concealed. Sarama replied that she was prepared to do so, if Indra would give milk to her child and look after it in her absence. Indra undertook that task and the bitch went out and found out the place where the cows were hidden and reported it to Indra, (Rgveda, 1st Mandala, llth Anuvaka, 62nd Sukta) Dadhlca (Dadhici ) was the son 79) Indra and Dadhica. of Atharva. He used to scare away the Asuras by his eerrible look. Once when he had gone to Heaven, the earth became infested with Asuras. Indra set out to
in
.

78 ) Indra and Saramd.

Once an

asura called Pan! stole

INDRA
them. He tried to find out whether Dadhica had behind anything to be used as a weapon. "Dadhica had with him a horse-head", he was told. Indra went in search of it and at last found it in a lake at a place called Saranya. It is with its bone that he killed the Asuras. (Rgveda, 1st Mandala, 13th Anuvaka, 84th
fight
left

327

INDRA
down dead on
the

Sukta). 80) Indra and

(The science of intoxicating drinks) to Dadhyan. He was warned by Indra that if he communicated that lore to anyone else, his head would be cut off. Once the A<,vinls wanted to learn it. Since Indra had denied Sorria drinking to As vims, they were not on good terms with Indra. So they approached Dadhyan to acquire that Knowledge. But he refused to teach them due to his fear that Indra would cut off his head. So the Asvinis cut off Dadhyari's head and fixed a horse's head in its place. With that horse-head Dadhyan taught the Asvinis Madhu Vidya. After they had learnt the knowledge, they replaced his own head after removing the horse-head. (Rgveda, 1st Mandala, 17th Anuvaka, 116th Siikta) It is said that once, in a light mood, Indra made 81) a mare give birth to a cow. (Rgveda, 1st Mandala, 18th Anuvaka, l_21st Sukta). Satanlka was a King of the 82) Indra and Satdnlka. Lunar dynasty who ruled over the city of Kausambl. Indra who was highly impressed by his heroic exploits once invited him to Devaloka to suppress the Asuras. In the war with Asuras, Satanlka was killed. After that Satanika's son, Sahasranika went to Devaloka and killed the Asuras. Indra who was pleased declared that Sahasranika would marry the beautiful Mrgavati and they were married. See under Mrgavati.
.

Dadhyan.

Indra

taught

Madhuvidya

the earth. Vayu, in deep sorrow, took dead body of his son and went to Patala. When Vayu (wind) left the world, the creatures of the world underwent great suffering. Then the Devas led by Brahma went to Patala, consoled Vayu and revived Hanuman. Since his "Hanu" was cut with Vajra, the monkey was named "Hanuman" by Indra. Besides, Indra gave him a blessing that Hanuman would die (Uttara Ramayana, Valmiki only when he wished. Ramayana; Kiskindha Kanda; 66th Sarga). For the story of how the 86) Indra and Govardhana. people of Gokula (Cowherds' colony) stopped the worship of Indra, how Indra caused a heavy shower of rain, and how Sri Krsna used the Govardhana mountain as an umbrella, see under "Krsna". 87) Indra
becomes
to

(Kathasaritsagara, Kathamukha larhbaka, 1st Tarariga). 83) Indra and Vasavadatta. Vasavadatta who was the wife of Udayana was born in the world by Indra's blessing. See under "Vasavadatta". (Kathasaritsagara,

Once the sage victim of old age. Devaloka. The goddesses gave him a grand reception at which Menaka presented him with a garland made of fragrant flowers. The sage gave it to Devendra. Indra placed it on Airavata's tusk. The fragrance of the garland attracted a large number of bees to it. They swarmed round the head of the elephant and annoyed it. Airavata picked up the garland trampled it under his foot, pulled it to pieces and threw it away. Durvasas took this as an insult to himself and pronounced a curse that all the gods would be subjected to wrinkles and grey hair of old age. Indra and the other gods fell victims to old age. Indra requested Durvasas to release him from his curse. The sage relented and told him that if the Devas drank Amrta obtained by churning the ocean of milk they would recover their youth. Accordingly, the ocean of milk was churned by the joint effort of the Devas and Asuras and in the end the Devas snatched it away. When the Devas drank Amrta, the symptoms of old age disappeared and they recovered their youth. (Uttara
Durvasas went
Indra and Dandakaranya. ""Danda the son of Iksvaku, a King of the Solar dynasty, ruled over the territory between the Vindhya and the Himalayas. Once when he was out ahunting in the neighbourhood of the mountains, he saw a charming woman. She was "Ara", the daughter of the sage Sukra. The King was fascinated by her beauty and fell desperately in love with her at the very first sight. He seized her by force and commi88)
tted rape on her. When Sukra knew about this, furious and uttered a curse that Indra should

Ramayana)

.

Kathamukha
84) Indra

and Meghandda. Ravana conquered the world with the help of Brahma's blessing. In his pride he came into conflict with Indra. After a fierce battle, Ravana's son, Meghanada defeated Indra. He took Indra to Lanka as a prisoner. Ravana chained Indra's

larhbaka, 1st Taranga).

hands and
in

and tied him to his flagstaff. The Devas approached Brahma for help. Brahma went to Lanka and secured the release of Indra. After giving
feet

distress
title

the

of Indrajit to Meghanada,
this

Brahma returned

to

Brahmaloka.

Devendra had committed adultery' Gautama's wife. At that time Gautama had uttered a curse on him, that he would have to spend a year in prison, chained by an enemy. His life in Ravana's prison in Lanka was in fulfilment Sometime before
with
Ahalya,

Sage

a rain of fire on Danda 's country of Danda was destroyed by Indra's rain of fire. In courr e of time that region was turned into a dense forest and came to be called "Dandakaranya". (Uttara
Indra; Marutvan, Mr r-havan, 89) Other names of Indra. Bidaujas, Pakasasana, Vrddhasravas, Sunaslra, Puruhuta, Purandara, Jisnu, Lekharsabha, Sakra, Satamanyu, Divaspati, Sutrama, Gotrabhit, Vajn, Vasava, Vrtraha, Vrsa, Vastospati, Surapati Valarati, Sacipati, Jambhabhedin, Harihaya, Svarat, Namucisudana, Sarh-

he was shower kingdom. Thus the whole

Ramayana)

.

of that curse. (Uttara Ramayana) Hanuman, thesonofVayu 85) Indra and Hanuman. he was born, (wind) sprang up into the sky as soon as it to be seeing the brilliant rising sun, and mistaking some delicious food. He saw Ra.hu who was standing near the sun and made a leap towards him. When he came near, he saw Airavata, Indra's elephant, standing in Devaloka. At once he turned towards that elephant to swallow him. Seeing the struggle between Hanuman and Airavata Indra used his weapon Vajra which cut the monkey's "hanu" (jaw bone) and he fell
.

krandana, Duscyavana, Turasat Meghavahana, Akhandala, Sahasraksa, Rbhuksa. 90) Indra's Divinity. In the earliest stage of Hinduism, Indra had occupied one of the most eminent places

among

younger brother of Indra at that time. In Amara Koi'.a we find "Upcndra Indravaraja" as the synonym of

the gods.

Mahavisnu had only

the

place

of

INDRA

328

INDRADYUMNA

I

Visnu. In Rgveda Indra has a more important place. Although Rudra is a divinity or deity and although there are references to Kapardin, there is not even a single stuli (praise) about Siva in the Rgveda. Rgveda does not recognize Devipuja and idol worship. But in the Puranic age, Indra was transformed into a
.

lascivious "Deva Prabhu" (Lord among the gods) Sardar K.M. Panikkar, in his preface to "Rgveda "The main actor in RgSarhhita" says about Indra: veda is Indra. In the war against the Dasyus the Aryas seek the help chiefly of Indra. Indra is represented as very handsome and of a golden complexion. His weapon which was made by Tvasta. is Vajra, thunderbolt

See under Pandavas. 94) Siva ended Indra's pride. 95) Indra stole the cows. For the story of how Indra stole the cows from Gokula see under Krsna. 96) Indra and Mahasani. Once Mahasani, the son of Hiranya defeated the gods in a battle and took Indra and Indrani to Patala as The captives.

Devas who knew that Mahasani was a relative of Varuna, sought the help of Varuna. At the instance, of The Indra released. was Varuna, revengeful Indra prayed to Siva. Siva appeared and asked Indra
to submit his complaint to Visnu. Indra offered his prayers to Visnu. As a result of it, a man who had the elements of Siva and Visnu, in him, took his birth from the water of the Ganga. He killed Mahftsani. (Brah-

golden chariot. Indra drinking Soma juice more than the other gods. Indra is even referred to as "Somapa". He is also sometimes described as the twin brother of Agni. Sages have sung unendingly about the exploits of Indra. Hiranyastupa, a sage, has composed a work entitled "Indrastuti" which celebrates many of the heroic deeds of Indra. Indra was Vajrapani who had slain the Asuras like Ahi, Tusna, Sambara, Vala, Vrtra and others. There are also several stories in the Vedas about the birth of this hero. At the time of Indra's birth, somehow, his mother felt that he was incapable of being killed. So she decided to abandon him. Fearing trouble for herself, she asked the child to leave her and go to some other place. Indra refused to do so and followed her to the house of Tvasta. There he drank the juice of the soma plant and gained strength to kill his enemies. But unaware of this, his mother, tried to keep him concealed. Indra, however, came out of the place in his dazzling attire and encountered the enemies. Vrtra who met Indra got ready for a fight. In the fight Vyarhsa struck down Indra. The devas fled in fear. Indra who was left alone called upon Visnu and sought
his
likes

Vayu

ling about in the sky driving in

(wind)

is

his charioteer.

He

is

constantly travel-

INDRADAIVATA. A

manda Purana).

yajna (sacrifice) performed in order to get children. King Yuvanasva got the yajfia conducted. After it was over the King drank water from pots filled by brahmins, and became pregnant. (See Mandhata) (Devi Bhagavata, 7th Skandha) INDRADAMANA. A King who gifted a lot of money to Brahmins. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 234, Verse
.
.

INDRADATTA. See 'Vararuci'. INDRADHVAJA. A flag staff. It
get rain.
If

18).

is

Sabha Parva refers to the island as conquered and subjugated by king Sahasrabahu. INDRADYUMNA I. A King born in the dynasty of Svayambhuva Manu, and a king of the Pandya
country.
1)

INDRADVlPA (INDRA

fallen, it is will befall the country.

anybody dreams that a bad omen. It means

erected in order to it has broken and that some disaster
.

(Agni Purana, Chapter 229)

ISLAND).

Mahabharata, having once been

Genealogy.

Descended from Visnu
-

in this order
-

:

Visnu
vrata ISumati

Brahma

his aid.

Although Indra needed help in his fight with Vrtra, he was the chief support to the Arynas in their fight against theDasyus. It was Indra's Vajra which broke up the fortresses of many Dasyu kings. That was why he got the name "Purandara". Once Indra dried up the whole

river to enable his army to cross it for the sake of SudSu<'ravas became helpless, Indra destroyed as. When twenty kings and 60099 soldiers with his chariot wheel. Thus we see Indra in the Rgveda as the destroyer of

the Dasyus and the protector of Aryans." Indrani, Sad and Pulomaja are the names of Indra's wife. Indra's son, Jayanta is also known by the name of Pakasasani. Indra's city is Amaravati ; his chariot "Vimana", his charioteer Matali, and his garden Nandanavana. "Vaijayanta" is the name of his mansion. Indra's weapon has several other names, such as, HraPavi,
Satakoti,

into elephant. Indradyumna, a 2) Indradyumna turned devotee of Visnu handed over governance of the country to his children when he became old, and performed penance in the Malaya mountain. One day, when he was immersed in meditation Agastya came there. Naturally, Indradyumna did not notice Agastya's arrival. Enraged at this the latter cursed Indradyumna and turned him into an elephant. Being told immediately about the curse by his servants Indradyumna sought

AgnTdhra Indradyumna.

PriyaSvayambhuva Manu Bharata Nabhi Rsabha

redemption from the curse from Agastya himself. Redemption was granted thus Indradyumna would roam in the forest for years as an elephant, a devotee of Visnu and he would attain salvation when Lord Visnu came
:

dinl, Kuli:'a, Bhidura,

Svaru,

Dambholi, Ar.ani etc. Indra's assembly is called "Sudharma". Indra's bow is the rainbow, his sword is Paranjaya and his residence is Heaven. The trees in Heaven are, Mandara, Parijata, Santana, Kalpavrksa and Haricandana. The festival celebrated in honour of Indra is called "Sakradhvajotthana" or "Indrotsava". 91) Indra and Uttanka. See under Uttarika. 92 ) Indra and Kabandha. See the second para under the

Samba,

down to the earth and patted the elephant on its back. Accordingly Indradyumna who was turned into an elephant roamed about in the forest for many years in the company of a herd of wild elephants. At last it arrived at Mount Trikuta. There was a lake there on the banks
of which was sage Devala
t'le

name Kabandha.

engaged in penance. Huhu, Gandharva had once come to this lake with a number of Apsara women and they indulged in amorous sports, which Devala did not like. He cursed Huhu and tusned him into a crocodile, and the crocodile lived in the same lake. Indradyumna who was turned into an elephant, stepped into the lake to drink water when the crocodile caught
hold of
its

93) Indra was born as Gadhi.

See under Gadhi.

hind

leg.

Neither did the elephant yield nor

INDRADYUMNA

II

329

INDRAJIT

the crocodile leave the former free. Their tug of war continued for 1000 years when Mahavisnu appeared on the scene, killed the crocodile and saved the elephant. At once the elephant was re-transformed into Indradyumna and he attained Vaikuntha (the abode of Visnu) (Bhagavata, 8th Skandha) A Malayalam verse summarises the above story as follows Impelled by Agastya's curse the elephant went to the lake at Mount Trikuta, and suffered for 1000 years as the crocodile which caught hold of its hind leg did not loosen its grip. Then appeared on the scene the killer of Murasura (Lord Visnu) on his vehicle, Garuda, killed the crocodile with his discus and granted salvation to the elephant. 3) Indradyumna' s fall from heaven when the merits of his good deeds were exhausted. The merits or the result of his good and noble deeds having been exhausted, Indradyumna, the saintly king once descended from heaven
. . :

lake. It came into existence when the cows given in gift by King Indradyumna passed along that way. (M.B. Aranya Parva, Chapter 198). The pool lay near Mount Gandhamadana, and the Pandavas once visited it. (M.B.Adi Parva, Chapter 1 18, Verse 18). INDRAJIT. Ravana's son, Meghanada. Descended from Visnu thus: Visnu, 1) Genealogy.

Brahma
(

Pulastya
.

Visravas

Ravana

Meghanada

Vibhlsana and

born by Pulastya, one of the Prajapatis was MalinI, Visravas. Visravas had two wives, DevavarninI, also called Ilibila and Kaikasl. Vaisravana or Kubera was his son by Ilibila and Ravana, Kumbhakarna,

To

Indrajit)

to earth,

deya. But, the sage did not recognize him. The King and the sage went to Pravirakarna, an owl living on the top of the Himalayas. It also did not recognise the King. Then they went to Nadijamgha, a stork very much older than the owl and living in the lake known as Indradyumna. Nadijamgha also could not recognise the King. In another part of the lake was living a tortoise called Akupara, who was older than Nadijamgha. At last the King, the sage, Pravirakarna and

and the sad King

approached sage Markan-

jit also,

because he had defeated Indra once. 2) Son of Siva. Though it was Mandodarl, Ravana's wife, who gave birth to Meghanada (Indrajit) the Uttararamayana refers to him as the son of Siva in a
story as follows: after religious fasting and other rites on Monday (to propitiate the Sun-God) Madhura,

offsprings of Kaikasu Ravana married Mandodarl and three sons, Meghanada, Atikaya and Aksakumara were born to them. Meghanada came to be known as Indra-

Surpanakha

(daughter)

being

the

Once,

a

INDRADYUMNA
Chapter
him.
12,

Nadijamgha approached Akupara. At his very sight Akupara recognized the King. Akupara told sage Markandeya that Indradyumna was a very famous King and quite liberal and munificent in distributing gifts, and that the lake Indradyumna was formed by the passage of the cows gifted by the King. Having heard these details regarding the King the sage sent him back to heaven. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 199).
II.

an Apsara woman, adorned with all kinds of ornaments went to Mount Kailasa to offer salutations to Lord Siva. Parvatl, Siva's consort was not present then, and Madhura used the opportunity to please the Lord, and she got pregnant by him. All on a sudden Parvatl appeared on the scene, and knowing what had happened in her absence she cursed Madhura to fall into an abandoned well as a frog. Madhura prayed for redemption from the curse, and Siva pitywould get herself transformed into a fair damsel and become the daughter of Maya and would, then, be married by a great King. According to Parvatl's curse
ing her sad plight blessed her that
after

12

years she

Verse 32

Mahabharata,
refers to

dyumna, a contemporary of

Sri

Vana Parva, a certain King IndraKrsna
;

Krsna
is

killed

INDRADYUMNA
ed in the
list

III.

A
his
.

of Saints

sage

who

Indradyumna
paid
(

mentionto

their

Dharmaputra during

forest life.

INDRADYUMNA INDRADYUMNA
(See Para
2,

Chapter 26, Verse 22)
IV.

M.B. Vana Parva,

homage

V. A under Visvakarman). INDRADYUMNA VI. A king who lived in the K r ta yuga, and a devotee of Visnu. He visited the Jagannatha temple in Odra Desa once to worship Lord Jagannatha. The Lord was then hidden in the sand. When the King, disappointed at this was about to return, determined to fast unto death at Mount Nila

Name

of King Janaka's father. king of the Iksvaku dynasty.

when a

celestial voice

Afterwards the King performed a horse sacrifice and built a magnificent Visnu temple. Narasirhhamurti brought by Narada was installed in the temple. During sleep the King had a dan! ana (sight) of Lord Jagannatha. Also an astral voice directed him to cut

cried,

"Thou

shalt

see

Him".

down
idols

the fragrant

tree

on

the

Accordingly the king got idols of Visnu, Balarama, Sudarsana and Subhadra made and installed them in the temple. (Skanda Purana) INDRADYUMNA (M). A lake. A stork called Nadiit.

with

seashore

and make

her. It was at this stage which had, twelve years before, entered her womb made its appearance in the form of a son. Ravana named him Meghanada. Being Siva's son he grew up with great prowess. (Uttara Ramayana). When once Ravana was 3) Meghandda's yajnas. away from Lanka on a conquest of the world, Meghanada went to Nikumbhila, the central place for conducting yajnas, and performed seven yajnas with sage Sukra as the chief priest. By the time all the seven viz. yajnas, Agnistoma, Asvamedha, Bahusvarna, Vaisnava, Manes vara, Rajasuya and Gosava were returned to Lanka and sage Sukra over, Ravana gave him details about the yajnas conducted by his son Meghanada. Ravana did not like the Vaisnava yaga performed by his son, and Sukra, who got angry at this cursed, Ravana that he would meet with his death at the hands of Visnu. (Uttara Ramayana)

Madhura fell into a well in the forest as a frog. Mayasura was performing penance near the well to get a daughter. On the expiry of 12 years after Madhura fell into the well as a frog, Mayasura looked into it and beheld a beautiful girl. He took her to his palace named her Mandodarl and brought her up as his own
daughter.

Ravana married

that Siva's vital fluid

.

By performing

jamgha and

the

Adikurma

called

Akupara

lived in

this

a Saiva yaga, Meghanada got the blessings of Siva, who taught him ( Meghanada) the great art of Samadhi, which helped one to move amongst others invisible to them.

INDRAKlLA
4)

330

INDRAPRASTHA

and a fierce war ensued between him and Ravana. Indra fought with Ravana, and Jayanta, his son fought with Meghanada. When fighting reached its climax Meghanada resorted to the art of Samadhi taught by Siva, and became invisible to others. Then he showered his arrows. Jayanta
at this Indra returned,

The name, Indrajit. Once Ravana encircled Indraloka with a big army, and Indra, very much alarmed ran up to Visnu for protection. Visnu told Indra that it was not yet time for Ravana's death and when it was time Visnu himself would slay him. Disappointed

INDRALOKABHIGAMANA PARVA. A sub
Mahabharata.

Parva in

away Jayanta without others knowing and concealed him in the ocean. Everyone thought that Jayanta was dead. Burning with grief and revenge Indra confronted Ravana again. Ravana fell down at the blow with Indra's vajra (thunderbolt). Then once more making himself invisible to others, Meghanada jumped into Indra's chariot and bound him prisoner. By that time Ravana got up on his feet, and he and Meghanada carried away Indra to Lanka and chained him to the foot of the flagstaff.

fainted carried

on the

battlefield.

Puloma, father of IndranI,

Those who take a dip in the holy waters there will attain heaven. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 9). INDRANI. Wife of Indra (Sad). 1 Descended from Visnu thus Visnu ) Genealogy. Brahma Puloma SacI (IndranI). Puloma Kasyapa was an asura born to Kasyapa by his wife Danu. Indra married SacI, the daughter of Puloma, and hence Sac! is called IndranI also. She is called PaulomI also as she was the daughter of Puloma. 2) IndranI and Surapadma. An Asura called Surapadma
:

INDRAMARGA. An

ancient sacred place (bathing gha{)

The Devas, grief-stricken at this sad fate of Indra to Brahma and submitted their grievance. Brahma reached Lanka, and named Meghanada Indragained victory over Indra). Indrajit jit. (He who prayed to Brahma for the boon, which would ward off death for ever. When Brahma told him that the
went
,

deputed his men to fetch him. Hearing about this, Indra, keeping IndranI with him, went to and stayed in the Chlyali temple in Koiikanadej'a, and afterwards Indra went to Mount Kailasa after asking Sasta to guard IndranI. During Indra's absence Ajamukhi, sister of Surapadma met IndranI and induced her to become Surapadma's wife. IndranI refused. Ultimately Indra returned and took IndranI back to Devaloka. See under Agastya. 3) IndranI and Nahusa.
once coveted IndranI.
SacI

He

somehow

or other

to

boon of eternal deathlessness was out of the question he sought the following boon that when he had performed a yajfta, out of the sacrificial fire should emerge a chariot and necessary horses and that he should not be killed by any one while fighting from that chariot, and that he did not mind being killed by enemies if he got away without completing the yajna. Brahma granted him the boon. And, as directed by Brahma Ravana released Indra from imprisonment after one year. (Uttara Ramayana) 5) Indrajit and Hanuman. A clash occurred between Indrajit and Hanuman, who landed in Lanka in search the former got Hanuman bound by of Sita, and Brahmastra. (Valmiki Ramayana)
:
.
.

Mahabharata says that Pancall incarnation of IndranI. (See under Pancall) partial part of SacI was born in the family of Drupada as Draupadl, viz. Pancall. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 67). 1 IndranI once went to the assembly of Brahma and ( ) worshipped him. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 11,
was a
4)

IndranI and Pancall.

A

.

Verse 42)
(2)

.

INDRAPARVATA. A

once Satyabhama came to Devaloka with Krsna, IndranI conducted her to Aditi, mother of the Devas. '(M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 36). SacI also was present at the birth of Subrah(3) manya. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 13). IndranI and Arjuna. (See under Arjuna) (4)
Sri
.

When

INDRAPRAMATI. A
under Vyasa.

mountain Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 15)
.

in

Videha. (M.B. Sabha

disciple
disciples.

to the line of Vyasa's

of Paila. He belonged For other details see
is

6)

Death of Indrajit.

between

Rama and

At

Ravana, Indrajit and Laksmana

the height of the

fierce

war

INDRAPRASTHA.
the
1
)

clashed with each other. Finding victory impossible Indrajit created a fake Sita and killed her. Thinking that Sita was dead, grief-stricken Hanuman, Laksmana and the regiment of monkeys withdrew from the death Rama fainted. fight.^ Informed of Sita's
Indrajit began the yajna for victory over Rama at the place called Nikumbhila. Vibhlsana told Rama and Laksmana'about the warning of Brahma that Indrakilled if the yajna was obstructed. Happy jit would be

same

Capital city of the Pandavas. It as Delhi, the capital of modern India.

Construction.

As ordained

putra, claimant to
forest

stood by

Khandavaprastha with them great sages
;

by Dhrtarastra, Dharmahalf of the kingdom, went to the
his
like

There, in the
211).

forest,

as beautiful as Indraloka. (M.B.

they built a city called Indraprastha Sabha Parva, Chapter

brothers. Sri Krsna Vyasa helped them.

ing'the yajna he came out and began fighting, and Laksmana killed him. (Valmiki Ramayana, Yuddha Kanda, Chapters 82-91) INDRAKlLA. A mountain in front of th^ Himalaya and Gandhamadana mountains. The presiding deity of this
.

at the information Rama and Laksmana immediately went to Nikumbhila to fight with Indrajit who was engaged in performing the yajna, and without complet-

2) Reconstruction. Once Agni burned down the Khanforest. (See under Khandavadaha) Arjuna saved Maya and five others from the fire. Maya asked Arjuna what he should do in return for saving his life. Arjuna replied that it was not proper to expect any reward for saving one's life and that, if Maya was very keen about

dava

.

mountain is a devotee of Kubera. Chapter 37)
.

(M.B.

Vana

Parva,

build for the Pandavas a the most beautiful one in the world at Indraprapalace, stha. And, accordingly, after getting the Brahmins feasted, Maya marked the ground ten thousand

Then Krsna asked Maya
duly

doing something in return,

it

might be done

for

Krsna.

to

INDRAPOJA
Kiskus 1 in extent. Then

331
11).

IRAVAN
Indrasena served her
Asura,

Maya went to the mountain the west of Mount Kailasa, where in the pool called Bindu he had stored a large quantity of gold and gems. Maya brought those materials as also a conch called Devadatta from there and built the most beautiful palace in the world at Indraprastha. Within the palace were made many a beautiful pool and various patterns with galleries etc. in glass. It was built so beautifully and in such a manner as to create, at the very sight, the illusion that there was water where there was really no water and vice versa. It took fourteen months to complete the construction of that most beautiful model of architecture. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapters
Mainaka
to

husband
21, Verse 11
8,

for 100
).

years.

a devotee of Varuna. Verse 15) INDRATlRTHA. A sacred place on the banks of the river Sarasvati. It was here that Indra performed 100 yajfias. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 48, Verse 49) INDRATOYA. A river near Mount Gandhamadana.

INDRATAPA. An

M.B. Virata Parva, Chapter

who was

(M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter

.

.

Vajra, son of Aniruddha of the Yadava dynasty was made master of Indraprastha after the time of the Pandavas. (M.B. Mausala Parva, Chapter 7, Verse
3)

1-3).

11).

INDRAPUJA.

The staffis decorated with flowers, sandal, attached the garlands etc. To the top of the staff is form of a Harhsa and offerings are given to it. The reason for this is the fact that it was in the form of a Harhsa that Indra appeared to Vasu. Pleased by the If Indrapuja of Vasu, Indra announced as follows
Indrotsava.
:

This is also puja (Indra-worship) called Indrotsava. It was during the reign of Vasu, a king of the lunar dynasty that Indrotsava began being celebrated in an organised manner. Pleased at the long penance of Vasu, Indra appeared to him and presented a Venudanda. Vasu planted the danda on earth and conducted Indrapuja. Thenceforward raising the Venudanda became the first item in celebrating

Bathing in the river and staying there for three nights tantamount to performing the horse sacrifice. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 11). INDRAVAHANA. King Kakutstha of the Iksvaku dynasty made Indra his vehicle in the form of an ox and fought the Asuras thus. Hence the name Indravahana. (See under Kakutstha) INDRAVARMAN. A King ofMalava, he fought on the an elephant side of the Pandavas, and got killed by called As vatthama. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 190, Verse 15). INDROTA (INDRODA). A sage, son of Suka, the great sage, and also called Saunaka. Janamejaya, son of King Pariksit once killed a brahmin, and af once Brahmahatya (sin of having killed a brahmin) seized the King. The King lost all mental peace at this and sought the advice of fnany sages for redemption from the sin, and Indrota (Saunaka) advised him to go on a
is
.

(dharma) pilgrimage and perform righteous duties The King acted accordingly and got rid of the sin of killing the brahmin. This story occurs under the title
.

men, and especially kings worship me in the manner done by Vasu, prosperity and welfare will accrue to them and to their kingdoms. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter

Indrotapariksitlyam in Santi Parva in three chapters. (Chapters 150-152). INDROTSAVA. See under Indrapuja. INDUPRABHA. See under Malayaprabha. INDUMATl I. Daughter of Candrasena, King of Simhala and his queen, Gunavatl. (See under Candra-

INDRASENA

(M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 60, Verse 23). Nala had also a daughter called Indrasena. INDRASENA II. Son of King Pariksit. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 55)
I.

63).

A

son

of King Nala.

INDUMATl
IRA

sena)

.

II.

Mother

of

Nahusa.

(See

under

INDUMATl
I.

Nahusa)

.

III.

.

INDRASENA
33.

III. Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter Verse 30 refers to one Indrasena, charioteer of the Pandavas. He accompanied the Pandavas in their forest life. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 11). When the Pandavas arrived at Mount Gandhamadana they left Indrasena with Subahu, the Pulinda King. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 140, Verse 27). After some time the Pandavas sent him to Dvaraka. (M.B. Virata Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 58) Indrasena was present at the wedding of Abhimanyu which was celebrated in the city of Upaplavya. (M.B. Virata Parva, Chapter 72, Verse 23). INDRASENA IV. A King who fought on the side of theKauravas. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 156, Verse
.

Aditi, Did, Khasa, Surabhi, Vinata, Tamra, Krodhavasa, Ira, Kadru and Muni were the wives of Kasyapa. Grass on earth originated from Ira. (Agni Purana, Chapter 19) IRA II. There was a devi called Ira among the attendants of Kubera. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 11). IRAMA. A river. Sage Markandeya is reported to have once seen this river in the stomach of child Krsna. (Vana Parva, Chapter 188, Verse 104. Also see under Markandeya) IRAVAN. A son born to Arjuna of the serpent damsel (Nagakanya) named Ulupi. (For genealogy see under

One

Wife of Raghu. of the wives of Kagyapa.

Danu,

Arista, Surasa,

.

.

Arjuna)
1
)

.

INDRASENA

122).

I.

Name
.
.

of Pancali in her former birth.

INDRASENA 1 1 INDRASENA III.

(See under Pancali)

Daughter of King Nala.

Nalayanl, a princess of Anga. She was married by the sage Rsyasrnga. (See under Rsyasrriga). (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 113, Verse
i

According to the practice laid down Pancali used to live with each husband for one year by turn. When she was living with one husband the other four husbands had no admission there. When once Arjuna wanted his arms to redeem the cows of a brahmin stolen by thieves he entered the apartment of Dharmaputra where the arms had been kept and took them.
Birth.

For thus having entered, against rules, the apartment then kept by Dharmaputra and Pancali, Arjuna had to

Kisku means a

cubit.

"Kiskur haste" (Amara).

IRAVATI
go on a pilgrimage for one year. Numerous brahmins accompanied Arjuna and while spending the night on the banks of the Gangu, Arjuna entered its waters for bathing. There he saw the Naga damsel, Ulupi. They fell in love with each other and got married. And, a son named Iravan was born to them. Ulupi granted Arjuna the boon that all water-animals would obey him and that in water he would be invincible. Leaving Ulupi and Iravan behind, Arjuna continued his stay in
the forest.
2)

332

ISVARA
Isupada was reborn in his next life as the very heroic and powerful King Nagnajit. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter

ISVARA.
the

67, Verses 20, 21).

Further Information. (1) In the great war Iravan fought on the side of the Pandavas. During the first day's fighting Iravan and Srutayu fought a duel. (M.B. Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 45, Verses 69-71) (2) Iravan defeated Vinda and Anuvinda in fight. (Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 83, Verses 18-22). Iravan killed five brothers of Sakuni. (Bhlsma (3) Parva, Chapter 90, Verses 27-46). (4) Iravan fought against Alambusa and was killed by the latter. (Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 90, Verses 56.

Once Devi told Himavan who, according to Hindu religion, God is, and how creation takes place from Isvara (God). The famous discussion about Godhood, called Devigita is quoted hereunder. tu ( ) Ahamevasa purvarh nanyad kirhcit nagadhipa / Tadatmaruparh cit saiiivit Parabrahmaikanamakam. // Before the creation of the universe commenced, I alone ( was there was nothing else. Then I was called Parabrahman, Citsvarupl, Sariivitsvarupi and Atmarupi)
1
;
.

(2)

Apratarkyamanirdesya-

manaupamyamanamayam
(That form
description

/

Tasya kacit svatah siddha
saktirmayeti visruta
is

//
;

beyond discussion (Apratarkyam ) beyond
(Anirdesyam)
;

IRAVATI

IRIMPU.

II. A sacred river. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 146, Verse 18). IRJIKA. A locality. (M.B. Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 52) IRI. There are hundred Kings in the palace ofYama worshipping him, and they are. called the Iris. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 23)

IRAVATI

Kanda)

I. Grand daughter of Kasyapa. Ten daughters were born to Kasyapa by his wife Krodhavasa, viz. MrgI, Mrgamanda, Harl, Bhadramata, Matamgl, Sarduli, Sveta, Surabhi and Kadru, and IravatI was Kadru's daughter. (Valmiki Ramayana, Aranya
.

76).

compared (Anaupamyam); beyond

old age etc. (Anamayam). mayasakti. (3) Na sati sa nasatl sanobhayatma virodhatah / Etadvilaksana kacidvastubhiitasti sarvada // (That mayasakti cannot be said to be existing or not existing. Thus it is neither existing nor not existing. The statement existing and not existing is subject to the
error, paradox.

birth, death youth, In this form of mine resides

incapable

of

being

.

That great

force

exists

always in

me

A

.

with the pair of aspects. (4) Pavakasyosna teveyamusnarhsoriva didhitih

/

ISTARASMI. A King mentioned in the Rgveda. He performed many yajnas. (Rgveda, Mandala 1, AnuISTASVA. A King mentioned in the Rgveda. He performed many yajnas. (Rgveda, Mandala 1, Anuvaka
vakalS, Sukta 123).

metal iron originated in the following way. The Devas sought Brahma's protection against the onslaughts of Tarakasura, who had obtained a boon to the effect that he could be killed only by a son born to Siva. And, implored by Brahma and others Siva entered into the sex act with Parvati. The impact shook the universe. Agni separated them from the process and the semen of Siva dropped in Agni. Agni deposited it in the Ganga. The Ganga could not bear it and it coursed through her (Ganga's) arteries and out of it was born Subrahmanya. Also from the particles of the semen gold and silver were produced. From the intensity of the heat were produced iron and copper. See under Subrahmanya. (Valmiki Ramayana, Bala Kanda, Canto 37) ISA. A Visvadeva. ( Universal deva) (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 91, Verse 31) ISANA (SlVA). Isana, with matted hair rides on the ox. See under Siva. (Agni Purana, Chapter 51). ISANADHYUSITA TIRTHA. An ancient tirtha. Tasting the water of this tirtha will give all the benefits of the horse sacrifice. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Verses 8, 9)
. . . .

Malayalam

word

meaning

'iron'.

The

(Fire does not exist without heat, nor

Candrasya candrikeveyaih Mameyarh sahaja dhruva //
its

Sun without

nor
is

Moon without

coeval with
(5)

me.

rays. Just like
It is

this,

light that mayasakti

(Just as all actions, feelings and even the sense of time remain latent in deep sleep, even so all the actions and emotions of all living beings lie absorbed in Maya).
(6) Svasaktesca

Jivah Kala^ca sancare / Abhedena vilinah syuh Susuptau vyavaharavat

Tasyam karmani jivanarh

permanent.

//

myself the source of this Maya; but strange power called avarana which hides
(I

am

dosatvam ca samagatam

samaybgadaharh bijatmatam gata Svadharavaranattasya-

/

//
it

has a
real

my

nature)

.

(7) Caitanyasya samayogad nimittatvarii ca kathyate

/

Prapancaparinamacca Samavayitvamucyate // (Being joined to Caitanya (Brahman) Maya becomes the material as well as the immediate cause of the universe (Prapanca)
(8)
.

ISUPADA.
'Danu.

19,

Sukta 124)

.

An Asura born

to

(M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter

Kasyapa and

his wife,

65, Verse 25).

This

Kecittam tapa ityahustamah kecijjadam pare / Jnanarh mayam pradhanarh ca prakrtirii saktimapyajam //

ISVARA
(This maya is referred to differently by different people as tapas, tamas, jada, jiiana, maya, pradhana, prakrti
aja.)
.

333

ISVARA
(Because of the above reasons experts in the science of philosophy hold that this Caitanya is eternal, and that, since it is the basis of bhakti which assumes the form of absolute love, it is anandarupa)
.

and

(9)

VimarSa

iti

tarn

prahuh
/

Saivasastravisaradah

(17)

Ma

avidyamitare prahurvedatatvarthacintakah // (Experts in Saiva philosophical thought refer to maya as vimarsa and Vedic seers call it avidya). (10) Evam nana.vidha.ni syuh

na bhuvarh hi bhuyasamiti prematmani sthitam /
sarvasyanyasya mithyatva-

this

dasamgatvam sphutarh
(No

namani nigamadisu tasyah jadatvam drsyatvat
/

not'. Every living souls think 'I his self-importance, the 'I'. It is always

am

mama

//

body cherishes
present
there

in every living soul in the different proves that I

am

form of love. This fact itself from all material objects).
/

Caitanyasya na drsyatvarh drsyatve jadameva tat / svaprakagarh ca caitanyarh na parena prakasitam // (Caitanya (Effulgence) is not visible. What is seen is jada (material expression). Caitanya is self-illuminating; it is not illuminated by something else) (12) Anavasthadosasatvanna svenapi prakasitam /
(11)
.

(Thus Vedas refer to maya by various names. of visibility maya is called jada, and because tructive of true knowledge it is called asat)
.

jnananasattatossatl

//

Because
it is

(18) Aparicchinnatapyeva-

des-

(That I am indivisible is quite definite. Knowledge is not an attribute of the soul (atman) but is the very form of the soul itself. If knowledge were only an attribute of the soul it (soul) should have been material (jada) and it is quite a certitude that the soul is not material, because knowledge is the very nature of the
soul
)
.

mata eva mata mama tacca jnanam natmadharmo dharmatvejadatatmanah //

(19) Jnanasya jadasesatvam

(13) Prakag amanamany e sam

Karmakartrvirodhah syattasmattaddipavat svayam //

na drstam na ca sambhavi / Ciddharmatvarh tatha nasti
//

Cirascid nahi bhidyate

Bhasakam viddhi parvata
ata eva ca nityatvam

(The soul
/

jada. It
(20)

is

to illuminate that which illuminates Caitanya. And, it continues ad infinitum. This state of no conclusion is called anavastha dosa. Also one thing cannot be, at the

Siddharh samvittanormama // is not self-illuminating then it is subject to the drawback of Anavasthadosa (Absence of finality) If Caitanya does not possess the quality of light and illumination there should necessarily be something else, which illuminates it, and there should again be something
(If caitanya
.

sukharupas ca sarvada / satyah purnopya'sarhgasca
dvaitajalavivarjitah
//

Tasmadatma jnanarupah

pure knowledge without any touch of the also pure existence. It is one and indivisible)
is
.

(The atman (soul) is therefore jnanarupa (of the nature of pure knowledge), Sukharupa (of the nature of pure joy) and satyarupa (of the nature of absolute truth). It is unattached to anything and free from duality). (21) Sa punah kamakarmadiyuktaya sviyamayaya purvanubhutasamskarat kalakarmavipakatah // Avivekacca tattvasya
/

same time, the subject (actor) and the object of action, and that invites the draw-back of paradox. Therefore, O King of mountains understand that Caitanya is self-illuminating and it illuminates other things by its
!

(22)

own

illumination.

And

this,

therefore, proves that

my

sisrksavan prajayate

/

Caitanya is eternal). (14) Jagratsvapnasusuptyadau drsyasya vyabhicaratah / samvido vyabhicarasca nanubhutosti karhicit // (All visible things go on changing in the three states of awaking, dream and deep sleep. But like visible things Caitanya is not subject to change, and does not experience the three states) (15) Yadi tasyapyanubhavastarhyayarh yena saksina /
.

(23

)

abuddhipurvah sargosyam kathitaste nagadhipa // Etaddhi yanmaya proktarh mama rupamalaukikam / avyakrtarh tadavyaktam mayasabalamityapi //
sarvakaranakaranam tattvanamadibhutarh ca saccidanandavigraham // Sarvakarmaghanibhutamicchajnanakriyasrayam /

(24) Procyate sarvasastresu

(25 )

anubhutah

sa evatra

sistah sarhvidvapuh pura // the three (If it is argued that it (Caitanya) experiences states then there must be something else as 'witness' for the experience. But, since it is established as self-illuminating there cannot be something else as 'witness
1 .

(16)

Ata eva ca nityatvam

proktarh sacchastrakovidaih anandarupata casyah

/

hrlrhkaramantravacyarh tadadi tatvarh taducyate // (Impelled by the Vasanas of previous actions the Mayasakti proceeds to create the world, beginning with the 24 tattvas. My form which is immaterial and unmanifested is praised by all sastras to be the cause of all causes and the basis of all tattvas. It is also the basis of

parapremaspadatvatah

//

knowledge, action and volition and realizable only through the hrimkara mantra)
all
.

ISVARA
(26)

334 Tasmadiikasa utpannah Sabdatanmatrarupakah / bhavet spars atmako vayustejorupatmakam punah

ISVARA
Viratdeha (Cosmic body) is the sum total of these individual material bodies. The inner conscience and bodily organs like ear etc. originate from the gentle and pure aspects of the five elements.
(35)

(27) Jalaih rasatmakaih pas cat lato gandhatmika dhara /

Jnanendriyanam rajendra
pratyekarii militaistu taih

!

iabdaikaguna
(28 )

akfiso (36)
.

antahkaranamekarh syad
vrttibhedaccaturvidham

vayussparsaravanvitah Sabdasparg arupagunam
teja ityucyate

Yada

//

budhaih

/

gabdasparsaruparasairapo vedagunah smrtah // (29) Sabdasparsaruparasagandhaiii pancaguna dhara

tadabhavettanmana ityabhikhyam / syad buddhisarhjiiam ca yada pravetd
suniscitarh sariisayahlnarupam (37) Anusandhanarupam taccittam ca parikirtitam /
//

tu samkalpavikalpakrtyam

/

tebhyobhavan mahatsutram
yallimgarh paricaksate // (30) Sarvatmakarh tat sarhproktaih

aham

suksmadehoSyamatmanah avyaktarh karano dehah sa coktah purvameva hi //

/

primordial principle the five elements (pancabhutas) were born. The first of these is ether which is the element of sound because sound travels

(From

this

touch) Agni has three gunas Jalam (water) has four gunas
.

through ether (sabda-tanmatra-rupa). Then air (vayu) gave rise to the sense of touch and so air is called spaiiarupa. This vayu again gave rise to Agni (Vayoragnih). Then came water which corresponds to the sense of taste ( rasarupa) From water came earth which is gandharupa (the source of smell) (Udakadbhumih). Akasa (ether) has only one guna, namely sound. Vayu Sabda and Sparsa (Sound and (air) has two gunas
.

(Antahkarana, due to differences in state assumes four When once conception and doubt arise in a subject, then it is called mind. When there is no doubt, is called but there is assuredness it understanding (buddhi). The function of examining a subject again and over again belongs to citta. To think of 'I' is egoism or aharhkara)
forms.
.

krtyatmavrttya tu tadahamkaratarii gatam

(38)

Kramat karmendriyani ca
pratyekarii militaistaistu

Tesarii rajomsairjatani

/

(39 ) Hrdi prano gudespa.no

prano bhavati pancadha

//

rasa.

The

last

element

sparsa, rupa, rasa and gandha. From these five tanmatras is born the linga-sarlra or suksma-sarlra). 31 ) Yasmin jagadbljaruparh (

rupa, sabda and sparsa. sabda, sparsa, rupa, and earth has five gunas sabda,
:

nabhisthastu samanakah / kanthades epyudanassyadvyanah sarvasariragah //

(From the coarse (rajasic) aspects of the five senseorgans originate the five organs of action like word, foot, hand, excretory and the genital organ, and also the five pranas (breaths) called prana, apana, samana, udana and vyana. Prana is located in the heart, apana
in the anus,

sthitam lingodbhavo yatah tatah sthulani bhutani

/

throat

samana in the nabhi (navel) udana and vyana all over the body)
.

in the

pancikaranamargatah // (32) Pancasamkhyani jayante
tatprakarastvathocyate / purvoktani ca bhutani pratyekarh vibhajeddvidha

(40) Jnanendriyani pancaiva pancakarmendriyani ca / pranadi paficakarii caiva dhiya ca sahitam manah // (41) Etat suksmasarlrarh syan
//

mama

(The jagat ( universe) remained in embryo form ( bljarupa) in these pancatanmatras. Then by the process of Pancikarana all the gross material objects were created. These pancabhutas were first divided into two (each was divided into two). Then by a process of the combination of these ten parts different substances were born
as detailed in the following stanzas. (33) Ekaikarii bhagamekasya

lingam yaducyate / Tatra ya prakrtih prokta sa rajan dvividha smrta //

(Organs of knowlege 5, of actions 5, and pranas 5, and buddhi 1 mind 1 the body is composed of these 1 7 factors). This forms the Suksmasarira whose prakrti is two-fold (as mentioned below). (42 ) Satvatmika tu maya syad, ,

caturdha vibhajed gire
svasvetaradvitiyarhse

/

avidya gunamisrita / svasrayarh ya tu sarhrakset sa mayeti nigadyate //

i

again vided into four parts. These 1 /8 parts are joined to the other halves and by combining them in other fractions the material bodies (sthulas arlras) of all beings are

yojanat panca panca te // Each half of each of these five bhutas (

One
is

is

pure

maya and

the

other

is

avidya possessing

subdi-

properties).
(43)

Tasyarii yat pratibirhbariisyadbimbabhutasya cesituh sa Isvarah sama.khya.tah
//

made).
(34)

Tatkaryam
sthuladeho

ca viraf dehah

yamatmanah

/

pancabhutas thasatvariis aih srotradinam samudbhavah //

svasrayajnanavan parah (44) Sarvajnah sarvakarta ca sarvanugrahakarakah / avidyayarh tu yat kimcit pratibiihbarh nagadhipa

//

IYAM
(Brahmacaitanya reflected in this maya is (God). That Isvara is the same as the atman
absolute, creator
.

335
Isvara
(soul),
to

JAGATl
ples of

brahman

and the cause of all
(45)

of everything,

blessings. small extent in avidya also)

The

omniscient,
reflects

soul

a

Tadeva jivasamjnam syat sarvaduhkhasrayarh punah
dvayorapiha sarhproktam dehatrayamavidyaya //

/

Devadarsa were Magadha, Brahmabali, Sautand Pippalada. Pathya had three disciples. They were Jabali, Kumuda and Saunaka. Of these Jabali was a famous expounder of Atharvaveda. (Visnu Purana, Arhsa 3). JABALI II. Son of Rtadhvaja, a hermit. (See under Visvakarma, Para 2)
kayani
.

JABALI
also
to
.

III.

(This jlva is the receptacle of all sorrows. Due vidya and avidya both get three kinds of bodies)
(46)

by this name. Jabali who performed on the mountain of Mandara had several discipenance
are

A

hermit.

The descendants of

this

hermit

knt>wn

Dehatrayabhimanaccapyabhunnamatrayarh punah prajnastu karanatma syat suksmadehl tu taijasah
.//

/

(47) Sthuladehi tu visvakhyastrividhah parikirtitah /

cvamisopi samprokto
jivasutraviratpadaih
(48)
//

Prathamo vyastirupast-j samastyatma parah smrtah
sa hi sarvesvarah saksat

/

While Jabali was going along the forest he saw a young man of handsome appearance engaged in penance on the shore of a lake. Jabali wanted to know about him and his penance. But as the young man was in deep meditation Jabali had to wait there for several years. At last the young man awoke from his meditation and told Jabali the secrets of devotional meditation and contemplation of Krsna. The remaining life of Jabali was spent in the worship of Krsna, in consequence of which in the next birth he was reborn as a cowherdess, named Citragandha in the house of the cowherd Pracanda. (Padma Purana, Patala Khancla, Chapters 30,' 72 and 109) JABALI IV. A hermit. The intensive penance of this hermit compelled Indra to depute the celestial maid Rambha to hinder it. Jabali became a prey to the enticement of this heavenly beauty and a daughter was born to them. This damsel was carried away by the King Citrangada. The hermit Jabali cursed Citrangada to become a leper. (Skanda Purana. Chapters 3, 143,
.

ples.

(49)

jivanugrahakamyaya // Karoti vividharii visvarh nanabhogagrayam punah
macchaktiprerito nityarh

/

He who

prakalpitah. // attached and is proud about the material body is called Visva; he who attaches importance to the subtle body is called Taijasa, and he who is aware of the causal body is called Prajfia. The jlva is but Isvara is Vyas{isvarupa (has individuality) Samastyatmaka (embraces all the jivas ). Isvara works
is

mayi rajan

IYAM. lyam
J
(51)
.

impelled by

in

my

power)

.

formed out of the
This
letter
.

Malayalam means
dirt in river

the metal lead.

A metal
.

Ganga.
victory)
.

(See Irimpu)

means jaya

(

(Agni Purana,

Chapter 348)

of the hermit Satyakama. (For under Satyakama) jABALI I. A famous hermit. In Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva, Chapter 4, Stanza 55, it is stated that sons of ViSvamitra. They Jabali was one of the were expounders of the Vedas. Though he was the son of Visvamitra his life was mostly connected with Vasistha. The Puranas do not make it clear how this son of Visvamitra happened to fall into the circle of Vasistha who was a foe of Visvamitra. He was one of the

JABALA.

The mother

details see

.

seven spiritual advisers of King Daxaratha. It is mentioned in Valmiki Ramayana, Balakanda, Sarga 48 that such as Suyajna, Vamadeva, Jabali, eight hermits Kasyapa Vasistha and others lived in Ayodhya. in the palace of the King Dasaratha. When Bharata went to the forest, to bring Sri Rama back to Ayodhya, Jabali also followed him. Jabali argued with Sri Rama, using several arguments, to make him return to Ayodhya. These arguments made Sri Rama angry. But he was pacified by the consoling words of Vasistha. (Valmiki Ramayana, Ayodhya Kanda). Jabali comes in the line of disciples of Vyasa. Vyasa divided the Veda and taught Sumantu Atharvaveda. The hermit Sumantu first taught Atharvaveda to his disciple Kabandha who divided it into two parts and taught two disciples Devadarsa, and Pathya. The disci-

An immoral brahmin. Jada, who set out to do commercial business once was killed by thieves. As a result of sins committed in previous births he was turned into a Pisaca. After his death his son, who led quite a moral life went to Kas I ( Banares) to perform his father's obsequies, and at the particular spot where his father was living as Pisaca the son recited Chapter 3 of the Gita, on hearing which Jada got released from his state as Pisaca. (Padma Purana, Uttarakhanda and Markandeya Purana) JAGANNATHA 'PAIilDITA. A very powerful and ruthless literary critic in Sanskrit. He lived between 1590 and 1665. He is also known as Panditaraja (King of schoHis most important and well-known work is lars) Rasagangadhara. To this day it remains as an invaluable treasure in rhetorics. (Alankara Sastra). His poetic theory is "Ramaniyarthapratipadakah Sabdah Kavyam". (Words which convey beautiful meanings constiiute poetry). He vehemently opposed trie dhvani vada (suggestive words and phrases conveying more meanings produce more rasa than they literally and apparently appear to carry). CitramlmarhsaKhandana is another work, of the Panditaraja. In this work another rhetorician named Appayadiksita is strongly criticised. The allegoric poem, "Bhaminivilasam", is supposed to have been written by this great rhetorician based on the untimely death of his wife, Bhamini. He has also written five other works, the five Laharls [Gangalaharl etc]. JAGATl. One of the seven horses which draw the chaJADA.
. .

and 144).

riot

Anustubh

of Surya. Gayatrl, Brhati, Usnik, Jagati, Trstubh, and Paiikti are the seven horses. (Visnu Purana, Part II, Chapter 8).

JAGRAT
jAGRAT.
living being has four states.

336

JAGRAT
treme delight; ponds, wells and rivers where there are no ponds, wells and' rivers. A dreamer is a Lord; the state of the dream is the state of activity." Another hermit says as follows about the state of dream
:

According

to the vision of Rsis or sages, every

are Jagrat (waking state), Svapna (dream), Susupti (profound sleep) and Turiya (the fourth state of the soul, i.e. oneness with Brahman in different degrees) The hermits and sages have said about the four states of soul as given below: In this state the individual soul is awake. 1) jfdgrat. The five organs of senses, the five organs of activity and the four inner organs of the living being will be active, when the soul is awake. In this state he enjoys the outer world through the five senses. That is, he sees with the eyes, hears with the ears, tastes with tongue, smells with the nose and feels with the skin. Every man thinks that his understanding through the senses is real. It is the individual soul which is responsible for this understanding. But it is difficult to say whether these perceptions through the senses are real or unreal. A hermit says as "An individual soul travels from Jagrat to follows: and from Svapna to Jagrat as a fish which goes Svapna from one shore to the other without touching anything. For an individual soul the state of jagrat is only one of the four states. So we cannot give the verdict that the state of Jagrat alone is real and all the rest are unreal." The individual sou! which is in the state of Jagrat enjoys the outer world and so it is 'bahihprajna' (external knowing"). In this state the individual soul enjoys the external world with the seven organs and the nineteen faces. The seven organs are, the two eyes, head, soul, body, urinal bladder and the The nineteen faces are the five senses, the five legs. organs of activity, the five life- breaths and the four inner organs of mind, intellect, egoism and will. The individual soul in the state of Jagrat enjoys the external world with these organs and faces. The soul in this state called 'Vaisvanara'. This state is experienced by all is the human beings of the world and so it is called Vais-

They

.

individual soul which sees again things which were seen here and there, hears again things which were heard here and there, enjoys again things which were enjoyed in places far and near, is really enjoying greatness. He sees things seen and not seen, heard and not heard enjoyed and not enjoyed. The dreamer, like a King who travels with his train throughout his country, as he pleases, plays by getting in and out of his own body, and enjoys lofty experiences, and so he is happier than he who eats alone and enjoys his food. The individual soul in its state of dream is called the because he illuminates Taijasa (the radiant) himself by his own radiance. In this state the individual soul does not touch anything and so it is sinless. 2 The third state of the individual soul is 3) Sufupti. susupti (profound sleep). The soul alone is active in this state. In susupti the individual soul desires for nothing and does not indulge in dream. In this state the individual soul does not think that the soul and the body are two. So it is unitary. The sleeper is called 'Prajna' also. The individual soul which is in the state of sleep, completely severs its connection with the organs of senses, the organs of action, mind, the Pranamayakosa (the chest of the life-breaths), the manomaya ko'a (the cask of mind) and Vijnanamaya Kosa, the chest of knowledge orunderstanding. The mind, the sense organs, Suksmasarira (the suble body) and the actions are the items which could abandon the

"The dreaming

vanaras 1 (Brhadaranyaka, Mandukyopanisad) The second state of the individual 2) Svapna (dream) He who indulges in dream, soul, is svapna (dream) forgets everything he had experienced in the state of Jagrat and creating new worlds he enjoys them. While the five organs of senses and the five organs of activity of the dreamer take rest, the four inner organs of citta (will) Ahankara (egoism) Buddhi (reason) and manas (Mind) will be working. See what the author of Upanisad says. ''The dreamer separates his self from the wide universe and creates his own radiance by his own radiance. The light of the self is the light for the dreamer. That man creates a chariot or an assemblage of chariots or roads where there is no chariot or an assemblage of chariots or a road; joy, delight or extreme delight where there is no joy or delight or ex. .
.

connection with jivatma (individual soul). In sleep the jivatma separating all its connections, for the time being, with these items absorbs itself in the Brahman. See what the author of the Upanisad says about the state of Susupti (Sleep). 3 As an eagle folds its wings

and

falls

the air for a long
all desires

down weary and
time,

tired,

after

flying
soul,
rest.

round in
soul

the

individual

and having no dreams, takes

The

avoiding

sleeps in the nadi, with seventytwo thousand called 'hita', like a child or a King or

branches

Brahman. During sleep the mind, senses etc. are not destroyed. They only keep away. They reappear when the man wakes up from sleep. 4 In the state of Turiya the Jivatma alone 4) Turiyam. is active. The individual souls which abide in creatures are another aspect of Brahman. Everything said about Brahman can be said about the jivatma in the state of profound sleep. But the bliss that we enjoy in sleep is not remembered in the stale of activity. The same bliss that we enjoy in profound sleep could be enjoyed
(c)

i

(a)

mahamatsyasya ubhe kule anusarhcaratah caivaih evavam purusah etavubhavantau aousamcarati svapnantam buddhantam ca. (Brhadaranya-

Purvam caparam
ka)
.

Tadyatha

pityatrayaib purusah svayam jyotirbhavati (Brhadaranyaka). devah (b) Atraiva svapnamahimaDam anubhavati

bahihprajnah saptangah ekoDavimsatisthulabhukvaisvanarah. (Mandukyopanisad) 2 (a) Sa yatra prasvapityasya lokasya sarvato matramupadaya svayam vihatya svayarh nirmaya svena bhasa svena jyotisa prasva-

(b) Jagaritasthano

3 (a)

mukhah

yathakamam parivartate (Brhadaranyaka) Yatra svapno na karhcana kamarii kamayate na kancana svapnam pasyati tat susuptam susuptasthane ekibhutah prajnanaghanam cva anandamayarii hi anandabhukceto.

sve sarire

Sa yatha maharajo janapadad grhitva sve janapade yathakamarh parivartate, evamevaisa etat pranan grhitva

srutam srutamevartham anupasyati anusrnoti. pratyanubhutam Dasadigantaraisca punah cadrstam casrutam ca punah pratyanubhavati, drstam srutam canubhutam ca ananubhutarh ca saccasacca sarvam pasyati sarvarii pasyati. (Prasnopanisad)
.

drstam

drstam

yad

prajnah. (Mandukya, Tritlya pada). Saptasthanontah prajfiah saptangah ekonavimSatimukhah praviviktabhuk taijaso. (Dvitiyapada Mandukya) 4 Tadyathasminnakase syeno va suparno va viparipatya srantah sarhhatya paksau sarhlayayaiva dhriyata cvam ayarh purusah etasma antaya dhavati, yatra supto na kaiiicana kamarh kamayate no
(b)

mukhah

kaiiicana

svapnam

pasyati.

(Brhadarankyaa)

JAGUDA
in the
state of

337

JAIMINI
when

I

samadhi

be known that this supernal bliss could be enjoyed even after one had awakened from contemplation, a fourth state of the jlvatma (individual soul) was recognized. But in the Brhadaranyaka only three states of the jlvatma are mentioned.
soul.
it

union with the universal

(contemplation)

When

came

of yoga
to

or

this King was surrounded by enemies once, the Asvinidevas got him into their chariot and through easily passable ways took him to the top of a mountain. JAIGlSAVYA. A hermit who attained salvation by the strength of his penance. It stated in Harivarhsa is Chapter 18, that three

soul universal Brahman in the state of jagrat or activity is called Turlya. The individual soul which is in the state of Turlya, is described as follows in the
is in the state of Turlya is not conscious internally. He whose inner consciousness is active is Taijasa. He is not bahihprajfia (conscious of 'the outer world) is Vaisvanara. He is Bahihprajna not a combination of Taijasa and Turlya. He is not compact with consciousness as a conscious man not a conscious man; nor is he an unconscious man. He, who could be explained only by negations, cannot be seen.
.

Immersion of the individual soul by the yogin in the

Chandogyopanisad. "The jivatma which

He is unmanifestable, indiscernible, unthinkable, indescribable and without any characteristic mark.
creates the universes
It
is

the supreme reality, the one without a second This is the state of Turlya. 1 Vaisvanara is called the soul with annamayakosa (the material body) , Taijasa, the soul with Pranamayakos a the sheath of the life breaths) ( Prajna, the soul with Vijnanamayakosa (the sheath of understanding) and Turlya, the soul with anandamayakosa (the chest of
(dvaita)
.

Only by unswerving faith could he be known. and at the same time negates

It
it.

,

Apama, Ekaparna and Ekapatala were born to Himalaya by Mena and the hermit Devala married Ekaparna and the hermit Jaiglsavya married Ekapatala. In Mahabharata, Sand Parva, Chapter 229, mention is made that this hermit gave much advice to the hermit Devala, son of Asita, about the need for equanimity. On another occasion this hermit talked to Yudhisthira about the glory of Siva. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 18, Stanza 37). There is a story about how this hermit Jaiglsavya attained the world of Brahma. Once he reached the hermitage of Devala, who showed the necessary hospitalities. After a few days this hermit disappeared. After that he used to be seen only at the time of meals. Once Devala took his waterpot and went by air to the sea, to fetch water. When he reached the sea he saw Jaiglsavya bathing there. Devala had gone when Jaiglsavya was in the hermitage. How did he reach Devala filled the pot and the sea before Devala ? returned thoughtful. When he reached the hermitage After this Devala travelled Jaiglsavya was there. through the world of the inspired sages. Wherever he saw Jaiglsavya. He asked the inspired went, he the attainsages how it was possible. They praised obtained, ments, Jaiglsavya had by his 'tapas'
daughters,
flew

JAGUDA. A

bliss).

country in ancient India. In Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 51, Stanza 25, it is mentioned that the King of this country took part in the Rajasuya (royal consecration) performed by Yudhisthira.

(penance) Finally in the sight of everybody, Jaiglsavya to the world of Brahma. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 50).
.

It is

JAHNAVI. The river Ganga. JAHNU. A hermit King born
1)

(See under Jahnu).

mentioned in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter Stanza 24, that this hermit Jaigisavya sits in the palace of Brahma and carries on meditation and con11,

Drank up the river Ganges. The river Ganga, which through the earth in accordance with the the hermitage of request of Bhagiratha, submerged Jahnu. Jahnu became angry at this haughtiness of Ganga and drank up the river, but at the entreaty of Bhagiratha pushed Garigadevi out through his ear. From that day onwards Gahga (See under Ganga)
2)

Brahma Atri Candra Budha Pururavas Ayus Nahusa Yayati Puru Janamejaya Pracinvan Pravlra Namasyu Vitabhaya Sundu Bahuvidha Rahovadi Raudrasva Matinara Sarhyati Santurodha Dusyanta Bharata Suhotra Brhatputra Ajamidha Jahnu. Ajamidha had three wives, Dhumini, -NllI and Kesini. Rksa was born from Dhumini, Dusyanta and Paramesthi from Nil! and Jahnu from Kes in!. The descendants of Jahnu are called the Kusikas. Jahnu handed over his kingdom to his son Balakasva and went to perform penance. Kusika was the son of Balakasva.
order
:
-

Genealogy.

Descended

in the family of Puru. from Visnu in the following

templation on Brahma.
I.

JAIMINI
1)

General Information. In the of learning.

A

hermit of the highest
of Classical

flowed

it is mentioned that Sumantu, Jaimini, Vaisampayana and Suka were the five important of Vyasa. Of these Suka was the son of disciples In Devi Bhagavata, it is mentioned that Vyasa. Vyasa had other disciples also in his hermitage, such as Asita, Devala and others. The five disciples mentioned first gave publication to the work of Vyasa called 'Java', which was the original of the Mahamade some bharata. Vaisampayana and Jaimini In Sanskrit there is additions to the work 'Jaya'. another book called Jaimini Bharata, which contains only AJvamedha Parva. (See under Guruparampara) (1) It is mentioned in Brahmanda 2) Other details. Purana, Chapter 1 that Brahmanda Purana is the at Naimistory told by Jaimini to Hiranyanabha

"History

degree Sanskrit

Literature"
Paila,

.

saranya.
kill

.

JAHUSA. A King
i

got the

name Jahnavi.
1,

Rgveda, Mandala

of the period of Rgveda. It

is

Anuvaka

17,

Sukta

stated in that 116,

(2) Jaimini was present at the sarpasatra of Janamejaya. (M.B. serpents) Chapter 53, Stanza 6)
.

(sacrifice to

Adi

Parva,

(3) Jaimini

had been

a

member

of the

council of

sa vijiieyah.

Nantah prajnam na bahihpraj fiam nobhayatah prajnarh na prajiianaghanam na prajnarb naprajnam adrsfam avyahiaryam agrahvam alaksanam arintyam avyapadesyam ekatmapratyayasararn prapanropasamam santarh sivam advaitaiii caturtham manyate sa atma.

JAIMINI
11).

II

338 (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter
4,

JALAPRALAYA
ofSaka). (M.B.
16).

Yudhisthira.

Stanza

JALADHARA. A
JALADHI.

(4) This hermit visited Bhisma in his bed of arrows during the Bhfxrata Battle. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 7). JAIMINI II. The priest of Subahu the King of the Cholas ( Colas) In accordance with the advice of this deeds and priest the King performed many good heaven. (Padma Purana, consequently attained
.

mountain in Sakadvlpa (The island Bhisma Parva, Chapter 11, Stanza

Chapter 94).

JAITRA.

A son of Dhrtarastra. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, alya Parva, Chapter 26, Stanza 14, that he was killed by Bhlmasena in the battle of
ThechariotofKingHariscandra.lt was King carried out the of countries. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 12, conquest
I.

Bharata.

JAITRAM

by driving

in this chariot that the

JAITRAM II. The conch of Salya Parva, Chapter 61 JAJALI. A hermit who reared
).

Stanza 12).

Dhrstadyumna.
birds

(M.B.

on

his

continence from his childhood lived in a forest. Jajali never thought rain, heat of the sun, snow and such other natural things as unbearable. Once this hermit stood like a pillar in the forest, immersed in meditation. Two birds built their nests in his matted hair. Non-violence being his policy, he did not move. The birds came to their nests every evening and stayed for the night. After a few days they laid eggs in the nests. Still the hermit did not move. The eggs were hatched. The hermit understood that also. Still, he did not move. The young ones got wings. They grew up and began to go out with the parent birds. They went out in the morning and returned in the evening. The hermit stood like One morning they went out and a pillar. in the did not return The hermit evening. stood there for six days waiting for the return sixth of the birds. On the day evening they returned. Next time the hermit waited for a month for the return of the birds. They did not return. So he
started

power of penance. This hermit who had practised
the

head by

The crocodile which is the conveyance of Varuna. It is mentioned in Vamana Purana, Chapter 9, about conveyances of Gods as follows "The conveyance of Indra is the white elephant, which came into being from the palm of Danu, and is of extraordinary strength and valour. The black buffalo called Paundraka, which was born from the thigh of Rudra, and is as quick as the mind and very fierce, is the conveyance of Yama ( the god of death) The conveyance of Varuna is the black crocodile called 'Jaladhi', born from the ear-wax of Rudra, and having divine power of movement. The conveyance of Vaisravana (the god of wealth) is a ferocious man with eyes like two cart-wheels and body as big as mountain, who was born from the leg of Ambika. The eleven Rudras have speedy horses, terrible serpents and white oxen of high speed. Candra has a chariot as his vehicle yoked with five hundred swans. The vehicles of the Adityas are chariots yoked with horses and camels. The conveyances of the Vasus are elephants, men for Yaksas, serpents for Kinnaras, and horses for the ASvinldevas. The Maruts of fearful appearance have deer as conveyance. The Vidyadharas have parrots for conveyances. An asura called Andhaka has a chariot with thousand posts as his vehicle. Prahlada had, as conveyance a divine chariot of gold and silver yoked with eight white horses and elephant for Virocana, horse for Kujambha, divine chariot yoked with yellow horses, for Sankukarna, elephant for Hayagriva, chariot for Maya, Great serpent for Dundubhi, Aeroplane for Sarhbara and lion for
:

.

JALANDHAMA. A warrior of Subrahmanya. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 57). JALANDHARA. A mightly and valiant Asura. Khadga-

Aya;'sariku.

from there and went

to the sea
is

the water

land" with haughtiness. But than the water demons said in an ethereal voice that Tuladhara, the merchant of Kasi was more virtuous than
he.

said, "there I either in water or on

and

no

man more

and dipped

in virtuous

Hearing this Jajali went to Kasi and saw Tuladhara. Tuladhara greeted him gladly and they talked for a long time. Jajali understood that Tuladhara was far more virtuous than he. So he sought advice from Tuladhara and thus Jajali obtained heaven. (M.B. Santi Parva, 3 Chapters from 261) JALA. A deity of water. In Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 11, Stanza 20 it is mentioned that this deva was a luminary in the durbar of Brahma. JALA. A tributary of river Jamuna. The King Usinara performed a yaga (sacrifice) on the bank of this river and attained a position higher than Indra. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 13, Stanza 21). JALADA. A mountain in Saka island. The famous this country known as Kumudottaravarsa is near mountain. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 11, Stanza
.

roma was his charioteer and Vrnda was his wife. Jalandhara was the grandson of the sea of Milk. Once he met with the headless Rahu, who said to Jalandhara, the whdle story beginning from the churning of the sea of Milk. Jalandhara, became furious at the gods who had churned his grandfather. So he collected a big army of asuras and went to war with the devas. Though a large number of Asuras were killed in the battle, Indra and Visnu were defeated and Visnu was taken captive and hidden under the sea. Finally Paramasiva went to fight with the Asura. In the fight Jalandhara was killed and Visnu was rescued. (Padma Purana, Chapters 3 to 5) For further details see under Maya.

si va.

JALAPADA.

See under Devadatta I. sub section of Stri Parva, of the Mahabharata. This sub section comprises of Chapters 1 to 15 of Stri Parva. JALAPRALAYA. In all the Asiatic Puranas, reference to an ancient great flood, with slight changes occurs. According to Hindu Puranas this great flood took place before Mahavisnu took the incarnation of Matsya. In the Holy Bible which is the scripture of the Christians, the story of the great flood is allied to the story of the Noah. (See under Avatara) This story occurs in the

JALAPRADANIKA PARVA A

.

25).

Babylonian literature also. The book 'Gilgamish' which to be the oldest is as old as the Rgveda, is considered in the world. The theme of the Gilgamish is the travel

JALAPRALAYA

339

JAMADAGNI
I.

carried on an archaeological research, found in the library of Ancient Nineveh, the most famous in the ancient world, these twelve tablets along with twentythousand other tablets, all of which were in good condition. This library was built by the King Asurbanipal in 7th century 15. C., on a very high place on the bank of the river Tigris, in the ancient Nineveh. All these clay tablets have been removed to the British Museum. It took several decades to decipher them. When these clay tablets were discovered there was not a

of a man named Gilgamish. This story is written in twelve clay-tablets. After 1850, the scientists of England

JALASANDHI
rastra.

One

of the hundred

Bhlmasena
II.

killed

him.

who

JALASANDHI
the

Chapter 64, Stanza 33).

sons of Dhrta(M.B. Bhlsma Parva,

A

warrior

the world. In spite of hard work, several years passed by without getting even a single tablet deciphered. They were written in 'Accadean', which was the language of the court of A& urbanipal and the national and the international language of the time. Another copy of this great work was discovered on the bank of the Euphrates, where the capital of the famous King Hamurabi of Ancient Babylon stood. Later discoveries disclosed that this great work Gilgamish was part and parcel of the famous ancient civilization of the Oriental countries. The Hittites and the Egyptians tried to translate this book Gilgamish into their own languages. In the tablets with letters in the form of arrow heads, found on the bank of the Nile, the portions which were difficult for them to translate, are given red marks. It was from a small piece of broken clay tablet that clues to the origin of this famous work were obtained. The world is indebted to the Sumerians, who had their capital in the place where the city Ur stands, for the original work of Gilgamish. Mention is made about a great flood in Gilgamish, as follows: Gilgamish set out on an adventurous journey to see his ancestor Utnapistim to learn from him the means of obtaining eternal life. The gods had told this man about the secret of eternal life. At last Gilgamish reached an island and found out his ancestor and asked him about the secrets of eternal life. Utnapistim said that he had lived in 'Shoorappak' and that he had been an ardent devotee of 'lya' God. When the gods decided to destroy mankind by a great flood the God lya called his devotee Utnapistim and said to him "You, man of shoorappak, the son of Urbartutu Demolish your house and build a ship. Leave off your wealth and search for your life. Cast away your property and save your life. Bring the seeds of every living thing into the ship. The ship you build should be according to measurements." The rest of the story is like the story of the "Ark of Noah". The scientists are of opinion that in pre-historic times the three continents of Asia, Europe and Africa were one continent and that by earthquake or some other reason the south part of Europe had sunk down and water flowed in and thus the mediterranean sea came into existence. At a time when the far off regions of the earth were unknown, the people who escaped the flood imagined that the entire world had been submerged by the flood. It could be imagined that this story of the great flood passed on to posterity verbally
:

single

man who

could read and understand them, in

present at (marriage of Pafica.li) It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Drona Parva, Chapter 115, Stanza 52, that he was killed by Satyaki in the battle of Bharata. JALELA. An attendant of Subrahmanya. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 16). JALESVARI. An attendant of Subrahmanya. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 16) JALEYU. A son born to Raudrasva the son of Puru, by

Kauravas against the Pandavas.

who fought on

He was

the side of
.

thesvayamvaraofPanca.il.

.

a celestial woman named Mis rakes I. Mention is made about Jaleyu in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Stanza 10.
It

JAM.
348).

means gltam (music). (Agni Purana, Chapter
hermit of majestic power.

JAMADAGNI. A
1)

He was

the

father of Parasurama.
Genealogy.

Descended from Visnu in the following Aurva Bhrgu Cyavana Rclka Jamadagni. There is an interesting story about the birth 2) Birth. of Jamadagni. Gadhi was the son of king Kusamba. A daughter named Satyavati was born to Gadhi. The hermit Rclka giving a dowry of one thousand horses, each with one black ear, married Satyavati. Once Satyavati told her husband that herself and her mother wanted to get a child each. After the sacrifice of oblations to Agni (fire) Rclka took two parts filled with boiled rice and gave them to Satyavati, with mantras The radiance of Brahma was invoked into (spells) one pot and the radiance of Ksatra was invoked into the other. The hermit had asked Satyavati to eat the rice into which the radiance of Brahma had been invoked and to give the other pot to her mother. But the daughter and mother changed the pots secretly and Satyavati ate the rice in the pot into which Ksatra radiance was invoked and gave the pot of rice filled with Brahma-radiance to her mother. Both the women conceived. As the qhild grew in the womb the radiance of Brahma shone on the face of the mother and Ksatra lustre was seen on the face of Satyavati. Rclka asked Satyavati for the reason. She admitted the secret interchange of the pot. Satyavati and her mother both delivered at the same time. Satyavati got the son Jamadagni, who was the embodiment of Ksatra tejas and the child with Brahma tejas born to the mother was Visvamitra. Therefore, in some Puranas Visvamitra is described as the uncle of Jamadagni whereas in some others they are said to be brothers. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 57) When Jamadagni grew up he made 3) A house-holder. a tour and visited the holy places one by one and
order
are
:

Brahma

,

.

.

and

many generations it appeared in different in different languages in different forms. 1 regions
after so

reached the palace of King Prasenajit of the family of Iksvaku. He saw Renuka the beautiful daughter of King Prasenajit and fell in love with her. He requested Prasenajit for the hand of Renuka. The King, without raising any objection gave his daughter Renuka in marriage to Jamadagni. The couple came to the bank

i In writing about Jalapralaya, I have dealt with Gilgamish a little elaborately. Details on Gilgamish were obtained from the English translation of a famous German work by Venar Keller. This book had not been received when I wrote about the work 'Gilgamish'. So these details are included under this word "Jalapralaya".

JAMADAGNI
of the river

340

JAMADAGNI
by a cutting-arrow cut off the head of his mother. The father called the four sons who disobeyed him and cursed them thus "Since you have disobeyed the order of your father, because of your ignorance, you shall become foresters
:

erecting a hermitage began Four sons, Rumanvan, Suhotra, Vasu and Visvavasu were born to Jamadagni by Renuka. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 58 ) Because of the wickedness 4) The birth of Parusu rama. of the Ksatriya Kings, the goddess Earth became miserable. She made a representation to Brahma who took her to the sea of Milk and told Mahavisnu everything. Mahavisnu promised to take an incarnation as the son of Jamadagni and destroy all the wicked Kings. Accordingly Renuka gave birth to Parasurama, who was an incarnation of Mahavisnu. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 59). Once the devas 5) Jamadagni getting the bow of Visnu. desired to know who, of Siva and Visnu was (gods)
'tapas' (penance)
. .

Narmada and

and

live in forest."

more powerful. They informed Brahma of their Brahma asked Visvakarma to make two tremendous bows. He gave one to Siva and the other to Visnu. The bow which Visnu got was known as Vaisnavacapa and that which Siva got was known as Saivacapa. After this Brahma caused enmity between Siva and Visnu. A terrible battle ensued between Siva and Visnu. After a while the Saivacapa became less effective. At the request of the devas, the fight was stopped. The devas decided that Visnu was superior to Siva, in power. Siva got angry at this decision and gave his bow to Devarata Janaka, the King of Videha. It was this bow that Sri Rama broke at the marriage
the
desire.

Being overwhelmed with sorrow at the death of his mother, Parasurama swooned and fell down. When his anger subsided, discretion dawned on Jamadagni. He aroused his son and took him on his lap and asked him what boon he wanted for having accomplished Paras urama's the unaccomplishable task. request was that his mother should be brought to life again. The hermit was pleased and he brought Renuka to life again. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 60). See 7) The sun gave Jamadagni an umbrella and sandals. under the word Cerippu (Sandals) See under the word 8) The temptation of Dharma. 'Dharma' Para 6. 9) Jamadagni was killed. Once Kartavlryarjuna, with
.

minister Candragupta and some attendants had been hunting in the forests on the banks of the river Narmada. It was noon. The hunters grew tired of hunger and thirst. They came to the hermitage of Jamadagni. The hermit called his divine cow Su:>ila
his

of Slta.

had given away his capa (bow) Mahavisnu gave his bow to his devotee, the hermit Rcika. That Vaisnava capa was given to Jamadagni by Rcika. Thus the famous Vaisnava capa arrived at the hermitage of Jamadagni. (Valmiki Ramayana, Bala Kanda, Sarga 75) Parasurama became fourteen 6) Renuka was killed. years old. Jamadagni went to the forest to gather fruits, roots etc. After completing the cleansing work of the hermitage, leaving Parasurama in the forest, Renuka went to the bank of the river Narmada (Reva)
Seeing that Siva
.

and ordered her to give food to the King and his party. Within a few seconds meals were got ready for thousands of people. The King and his attendants had a feast. On their return journey the wonderful cow Susila was the subject of their talk. The King wanted to get the cow which possessed divine power. So he sent his minister Candragupta to the hermitage of Jamadagni with instructions to get the cow Susila in
exchange for a crore of cows or even half of the kingdom. But the hermit was not prepared to give the cow. The minister and his men caught the cow by force and went away. The hermit, filled with grief,

the play, she walked a little to the east where there was pure water. She saw there Citraratha the King ofSalva playing with his wife in the water. She had never seen so beautiful a beautiful they were woman or so handsome a man. She stood there looking at them for a while. When she reached the hermitage

to fetch water. When she reached the river, Kartaviryarjuna and his wives were playing in water. She waited for them to go. When they were gone she got into the river. But as the water was muddy because of

followed the party a long way through the forest, and requested Candragupta to return the cow. Candragupta got angry and struck him to death, and took the cow to the palace, in the capital city of Mahismatl. After waiting for a long time, Renuka started in search of her husband. She saw Jamadagni lying almost dead, in a pool of blood. She fell down and beating her

How

!

with water, Jamadagni had already returned a long while ago. He had returned weary and tired of the heat of the midday-sun. He did not see his wife in the hermitage. He had been sitting very angry when Renuka returned with water. She put the pot down and bowed before her husband and told him the reason for her being late. When he heard the reason his anger blazed. He called his sons one by one and ordered them to kill her. But the four elder sons did not dare to execute his order saying that slaughter of a woman was a great sin. But Parasurama came forward and
i

breast cried aloud. Para^urama with Akrtavrana and other disciples came there. When she saw her son 1 Parasurama, she beat her breast twentyone times and cried. Parasurama, took an oath that since his mother beat her breast twentyone times and cried, he would travel around twentyone times and put an end to the 'Ksatriya Kings. After that they took the dead body of Jamadagni and placed it on fire, and began to came sing the song of Visnu. Then the hermit Sukra of that way and with the Mrtasanjivani help by brought Jamadagni to life again. The lost cow Susila also returned without her calf. (Brahmanda Purana,
.

Chapter 69; M.B. Sand Parva, Chapter 49) Parasurama and Akrtavrana 10) Death of Jamadagni. went to the city of Mahismatl with the intention of
at the bringing the calf of Susila back. They stood a gate of the city and challenged Kartavlryarjuna for
,

mother beating her breast twentyone times, Bhiirgava caught hold of her hands and said "Mother his stop your body. Don't be sorry. I am here to end your sorrow. Since you have beaten your breast twentyone times, I will annihilate the Ksatriya Kings twentyone times." Bhargava Rama took an oath thus, to his mother.
Seeing
afflicting

JAMAGHA
fight.

341

JAMBAVAN
There are two
Puranas.
stories

Parasurama Jamadagni asked Parasurama to go to Mahendragiri and do penance in order to mitigate the sin of killing a large number of people. When Parasurama had gone for penance, Surasena a son of Kartavlryarjuna came with his men to the hermitage, cut off the head of Jamadagni and of took it away. Parasurama and the disciples Jamadagni placed the dead body of Jamadagni on the pyre and burnt it. Renuka jumped into that fire and Parasurama began his twentyone died. After this
tours
for

the battle which ensued, Kartavirya most of his warriors fell dead. Akrtavrana returned with the calf.

Kartavlryarjuna

came out with and

his his

army.
sons

In

and and

about the birth of Jambavan in the

Brahma sat for a long time thinking about the (1) creation of monkeys. Then he wanted to yawn., for which he opened the mouth and instantly Jambavan came out from inside Brahma through the open mouth. "I have already created Jambavan the noble bear, who jumped out of my mouth when I yawned." (Valmiki
.

the

extermination of the Ksatriya
.

Kings.
in

(Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 86)
11) Other information.
(1)

hermitage of Jamadagni. (See under Udayana). (2) Jamadagni was one of the hundred sons of Rclka. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 66, Stanza 45) (3) Jamadagni was one of the hermits, who visited Sri Rama on his return from forest life. The hermits who came to Ayodhya from the North were, Kasyapa, the Sanakas, Durvasas, Sarabhariga, Bharadvaja, Matanga, Vibhandaka, Tumburu and the Saptarsis (the seven hermits) Uttara Ramayana)
. . .

Udayana grew up

the

Ramayana, Balakanda, Sarga 17, Stanza 6). (2) One day time of Brahma ended and the night had advanced two yamas (six hours) The Madhukaitabhas born of the ear-wax of Mahavisrm began to create trouble and commotion in the waters of the great flood. They saw a lotus oil the surface of water. Seeing Brahma in it they challenged him for fight. Hearing their shouting and the challenge Brahma became afraid of the
asuras. His

(4)

celebration) of Arjuna. Stanza 51) .
(5)

Jamadagni was present
This hermit
is

the Janmotsava (birth (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 122,
at

middle face began to sweat. The sweat flowed through his cheeks and reached the loins. Jambavan came into being from that sweat. So he got the name Ambujata, (born from the water of sweat) As he was the first person who entered the country of Jambunada he was called Jambavan. As he was born when there was no universe or time his age or date of birth could not be ascertained. At the time of Sri Rama Jambavan was six Manvantaras (age of a Manu ) and for hundred and sixtyfour Caturyugas (a period of
.

Brahma. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 11, Stanza 22). (6) During the time of the battle of Maha.bha.rata, Jamadagni entered Kuruksetra and advised Drona to stop the battle. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 190,
Stanza 35)
(7)
.

a luminary in the

assembly of

four yugas) old. (The present age is the twentyeighth Caturyuga of the seventh Manu). Jambavan had witnessed all the incarnations from Matsya to Sri Rama.

(Kamba Ramayana Purva Kanda)
Jambavan and
is

.

2)

time of Sri
Sugriva. It

Rama

the incarnation

JAMBAVAN. A monkey

Jamadagni once delivered a speech on the bad sides of accepting rewards, to the King Vrsadarbhi. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 93, Stanza 44) (8) Jamadagni vowed that he was innocent in the affair of the stealing of Agastya's lotus. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 94, Stanza 25 Arclka, Bhargava, Bhar12) The Names of Jamadagni. gavanandana, Bhrguiiardula, Bhrgusrestha, Bhrguttama Rclkaputra are the names used by Vyasa to denote Jamadagni, in Bharata. JAMAGHA. A King of the family of Yayati. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9)
.
.

stated in Valmiki Ramayana, Kiskindha Kanda, Sarga 41, that Nila, the son of Agni, Hanuman, Jambavan, Suhotra, Sarari, Saragulma, Gaja, Gavaksa,

of Sri Rima. Jambavan was the

During the
minister

of

Gavaya, Susena, Rsabha,

Gandhamadana,

The monkeys who went to the south in search of Sita, reached the sea shore. The question was how to jump over the sea to Lanka. Each of them came forward to show his ability and admitted failure. Finally Jambavan called Hanuman to him and advised him to jump over to Lanka. Hanuman who was not aware of his own 2 powers, refused. Jambavan told him about his birth,
self-power, attainment of boons etc. Hanuman became convinced of his powers at the words of Jambavan and jumped over the sea to Lanka. (Ramayana, Kiskindha

others were the ministers of Sugriva.

Mainda, Dvivida, Vijaya, Ulkamukha, Asanga, Angada and

.

was the minister of Sugriva. 1 Wherl the troubles and hardships caused by 1) Birth. the wickedness of Ravana became unbearable the goddess Earth and the Devas approached Brahma for redress. Brahma took them to the sea of Milk. Mahavisnu heard everything and said that he would incarnate as the son of Dasaratha and would kill Ravana. Brahma was directed to create monkeys to help him on that occasion. Accordingly Brahma created Jambavan and
several other monkeys.
1

of extraordinary might.

He

Kanda )
3)

.

Jambavan and the incarnation of Vdmana. Jambavan walked round Mahavisnu, who incarnated as Vamana the to curb powers of Mahabali. At that time Jambavan was immensely strong. But by the time of the incarnation of Sri Rama his strength had decreased much. Hear what he said to the monkeys who assembled on the sea shore to go in search of Sita. "My abilities in olden times were not what you see now. In the far old days, I had walked round that

bear. In some of the Indian languages he is It is difficult to ascertain whether Jambavan was a monkey or a descri bed as a monkey. In Malayalam he was thought of as a monkey from ancient period. In Valmiki Ramayana, which is the original work. Jambavan is denoted by the words 'Kapi' (monkey) and Rksa (bear). Jambavan is called Rksapurigava in Valmiki Ramayana Balakanda Sarga 17. From this it is to be assumed that Jambavan was a bear, In the same chapter it occurs that, it was the aim of Brahma to make the gods and the celestial women take birth as monkeys to help Mahavisnu in the incarnation of Sri Rama. So it is not wrong to consider Jambavan either as a bear or as a monkey. 2 For the cause of his forgetting his own powers see under Trnabindu II.

JAMBAVATI

342
38, that Sri

JAMBtFDVlPA
Krsna killed an Asura named Jambha. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 98, Stanza 49 that the teacher Sukra refused
to help a

and went to the forest for hunting. A lion killed him and took the jewel in his mouth and was going along the forest when Jambavan killed it and took the jewel. It was rumoured that Sri Krsna had killed Prasena and taken the jewel. So Sri Krsna went in search of the jewel to the forest, defeated Jambavan and took the jewel, and returned it to Satrajit. Sri Krsna married Jambavati the daughter of Jambavan. (Bhagavata, Skandha 10). At the time of the 5) Jambavan became old for ever. incarnation of Vamana, Jambavan was very strong and valiant. When Vamana brought under control the three worlds by measuring three steps Jambavan travelled throughout the three worlds carrying the news Within three moments Jambavan everywhere.
this travel

(Valmlki Ramayana, Kiskindha kanda, Sarga 65) The long4) Jambavan and the incarnation of Sri Kr,ma. living Jambavan who had witnessed nine out of the ten incarnations of Mahiivisnu is seen in connection with the precious stone Syamantaka, in the incarnation ofKrsna. The Sun-god gave this jewel Syamantaka to King Satrajit. His younger brother Prasena wore it
.

Eternal Being Visnu when he measured three steps at the sacrifice of Mahabali. Now, I am very old and have not enough strength" to jump over the sea."

Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 102, Stanza 24, that Mahfivisnu had killed an asura called Jambha. It is stated in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 285, Stanza 2, that a group of Jambhasuras, who had undergone training under Rfivana, once attacked Hanuman. Another Jambhusura had been killed by Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Arjuna, as stated in Chapter 49. All these Danavas (Asuras) were sons of KaSyapa born of his wife Danu. JAMBHAKA. A Ksatriya King. This King was killed in battle by Sri Krsna. He had a son who, later became King but was killed 'by Sahadeva in his conquest of the countries. ( M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter
in

Jambha whom Indra

killed

later.

It

occurs

JAMBTj. A tree which stands on the southern side of bears fruits and the mount Mahameru. This tree
flowers throughout the year irrespective of the seasons. This tree is watered by the Siddhacaranas. The branches of this tree reach the realm of heaven. The

31, Stanza 7).

of your speed and youth. Hereafter your body will not reach where your mind reaches and you shall be ever old." Because of this curse Jambavan became old and unable to carry out what he wished. (Kamba

travelled eighteen times through the three worlds. In of lightning-speed the end of the nail of his toe touched the highest peak of Mahameru, who considered it as an insult and said "You are arrogant

JAMBAVATI.

only water. In the third month he did penance standing on toes only and using air as food. After six months Paramasiva appeared and blessed him that his wives would have ten sons each. Accordingly Jambavati gave birth to her first son who was named Samba. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 4). JAMBHA. A Daitya (Asura). He was the chief among those who snatched away Amrta from the hands of Dhanvantari. (Agni Purana, Chapter 3). In the Puranas several Asuras (demons) beardrinking

Daughter of the famous Jambavan. Sri Krsna went in search of the famous precious stone Syamantaka which was lost when Prasena wore it and went to the forest for hunting. Krsna found it in the cave of Jambavan, who fought with him and was defeated. Finally he gave his daughter Jambavati to Sri Krsna as wife, and the jewel Syamantaka as dowry. Sri Krsna came to his capital Dvaraka with his wife Jambavati. When sons were born to the other wives ofKrsna she became sad and requested her husband that sons may be born to her also. On hearing this Krsna went to the mountain where the request hermit Upamanyu was engaged in penance. With that hermit who was an ardent devotee of Siva, as his before in teacher, Krsna began a penance Siva, accordance with his The advice. ( Upamanyu's) penance, holding yogadanda and Kapala (devotee's staff and skull) lasted for a month. In the second month penance was performed standing on one 'eg and

Ramayana, Yuddha Kanda)

.

known as Jambuis place in which this tree stands The ripe fruits as big as elephants fall down and dvlpa. are broken. The juice oozing from them flows as a big stream. This is called the river Jambu. It flows through the southern part of the country known as llavrtta. The goddess who lives on the bank of this big river is known as Jambvadinl. She is very fond of Jambu fruit. This goddess who loves everything in the world, is worshipped by the gods, nagas (snakes) , the hermits and world sages, Raksasas (giants) and every body in the with devotion. Even by the mere thinking of her she could be pleased. She destroys the sins and increases the purity of people. She cures all the diseases and
gives people, health, wealth, long

life, prosperity and happiness. The juice of the Jambu fruit when mixed with soil and acted upon by water, air and sun's rays, turns into a kind of gold called Jambunada. The devas, Vidyadharas etc. use this gold to make ornaments for their women. This gold is superior to other kinds of gold.

JAMBUDVIPA. One

(Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 8) of the
.

dvipa, Krauncadvlpa, Sakadvipa and Puskaradvlpa are included in the seven islands. Jambudvlpa has an area of one lakh of yojanas. The island is round like a lotus flower. There are eight

Saptadvlpas (seven continents). These seven continents are embankments separating the seven seas. Jambu-

Puranically

famous

Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Daksinatyapatha, Chapter

ing the

name Jambha

are mentioned. It

is

stated in

long mountain ranges which divide the island into nine countries, which look like nine petals of the lotus flower. Each of these nine countries has an area of nine thousand yojanas. The two countries of the north and south extremities are bowshaped. Four of the remaining seven are longer than the rest. The central country known as llavrtta, at the is square. This country is centre of which there is the mountain Sumeru with a height of one lakh of yojanas. This is called Svarnaparvata (The mountain of gold) The top of this mountain is a great flat place with an area of thirtythousand yojanas. This great plain is ten thousand yojanas above the ground level. On the northern part of llavrtta lie the three mountain ranges of Nilagiri,
.

JAMBUKA
Svetagiri and Smgavan, and midway between them the three countries called Ramyaka, Hiranmaya and the southern part of llavrtta, there are the Kuru.

343

JAMBUNADA

II

On

three mountains of Nisadha, Hemakuta and Himalaya and three countries Harivarsa, Kimpurusa and Bharata. The mountain Malyavan lies to the west and Gandhamadana to the east of llavrtta. There are two countries Ketumala and BhadriisVa having an area of two thousand yojanas each with the two mountains Nila and Nisadha as boundaries. At the foot of the the mountains mount Mahameru, there are of

Mandara,
others.

jambolanum) Makanda (Mango tree) Katambu (Naucka Candamba) banyan etc. grow in
(syzygium
sugarcane and sweet water. The devas become prosperous by the touch of the water of these lakes. Besides these parks there -are four heavenly parks known as Nandana, Caitraratha, Vaibhraja and Sarvabhadraka. The women folk of the devas (gods) and Gandharvas (demi-gods) play in these parks, which are convenient for couples to carry on lustful play. A river is formed there, by the juice oozing from the fallen mango fruits. The river is purple coloured and is called Arunanadi (river Aruna) The goddess named Aruna lives here. The famous
lakes, full of milk, honey, juice of
.

On

Meru,
those

mountains

Suparsvaka,

Kumuda and many
trees
like

big

naval

plenty.

On

the top of these mountains

there

are

four

Jambu

tree 8)

is
.

in

this

JAMBUKA. A warrior of
child of a

Skandha

Jambudvlpa.

(Devi

Bhagavata,

JAMBUKA. (JAMBUMALIKA). A

Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 74)

Subrahmanya.
.

(M.B. Salya

how

Sudra Sage. The brahmin died when Sri Rama, after his twelve years' exile in forest had returned to Ayodhya and was ruling the country in an ideal manner. The brahmin and his wife carried the dead body of their child to the palace with loud lamentations. Everybody felt surprised
there

to Lord Siva, and only after that he ate it. As a result of that the fruit germinated in the stomach of the sage grew up into a tree and emerged into light and air bursting his head open. Elated at this the sage danced before God, who asked him to return to the place from where he got the fruit. Accordingly he returned to Tiruvanakovil and continued his penance. Pleased so much with the Sage Siva followed him and sat under the tree. From that day onwards Siva came to be called Jambunatha. To this day Jarrbunatha sits under the Jambu tree. Later, a temple came to be built there under the following circumstances. A controversy arose between Malyavan and Puspadanta, two of the Bhutaganas of Siva, Lord. The as to who cherished more devotion to the controversy developed into a quarrel and Puspadanta cursed Malyavan into a spider, and Malyavan cursed Puspadanta into an elephant. Now, when the mutual curse took effect wisdom dawned on both Malyavan and Puspadanta, and they took refuge in the Lord for redemption from the curse. The Lord sent both of them to the Cola country, and after wandering about in different parts of the country both of them came to Jambukesvara, and lived there worshipping God. The elephant used to bathe daily in sacred tirthas, bring holy water in its trunk and make an offering of it to the Lord. As for the spider it wove a net above the head of the Lord, so that dried leaves did not fall on it. The elephant used to daily sweep off the net above the head of the Lord and make his offering of the water thereon. But, the spider would again weave the net. Thus their quarrel continued. One day the spider, in great anger, got into the trunk of the elephant and bit it hard. Due to unbearable pain it smashed its trunk on a granite stone and fell down dead. At this God appeared and blessed both of them. The Lord also said that the sacred spot

could be child-death in the land
(

when

the

King was ruling it in the most dharmic righteous) manner. Then did Narada, who was present in the assembly, point out that in a corner of Ramarajya a Sudra Sage was doing tapas and that it was the reason for the untimely death of the brahmin child. At once
Sri

Rama set out in search of the Sudra Sage after directing Satrughna to see that no enemy entered the country, and asking Laksmana to take care of the dead body of the brahmin child. After a rather detailed search Sri Rama found Jambuka at the mountain called Sailam doing tapas hanging from the branch of a tree on his legs with head down. He told Sri Rama that he was the Sudra Sage called Jambuka and was performing tapas thus so that he might ascend to heaven in his very body. Sri Rama at once cut off the head of the Sudra Sage, who attained, as soon as Rama's sword fell on him, moksa (salvation) and the dead child of the brahmin
,

JAMBUKHAiypAVINIRMAl^A PARVA. A
of Bhisma Parva,
in

would co.me to be known as Tiruvana-Kovil (ana = Kovil= temple) in memory of Puspadanta elephant who had taken the form of the elephant. The spider was told that he would be born in the Cola dynasty and carry on for long years many good acts. Accordingly Malyavan was born as the son of Subhadeva, the Cola king and Kamalavati, his queen, and ruled the land for many years under the name King Cenkanna. He it was who built the Jambukesvara temple. (Tiruvanakkavu Purana)
;
.

subsection

the

Mahabharata. See under

Mahabharata.

JAMBUMALl. A
Prahasta.

Hanuman

he went to Lauka in search of Sita, (Valmiki Sundarakanda, Sarga 44). JAMBUMALIKA. See under Jambuka.

Raksasa (giant) who was the son of killed this Raksasa in a fight, when

Ramayana

returned to

life

again.

JAMBUKESVARA.

Name

installed in Mysore. The Sivaliriga installed in thejambukesvara temple in Mysore. Jambu is a fruit tree. There is a story about how Siva happened to come under this tree.

(Uttara Ramayana). of an idol of Siva (Linga)

JAMBUMARGA. An
this

ancient holy place. If one visits place one will attain the fruits of performing the sacrifice of As vamedha (horse sacrifice). (M.B. Vana

Parva, Chapter 62)

.

JAMBUNADA
.

I.

A

mountain.

The

river

Once upon a time
and a
recluse
tree got a fruit of

this

place was

full

performing a penance under a
it.

of Jambu trees,

Attracted, so to say, by the sanctity of the fruit the recluse submitted it first as an offering

Jambu

through the valley of this mountain which is connected with Mahameru. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 139, Stanza 16)
the

Ganges flows

JAMBUNADA

II. A golden mountain which stands in place called Usirabija. A King named Marutta

JAMBUNADA III
.

344

JANAKA
in the war and crowned his brother Kusadhvaja as King of Samkasya. Laksmana's wife Crmila was Kusadhvaja's daughter. Kusadhvaja had three daughters called Mandavl, Urmila and Srutakirti. Bharata married Mandavi and Satrughna married Srutakirti. (Kamba Ramayana, Balakanda; Valmiki Ramayana. Balakanda, Canto 71). 4) Birth of Sita At a time when Siradhvaja had no issues a girl emerged from the furrows of the ploughed earth, and Siradhvaja felt the desire to bring up the child as his own daughter. And, a celestial voice, "Oh!

performed sacrifice on this mountain. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 111, Stanza 23) jAMBtJNADA. III. Gold is formed from the river Jambu which flows through Jambudvipa (the island

van
the

Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 7, Stanza 26. JAMBONADA IV. A son of Janamejaya, a King of the dynasty of Puru. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Stanza

Jambu)

.

The

gold

is

called

Jambunada, according

to

A MBUNADl.
dvipa)
.

56).

_

A

famous

river.

(See
ruled

under Jambuover

JANADEVA. AJanakaKing who

Mithila

(Santi Parva, Chapter 218, Verse 3). Mahavisnu, once in the guise of a brahmin, tested (1) the King and pleased with him granted him certain boons. (Santi Parva, Chapter 219). (2) None of the 100 acaryas in his court could answer his questions about salvation satisfactorily. But, Pancas ikha, who casually came to the palace advised the King about the means to attain salvation. (Santi Parva

Slradhvaja! it is your own daughter" clinched the issue for the King. That daughter was Sita. Siradhvaja Janaka accordingly brought up Sita as his own daughter. (Valmiki Ramayana, Ayodhya Kanda, Canto 1 18)
.

JANAKA.
1 )

Chapter 211).
Genealogy.

ksi earned reputation as the cradle of such powerful Kings as Vikuksi, Kratha, Mandhata. Tri^anku. Hariscandra, Sagara and Bhagiratha. Sri Rama also was born in Vikuksi's dynasty. It was Nimi, the younger brother of Vikuksi who founded the Videha dynasty. There is a story about that dynasty getting the name, Videha. Nimi decided to conduct a yajna and requested

Janaka was descended from Visnu in the Brahma, Marici Kas yapa VivasUdavasu van Vaivasvata Iksvaku Nimi Mithi Devarata Suketu Brhadratha Nandivardharia Maru Mahavlra Sudhrti Dhrstaketu Harya^va Devamidha Klrtiratha Vibudha Pratvantaka Mahidhraka Kirtirata Maharoman Svarnaroman Hrasvaroman Slradhvaja (Janaka) Danda, Vikuksi and Nimi were the 2) Janaka dynasty. three prominent sons of Iksvaku. The dynasty of Vikufollowing order
:

-

.

Janaka got Saivacdpa. See under Jamadagni Janaka and Kahotaka. See under Astavakra. 7 ) Janaka and Aftavakra. See under Astavakra. 8 ) Janaka in Yamaloka. King Janaka once, by his yogic powers cast off his physical body. A vimana (aerial chariot) from Devaloka arrived to carry Janaka's soul there. On his way to Devaloka Janaka approached Kalapuri where innumerable sinners were being tortured in the various hells. When they breathed the air which had come in contact with Janaka's body, they got much relief from their tortures and the fire of hell now became cool and pleasing to them. When Janaka was about to go away the inmates of hell begged him not to leave them in that condition. He thought to himself thus: "If these beings get some comfort or happiness from my presence I shall surely stay here in Kalapuri, which will be my svarga (heaven) ." Thinking thus, Janaka the most righteous of souls stopped there. And then Kala arrived there to determine suitable
5) 6)

Janaka

Vasistha to act as high priest at the yajna. Vasistha, who then was busy with the affairs of another yajna asked Nimi to postpone his proposed yajna to a later date. To this Nimi made no answer, and Vasistha went away under the impression that his suggestion had been accepted by Nimi. Accordingly, as soon as he got free from other preoccupations Vasistha went to Nimi to conduct his yajna. But, Nimi had already performed the Yajna with Gautama as high priest. Enraged at this Vasistha cursed Nimi that he should lose his body and

Janaka.

After that all kings born in Mithi's dynasty began using the common name Janaka. The actual name of Janaka, father of Sita, was Siradhvaja. Mithila or Mithilapuri was the city founded by Mithi. From the time of the curse pronounced on Nimi the Kings of that dynasty also came to be known as Videhas, and the country they ruled Videha. (See Nimi). (Devi Bhagavata, 6th Skandha). Slradhvaja, the father of Sita 3) Brother of Siradhvaja. had a brother called Kuadhvaja. While Siradhvaja was the King of Mithila the King of SamkaSya called Sudhanvan attacked Mithila. Siradhvaja killed Sudhan-

become Videha (without body). As the result of the curse Nimi fell down dead. As Nimi had no sons living the Rsis churned out of his body a child. As the child was got by mathana (churning) he was named Mithi

"Look here, that and explained things as follows: fellow there had seduced the wife of his most intimate friend, and that is why he is tied to a red hot iron bar for 10,000 years. After those 10,030 years he would be born in a pig's womb, and when he is born among human beings it would be as a eunuch. The other fellow there forcibly kissed another man's wife, and so he has to be roasted in Raurava hell for hundred years. That other fellow is put into this vessel filled with blood and pus with both his hands cut off as he had stolen other
This fellow did not speak even a and hungry man who sought his hospitality at night. That is why he has been thrown into thick darkness, and there, for a hundred years, he
people's property.

punishments to the various kinds of sinners, and seeing there, asked why he, the most virtuous and the purest of souls, waited there, Janaka explained his reason for standing there and added that he would quit the place only if Kala released all those people from hell. On hearing Janaka's answer Kala pointed out to him one by one the sinners who were being tortured in hell

word of welcome

to a tired

must undergo the additional suffering of wasp-bite. As for this man he had in a loud voice found fault with another man, and this other fellow is his friend who listened to those vilifications attentively. And, that is the reason why both of them have been pushed into this unused well. So, all these people have to suffer for their sins. You, King Janaka, who did only righteous acts will please go away from this accursed place." Janaka asked Kala how those sinners could be released from hell, and Kala answered that if any good act of

JANAKA
them they could be set Janaka had, with a pure early morning heart, chanted "Rama, Rama" and that good act was exchanged for the freedom of the sinners. After their release had been effected, Janaka asked Kala "You say that only sinners come here. What sin have I committed that I should come here ?" Kala's "Oh King, reply to the question was as follows no one else in the whole world has so much punya as you have got. But, a small sin you have committed. Once you prevented a cow from eating grass, and, therefore, you had to come up to the gates ofhell. Now, that sin has been atoned for. So you may go to svarga." Janaka saluted Kala and in the divine vimana went to Heaven. (Padma Purana, Chapters 30 and 31). While Slta was a captive in Lanka 9) Artificial Janaka. Ravana, to bring her round, deputed a very clever magician called Marutta to her, disguised as Janaka,
the

345
transferred to

JANAMEJAYA

I

King was

free.

One

:

:

!

her father. And Marutta, in the capacity of her father consoled her and advised her to yield to the wishes of Ravana. But Slta did not yield, and the artificial Janaka assumed his original form of Marutta and went away.
(Kaiiiba Ramayana, Sundara Kanda). (1) Bhimasena information about Janaka. 10) Other defeated one Janaka, who was King of Mithila during the time of the Pandavas. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 30,
(2)

discussion with Sage Paficasikha about the means to avoid death. (Santi Parva, Chapter 319). (13) There was once a Janaka King called Dharmadhvaja, and Sulabha, an erudite woman in Mithila wanted to test the King. By her yogic powers she assumed the form of a very beautiful woman and visited Janaka's palace. She was offered a seat by the King, and seated on the stool she took her soul into the body of Janaka, and the soul entered into a dicussion on philosophic subjects with Janaka. Sulabha was thus convinced about the unique scholarship of the King and left the palace ashamed about her attempt to test the King. (Santi Parva, Chapter 320) Suka, the son of Vyasa not being fully satisfied by ( 14) the study of Bhagavata once visited Janaka at the instance of his (Suka's) father, and Janaka did so easily clear the doubts of Suka, which even Vyasa had not been able to successfully tackle. (Devi Bhagavata,
.

1st

Skandha).

Kingjanaka did not eat flesh. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 115, Verse 65). (16) Dharma, once in the guise of a brahmin imparted many pieces of advice to Janaka. (Asvamcdha Parva, Chapter 32) The above facts prove that the Janaka kings, as a rule, were great scholars and philosophers.
(15)
.

Verse 13).
tion

King Janaka was a personification or incarnaof all good qualities. (Vana Parva, Chapter 207,
.

pieces of advice to Janaka. (See under A^makopakhyana) . 5 ) Once in a war between Janaka and a king called ( Pratardana, the army of Janaka, in the presence of the

Verse 37) the father of Slta, in his old age renounc(3) Janaka, ed his kingdom and became a recluse. (Santi Parva. Chapter 18, Verse 4). Once the sage called A:;maka imparted some (4)

army of Pratardana stood aghast, and Janaka incited them to fight by showing heaven and hell to them.
(Sand Parva, Chapter 99, Verse 4). (6) Once in a war with a King called Ksemadarsi when victory for Janaka was found to be an impossibility

Janaka. Aindradyumni, Daivarati, Karala, Karalajanaka; Maithila, Mithiladhipa, Mithilesvara, Vaideha etc. JANAKI I. A Ksatriya king who was the rebirth of an asura named Candravinasana. It is staled in Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 4, Stanza 20, that the Pandavas had sent to him a letter of invitation to take part in the battle of Bharata. JANAKI II. See under Slta. JANALOKA. One of the fourteen worlds. This world is situated three crores of yojanas (leagues) away from Dhruvapada (the region of Dhruva Pole star) according to Visnu Purana, Arhsa II, Chapter 7) JANAMEJAYA I. A famous King of the Solar dynasty
1 1

)

Synonyms

of

DharmadhvajX

.

he,

daughter Chapter 106, Verse 2). 7 ) Once Mandavya a great sage put many questions ( about Trsna (desire) to Janaka and he, the great philosopher answered the questions quite satisfactorily

as advised by Sage Kalakavrksaka gave his to Ksemadarsi in marriage. (Sand Parva,

talk with Sage Parasara about the attainment of prosperity and welfare. (Sand Parva, Chapter 296).

(Sand Parva, Chapter 276). (8) On another occasion Janaka had a

There was a King called Karala Janaka among Janaka Kings. Once Vasistha gave some good advice to Karala Janaka. (Santi Parva, Chapters 3029) ( the

308).

man on
(11)

(10)

Once a Sage
subjects

advised a Janaka
relating
to

King called VasuDharma. (Santi Parva

Chapter 309).
son of Devarata put many questions to Yajnavalkya and they were answered to the full satisfaction of the King. (Santi Parva, Chapters 310-318). (12) The Janaka King called Janadeva had once a

Descended from Visnu thus: BrahmaBudha - Pururavas-Ayus-Nahusa-YayatiPuru - Janamejaya - Pracinvan - Pravira-Namasyu-Vltabhaya-Sundu-Bahuvidha-Samyati-Rahovadi-RaudrasvaMatinara - Santurodha - Dusyanta - Bharata-SuhotraSuhota - Gala - Garda - Suketu - Brhatksetra-Hasti-Ajamidha-Rsa-Samvarana-Kuru-Jahnu-Suratha-ViduratriaSarvabhauma-Jayatsena - Ravyaya - Bhavuka - Cakroddhata - Devatithi - Rksa-Bhima-Pratica-Santanu-VyasaPandu-Arjuna-Abhimanyu-Pariksit-Janamejaya. 2) Birth, marriage and accession to throne. Janamejaya was the son of Parlksit by his wife Madravatl. Vapustama, daughter of Suvarnavarman, King of Kasiwas Janamejaya's wife. Two sons, Satanlka and Saiikukarna were born to them. Janamejaya had three brothers called Srutasena, Ugrasena and Bhimasena. (Devi Bhagavata, 2nd Skandha Adi Parva, Chapters 3 and 95). 3) Death of his father. Janamejaya's father, Parlksit
1) Genealogy. Atri - Candra
;

Vasuman Janaka,

While once hunting in the forest Parlksit became very tired and thirsty. While searching for water he came across a Sage named Samlka and asked him for some water. Samlka being engaged in meditasixty

ruled the country in
years.

a very distinguished

manner

for

tion

did

not hear the

King's

request.

But,

the

JANAMEJAYA
in

I

346

JANAMEJAYA
Yajna
all

I

ing to the curse pronounced on him by Gavijata, son of sage Samika. Janamejaya was only an infant at the time of his father's death. So the obsequies of the late king were performed by his ministers. After that at an auspicious time Janamejaya was crowned King. Within a short time he mastered statecraft. Dhanurvidya was taught
efficient administrator.

the sage's silence for haughtiness threw anger a dead snake round his neck and went away. But, within seven days of the incident Pariksit was bitten to death by Taksaka, king of the Nagas accord-

King mistaking

should be stopped. Though Janamejaya was not for stopping the yajna, he was reminded of his promise to grant any desire of Astlka and the latter insisted on the stopping of the Satra. Janamejaya stopped it. Astlka blessed that the serpents which had died at the Satra would attain salvation. (Adi Parva, Chapters 52-58 ;
6) Listens to the Bhdrata story. While the Sarpa Satra was being conducted Vyasa came over there and related the whole story of the Mahabharata at the request of

gala. Janamejaya received the young Sage with respect and promised to grant his desire whatever that be. Astlka's demand was that the Sarpa Satra

Devi Bhagavata, 2nd Skandha)

.

His hatred towards snakes. In the course of a talk one day with Janamejaya Uttanka the sage detailed to him the circumstances of his father's death. Only then did he understand the actual cause of Pariksit's death, and the information kindled in him intense feelings of revenge not only against serpents but also against the whole serpent dynasty. (Devi Bhagavata,
4)

by Krpacarya. Very soon he earned reputation as an He got married in due course. (Devi Bhagavata, 2nd Skandha)
.

2nd Skandha)

.

sought the advice of priests and Rtviks as to how best revenge could be taken against the serpents, and they advised
5)

Sarpasatra.

(Serpent

yajna}.

Janamejaya

got consumed by the fire thus. Sages like Uttanka, Candabhargava, Sarngarava, Vyasa, Uddalaka, Atreya, Pramataka, Svetaketu, Narada, Devala, Kalaghata, isrutasravas, Kohala, DevaSarman, Maudgalya and Samasaurabha acted as Rtviks at the Satra. Though almost all the serpents courted death in the fire, Taksaka alone did not come. Fear-stricken he had taken refuge with Indra. As the chanting of mantras increased in intensity and

for it (to live for a few days under severe routine to prepare the author of the yajna for it). But the priest who made the arrangements looked into signs about the successful conclusion of the yajna and opined that it would be obstructed by a brahmin, and, the King, therefore, ordered strict steps to be taken against the entry of strangers into the Yagasala. And, the Sarpasatra began. High priests wore black clothes, and chanting mantras they made offerings in the sacred fire, and this created a burning sensation in the hearts of serpents. They began, one after another to come and fall into the fire. All varieties of serpents

him to perform the great Yajna called Sarpasatra. And, accordingly all necessary arrangements for the Satra were made, and the King began dlksa (Initiation)

Janamejaya. (Adi Parva, Chapter 60) 7) Saramd's curse. Janamejaya along with his brother once performed a yajna of long duration at Kuruksetra. While the yajna was going on, a dog (son of Saram'a the bitch of the Devas) came there. The three brothers of Janamejaya beat the dog which returned to its mother, Sarama, crying. The mother asked him whether he had done anything to deserve the beating, and he answered thus "No, mother, I had done nothing wrong. I did not lick the havis, nor did I even look at it." Hearing her son's reply Sarama in deep anguish, went to Kuruksetra and questioned Janamejaya as to why her innocent son was beaten by his brothers. Neither he nor his brothers replied to Sarama, and she cursed Janamejaya that he would be subjected to
.

:

adrstaphala

(unforeseen
so

Sarpa Satra was his return to Hastinapura he made a search for a Purohita (priest) competent enough to redeem him from his sins, and at last he invited Somaxravas, son of the great sage Srutasravas to be his Purohita, and thus did Somasravas become the priest of Janamejaya (Adi Parva, Chapter 3) 8) Successors of Janamejaya. Janamejaya had two sons, Candraplda and Suryaplda by his wife Kasya. Hundred sons, experts in archery, were born to Candraplda. The eldest of them, Satyakarna, ruled the country after Janamejaya. Satyakarna had a son called Svetakarna to whom was born a son called Ajapiirsva by his wife Yadavl, the daughter of Sucaru. (Bhavisya Parva, Chapter 1).

Janamejaya over and on

much

that

results). after the

This

curse upset

.

volume Vasuki began

.

requested his of escape from the Satra, and at the instance of Jaratkaru her son Astlka set out for the palace of Janamejaya to obstruct the Yajna. Though the Rtviks invoked for a long time Taksaka did not appear. Enraged at his absence Uttanka searched for Tak?aka with his divine eyes and found him seated on the throne of Indra along with him, who had given him (Taksaka) asylum. This challenge of Indra kindled the wrath of Uttanka all the more, and he invoked Indra, Taksaka and Indra's throne too so that all of them might together come and fall into the fire. And, lo! there came the whole lot of them. Only two minutes more and all of them would be reduced to ashes. By now Astlka, the son of Jaratkaru had arrived at the

to feel the burning sensation. He sister Jaratkaru to find out some means

defeated the King of Taksarlila and subjugated the country. Adi Parva, Chapter 3, Verse 20) The Sage called Veda was the preceptor of Jana (2) mejaya. (Adi Parva, Chapter 3, Verse 82)
(1) Janamejaya
. .

9)

Other Information

Janamejaya performed an which Vyasa delivered a lengthy discourse on life and salvation. As Janamejaya said that if he were to believe the words of Vyasa his dead father Pariksit should be shown to him. Vyasa brought Pariksit down from Svarga and showed him to his son. On the occasion were also present sage Samlka and his son Sriigl. (Alramavasika Parva, Chapter 35), The great war at Kuru10) Life time of Janamejaya. ksetra was fought in 3 138 B.C. (See under Mahabharata) After the war was over the Pandavas ruled the country for 36 years. Vyasa took three years to compose the Mahabharata. According to the Mahaprasthtinika Parva the Pandavas set out for the forest after handing over the government to Pariksit, who ruled the country for

Asvamedha yajna

(3)

After the Sarpa Satra,
at

JANAMEJAYA
sixty years.

II

347
the

jANUJA&GHA
as Khara Dusana, Trisiras and others. (M.B. Daksinatya Patha, Sabha Parva, Chapter 38) Marlca allured Sita and Ravana kidnapped her in this place. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 147). Surpanakha tried to attract Sri Rama and Laksmana, and her nose It was in this place etc, were cut off, in this forest. that Sri Rama cut off the head of a Raksasa (demon) and threw it away. That head fell in the lap of a hermit

From

above

facts it

that Janamejaya
11)

became king

in

becomes evident 3042 B.C.

(giants) such

.

Kurudvaha, Kurukulasrestha, Kurukulodvaha, Kurunandana, Kurupravira, Kurupurigavagraja, Kurusattama, Pandava, Pandavanandana, Pandaveya, Pariksita, Pauravya etc. JANAMEJAYA II. One Janamejaya, a prominent member of Yamaraja's assembly is referred to in the Adi and Sabha Paryans of the Mahabharata. This Janamejaya had once been defeated by Mandhata. (Drona Parva, Chapter 62, Verse 10). He conquered the world within three days. (Santi Parva, Chapter 234). JANAMEJAYA III. A Ksatriya King who was Krodhavasa, the Asura, reborn. He was killed by Durmukha, the son of Dhrtarastra. (Kama Parva, Chapter 6,
Verse 19).
wife

Synonyms of Janamejaya. Bharata, Bharatasardula, Bharatasrestha, Bharatadhya, Bharatarsabha, Bharatasattama, Kaurava, Kauravasardula, Kauravanandana, Kauravendra, Kauravya, Kurusardula, Kuril srestha,

JANDAKARA. One
Purana
it is

called Mahodara. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 39). Janasthana is regarded as a holy place. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva, Chapter 25, Stanza 29, that those who stay in this place and take bath in the Godavari will acquire imperial prosperity.

stay near the Sun. In

JANAMEJAYA
called

IV. A prince born to King Kuru by his Vahinl. (Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse

JANAMEJAYA
ofParlksit.

51).

V.

He had
(sin

Another King born in the dynasty
a son called Dhrtarastra. (Santi Verse 3). He once committed of killing a brahmin) and so had
his

Jandakara is engaged the god of death ) ( jAlstGALA. A country in ancient India. (M.B. Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 56) JAlsEGARI. A brahmavadl son (interested in theories about Brahman) of Visvamitra. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 57). JASIGHABANDHU. A sage who was a member of Yudhisjhira's assembly. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 4,
in carrying out the orders of

mentioned that

of the eighteen Vinayakas, who 16 of the Sambhava chapter
this

Yama
.

.

Verse 16).
1)

Parva, Chapter

150,

JANTU.
It is

brahmahatya

been forsaken by

form Asvamedha yajna. Thus, he got redemption from the sin and he became Indrota's disciple also. (Santi Parva, Chapters 150-153). JANAMEJAYA VI. A son of King Kuru by his wife, Kausalya. He is also known as Pravira. The King had a son called Pracinvan by a noble lady called Ananta of the Madhu Dynasty. (Adi Parva, Chapter 95). JANAMEJAYA VII. A serpent who attends the council ofVaruna. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 10). JANAMEJAYA VIII. A King born in the family of Nipa. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 174, Stanza 13). JANAMEJAYA IX. A King who had been- of help to Yudhisthira. He fought with Karna. This Janamejaya was the son of King Durmukha. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 23; Karna Parva Chapter 49). jANAPADl A celestial maid. This celestial maid was sent by Indra to hinder the penance of the hermit Saradvan and the moment the hermit saw this celestial beauty seminal discharge occurred to him. Krpa and KrpI were born from that semen. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 129). JANARDANA I. A synonym of Mahavisnu (Sri Krsna) Because he made the Dasyus ( Asuras demons) tremble, Sri Krsna was called Janardana. "He, who has lotus as his seat, who is eternal, imperishable and unchangeable, he who has all these attributes is Pundarikaksa (lotus-eyed) and he who makes the Asuras tremble is Janardana." (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 70, Stanza 6) JANARDANA II. See under Dibaka. JANASTHANA. This is a part of the forest Dandaka.which
.
.

subjects. So he had to take to the forest. His search for means to get rid of the sin took him at last to sage Indrota, who made him per-

General information. King of the Puru dynasty. mentioned in Agni Purana, Chapter 278, that he was the son of the King Somaka and father of the King

A

Vrsatanu.
2)

Jantu born again. Somaka had hundred wives. But only one of them gave birth to a child. That child was Jantu. He was a pet of all the hundred wives. Once Jantu was bitten by an ant. All the hundred queens began crying and shouting and all ran to him. Hearing the tumult in the women's apartment of the palace, the King and the minister ran to that place. When the tumult was over the King began to think. "It is better to have no sons at all, than to have only one son. There are hundred queens. But none of them bears a child. Is there a solution for this ?" At last the King summoned his family-priests and consulted them. The decision of the priests was that if the King should sacrifice his only son, then all his wives would become pregnant and all would give birth to children, and that among the sons thus born, Jantu also would be reborn. The mother of Jantu did not look at this project with favour. "How can we be
sure that Jantu also will be there among the sons to be was worried by this born, after his death?" She thought. The priests consoled her and said that there will be a golden mole on the left flank of Jantu. Finally the mother agreed to their plan. Sacrificial dais was arranged. Sacrificial fire for holy offerings was prepared. The priests tore the child into pieces and offered them as oblation in the fire. When the sacrifice was finished, all the hundred queens became pregnant. Each of them gave birth to a child. As the priests had predicted, there was a golden mole on the left flank of the child delivered by the mother of Jantu. (MiB. Vana Parva, Chapters 127 and 128)

in the basin of the Godavari. Sri Rama had lived in this forest with Sita and Laksmana for a long time during the period of his forest-life. It was at this place that Sri Rama killed fourteen thousand Raksasas
lies

JANUJAJXIGHA.
this

every morning and
165, Stanza 69.

King

in

to be remembered Mention is made about Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva, Chapter
is fit

A

.

King who
evening.

JAPA(S)
JAPA^(S). A group of Gods (devas) of the third Manvantara (age of Manu) In that Manvantara the Manu was Uttama, Indra was Susanti, and the Devaganas (groups of gods) were Sudharmas, Satyas, Japas, Pratardanas, and Va^avartins, the five groups, each consisting of twelve members. (See under Manvantara) JAPAKA. A Brahmana who was constantly engaged in uttering Gayatri. Japaka was ordered to go to hell because certain mistakes were detected in the uttering of Gayatri. But Devi Savitri intervened. She appeared before him and gave him heaven. This Japaka was a Santi Parva, 3 contemporary of Iksvaku. (M.B.
. .

348

JARATKARU
By means of penance he made
out and so got the
3)

II

his

name

body lean and

worn

calm and abstemious Jaratkaru remained unmarried for a long time. One day he happened to meet with his Manes. They were holding on to a grass and were about to fall into hell, and a rat was cutting the root of the grass which was their
Marriage.

The

Jaratkaru.

only hold.

moment

Chapters from 197).

JARA.

A

forester. It

arrow at

Sri

JARA. A

an animal. (See under

was this forester who shot an Krsna and killed him mistaking him for
Sri
.

at this juncture that Jaratkaru, met his Manes. The they saw him they said, "See Jaratkaru, we are your Manes. have to obtain, heaven, life, contentment and happiness by the good deeds of your son. So go and get married quickly." At first he did not like the talk about marriage. Still, in order to procure heaven for his ancestors he agreed

The moment the root is severed Manes would fall into the deep ravine of hell.

all

the

It

was

We

JARATKARU

hermit who is Puranically famous. 1 ) Birth. This hermit was born in a Brahmana dynasty known as Yayavaras. He was the only son of Yayavaras. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 13). name 2) The name Jaratkaru. The meaning of the Jaratkaru is given in Bhasabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter
I.

was joined together by Jara. This child grew up and became the notorious King Jarasandha of Magadha. (M.B. Sabha Parva, 3 Chapters from 1 7) It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Drona Parva, Chapter 182, Stanza 12 that when Arjuna fought with Jarasandha this harpy had been staying in the weapon of Jarasandha and was killed in that fight.
.

she was a harpy she loved human beings. It is believed that if the picture of Jara and her children is placed in the house and venerated, there will be no haunting of any other 'kinds of demons. The figure of Jara was sculptured on the wall of the Palace of Brhadratha, the King of Magadha, and was being worshipped. Because the King worshipped her, she had been looking forward to an opportunity to reward the King. Brhadratha had married two daughters of the King of Kasi. They were twin sisters. For a long time they remained childless. The King was very sorry, and went to the forest with his wives. He saw the hermit Kakslvan or Candakausika, the son of Gautama and requested that a son should be born to him. The hermit was sitting in meditation under a mango tree and a mango fell on his lap. The hermit took it and by prayer and meditation he invoked divine power into it and gave it to the King. The King divided it into two and gave it to his wives. The queens became pregnant and the three returned joyously. In due course both delivered. But each of them gave birth to only half of a child. The horrified queens took the uncouth figures outside the palace and left them there. Jara was watching this. She ran to the spot and placed the two portions together. Instantly it became a child of proper form. Hearing the cry of the child the mothers. came out. Jara appeared there and placed the child before the King Brhadratha. As desired by Jara the child was named Jarasandha because he

Krsna).

harpy (RaksasI)

Though

to get married. But he made a condition that the name of the bride also should be Jaratkaru and she should be given to him as alms. Saying these words, he

walked away along News reached the

the forest. ears of Vasuki, the King of the that the hermit Jaratkaru was Nagas (serpents) wandering through the forests calling out that somebody should give him as alms a damsel named Jaratkaru.

Vasuki had a

A

JARATKARU
Skandha
1)
9,

I am going away." She begged him for pardon with tears. But without heed to the entreaties of his pregnant wife, paying any he left her. The helpless Jaratkaru gave birth to a son named Astlka who later stopped the famous sacrifice, Sarpa Satra meant for killing the serpents. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 47) See under Jaratkaru II.

sister. Jaratkaru was her name. Vasuki decided to give her to the hermit Jaratkaru. She was adorned with costly garments and ornaments and was taken to thehermitjaratka.ru. Jaratkaru said "Hear my condition, I will not cherish her if she causes displeasure to me. If she does so I will send her away instantly." On condition that if she did anything displeasing to him he would leave her at once, the hermit Jaratkaru married Jaratkaru the sister of Vasuki. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 2; Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapters 13 and 47). 4) Leaves his wife. Jaratkaru lived in the hermitage with her husband looking after him with love and loyalty. One day the hermit was sleeping with his head on the lap of his wife. Though it was sunset the hermit time for the evening slept on. It was worship of the hermit. If he is aroused he will get angry. The wife was in a difficult situation. Anyhow she aroused her husband. The hermit got up full of anger and shouted, "You have hindered my sleep, you wicked woman and teased me. So from today you are not my
:

wife.

.

II.

consumption, Karu is daruna (awful) By and by his body became hard and awful and by penance he made his body to wear out, and so he got the name

40, as follows
is

:

"Jara

.

'Jaratkaru'."

There are some who imagine that she got the name ManasadevI because she held Sri Krsna Paramatman (the Supreme Spirit) firmly in her mind. This devl

It occurs in Devi Bhagavata, about Jaratkaru, the sister of Vasuki and the wife of hermit Jaratkaru as follows. This devl (goddess) is the daughter of Prajapati Kagyapa, born from his mind. So she got the name ManasadevI Some think that she got (goddess born from mind) the name ManasadevI because she is the deity of mind.

General information.

.

JARATKARU
three yugas

II

349
Sri

JARASANDHA

I

had been meditating upon
names.
(world- ages)
.

She

Krsna Paramatma for is known by twelve

angry and decided to reject her. She thought of the Devas, who instantly arrived. Brahma argued that it

Manasadevi had been performing (1) Jaratkdru. penance, and meditating upon Sri Krsna Paramatman for three complete yugas and her garments and body were worn out. So Krsna gave her the name Jaratkaru. (2) Jagadgauri. Because she was comely and beautiful and of fair complexion and was worshipped all over
the world, she got the
(3)

Manasd.

Kasyapa, the name "Manasa" was given to her. As the fruits of her Tapas (penance) (4) Siddhayogini.

name Jagadgauri. Because she was born from the mind

of
,

she got the attainments of Yoga (meditation, devotion, the contemplation and other ways of union with Universal Soul) and so she was given the name Siddhayogini. (5) Vaimavi.
(6)

The mantra (incantation) of worship. To get the attainment of Manasadevi one has to utter the spell "Orh Hrlrh-Srim-Klirii-Airh-Manasadevyai (mantra) svaha" five lakh times. He who has got the attainment of this mantra as given above will be equal to Dhan5) vantari (the physician of the Gods) and to him poison This goddess could be will be Amrta (ambrosia) invoked into a secluded room on the day of Sankranti If offerings of oblations and (Transit of the Sun) worship are carried on, he would be blessed with
. .

was not meet and right to reject his wife before a child was born to her. The hermit touched the groin of his wife and prayed and with the power of yoga (meditation, contemplation etc.) she became pregnant. The son born to her is the famous hermit Astlka. After giving birth to Astlka she went to Kailiisa, where Paramesvara and ParvatI received her.

Because she had constant devotion
called Vaisnavl.

to

Mahavisnu she was
the
(7)

(Sister of

King of
Saivl.

Nagabhagini. Because she was the sister of Vasuki the Nagas, she got the name Nagabhagini.

JARASANDHA
1 )

children, wealth
I.

and fame.

A

terrible

Naga). Saivi. As she was a

name

disciple

of Siva

she

got the

(8) Nagesvari. Because she saved the Nagas (serpents) from the Sarpasatra (sacrifice for killing the serpents)

name

of Janamejaya the son of the

King

Parlksit, she got

the

Because she became the wife of (9) Jaratkdrupriyd. the hermit Jaratkaru she was called Jaratkarupriya. Astikamata. Because she was the mother of the ( 10) hermit Astlka she got the name Astikamata. Because she was the goddess who (11) Visahdri. destroyed poison, she was known by the name Visaharl. (12) Mahajnanavati. Since she had the attainments of vast knowledge, yoga and the power of bringing the dead to life, she was given the name Mahajnanavati. 2) Birth. Once the serpents became a plague to the men of the earth and they all went to Prajapati

Nagesvari.

Descended from Visnu in the following Brahma - Atri-Candra-Budha-Pururavas-Ayusorder Nahusa - Yayati-Puru - Janamejaya-Pracinvan-PravlraNamasyu - Vitabhaya-Sundu-Bahuvidha-Samyati-Rahovadi - Raudrasva - Matinara - Santurodha - DusyantaBharata-Suhotra-Suhota-Gala - Garda - Suketu - Brhatksetra-Hasti-Ajamldha-Rsa-Samvarana-Puru-SudhanvaCyavana-Krti-Vasu-Brhadratha-Jarasandha. created by joining together 2) Birth. Jarasandha was two halves of a child, by a giantess called Jara, and so
Genealogy.
:

King

of

Magadha.

Kasyapa and made their complaints. Kasyapa and Brahma consulted each other and at the instruction of Brahma Kasyapa created several Mantras (spells and incantations) and Manasadevi from his mind as the
deity of these spells. 3) Power of her tapas (penance). When she was very young she went to Kailasa and performed penance to Paramasiva fora thousand years. At last Siva appeared before her and gave her the divine knowledge, and taught her the Samaveda. He gave her the divine Sri Krsna mantra (a spell) called 'Astaksari' and the Sri Krsna Kavaca armour of Krsna) called (the and taught her how to use them in Trailokyamangala' worship. Wearing this armour and using the spell she

got the name Jarasandha. (For detailed story under Jara) Asti and Prapti, the 3) The fast battle with Sri Kr$na. two wives of Kamsa, were daughters of Jarasandha. When Sri Krsna killed Kamsa, the two daughters went to their father and shed tears before him. Jarasandha became angry and with a mighty army surrounded the city of Mathura. A fierce battle was fought between Jarasandha and Krsna. At last Balabhadrarama caught hold of Jarasandha and was about to kill him, when an ethereal voice said that Balabhadrarama was not the person to kill Jarasandha. Accordingly Rama and Krsna set Jarasandha free. (Bhagivata, Skandha 10).
this child

see

.

Other information. (1) It is mentioned in Bhagavata, Skandha 10, that Jarasandha was the teacher too, of Kamsa. (2) Jarasandha had four sons, Soma, Sahadeva, Turya and Srutasru of whom Sahadeva became King of Magadha, after the death of Jarasandha.
4)
(3) Mention is made in Maha.bha.rata, Adi Parva, Chapter 185, that Jarasandha had been present at the Svayarhvara (marriage) of Pancall. battle between Jarasandha (1) Once there arose a and Kama, in which Jarasandha was defeated and so he made a treaty with Kama. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 5, Stanza 6) The enmity between Sri 5) The death of Jarasandha. Krsna and Jarasandha was life-long. These two mighty powers confronted each other eighteen times. Sri Krsna decided to kill Jarasandha, the King of Magadha, in a duel. Once Sri Krsna with Arjuna and Bhima, reached the city of Magadha in the guise ofBrahmanas. They started from the kingdom of Kuru
.

penance in Puskara, meditating upon Sri Krsna Paramatma, for three yugas (world ages) At the end of this period Sri Krsna Paramatma appeared before her and gave her all the boons she wanted. Sri Krsna said that all over the world she would be worshipped and that she had power to give boons to her
performed
.

worshippers. 4) Marriage and
rejection. Kasyapa gave his daughter Manasadevi in marriage to Jaratkaru, a hermit. As they were living in the hermitage, once the hermit slept with his head on the lap of his wife. Seeing the setting sun she aroused her husband. The hermit became

JARASANDHA

II

350

JATAKARMADISAMSKARA (S)
In the ancient days (S) people of Bharata observed certain social and customary rites immediately after the birth of a child. They were known as Jatakarmans. Each caste had its own Jatakarmans. They are given below If it is a male child jatakarman should be done before cutting the umbilical cord. At that time gold is tci be rubbed in ghee and honey and the tongue of the child should be touched with it, uttering mantras (spells) (Colloquial name of this rite is giving gold and honey) The child should be named on the tenth or twelfth day after birth, selecting suitable lunar day, good star and auspicious moment. The name should imply prosperity to Brahmans, might to Ksatriyas, wealth to Vaisyas and humility to Sudras. That is, the word 'Sarman' in the case of Brahmana, 'Varman' for Ksatriyas, 'Gupta' for Vaigyas and 'Dasa' for Sudras, should be added to the name. The names given to girls should be of easy utterance, having clear meaning but not and cruel, very beautiful, charming, propitious avoiding long letters as far as possible. Four months after delivery, the child should be taken out of the room of confinement to see the Sun. On the sixth month the rite of 'Annaprasa' (feeding with rice) should be performed. In accordance with hereditary customs the two rites mentioned above may be performed at any time after the third month. For Brahmanas and Ksatriyas the ceremony of 'Caula' (tonsure) may be performed at the time of birth or at the age of three. The ceremony of Upanayana (Investiture with the Brahma string) should be conducted at the age of eight from pregnancy for Brahmanas, at the age of eleven from pregnancy for Ksatriyas and at the age of twelve for Vaisyas. But Upanayana could be performed at the age of five for Brahmanas who desire Brahma-radiance, at the age of six for Ksatriyas who desire might and at the age of eight for Vaisyas who desire wealth. There is another opinion that Upanayana could be performed up to the age of sixteen for
.

and travelled passed by through Kurujarigala Padmasaras and Kalakuta, visited the holy places of Gandaki, Mahas'ona, Sadanira and such others, crossed the river Sarayu and reached the opposite bank. Then they travelled through the countries of East Kosala and Mithila. Touring through the countries they crossed the rivers Carmanvati, Gaiiga. and Sona. Wearing matted hair and barks of trees they reached Girivraja, the capital city of Magadha. There were three big drums, which were used only on special occasions. The hide of elephant was used for making them. 1 Seeing all these sights they reached the presence of Jarasandha, who welcomed them with necessary formalities and talked with them. But they kept silence. At last Sri Krsna told him that his two friends were having the vow of silence, which would terminate only at midnight. So the King left them in the sacrificial hall and went to ths palace. He came to them at midnight and
asked them
that

JATAKARMADISAMSKARA
the

:

.

who

JARASANDHA
sandha was

were Krsna, Bhima and Arjuna, who had come to fight a duel with Jarasandha, who had unreasonably put many innocent Kings in dungeon, and challenged him to select any one of them for duel. Jarasandha, trembling with fury, selected Bhima. In that duel Jarasandha was killed. (M.B. Sabha Parva, 3 Chapters from 20) Barhadratha, Magadha, 6) Names given to Jarasandha. Magadhadhipa and Jaraputra are some of the names used in the Mahabharata by Vyasa as synonyms of Jarasandha.
they
.

they were. Sri Krsha revealed

to

him

by Bhimasena. In Kama Parva of the MahaJARASANDHA bharata, Chapter 5, Stanza 30, we see a King Jayatsena who fought on the side of the Kauravas and had been killed by Abhimanyu. The father of this King Jayatsena was one Jarasandha, a Ksatriya of Magadha. JARASANDHAVADHAPARVA. A sub-section of Sabha Parva, of the Mahabharata. This sub-section comprises of Chapters 20 to 24 of Sabha Parva. JARAYU. An attendant of Subrahmanya. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 43, Stanza 19). JARITA. A mother bird with four young ones, who suffered much in the burning of the forest Khandava. (For detailed story see under Khandavadaha, Para 8) JARITARI. A son of the mother bird Jarita. (See under Khandavadaha, Para 8) JARJARANANA. An attendant of Subrahmanya. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 19).
killed
III.
. .

II. (Satrusaha) One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Drona Parva, Chapter 137, Stanza 30 that this Jara.

Brahmanas and twentytwo
the attainment of
this

Even after ceremony is not performed, that boy will be considered an out-cast from the mantra (spell) of Gayatrl, and will have no admittance to the rituals and ceremonies performed by Brahmanas and will be known by the name Vratya These Vratyas (an outcast, uninvested Brahmana) could not be taught Vedas or be given women as
for

Ksatriyas.

age,

if this

.

wives.

JARTIKA.

A

tribe of Vahikas.
tribes.

JARUDHI.

A country in ancient India. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 38). jAROTHl. An ancient city. It is mentioned .in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 12, Stanza 30, that Sri Krsna, with his friends Ahuti and Kratha defeated Sis upala, Jarasandha, Saibya and Satadhanvan in this
city.

be the lowest of the 44, Stanza 10).

They

(M.B.

Kama Parva,

are

considered to

Chapter

JATADHARA. A

warrior of Subrahmanya. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 61)
.

(M.B.
big drum.

could use the hides of black antelope, spotted deer or goat as upper garment and clothes made of silk thread, flax or wool of sheep or red leopard. To tie round the waist, Brahmanas have to make belts out of Munja (grass), Ksatriyas, out of Murva (grass) and Vaisyas out of flax. When these are not available, Brahmanas may use Kusa grass, Ksatriyas nanal grass and Vaisyas Darbha grass called balbaja to make belts of customary three darns or five darns with a knot. A celibate should have a stick. For Brahmanas the stick should be made of Bilva (Aegle marmelos) or "palasa" (butea frondosa) and for Ksatriyas, of banyan or blackwood. (Mimosa catechu) and for Vaisyas, of Dillenia speciosa (Uka For Brahmanas the stick should tree) or fig tree.

Brahmana, Ksatriya and Vaisya brahmacaris

(celibates)

See under Brhadratha

IV

to

know about

the

sound of

this

JATALIKA

351
But, according to

JATISMARAKITA
mother of Sampati and Jatayu was Mahasveta. (Kiskindha Kanda). Perhaps, Syeni was also known as Mahasveta. 3) Jatayu flies towards Surya. Sampati and Jatayu, once under a bet flew up towards the sun. Jatayu in the outflew Sampati, and exuberance of youth entered Surya's orbit at noon time with the result that, due to the excessive heat his wings were scorched. At
this

reach up to the top of the head, for Ksatriyas up to the forehead and for Vais yas up to the nose. Before going for alms, the celibate should take his stick, bow before the sun, go round the fire and only then set out. The alms received should be offered to the teacher as oblation, then he should turn to the east and wash hands and mouth and eat it. Brahmanas should wear the upper garment or their sacred thread (Yajnasutra) on the left shoulder and under the right arm and then it is called 'Upavlta'; if it is on the right shoulder and under the left arm it is called "Pracinavita" and if it is round the neck it is called "Nivita". These Jatakarmans may be done for the female child also at the stipulated times by tantras, without reciting mantras, for the purification of the body. The rituals performed without reciting Vedamantras (spells) are called tantras. For women marriage is to be considered as Upanayana, looking after the needs of husband to be considered as learning at the house of the teacher, and housekeeping as samidadhana (gathering fuel of Butea
,

Kamba Ramayana,

the

name

of the

Sampati, to save his brother, flew up higher than over Jatayu and spread out his wings like an umbrella Jatayu with the result that Sampati's wings were burnt, and he fell down somewhere on the Vindhya mountains. He spent the rest of his life under the protection of a sage called Nisakara who was performing penance on the mountains. After their tragic meeting in Suryamandala Sampati and Jatayu never again met in their
life.

frondosa)

.

female attendant of Skanda. (Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 23) JATAPATHA. See under Ghanapatha. jATARUPASlLA. A mountain. This mountain stands in a place having an area of thirteen yojanas, on the opposite shore of the sea where the water-creatures fall with tremendous cry at the mouth of the submarine fire (Badavagni) The monkeys sent by Sugrlva to search for Slta, made a search in this mountain also. (Valmiki Ramayana, Kiskindha Kanda, Sarga 40, Stanza 50) . JATASURA I. A King, who was a member of Dharmaputra's assembly. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 24). JATASURA II. A Raksasa, Jatasura, disguised as a brahmin lived with the Pandavas in the forest. His aim was to carry off Pancali and the arrows of the Pandavas as and when he got an opportunity for it. One day taking advantage of Arjuna's absence Bhlma was out ahunting) Jatasura caught hold of the others as also the arrows and ran away with them. Sahadeva alone managed to slip away from his clutches. Dharmaputra pledged his word that Jatasura would be killed

(Manusmrti, Chapter

JATALIKA.

A

2)

.

.

58; Kamba Ramayana, Kiskindha Kanda) 4) Fought with Ravana. Jatayu clashed with Ravana, who was carrying away Sltadevi in his vimaria, and in the fierce fight that they fought in (he air, Ravana cut off Jatayu's wings and thus felled him on the earth, almost dead. (Valmiki Ramayana, Aranya Kanda,
.

(Valmiki Ramayana, Kiskindha Kanda, Chapter

Death. Rama and Laksmana during their search in the forest for Slta came upon Jatayu lying without
5)

Chapter 51

).

wings almost dead and reciting
described to

.

Rama's name. Jatayu had carried away Slta and how he had tried to stop him and fought with him. After giving this account he died. Rama and Laksmana lit a fire and cremated Jatayu. The great bird's soul

Rama how Ravana

JATl.

before the sunset. Hearing all the hubbub (Bhima hurried to the scene, killed the Asura and saved his brothers and Pancali from difficulties and danger.

JATASURA

(Vana Parva, Chapter 157).
III.

busa who was

killed

This Jatasura had a son called Alamby Ghatotkaca in the great war.

Chapter 45, Verse 61). JATI. See under Caturvarnya. JATILA. The name assumed by Siva when he played the part of a Brahmacarin. Parvati began rigorous penance to obtain Siva as her husband, and Siva visited her disguised as Jatila, a brahmacarin to test her. (Siva Purana, Satarudrasarhhita) JATILA. A righteous and generous woman who was born in the Gautama dynasty. She once sought the help of the saptarsis. (Adi Parva, Chapter 195; also See under GautamJ II) jATISMARA. A holy bath. It is mentioned in the Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Stanza 128 that the body and mind of the person who bathes in
. .

attained salvation. (Kamba Ramayana) of Subrahmanya. warrior (Salya

A

.

Parva,

JATASURA PARVA.

(Drona Parva, Chapter 174).

A

sub-Parva of Mahabharata.

jATAVEDA
'

JATAYU. A
1)

Skandha

(See under Mahabharata) Three sons of Pururavas, born from (S). Agni (fire). They are called the Jatavedas. (Bhagavata,
.

JATISMARAHRADA.
mention is place, he will birth and life.
Mahabhfirata,

this tirtha (bath) will

Vana made that

the A holy place. In Parva, Chapter 85, Stanza 3, if a man gives alms at this holy be able to remember his previous

become pure.

9)

.

bird famous in the Puranas.

Visnu as follows, Brahma Marici Kasyapa Aruna Jatayu. Two sons called Sampati and Jatayu were 2) Birth. born to Aruna. Their mother, a bird, was Syeni. Syeni, wife of Aruna, delivered two children, Sampati and the Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 71). great Jatayu (Adi "Know that I am the son of Aruna and Sampati is my elder brother. My name is Jatayu, and I am the son of Syeni." (Valmiki Ramavana, Canto 14, Verse
Genealogy.

Descended

from

JATISMARAKITA. A worm

which got emancipation through the advice of Vyasa. Once while Vyasa was roaming about in the country, by chance he saw this worm. It was running through the road, seeing a cart

coming very fast. Vyasa stopped it and asked, "What are you running from ?" The worm replied that he was running in fear that the wheel of the cart coming

32).

from behind might crush him. In the previous birth this worm was a Sudra. Jealousy, resentment, arrogance, selfishness etc. were the traits of his character in his previous life. Only twice in his life had he done good

JATHARA

352
56, Stanza 44. that this warrior fought on the Pandavas and that Karna wounded
battle.

JAVA IV
the

Chapters from 117) JATHARA I. A very erudite brahmin scholar in Vedic lore. Jathara was a prominent figure at the serpent yajna held by Janamejaya. (Adi Parva, Chapter 53, Verse 8).
.

deeds. Once he honoured his mother and on another occasion he respected a Brahmana. Because of these two good deeds, in his present life as worm he had the remembrance of his previous life. Vyasa gave the worm necessary advice. Instantly the worm was crushed under the wheel of the cart. In the next rebirth this Jatismaraklta was born as a Ksatriya King. As he was leading the life of a powerful King he met with Vyasa. He rcci-ived advice from the hermit. In his next life he became a Brahmana and Anusasana Parva, 3 finally he attained bliss. (M.B.

him

side of in the

IX. One of the attendants given to Subrahmanya Vasuki, the King of the Nagas (serpents). Vasuki by gave Subrahmanya two attendants named Jaya and Mahajaya. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 52) JAYA X. A synonym of Mahavisnu. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 149, Stanza 6Tf. JAYA XI. (JAYAVIJAYAS). They were gate-keepers of

JAYA

.

Vaikunlha. As these two sons ofdevas were engaged in the service of Mahavisnu guarding the gate, the
hermits Sanaka and others

came

to

see

Mahavisnu

to

JATHARA

II. A mountain within the ranges "of Mahameru. On the eastern side of Mahameru there exist two mountains called Jathara and Devakuta, 18, 000 yojanas in extent and 2000 yojanas high. On the western side of Meru are the mountains called Pava-

pay him homage. Jaya and Vijaya stopped them at the gate. Sanaka got angry and cursed them to take three births on the earth as Asuras (demons). The sorrowful Jaya and Vijaya requested for absolution from the

curse. The hermit said that they had to take three births as Asuras and that they would be redeemed by the

mana and

Karavlra, and on the northern side Trisrriga Makaragiri. (Devi Bhagavata, 8th Skandha). JATHARA III. An urban region in ancient India. JATHARA. A warrior of Subrahmanya. (M.B. Salya Parva. Chapter 46, Stanza 128). JATUGRHAM. See under Arakkillam (lac palace). JATUGRHAPARVA. A particular section of Adi Parva. JATUK\RNA. An ancient hermit with control over his senses. He was a member of the council of Yudhisthira. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Stanza 14). JAVA. A warrior of Subrahmanya. ( M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 75) JAYA I. A son of Dhrtarastra. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 63, Stanza 119). He fought with Arjuna at the time of the stealing of cows. (M.B. Virata Parva, Chapter 54) This Jaya fought with Nila and Bhlma in the battle of Bharata. Bhlma killed him. (Drona Parva, Chapters 25 and 135). JAYA II. A deva (god). At the time of the burning of the forest Khandava, this deva came with an iron pestle to fight with Kfsna and Arjuna. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 226 Stanza 34). JAYA III. A King in ancient India. He sits in the Durbar of Yama (God of death) and worships him. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 3, Stanza 15). JAYA IV. A synonym of the Sun. (M.B. Parva, Chapter 3, Stanza 24). JAYA V. The pseudo name taken by Yudhisthira at the time of the pseudonymity of the Pandavas in the country of Virata. Bhlma was known as jayanta, Arjuna by
.

Pariyatra,

on the southern

side

Kailasa

and and

Krsna, an incarnation of Bhagavan Visnu. under Hiranyaksa. Hiranyakasipu, Ravana -Kurhbhakarna, Sisupala and Dantavaktra. After three births Jaya and Vijaya returned to Vaikuntha. (Bhagavata, Skandha 7). JAYA XII. Father of the Raksasa (giant) Viradha, who was killed by Sri Rama at the forest Dandaka. Viradha was born to the giant Jaya by his wife Satahrada.
killed

were born in the earth as Hiranyaksa and Hiranyakan the second iipu. They were killed by Mahavisnu. birth they were Ravana and Kumbhakarna. Mahavisnu incarnated as Sri Rama killed them. In the third birth they were Sisupala and Dantavaktra. They were
For further

weapon of Mahavisnu. Accordingly Jaya and Vijaya

by

Sri

details see
;

.

(Valmlki Ramayana, Aranya Kanda, Sarga 3) JAYA XIII. The original name of the Mahabharata written by Vyasa. Many of the scholars are of opinion that Vyasa was not the author of the whole of the Mahabharata that we see in its present form now. They say that the Bharata written by Vyasa consisted only of eight thousand and eight hundred stanzas. That work was named Jaya. To those eight thousand and eight hundred stanzas Vaisampayana added fifteen thousand, two
.

this great book was given the or Bharata sarhhita (Bharata collection). When Suta recited this book to other hermits in Naimisaranya the book had a lakh of stanzas. Henceforward the book was called Mahabharata, (History of classical

hundred stanzas and

name Bharata

JAYA.

the name Vijaya, Nakula by the name Jayatsena and Sahadeva by the name Jayadbala at that time. (Virata At that time Pancall Parva, Chapter 5, Stanza 35). addressed all her five husbands by the name Jaya (M.B. Virata Parva, Chapter 23, Stanza 12). JAYA VI. A naga (serpent) born in the family of Kasyapa. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 103, Stanza 16). JAYA VII. A warrior who fought on the side of the Kauravas. It is mentioned in the Mahabharata, Drona Parva, Chapter 156, that both Sakuni and this warrior

I. A daughter of the hermit Gautama. Gautama had two daughters by his wife Ahalya named Joyanti and Aparajita besides Jaya. While Daksa was performParvatl of ing a yaga, (sacrifice) this Jaya informed she heard that Daksa had it. Parvatl fell down when

Sanskrit Literature; 62, Stanza 20)
.

Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter

JAYA.

not invited Siva to the sacrifice. Siva got angry at Daksa's negligence and from his wrath the Bhutaganas such' as Virabhadra and others (attendants of Siva) arose. ( Vamana Purana, Chapter 4) JAYA. II. Wife of Puspadanta, a gana (attendant of See under Puspadan'a. Siva) Another name of Parvatl. (M.B. Virata III.
. .

fought with Arjuna. JAYA VIII. A warrior of the country of Pancala. Mention is made in Mahibhfirata, Kama Parva, Chapter

JAYA

Jaya and Suprabha were born to Daksa. To Suprabha and Jaya fifty sons each were born. These hundred sons

Parva, Chapter 6, Stanza. 16). IV. A daughter of Daksa.

Two

daughters

named

JAYAV

353

JAYADRATHA

I

wore various kinds of arrows and such other weapons.
(Valmiki Ramayana, Balakanda, Sarga 21). JAVA V. A maid of Parvatl. It is seen in Skanda Purana that this Jaya was the daughter of Prajapati Krsasva. JAVA. Wife. The husband enters the wife in the form of semen and takes birth as the foetus and then is born from her as son and so the wife is called Jaya. "Patirbharyarh sampravisya Garbho bhutveha jayate /
-

the princess Du^sala. 4) Jayadratha and Pancali. Jayadratha was a bitter

a very young age and went to Samantapancaka to perform penance. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 146). It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Adi 3) Marriage. Parva, Chapter 116, Stanza 17, that Jayadratha married

not

difficult

to

Jayayastaddhi jayatvarh'

Yadasyam jayate punah"

//

JAYA (M)

(Manusmrti, Chapter 9, Stanza 8). JAYA (M)I. The name of an auspicious moment. This has the name Vijayam also. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 6, Stanza 1 7)
.

foundation of

Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Stanza 21 that Jayadratha was present at the svayarhvara of Pancall. The fact that he did not get Panca.li, might have laid the
stated in
this this

find out the root of this enmity. It

From the very beginning enemy of the Pandavas. It is
is

II.

See under Vidula.

The name given
false

to

the story of

Vidula.
at

JAYADBALA. The

JAYADEVA

the time of the incognito life of the Pandavas in the city of Virata. (M.B. Virata Parva, Chapter 5, Stanza 35). I. Sanskrit poet who lived in the 13th century A.D. He is the author of the play 'Prasannaraghavam'. As far as the story of Sri Rama is concerned, some .changes have been made in this play from that given by Bhavabhuti in his 'Mahavlracarita'. Accord-

name assumed by Sahadeva

looking forward to a to carry off Pancali. The forest life of the Pandavas began. They wandered through many forests and finally reached the forest, Kamyaka. Once the Pandavas left Pancali alone in the

From

chance

moment Jayadratha was

enmity.

A

ing to this play Sri Rama and Banasura both were lovers of Slta. The famous work 'Candraloka', a treatise on rhetorical figures, was written by this poet Jayadeva. His most important work is 'Gltagovinda', the theme of which is the early life of Sri Krsna, especially the love between Sri Krsna and Radha, which is very touchingly described. This book consists of 12sargas and each sarga contains 24 octaves. This poet was a devotee of Krsna. He used to sing lyrics before the image of Krsna while his wife danced according to the
II.

beat.

JAYADEVA

See under Duisasana II. JAYADHVAJA. The fifth of the hundred sons of Kartaviryarjuna. It is stated in Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 46 that, of the hundred sons of Kartavlryarjuna, Sura, Surasena, Dhisana, Madhu and Jayadhvaja were the mightiest warriors. This Jayadhvaja was the father of

the forest for hunting. Jayadratha of this. He came with his men to the place where the hut stood. At the very first sight of Pancali, he fell in love with her. He sent Kotikasya, the King of Trigarta, who was the son of Suratha as a messenger to Pancali. Kotikasya told Pancali about the superior qualities of Jayadratha and requested her to accept Jayadratha, leaving the Pandavas. But she rejected his request. The messenger returned to Jayadratha and told him what had happened. Jayadratha himself came in a chariot and tried to entice her. Pancali did not yield. Jayadratha caught her by force and took her away in his chariot. Dhaumya the priest of the Pandavas followed them with tears. Shortly afterwards, the Pandavas returned to the hut. They searched for Pancali here and there. They heard everything from a maid, and instantly followed Jayadratha, whose army confronted the Pandavas. The heads of almost all the warriors of Jayadratha fell on the ground. Jayadratha fled from the battlefield. The Pandavas followed
to

hut and went

came

to

know

him and caught him and scourged him. Bhlma shaved his head letting only five hairs to stand on the head. They took him as a prisoner before Dharmaputra. Finally at the instruction of Yudhisthira and Pancali, he was released. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapters 264 to
272). 5) Other details. 1 In the sacrifice of Rajasuya (imperial consecration) ( ) performed by Yudhisthira, Jayadratha took part as a tributary King. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 34,

JAYADRATHA
the
:

I. A mighty warrior King who ruled over kingdom of Sindhu. 1 Descended from Visnu in the following ) Genealogy. order Brahma Atri Candra Budha PururavasPuru Janamejaya PracinAyus Nahusa Yayati van Pravira Namasyu Vltabhaya Sundu Bahuvidha Raudrasva Rahovadi Matinara Sarhyati Santurodha Dusyanta Bharata Suhotra Suhota Gala Gardda Suketu Brhatksatra Hasti Ajamldha Brhadisu Brhaddhanu Brhatkaya Jayadratha 1 2) Birth and attainment of Boon. Jayadratha was born as a result of severe fasts and vows taken by his father. There was an ethereal voice at the birth of Jayadratha, "This child would become a very famous King. The head of him, who puts down the head of this child on the earth would break into a hundred pieces within a moment" His father was filled with joy when he heard this ethereal voice, and so he made Jayadratha King at

Talajangha.

Stanza
(

Jayadratha attacked Pancali at the M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 264) (
.

Jayadratha was present at the game of dice between Duryodhana and Yudhisthira. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 58, Stanza 28). (3) It was while going to Salva to marry a damsel that
2)
forest of

8)

.

Kamyaka.

Feeling ashamed at the result of his attempt to carry off Pancali, Jayadratha went direct to Gaiigadvara and pleased Siva by penance. Siva gave him the boon that he would be able to defeat all the Pandavas except Arjuna. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 272).
(4)

6) Jayadratha in the battle of Bharata. In the battle of Bharata, which lasted for eighteen days between the Kauravas and the Pandavas, Jayadratha

It is mentioned in i. Mahabharata, Adi Parva. Chapter 67 that Jayadratha was the son of Brhatksatra. After Bharata, Brhatksatra was the only famous and mighty emperor. Really speaking Jayadratha was the grandson of Brhatksatra. The statement that Jayadratha was the son of Brhatksatra OD!V mcaps that he was a descendant of that king.

JAYADRATHA

II

354

JAYANTA VI
lived with Slta and Laksmana on the mountain Citrakuta for some days. Once Sri Rama, being very tired of walking in the forest fell asleep with his head in the lap of Slta. Taking this chance Jayanta came in the shape of a crow and scratched the breast of Slta with

took the side of the Kauravas and fought against the Pandavas. The part played by him in the battle is given below: (1) On the first day there was a combat between Jayadratha and Drupada. (M.B. Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 45, Stanzas 55 to 57) (2) Attacked Bhimasena. (M.B. Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 79, Stanzas 1 7 to 20) (3) Fought with Arjuna and Bhimasena. (M.B. Bhlsma
.

.

Parva, Chapters 113 and 11 5). (4) Engaged in a combat with the King Virata. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 116, Stanzas 42 to 44). fought with each (5) Jayadratha and Abhimanyu other. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 14, Stanzas 64

his claws. Slta cried and Sri Rama woke up and saw Jayanta in the shape of a crow. Rama got angry and shot the Brahmastra (a divine arrow) against Jayanta. Fear of life made him fly throughout the whole of the three worlds. Even Brahma, Visnu and Mahesvara were unable to protect him, All the while the divine arrow followed him. Finally having no go he came and
fell

at the feet of Sri

Rama.

Sri

Rama

said

that

the

Fought with Ksatravarman. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 25, Stanzas 10 to 12). (7) Arjuna vowed that he would kill Jayadratha, who tried to flee from the battle-field when he came to know of this. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 74, Stanzas 4
(6)

to 74)

.

Brahmastra could never become futile and so the arrow must hit his right eye. Accordingly the arrow struck at his right eye and thus Jayanta lost his right eye. In Adhyatma Ramayana this story is stated with some

to 12).
(8)

He began

to

combat with Arjuna. (M.B. Drona

When a fierce fight began between Arjuna and Jayadratha, Sri Krsna came to Arjuna and said, "Arjuna, there was an ethereal voice at the birth of Jayadratha. The head of the person who puts down the head of Jayadratha on the earth, would be broken into a hundred pieces. So send an arrow in such a way that his head falls on the lap of his father." Hearing this, Arjuna sent an arrow which cut off the head of Jayadratha and the head fell in the lap of Jayadratha's father who had been sitting in deep penance and meditation in Samantapancaka. Instantly the father awoke from meditation and stood up and the head of his beloved son, with ear-rings on both ears fell on the earth and the head of the father was broken into a hundred pieces and he died. (Drona Parva, Chapter
146, Stanzas 104 to 130).

Parva, Chapter, 145). 7) The death of Jayadratha.

had been drying raw (Valmiki Riimayana, Sundara Kanda, Sarga 38) 3) Jayanta hidden in the ocean. After getting the boons Ravana became arrogant and with a big army went to the realm of the gods. Ravana engaged Indra in a fierce battle. In that fight Meghanada the son of Ravana attacked Jayanta, who swooned and fell down.
this incident

slight changes.

According

to

took place

when

Adhyatma Ramayana,

Sita

flesh.

.

Immediately Puloma, the father of Sacldcvl, gathered Jayanta in his hands unseen by anybody and hid him in the sea. After the disappearance of Jayanla the battle entered the second stage. Thinking that his son Jayanta had been killed, Indra began to fight with Ravana with more vigour than before. In the battle which followed Meghanada subdued Indra and made him a and the celestial maids as captive. Taking Indra captives, Ravana and his men went to Lanka. (Uttara

In II. Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Stanza 36 we see another Jayadratha who sits in the durbar of yama the death-god) and medi( tates upon him. JAYADRATHAVADHAPARVA. A sub section of Drona Parva in Maha Bharata. This consists of Chapters 85 * to 152 of Drona Parva. JAYADRATHAVTMOKSANA PARVA. A sub section of the Vana Parva, in Mahabharata. Chapter 272 is in

JAYADRATHA
Chapter
8,

The names of Jayadratha. Saindhavaka, Saindhava, Sauvlra, Sauviraja, Sauviraraja, Sindhupati Sindhuraja, Sindhurat, Sindhusauvlrabharta, Suvlra, Suvirarasfrapa, Vardhaksatri and such other names are used as synonyms of Jayadratha in the Mahabharata.
8)

came to 4) Jayanta became Bamboo. Once Agastya Indra arranged for the dance of Indra's durbar. UrvasI in honour of Agastya's visit. In the midst of the dance UrvasI saw Jayanta before her and she fell in love with him. Consequently her steps went out of
beat. Narada who was playing his lute called MahatI went wrong. Agastya got angry and cursed Jayanta and changed him to a bamboo. UrvasI was cursed to become a woman with the name Madhavi. Agastya cursed Narada that his lute MahatI would become the
lute of the people of the world. Other information.

Ramayana).

(Vayu Purana).

5)

this section.

JAYANlKA
made

I.

A A

JAYANlKA
1)

brother of the King of Virata. Drona Parva, Chapter 158, Stanza 42). JAYANTA I. Son of Indra.
II.

in the Mahabharata, Drona Parva, Chapter 156 Stanza 18, that this Jayanika was killed by Asvatthama.

grandson of

Drupada.

Mention

is

JAYANTA

(1) In the stealing of the Parijatapu spa (the flower of a paradise tree) Jayanta fought with Pradyumna the son of Sri Krsna and was defeated. (Visnu Parva Chapter 73). (2) Jayanta was defeated by Surapadma, an Asura, in a battle. (Skanda Purana, Asura Kanda). JAYANTA II. During the time of his life incognito in Virata the name assumed by Bhimasena was Jayanta. (M.B. Virata Parva, Chapter 5, Stanza 35).
'

III.

In

(M.B.

following order: Brahma Marici Kasyapa Indra Jayanta. Jayanta was the son born to Indra by his wife SacIdevi. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 112, Stanzas 3 and 4). 2 ) Jayanta lost one eye. During his forest life, Sri Rama

Genealogy.

Descended from Visnu

in

the

IV. One of the eleven Rudras. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 208, Stanza 20). JAYANTA V. A synonym of Mahavisnu (M.B. Anu-

JAYANTA

Chapter Jayanta of Pancala.

171, Stanza 11,

Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, mention is made about one

sasana Parva, Chapter 149, Stanza 98). JAYANTA VI. One of the twelve Adityas. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 150, Stanza 15).

(M.B,

JAYANTA

VII

355

JAYATSENA

1

JAYANTA

JAYANTl

palaka and Sumantra. (Valmiki Ramayana, Bala Kanda, Sarga 7)
.

VII. One of the ministers of Dasaratha. The ministers of Da;>aratha were Jayanta, eight Dhrsti, Vijaya, Asiddhartha, Arthasadhaka, Asoka, Mantra-

JAYASARMAN. A Brahmana who

I.

A

Sarasvati.

There

Somatirtha. It is mentioned in the Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Stanza 19 that those who bathe in this tlrtha would obtain the fruits of the sacrifice of Rajasuya. (Imperial consecration) JAYANTl II. Daughter of Indra and sister of Jayanta. In Bhagavata, Skandha 4, there is a story stating how Jayanti was the wife of Sukra for ten years. Sukracarya was the teacher-priest of the Asuras (demons). Once the devas (gods) had completely defeated the Asuras. With the intention of procuring
.

holy place on the bank of the river is a tlrtha (bath) here known as

taking the vow of Kamala ( Kamalavrata ) Kamala is the eleventh day of 'Adhimasa'. It is believed that this day is better than other days. If a man fasts on that day Goddess Kamala will be pleased
.

became wealthy by

with him.

The devotee should awake

in

the

Brahma muhurta

new powers from
Kailasa.

Sri

When

and more

She would gather good variety of darbha grass, cut them into the length of a span and with good flowers she would give them to the hermit for his morning oblations. She would gather soft sprouts and make bed for him and would stand near him fanning till he slept. She would get water ready for him to rinse his mouth when he woke up. Thus she did the work of a dutiful disciple. She did not, in any way by speech or action, try to entice him so that his vow of penance might be broken. She spoke only words which would be pleasing and helpful to him. This continued for thousand years and then Parama^iva appeared before him and gave the boons he requested
fruits

flurried. Indra told his daughter Jayanti to become the servant of Sukra and to break his penance somehow or other. Jayanti did not like this procedure of her father. Still she did not like to disobey her father. So she went to Kailasa and became the attendant of Sukra and stayed with him. She served him dutifully and with chastity. She would fan him with plantain leaf. She would prepare cold and fragrant water for him to drink. When the Sun became hotter she would hold her upper garment as an umbrella so that he should be in the shade. She would gather fully ripened good

the penance of Sukra severe the gods and Indra

Paramesvara, Sukracarya went to

minutes before sunrise) and take bath (fortyeight thinking of Purusottama and begin the fast. If the prayer and meditation is conducted at the house he will get double the fruits. If it is at a river it will yield four times the fruits. If it is at a cow-shed the fruits will be thousandfold and if it is conducted at a fireshed or Saivite temple, at a holy bath or in the presence of God the fruits will be a thousand and one hundredfold and if it is near a tulasi (holy basil) the fruits will be a lakhfold and if it is done in the presence of Visnu the fruits obtained will -be unlimited.

became more

began to be

This Jayasarman who took the fast was the son of a noble Brahmana named Sivasarman of Avanti. He was the youngest of five sons. He became a wicked man. So he was avoided by his relatives. Being driven away from home, he went to a distant forest and lived there. Once, by luck, he happened to reach the holy place of Triveni Mahatirtha. He was very tired of hunger and thirst. So he bathed in the tlrtha and searched for some hermitage. By chance he saw the hermitage of Harimitra

As

it

for

him

to

eat.

for. After that Sukracarya talked with her. In accordance with her request the hermit Sukra allowed her to live with him for ten years as his wife. He gave her a boon that during that period of ten years they both would be invisible to the world. Thus Sukracarya married Jayanti and they lived in the house very happily

Kamalavrata and its fruits. So Jayasarman stayed in that hermitage with them and took the vow of Kamalavrata. That night Devi appeared before him and said "I have come from Vaikuntha, because I am greatly pleased with you. Since you have taken the vow of Kamalavrata on the eleventh day of the dark lunar fortnight called Kamala of the month of Purusottama I will grant you boons. Because you have taken the vow at Triveni, I am immensely pleased with you. The noble Brahmanas of your future generations also will be blessed by me". Saying these words the Devi gave him boons and disappeared. From that day onwards Jayas arma became a great wealthy man and he returned to his father's house (Padma Purana, Chapter 64). JAYASENA I. Father of the famous Candamahasena. (See under Candamahasena) JAYASENA II. A prince of Magadha. He was a member of the council of Yudhisthira. (M.B. Sabha Parva
: .

gathered there. gation of sins.

was the month of Purusottama many people had Brahmanas were telling stories of miti-

He

heard the story of the vow called

for ten years

JAYANTI
Rsabha

of the King Rsabha who was born in the dynasty of King Agnidhra. Hundred children were born to Rsabha of Jayanti (See under
III.

The queen

JAYASENA

JAYAPRIYA. A

II).

female attendant of Subrahmanya. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 12). JAYARATA. A warrior who fought on the side of the Kauravas. Bhimasena killed this warrior, who was a

III. A King of Avanti. .To this King was born a son named Vindanuvinda and a daughter named Mitravinda by his chief wife Rajadhidevi. Mitravinda was married by Sri Krsna. JAYASVA I. A son of King Drupada. It is mentioned in Maha Bharata, Drona Parva, Chapter 156, Stanza 181 that Jayasva was killed by Asvatthama in the battle of

Chapter. 4, Stanza 26).

prince of Kalinga, in the battle of Bharata. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 155, Stanza 28). JAYARATHA. A Sanskrit poet who lived in Kasmira in the 12th century. He was a Saivite. His important work is Haracaritacintamani'. (History of classical Sanskrit
literature)
.

JAYASVA
is

II. A brother of the King of Virata. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 158, Stanza 42). JAYATSENA I. A King of the kingdom of Magadha. It

Bharata.

stated in

the son of Jarasandha, belonged to the family of Kalakeya. This King was a friend of the Pandavas. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Adi
this

King,

who was

Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 67 that

JAYATSENA

II

356

JlMOTAVAHANA
II. A wrestler (Pahalvan) While the Pandavas were living incognito in the city of Virata, once Brahmotsava (Brahma festival) was celebrated all over the country. Wrestling was an important item of the Brahma festival. Jimuta was the most famous of the wrestlers who took part in the festival. He struck several wrestlers down. At last King Virata asked Bhima to wrestle with Jimuta. Bhimasena accepted the invitation. In the wrestling Jimuta was killed. (M.B. Virata
.

Parva, Chapter 185, Stanza 8, that Jayatsena was present at the svayarhvara (marriage) of Draupadi. Towards the end of the battle of Bharata, the Pandavas sent a letter of invitation to this King and accordingly he came to the help of the Pandavas with an aksauhini of army (21870 Chariots, 21870 elephants, 65610
horses

JlMOTA.

and

JAYATSENA
father
vas, the

Chapter

19,

was Sarvabhauma and his mother was die princess Sunanda of Kekaya. Jayatsena married Sui'raprincess of Vidarbha.
to
III.

109350 infantry). (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Stanza 8) II. A King of the Puru dynasty. His
.

A

son

named Arvacina
.

JlMOTA
rata,

Parva, Chapter 16) A hermit. Mention III.
.

is

made

in

Mahabha-

was born
his
life

JAYATSENA
JAYATSENA

them. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 35)

Kauravas. He was son of Jarasandha. This King came with an aksauhini of army and helped the Kauravas in the battle of Bharata. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 16, Stanza 16). It is mentioned in Kama Parva, 5, Stanza 30 that this King was killed by Chapter

incognito. (Virata Parva, Chapter 5, Stanza 35) IV. King who took the side of the

The name assumed by Nakula

in
.

A

hermit got a treasure of gold Himalayas. JlMUTA IV. The horse of the King Vasumanas.

Udyoga Parva, Chapter

111, Stanza 23 that this called Jaimuta from the

See

under Vasumanas.
in the

JIMUTAKETU
ketu.

A synonym of Siva. There is a story I. Puranas about how Siva got the namejimuta-

When summer
Siva:

JAYATSENA V. A son of Dhrtarastra. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 69, that this Jayatsena was defeated by Satanika and in Salya Parva, Chapter 26 that he was killed by Bhimasena. JAYATSENA. An attendant of Subrahmanya. (M.B. Salya Parva. Chapter 46, Stanza 12). JAYAVIJAYAS. See under Jaya XI. JHA. This syllable means 'famous'. (Agni Purana, Chapter 348) JHAJHA. The father of Sunda an Asura who was the father of Marlca, whose mother was Tataka. (Valmiki Ramayana, Bala Kanda, Sarga 25). JHILLI. A Yadava of the house of Vrsni. He was one of the seven chief ministers of Sri Krsna in Dvaraka. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 14, Daksinatya patha).
.

Abhimanyu.

1

season began Parvati told her husband Lord, Summer has set in. What are we to do without a house to protect us from the hot sun and It is because the strong wind?" Siva replied. ''Dear walk about in the forest I have no house that I

"My

!

JHILLl
It
is

I. warrior of the Vrsnis. Jhillipinddraka ) . stated in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Stanza 20, that this warrior was present at the svayam-

A

always." Because Siva said so, the loyal wife SatidevI spent the summer with her husband in the shade of trees. When the summer was over rainy season began. People stopped walking about. The sky became black with clouds. The roaring sound of thunder was heard everywhere. Seeing that the rainy season had begun Parvati again requested her husband to erect a house. Hearing her request Siva replied. "I have no wealth at all to build a house. You see that I am wearing the hide of a leopard. The serpent Sesa is my Brahma-string. Padma and Pingala are my car-rings. One of my bracelets for the upper arm is Kambala and the other one is the

Yadava

vara (marriage) of Draupadl.
carried the
.

It

is

also

seen that this

Stanza 32)
battle.
It

dowry of Subhadra to Khandavaprastha from Dvaraka. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 120,
is

Chapter

11,

able part in the battle of Kuruksetra.

This warrior took part in the Bharata mentioned in Mahabharata, Drona Parva, Stanza 28 that this warrior played a laud(Jhillika).

naga (serpent) Dhananjaya. My bracelet on the right hand is Asvatara and on the left hand is Taksaka. The string that I wear round my waist is Nila, as black as antimony. So let us go above the clouds and spend the rainy season there. Then rain will not fall on your body." Saying thus, Siva got into a lofty cloud with Parvati and sat there. That cloud looked Jike the flag of Siva. Thenceforward Siva came to be known by the name
Jimutaketu.

JHILLI worm
tion

II.

(Jhillipindarakam)

has another

name
1

Chapter 64, Stanza

Jhuiku.

(M.B. Vana Parva,

A

worm. This

JlMOTAKETU II. See under Jimutavahana. J IMOTAVAHANA. A Vidyadhara. demi-god) He was
the son of Jimutaketu, who was the ruler of a named Kancanapura in a valley of the Himalayas. ing childless he had been sad for a long time. At he approached the divine tree Kalpaka (a heavenly that yields every wish) that stood in his garden
(
.

(Vamana Purana, Chapter)

.

).

city

town Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 59. JHI5IKU. See under Jhilli II.
is

JHlLLIKA(M). An
made about

ancient town in South India.
this

Men-

Belast

in

Mahabharata, Bhisma

tree

JIHVA.

servant woman who stole ornaments from the palace. For the detailed story of how she was caught with stolen goods see under Hans' arman.
I.

A

JIMUTA
gavata,
to

Skandha

A King
9)

.

born of the family of Yayati. (Bha.

and requested it to bless him with a child. Thus a son was born to him. The famous Jimutavahana was that son. When Jimutavahana came to know of the divine powers of the Kalpaka tree, from the ministers, with the permission of his father he went to the Kalpaka tree, bowed before it and said to it, "Oh noble tree! You have

i. The Mahabharata mentions two princes of Magadha. bearing the same name 'Jayatsena'. The fathers of both of them happen be Jarasandhas. But it is said that after the dealh of the fimovs Jir isandhi his son Sahad^va b;cam^ king. This Sahadeva, with his brother Jayatsena took the side of the Piadavas and f)u?ht against thj Kura/ii. H-n:e th: K'n,* Jiyats^ni mentioned hire must be the of some other Jarasandha of the Kingdom of son Magadha.

jlMCTAVAHANA
granted
wish.
all

357

JIMUTAVAHANA
With
went
his

the wishes of

Jlmutavahana spread throughout the three worlds, and all the Vidyadharas grew jealous of him. As the heavenly tree Kalpaka, which yielded all the wishes, had returned to heaven, they thought it the most propitious time and arrayed their army against Jlmutavahana. His father Jlmutaketu had completed all preparations to meet the enemy. But Jlmutavahana approached his father and said, "Father I am perfectly sure that no body could defeat you in battle. But see how mean it is to destroy so many lives and win the country merely for the pleasures of this fragile body. So let us go away from here. Leave the kingdom to them." Jlmutaketu, who was pleased at this generous nature of his son, respected his wish and went with his family to the Malaya mountain and lived there. Mitravasu, the son of Visvavasu, the King of the Siddhas and Jlmutavahana became close friends. One day Jlmutavahana was wandering about in the forest when he saw
!

miserable in the world. So I wish to give you to the world with that purpose in view". Instantly an ethereal voice said from the tree. "If you are forsaking me I am going away. But I will fulfil your wish." Thus according to the wish of Jlmutavahana the Kalpaka tree shed gold everywhere in the world and then went to heaven and disappeared. The earth became wealthy and prosperous. The fame of

No body

should be

my

forefathers.

But

I

have one

heart

overflowing with

to his house.

Mitravasu was

joy, there.

Jlmutavahana

He

revealed

the purpose of his coming. Jlmutavahana, who had the remembrance of his previous births told Mitravasu that in the previous birth also they had been friends and that Malayavati had been his wife. Thus their marriage took place. Delightful days of the married life passed one by one. One day Jlmutavahana and Mitravasu went for a walk. They reached a forest on the seashore. Seeing some bones there Jlmutavahana asked Mitra"In ancient days vasu about them. Mitravasu said the mother of Nagas (serpents) made Vinata, Kadru, the mother of Garuda, her slave by some trick. Garuda liberated his mother from slavery. But the hatred increased day by day and Garuda began to eat serpents, the children of Kadru. Seeing this, Vasuki the King of Nagas entered into a contract with Garucja, so as to prevent the nagas from being destroyed altogether. The arrangement was that Vasuki would send a serpent everyday to Garuda. Garuda ate all those serpents sent by Vasuki in this place. These are the bones of those poor snakes."
:

filled

When Jlmutavahana heard this story his heart was with pity. He decided to save the life of at least

in the

and a young woman of exquisite beauty, surrounded by her maids, singing hymns and worshipping Devi. Jlmutavahana was attracted by her extra-ordinary beauty. Love budded in her heart also. On enquiry it was understood that she was Malayavati, the sister of Mitravasu. After that both of them engaged in a little talk of love-making. Hearing her mother calling, Malayavati instantly went home. Being fallen head-long in love, Jlmutavahana spent the night somehow or other and at dawn reached the temple with a hermit boy. While the hermit boy was consoling Jlmutavahana Malayavati also came there. Jlmutavahana and his friend hid behind a tree. She was alone, and since she
could not bear separation from her lover she decided to commit suicide and standing at the steps, she said "Devi If it is impossible to get that Jlmutavahana as my husband in this birth, let it be so. But bless me that I may have my wish granted in the next birth at least". Saying this she tied one end of her upper garment on
!

middle of a garden a temple dedicated

to

Devi

instead. But the serpent by giving his body presence of Mitravasu was an obstacle to carry out his wish. At that particular moment a minister of Visvavasu appeared there and took away Mitravasu saying that he was wanted by his father. Left alone, Jlmutavahana stood there when he saw a young man coming with an old woman who was crying bitterly. On enquiry Jtmutavahana learned that in accordance with the agreement with Garuda, the old woman was bringing her only son Sankhacuda to give him as food

one

Garuda. Jlmutavahana told them that he would the place of Sankhacuda that day. The mother and the son reluctantly agreed to his desire. The old woman went away crying and Sankhacuda went to the
to

take

the tree and tried to commit suicide. Instantly there was an ethereal voice which said, "Daughter, don't do such rash things. Jlmutavahana will become your husband. He will become the emperor of the Vidyadharas also." Jlmutavahana came and untied the knot of the upper garment with his own hands and saved her from death. Her maid appeared and said with delight. "Friend you are very lucky. Today I heard what prince Mitravasu said to his father Vi'-'vavasu. Thus he said 'Father Jlmutavahana who gave away his own Kalpaka tree for the welfare of others has come to this place. It will bring prosperity to us, if we show our hospitality to this noble guest by giving our Malayavati to him. It
!

Hearing the sound of Garuda 's wings Jlmutavahana laid himself on a stone and Garuda taking him in his beaks flew to the top of the Malaya Mountain. On the way the jewel of Jlmutavahana known as 'Cudaratna', which was soaked in blood fell down, in front of Malayavati. Knowing that it was the jewel of her husband, with a terrible cry she ran to her father. Because of his knowledge of arts and sciences, Jlmutaketu also knew everything and with his wife and daughter he went to the top of the Malaya mountain. In the meanwhile, Sankhacuda, having done obeisance to 'Gokarnanatha' (God), came back to the stone where he had left Jlmutavahana and seeing a pool of fresh blood, became sad and silent. Then determining that he would save Jlmutavahana at any cost, he went up the mountain following the track of the blood

temple.

!

is

anywhere else." The father consented. The prince instantly went to the abode of this gentleman. I think the marriage will take place today. So come, let us go home."

very

difficult to get

such a

noble

man

for

my

sister

Garuda took Jlmutavahana to the peak of the mountain and began to peck at him. Jlmutavahana grew more and more delightful as the pecking became harder. Garuda looked at him with wonder and thought, "Surely, this is not a naga. It must be a Gandharva or somebody else." Not knowing what to do he sat looking at his prey, who invited him to finish off his meal. By this time Sankhacuda had reached the spot. Soon Jlmutaketu with his wife and Malayavati also arrived.

drops.

jlR^ODDHARA
They
all

358

JIVATMAN
of the wife of a Vasu named Dyau. It was because of the words of this JitavatI that the Astavasus (the eight Vasus) stole the cow Nandini of Vasistha, and by the curse of Vasistha had to take birth in the womb of

When

cried aloud.

Garuda was

in to

he knew that he was about

great
eat

Jimutavahana, who had given away even tree for the good of others, Garuda was filled with remorse. Instantly Jimutavahana died. The parents and Sankhacuda cried beating their breasts. Malayavati fell on the ground and cried. Then looking up she called out with tears. "Ha Devi Jagadambika you have told me that my husband would become the emperor of the Vidyadharas. Has your boon become futile because of my misfortune ?" Devi appeared and said "Daughter My words will not become futile." Then Devi sprinkled Amrta (ambrosia) on Jimutavahana and brought him to life. He sprang up more radiant than before, and was anointed as emperor of the Vidyadharas by Devi. When Devi disappeared Garuda who was much pleased, told Jimutavahana to ask for any boon. Jimutavahana requested for the boon that Garuda
! !
!

confusion. the famous the Kalpaka

women on
JISI^IU
I.

JISIVU

II.
all

won

!

serpents which had been killed by Garuda came to life again. All the gods and hermits came there with joy. After all had gone, Jimutavahana went with his relatives to the Himalayas as the emperor of Vidyadharas. 1 (Kathasaritsagara, SasankavatI Lambaka,

should stop eating the Nagas and that all the serpents to bones should be brought to life again. Garuda granted him that boon. All the

JISIVU III. A warrior who fought on the side of the Pandavas against the Kauravas. This warrior who was a native of Cedi, was killed by Kama (M.B. Karna Parva, Chapter 56, Stanza 48J. JIS1VUKARMAN. A warrior who stood on the side of the Pandavas and fought against the Kauravas. He was a native of the country of Cedi. (M.B. Karna Parva, Chapter 56, Stanza 48) JIVAJIVAKA. A King of birds. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Sand Parva, Chapter 139, Stanza 6,
.

the battles he fought, he got the name Jisnu. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 70, Stanza 13)
.

A name of Arjuna. A synonym of Sri

earth. (See

under Ganga, Para 7). (See under Arjuna). Krsna. As Sri Krsna had

about

this

who had been reduced

JIVALA.
ya.

charioteer of Rtuparna, the King of AyodhNala who had been living there under the name Bahuka had accepted Jivala as his friend. (See under

A

bird.

JIVATMAN
is is

Nala).

brahman (which
so

(The induvidual life or soul). The Aparathe highest Brahman) that is next to
is

minute and subtle
almighty.
this
It is

Tarahga23).

God

mentioned

called Jlvatman. Parabrahman in Taittiriyopanisad
:

jlRIVfODDHARA.

of images fixed in temples which have fallen into dilapidation, is
called Jlrnoddhara. Mention is made in Agni Purana, Chapter 67, about the principles of Jlrnoddhara, as
follows
:

Erection and consecration

about

priest should adorn the image with ornaments and perform 'Stavana'. If the idol is very badly ruined by Broken image and that age it must be abandoned. with any part of the body severed or disfigured should also be abandoned, even if it is made of stone or any other material. When the image is renovated the priest should make burnt offerings thousand times with Narasimhamantra (spell or incantation) If the ruined image is made of wood it should be burned. If it is made of stone it should be placed at the bottom of deep water, either in the sea or anywhere else. If it is made of metals or jewels, it must be put into water. The ruined image should be placed in a carriage and covered with a cloth. With instrumental music and so forth the image should be taken to water in a procession and then submerged in water. After this the priest must be given a gift. Only after this should the new image be erected and consecrated. On a good day in an auspicious moment a new image of the same material and measurement as of the old image should be erected and consecrated by the priest. JITARI. Son of Avlksit born of the family of Puru. Avlksit was the son of King Kuru. Mention is made about Jitari in Mahabharata, Adi Parva Chapter 94, Stanza 53. JITATMA. A Visvadeva (A class of gods) concerned with Sraddha (offerings to the Manes). (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 91, Stanza 31) JITAVATl. A daughter of King Usinara. She was the most beautiful woman in the world. She was the friend
. .

The

into existence. Vegetation grew from earth, and from vegetation food, from food semen, and from semen Purusa came into existence. The materialized form of aparabrahman is the body. Its subtle form is the soul. Jlvatma or the individual soul is the subtle form of soul dwelling in the materialized form of the aparabrahman. This soul sits in the miniature lotus of heart in the miniature e ther. The body which is made of the five

prthivya osadhayah osadhibhyo annam annat purusah sa'va esa puruso annamayah." 'From this Atman came into existence ether possessing the quality of sound. From ether air, possessing the qualities of sound and touch, came into existence. Fire with the came into being qualities of sound, touch and colour from air. From fire, water having the qualities of sound touch, colour and taste came into being. From water earth with the qualities of sound, touch, colour, taste and smell

aparabrahman as follows va etasmadatmana akasah sambhutah, akasad vayuh vayoragnih, agnerapah adbhyah prthvi

"Tasmad

came

elements is the dwelling place of this Jlvatma. The individual life exists in every living being. The body originated from food is the outer covering of the Jlvatma. This materialized body is also called Annamayakosa (the cask of food). Inside this annamayakosa there It is is the Pranamayakosa (the chest of the life breaths)
.

stated in the Taittiriyopanisad that this Pranamayakosa is separate from and existing inside the annamayakosa. The Pranamayakosa which exists inside the annama-

yakosa has the shape of man. The life breath which appears as the inhaling and exhaling breath is the head of the Pranamayakosa. The life breath Vyana is the ri^ht wing and Apana is the left wing, ether its soul and
Prthvi (the earth) its tail. 2 Inside the Pranamayakosa, there exists the Manomayakosa (the chest of mind) ,
(Taittiriya )
.

i

3

This story is told to the king Trivikramasena by Vetala. See under Trivikramasena. Tasya prana eva sirah vyano daksinah paksah apinah uttarah paksahi akasa atma, Prthivi puccham.

JNANAPAVANAT IRTHA
but
it fills

359
of the Pranamayakosa. knowledge or under-

JVARA
by the touch of Ganges-water." The amazed Ganga took the form of Sumangaladevi and stood before Jvala and aked her the reason for saying so. Jvala said "Gangadevi submerged her seven sons and killed them. After that she took the eighth son from Santanu. That son too was killed by Arjuna in the Bharata-battle. Thus

the

entire

interior

standing) exists inside the Manomayakosa. The Jivatma or the individual life dwells inside this Vijfianamayakosa and pervades the entire body. It is by the activity of Vijnanamayakoia that the Jivatma feels its individuality. Inside the Vijnanamayakoi'.a there exists a fifth kosa (chest) called the Anandamayakosa, which is the immediate covering of Jivatma, and which has no sense of individuality. The three Koaas, Anandakosa, Vijnanakosa and Pranamayakosa together is called Suksmasaiira (the subtle body). It must be remembered that Suks-

The Vijnanamayakos'a(the

chest of

masarlra

is

different
.

from Susuksmasarlra

(the
(in

minute
heart)

Heart

subtle body) is the abode

is childless and sinful." Hearing this Ganga Devi cursed Arjuna "Let his head be cut off in six months' time." Jvala was satisfied. (For the result of the curse see under Arjuna, Para 28) JVALAJIHVA I. One of the two attendants given to Subrahmanya by Agnideva. (Fire god) Jyoti was the other attendant. (MB. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza

Ganga

.

.

being Jivatma exists). So the name 'Hrd1 The Purusa (male being), aya' (heart) is meaningful. which sits inside the heart or the Jivatma is as big as

of the Jivatma.

Hrdi

ayam

(this

The Jivatma

abandoned them and entered into of the Brhadaranyaka gives an explanation to the question why this Jivatma which is as free as air enters the body of man, beast, bird, tree, rock etc. and subjects itself to misery and hardship. "Where does the Jivatma originate from? how does it enter this body?" Jivatma originates from Paramatma (the soul of the universe) As the shadow pervades the body of a man this Jivatma overshadows this body." Sri Sarikaracarya expounds it in another way; he says that the Jivatma is tied to the body by
due

the toe according to the Kathopanisad. or the Aparabrahman is without beginning. Even from the past which is beyond our thinking crores and crores of Jlvatmans had got into individuals and when the Annamayakosas of the individuals decayed
to death, they

A warrior of Subrahmanya. II. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 61) JVALESVARA. See under Tripura. JVARA. (Jvaram) (Fever).
JVALAJIHVA
.

33).

(M.B.

1)

General information.

A

Puranas that living beings catch fever
activities
2)

fearful being. It

is

of

stated in the owing to the

this

monster.

new

individuals.

The author

kam on mount
performed a
not invited.

of jvara. Once Siva and Parvati were talking with each other in the Holy Bath called Jyotis-

The

origin

On that day Daksa had Gangadvara. Siva alone was Seeing the Gods Brahma and the others
Mahameru.
at
sacrifice

.

going to that place through the sky, Parvati asked Siva what the matter was. Siva explained everything to Parvati, who became very sorry because her husband had not been invited. Siva grew uneasy at the sorrow of his wife. A drop of sweat fell down from his third eye. A fearful monster with the lustre of fire arose from that drop of sweat. That figure is described as
follows
:

JNANAPAVANATIRTHA. An

ancient holy bath. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter, 84, Stanza 3 that those who visit this holy place will attain the fruits of performing the sacrifice of Agnistoma. JR'MBHADEVI. Sec under Kottuva (Gape). JRMBHIK.A. Yawning or gaping. For the Puranic story of how gape came into existence in the world, see

the imagination or desires of the mind.

"A

terrible monster,

with dwarfish

green moustaches, hair standing erect on head and body covered with hair all over, looking like a combination of hawk and owl, with jet-black colour, wearing a blood-coloured cloth." (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 283)
.

figure, staring eyes,

JUHU. A King

under Kottuva (Gape).

of the family of Yayati.

(Bhagavata,

A daughter of Taksaka. The King Rksa marMatinara was the son born to the couple. (Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 95. Stanza 25) JVALA II. The wife of Niladhvaja. There is a story about this Jvala in the "Jaimini Agvamedha Parva", Chapter
JVALA
I.

Skandha9).
ried her.

thunderbolt, gaping and sighing, with tight body and horrible face, rendered so by many eyes." (M.B. Visnu

three legs, three heads, six hands and nine eyes, comes Jvara the terrible monster, as fierce as Yama the god of death and fearful like a thousand clouds with

"With

Parva, Chapter 122).
this uncouth figure Siva gave the name Jvara, who dashed away and entered into all devas (gods). Brahma and the others caught fever and were laid up. At last they all came to Siva. Hearing their request Siva divided Jvara into several parts and separated them from devas and entered them into other living beings, and ordered that, headache for elephants, green coverings

To

.

The Pandavas began
led the
sacrificial

15, as follows

:

the sacrifice of Asvamedha. Arjuna horse. He continued his victorious

march

ched her brother Unmuka and asked him to fight with Arjuna. He also was not prepared to fight with Arjuna. Jvala became very angry and walked to the bank of the Ganges. When the Ganges-water touched her feet
!

defeating all Kings and reached the city of Niladhvaja. Niladhvaja was not prepared for a fight. Seeing this his wife Jvala tried various ways to push her husband to war. Seeing them to be futile she approa-

she stopped and said, "Dear me I am become sinful Ayarh puru?ah bhah satyah tasmin antarhrdaye yatha vf ihir
I

shedding of skin for snakes, hoof-rot for cows, for horses, feather-sprouting for peacocks, sore-eye for cuckoo, hiccough for parrot, weariness for tigers and fever for men will bj caused by Jvara. It was the time of the terrorization of Vrtrasura. Jvara caught hold of that Asura also. It was at this time that Indra used his thunderbolt and killed Vrtrasura. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 283 ; M.B. Visnu Parva,
for water,

sore-throat

Chapter 122).
va,

yavo va,

sa esa sarvasyesanah sarvasyadhipatih.

(Brhadaranyaka)

JYAMAGHA
JYAMAGHA. A
King born
in the dynasty

360
of Iksvaku.

JYOTISAM
manas are given greens on

(Harivarhs'a, Chapter 36). Five sons, who were equal to gods,

Payoda, Krosta, Nila and Ajika were born

named Sahasrada, to Yadu of

the family of Iksvaku. Several noble persons were born in the family of Krosta. noble and broadminded son

and Sasabindu to Citraratha. Thousand sons were born Sasabindu who was an emperor. Important among those thousand who were blessed with radiance, fame, wealth and beauty, were Prthusravas, Prthuyasas, and Prthumati. Prthutejas, Prthubhava, Prthuklrti USanas was the son of Prthusravas, Sineyu was the son of Us anas and Rukmakavaca the son of Sineyu. Rukmakavaca killed all the archers and conquered the countries and performing asvamedha (horse sacrifice)
to

named Vrjimvan was born to Krosta. Svahi was born to Vrjinlvan. Ruseku to Svahi, Citraratha to Ruseku

A

the day of this star it will bring good to the giver. JYESTHA. A hermit who was well-versed in the SamaVeda. This ancient hermit once received valuable advice from the Satvatas called Barhisads. (M.B. Sand Parva, Chapter 3 18, Stanza 46)
.

JYESTHAPUSKARA. A

JYESTHASAMA. A Sama
hermit Jyestha. Stanza 46)
.

holy place. Those who visit this holy place will get the fruits of performing the sacrifice Vana Parva, Chapter 200, of Agnistoma. (M.B. Stanza 66).

meditated upon by the (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 348,

gave away all the countries he conquered, as gift to Brahmanas. Five sons were born to Rukmakavaca. Jyamagha was one of them. His brothers were Rukmesu, Prthurukma, Parigha and Hari. Of them Parigha and Hari were made Kings of foreign countries. Rukmesu was given the country ruled by his father. Prthurukma served Rukmesu. They drove Jyamagha away from the
country.

A river. This river stays in the palace of Va'runa worshipping him. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 21). JYESTHILA. A holy place. He who stays in this of giving a holy place for a night will get the fruits thousand cows as gift. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Stanza 164).
JYESTHILA.
I. Son of the Vasu named Aha. Mention is made about him in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 66, Stanza 23. JYOTI II. One of the two attendants given to Subrahmanya by the God Agni (fire). The second one was Stanza 33). Jva'lajihva. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, JYOTIKA. A famous serpent. This serpent was born to Kasyapa by his wife Kadru. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 35, Stanza 13). JYOTIRATHA. A famous river. The people of India used to drink water from this river. (M.B. Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 26)

JYOTI

Jyamagha went to the forest and erected a hermitage for him. Then according to the advice of a Brahmin, he who was an old man took bow and arrow and got into
a chariot
river

flying a flag and went to the bank of the Narmada. He had neither wealth nor attendants. He stayed on the mountain Rksavan eating fruits and roots. His wife Saibya also had become old. They had no children. Still Jyamagha did not marry anybody else. Once Jyamagha came out victorious in a fight in which he got a girl. Jyamagha took the girl to his wife and told her, "This girl shall be the wife of your son." She asked him how that could be wl en she had no son. He said, "She will become the wife of the son who is going to be born to you." As a result of severe penance a son named Vidarbha was born to Saibya. The damsel who became the wife of Vidarbha gave birth to two sons named Kratha and Kaisika. (Padma

.

JYOTIRATHYA.

merges with the river Sonabhadra, would obtain the fruits of performing the sacrifice of Agnistoma. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 65, Stanza 8). JYOTIRVASU. A King born in the family of Pururavas. He was the son of Sumati and the father of Pratika.
in the particular place

A

river.

He who
it

bathes in

this

river

where

JYOTISA (M).

JYESTHA
was As

Purana, Chapter 13).
I.

Ramayana, Yuddha Kanda,

Trimurtis (Visnu, Brahma and Siva) found her and sent her away ordering her to sit in inauspicious places. The Goddess Jyestha came out of the Milk-Sea before the goddess Laksml. So this deity is considered the elder sister of Laksml. As she is the elder she is also called Mudhevi (Mudevi) The mode of worshipping
.

deity of inauspicious things. In Kamba it is observed that Jyestha a goddess obtained by churning the Sea of Milk. soon as she came up from the sea of Milk, the

A

JYESTHA

given in Bodhayana Sutra. Tondiratipotialvar, who was a Vaisnava Alvar, who lived in 7th century A.D. said that it was useless to worship this Goddess. Ancient images of this Goddess have been found. But worship of Jyestha was completely discontinued after the 10th century. In Saiva Puranas it is mentioned that this Goddess is one of the eight portions of Paragakti. It was believed that the powers of this Goddess regulated human lives in various ways.
this

goddess

is

planets and the stars etc. From the very ancient days men believed that these planets and stars in the sky played an important part in controlling the growth and activities of all the living and non-living things in the world. Astrology has been a recognized science in Egypt, China and India from very ancient days. History tells us that 3000 years before Christ there were astronomers in Babylon. But even before that time astronomy had fully expanded and grown in Bharata. The Vedas are supposed to have six Arigas (ancillaries) They are Siksa (Phonetics), Kalpa (ritual), Vyakarana

(Astronomy and astrology). Jyotisa is the science about the stars and heavenly bodies. The heavenly ^ bodies are the sun, the moon, the other

(Bhagavata, Skandha 9)

.

(Grammar) Jyotisa (astronomy) Chandas (metrics), and Nirukta (etymology). From this it can be said that the Indians had acknowledged Astronomy as an anciof the Vedas say llary of the Vedas. The expounders
,

that

II.

A

star. It is

mentioned

in

Mahabharata,
if

Astronomy is the eye of the Vedas. Astronomy has two sides, the doctrinal side ( Pramanabhaga) and the result-side ( Phalabhaga) The Calendar reckoned in accordance with the Pramana-bhaga. is Prediction and casting horoscopes of living beings is the
.

Anus"asana Parva, Chapter 64, Stanza 24 that

Brah-

Phala-bhaga.

JYOTISKA
The astronomers have

361

KABANDHA

divided the sky that surrounds the earth into twelve parts called rax is (zodiacs). All the stars of the first zodiac appear in the shape of a goat (Mesa) so that zodiac was called Mesa. Thus the zodiac in which the stars took the shape of an ox was In the zodiac Mithuna the stars called Rsabha (ox) took the shape of a young couple. Karkataka means In that zodiac the stars appear in the shape of crab. a crab. In the same way Sirhha means lion and Kanya
.

means a damsel. Tula means balance and Vrscika means scorpion Dhanus means bow and Makara means Makara matsya (horned shark) Kumbha is a water pot and Mina means fish. The name of the zodiac is according to the sign of the zodiac. That is, in what
;
.

shape the stars in that particular zodiac appear to the people of the earth. The figure of the twelve zodiacs with the earth as centre is given below:

Mina

KACA
:

362
once Kaca came back

KADALlGARBHA
to life and stood before them. All the three then returned to the airama happily. The anger of the Asuras against Kaca knew no bounds. On another occasion the Asuras seized him and after killing him pounded his body into a paste and mixed it up in sea-water. This time also, at the request of

Before long they saw Kabandha rushing towards them. He is described thus in the Mahabharata "He was as big as a mountain, dark as a black cloud, with pointed hairs all over his body and looked fierce with a voice as loud as thunder. He had an eye on his stomach, round and yellow, emitting a glare like a fire-name. Looking wicked he thrust his big tongue out of his huge mouth licking the sides." The demon stretched out his big hands and caught hold of Sri Rama in his right hand and Laksmana in his left hand. Finding themselves helpless in his hands

The

He rose up in the air as the Gandharva King of old and advised Sri Rama to go to Sugriva for knowing more about Sita. (Sargas 70 to 72, Aranya Kanda, Valmiki Ramayana) KACA. The first son of Brhaspati. That extremely
a funeral pyre.
.

Laksmana implored Rama to flee away from the demon leaving him alone. Sri Rama cut off Kabandha's off the left hand. right hand and Laksmana cut Kabandha then asked them who they were. Kabandha told Rama and Laksmana his previous story and then fell dead. Rama and Laksmana burnt the dead body in

Brahma
2)

beautiful boy 1) Genealogy.

How

was a great favourite of the devas. Descending in order from Visnu Angiras Brhaspati Kaca.
he studied
the
secret

Devas and Asuras always quarrelled with each other. Devas accepted Brhaspati as their guru and the asuras made Sukracarya their guru. Sukracarya knew an art which Brhaspati did not know, the secret of Mrtasanjivani.

of

Mrtasanjivani.

The

When the devas cut the Asuras to pieces, Sukracarya used to bring them back to life by his knowledge of Mrtasanjivani. Mrtasanjivani is the art of
reviving the dead.

Devas were

at a loss to

know what

to do.

Kaca. They were always together as an inseparable couple. Asuras did not like the advent of Kaca to the As rama of Sukracarya. They knew that he had come to study the secrets of the Asuras. Once Kaca went alone to look after the cows and the Asuras followed him stealthily. When Kaca entered deep into the forest the Asuras killed him and gave him to the
wolves.

of Mrtasanjivani from Sukracarya somehow. It was imperative that they should learn it. Then they found out a way. They sent Kaca, son of Brhaspati, to Sukracarya. Kaca went to Sukracarya and told him that he was the son of Brhaspati and had come to him to be his disciple for a period of a thousand years doing service to him. The modesty of the boy appealed to Sukracarya and he accepted Kaca as his disciple. DevayanI, daughter of Sukracarya, fell in love with
to learn the secret

They wanted

it. Then Sukracarya called Kaca by name and Kaca came out bursting the stomach of his guru. The preceptor lay dead and by employing the art of Mrtasanjivani he had learnt, Kaca brought his guru from that day to life. Sukracarya eschewed wine onwards and declared it as a forbidden drink to brahmins. Sukracarya said that because Kaca was reborn from his stomach he must be deemed his son. Kaca remained for some more 3) Kaca was cursed. time under the tutelage of Sukracarya and when his education became complete he took leave of his preceptor and also DevayanI. DevayanI followed him for a long distance from the hermitage and requested him to marry her. Kaca replied he could not do so because he had become a brother to DevayanI. DevayanI got angry and cursed him saying that he would not be able to use the art of Mrtasanjivani he had learnt from her father. Kaca cursed her back saying that none of the sons of sages would marry her. Kaca however felt relieved that though he would not be able to practise the art, his disciples would be able to do so. He went back to Devaloka and was heartily welcomed by all the Devas. He then imparted the art of Mrtasanjivani to the devas. (Chapters 76 and 77, Adi Parva, M.B.) 4) Kaca visits Bhisma. Kaca was also one among the several people who visited Bhisma while the latter was (Sloka 9, lying on a bed of arrows awaiting death.

The disciple thus went inside the belly of the guru. Dusk came, the cattle came and still Kaca did not return and DevayanI reported the matter to her father. Sukracarya sat for some time in meditation and then he knew that Kaca was in his own stomach. If he got Kaca out, he would burst his stomach and Sukra would die and if he did not get him out his daughter would burst her heart and dje. Sukracarya was in a fix. He asked Kaca how he got in and he replied that it was through the wine. Sukra imparted to Kaca the art of Mrtasanjivani and Kaca lying within the stomach
drink.

DevayanI, Sukracarya brought him back to life. third time the Asuras burnt the body of Kaca and mixed the ashes in wine and served it to Sukracarya to

repeated

.

KACCHAM. An

Chapter 47, Santi Parva, M.B.). Chapter 54, Salya Parva).

ancient place of habitation. (Sloka 19,
of the nine treasures of Kubera. of the harp of Narada. (Sloka, 19,

KACCHAPAM. One
KACCHAPI. Name

became dusk. The cows returned to the As'rama without the cowherd. DevayanI waited for a long time for Kaca to come. Not seeing him DevayanI went weeping to her father and said, "Oh, father, the sun has set. You have performed your nightly fire sacrifice. The cattle have come back by themselves and still Kaca has not returned home. I fear he is dead or has been killed. I cannot live without him." The affectionate Sukracarya could not bear the sight of his dear daughter weeping and so he went to the forest with DevayanI and employing the art of Sanjivanl lie invoked the dead youth to appear. At
It

KADALlGARBHA.
There was once a
sagara.
,

Chapter

54, Salya Parva,
is

Mankanaka. There

M.B.) Daughter of
.

the

great

sage

a story about her

in Kathasarit-

One day the beautiful from above. As a wind Seeing her blew, her upper garment was displaced. bare body, Mankanaka had emission. The semen of
naka

city called Iksumatl. It was on the banks of the river Iksumatl. It was Visvamitra who thick set up that river and city. In a hermitage in the forest on the shores of Iksumatl lived a sage, Manka-

nymph Menaka, came

performing

penance.
there

KADALIVANA
the sage fell into a Kadali (plantain) tree and from there arose a maiden, extremely beautiful. Because she was born from Kadali she was called Kadallgarbha. Kadallgarbha grew up into a beautiful lady and one day a King named Drdhavarma came that way while hunting and seeing Kadallgarbha he fell in love with her and married her with the permission of Maiikanaka. The Devas advised her to scatter mustard seeds on the way to her husband's house and in case her husband abandoned her she should be guided by the mustard plants to return home. She did so. One day by the evil advice of a barber the King divorced her and she returned to the Asrama by following the young mustard plants. But Marikanaka took her back to the King. (Taraiiga 6, Madanaman-

363

KADRC
both of them looked after Kasyapa as
direct sisters.
_

if

they were

KADALIVANA.

jukalambaka, Kathasaritsagara) This grove is situated on the banks of Kuberapuskarini which abounded in Saugandhika flowers. There were different kinds of plantain fruits of golden hue in this grove. Hanuman resided in it.
.

KADAMBARl I. A river flowing westwards in Jambudvipa.
name "Kadambari" because
In Bhagavata 5th Skandha
of a
it is
it

.

chapter 146,

Vana

Parva, M.B.).

said that this river got

its

KADAMBARl
written
in

Kadamba

had the hollow trunk

tree as

its

II.

An

source. excellent story

Sanskrit
saintly

KADHMOR. A
remembered

Banabhatta. Kadambarl
in

by

the

book in prose great Sanskrit poet is the heroine of the story. King. He is worthy of being
the

when Kadru and Vinata became he left for the forest. pregnant After some time Kadru delivered a thousand eggs and Vinata two eggs. Both of them kept the eggs in warm of jars and after five hundred years the thousand eggs Kadru burst letting out a thousand serpents. Vinata became impatient and broke open an egg of hers. Out came from it a half developed being and that was Aruna. Aruna cursed her for being impatient and said "You let me out half developed because of your overof anxiety and you will, therefore, become a servant Kadru. Keep the other egg for another five hundred out of it years. Then a very powerful son will come and that son will relieve you of your servitude to Kadru". So saying he rose up in the air and became the charioteer of the sun. After five hundred years the other egg of Vinata broke and Garuda came out.
they asked for and

Kadru and Vinata lived 3) Kadru, mother of serpents. Kasyapa was pleased with them and serving Kasyapa. asked them what boon they wanted. Kadru asked for a thousand serpents to be born of her and Vinata asked for two sons who would be braver and more brilliant than the sons of Kadru. Kasyapa granted them what

(Chapter
4)

16,

Adi Parva, M.B.)
of

Names Sons of Kadru. Kadru are given below:

the prominent

sons

of

KADRU.
pati.

sana Parva).

morning.

(Chapter 165, Anusa-

Wife of Kasyapa and daughter of Daksapraja-

Brahma
2)

1)

Genealogy.

Dak sa

Descended from Visnu thus:

Visnu

Kadru

.

.

Kadru-- Wife or daughter of Kasyapa ? Whether KadrQ was the wife or daughter of Kasyapa is a question which remains unanswered still in the Puranas. Chapter 65 of Bhasa Bharata states like this.

The
Atri,

six spiritual sons

Marici got a son named Kasyapa and he married the thirteen daughters of Daksa, namely, Aditi, Did, Kala, Danayus, Danu, Sirhhika, Krodha, Pradha, Visva, Vinata, Kapila, Muni and Kadru. So according to this, Kadru was the wife of Kasyapa. But the 14th Sarga of Aranya Kanda of Valmiki Rama-

of Pulastya, Pulaha

Brahma

are

:

and Kratu.

Marici, Arigiras,

Karavlra, Pitharaka, Sikha, Puspadarhstra, Sumukha, Nisfhanaka, Vilvaka, Kaunapas'ana, Hemaguha, Bilvapandura, Kujhara, Nahusa, Mrsnada, Kunjara, Pingala, Samkha, Prabhakara, Bahyakarna, Sirapurna, Kumuda, Hastipada, Haridraka, Kumudaksa, Mudgara, AparaHalika, Asvatara, Jyotika, jita, Tittiri, Kambala, Pannaga, Kardama, Kalikaka, Srivaha, Bahumulaka, Samvrtta, Dhrtaraslra, Vrtta, Kauravya, Karkara, Arkara, Patta, Samkhapinda, Kundodara, Sariikha-

Sesa, Purananaga, Aryaka, Vasuki, Kapinjara, Ugraka, Airavata, Elaputra, Kalasapotaka, Taksaka, Savama, Sumanas, Karkofaka, Nila, Dadhimukha, Dhananjaya, Anila, Vimala, Kaliya, Kalmasa, Pindaka, Maninaga, Sabala, Apta, Sakha, Pindaraka, Hastipinda, Vali,

yana

states

:

Daksaprajapati got sixty illustrious daughters and of these Kasyapa married Aditi, Dili, Danu, Kalika

Tamra, Krodhavasa, Muni and Surasa. Krodhavasa gave birth to eight daughters. They were Mrg!, Mrgamanda, Harl, Bhadramata, Mataiigi, Sarduli, SVeta; Surabhi, Surasa and Kadru. Tamra another wife of Kasyapa gave birth to five
:

daughters, namely,

and

Kadru in Mahabharata is the daughter of the granddaughter of Kasyapa. This means that Kadrii's mother and Vinata 's grand mother's mother were sisters. But

KrauncI gave birth to owls, Bhasi to Bhasas, Syeni to eagles and vultures, Dhrtarastri to swans and Suki to Nata. Nata gave birth to Vinata. Thus, according to the Ramayana Kadru was the daughter of Kagyapa born of his wife Krodhavasa. Again Vinata who is spoken of as the elder sister of
Sukl.

KrauncI, Bhasi, Syeni, Dhrtarastri

mukha, Subahu, Mahodara. Kusmandaka, Virajas, Ksemaka, Salipinda All the serpents in the world have been born from these prominent serpents. (Chapter 35, Adi Parva, M.B.) Once Kadru called Vinata to 5) Kadru curses her sons. her side and asked her the colour of Uccaissravas, the horse of Indra. It was purely a white horse and Vinata told so. But Kadru said its tail was black. Each stood firm in her statement and then Kadru made a bet. She who was defeated in the bet should serve the other as her slave. Vinata agreed. Kadru wanted to cheat Vinata and so asked her sons to remain suspended from the tail of the horse in such an artful way that the tail would look black from a distance. Some of her sons refused to be a party to this deceit and Kadru cursed them saying that they would all be burnt in the Sarpasattra of Janamejaya. Kasyapa did not like the curse. But Brahma came there and said that the serpents as a class were injurious to society and as such a curse of that nature was necessary. Brahma then taught him
.

Visasarhharavidya (Treatment (Chapter 20, Adi Parva, M.B.) .

of

snake-poisoning).

KAHODA
Once Kadru 6) Kadru and children go to Ramanfyaka. told Vinata. "Vinata, take me to the island of Ramanlyaka in the middle of the ocean. It is a beautiful place
to

364

KAILASA
pleased with her services, Visravas took her as his Once she requested her husband for children. Kumbhakarna and Accordingly she got Ravana,
wife.

stay. Let your son, Garuda, take my sons to that place." Vinata took Kadru and Garuda took her children during the journey. Garuda rose high up in the air nearing the sun and the serpents began to feel the heat unbearable and began to get charred. Kadru then prayed to Indra and the latter then sent a heavy downpour of rains. This saved the serpents from being burnt to death and they reached the island of Ramaniyaka
safe.

KAIKEYI
1)

Vibhisana as
I.

sons.

ratha,

Kausalya, Kaikeyi and Sumitra. It is mentioned in Valmiki Ramayana, Ayodhya Kanda, Sarga 70, Stanza 28 that Kaikeyi was
wives,

General information. who had three

One

of

the wives

of

Dasa-

(Chapters 25 and 26, Adi Parva, M.B.).
I
.

7) Other deta
(i)

the sister of Yudhajit, the King of Kekaya. Kekaya was seven days' journey away from Ayodhya. In days of old there was a battle 2) Getting boons. between the devas and the asuras and Dasaratha went
to the

Kadru

lives in the

KAHODA (KAHODAKA

Sabha Parva, M.B.) the form of Skanda graha in an (ii) Kadru taking infinitely minute size enters the wombs of women and eats the embryo. (Chapter 230, Vana Parva, M.B. )
(Chapter
11,
.

court of Brahma worshipping him.

.

Uddalaka had another name "Svetaketu". He was a sage who had personally seen and talked to the goddess Sarasvati. It was at that time that Kahodaka became Kahodaka who was of a gentle nature his disciple. served his preceptor for a long time and won his favour. He was immensely pleased and after teaching the
necessary things gave his daughter Sujata in marriage to Kahodaka. In due course, Sujata became pregnant. One day, the child in the womb cried out that there was a mistake in his father's recitation of the Vedas. Kahodaka was displeased at this. He cursed the child that he would be born with a body having eight bends (curves). So the boy was named "Asfavakra" (one who has eight bends). Sujata who was poor, once sent

the disciple and son-in-law of the father of the sage As^avakra.

KHAGODAKA). A
Uddalaka.

He was

sage

world of Devas, with Kaikeyi, in a chariot to Indra against the Asuras. The devas were in a help sorry plight due to the illusive and sorcerous mode of fighting of Sambara the Asura and his men. Dasaratha faced the Asuras in ten directions at the same time and be fought with them. In this fight his chariot had to turned to every direction and up and down so swiftly that the bolt of the wheel slipped out and the wheel was about to come off when Kaikeyi inserted her thumb

and kept the chariot safe and the steady. The King was not aware of this bravery on of his wife. At last when he came to know of this part he promised to give her two boons. The queen said that she would ask for those two boons later, as she didn't want anything then. After this the King and their to the queen returned (Valmiki country.
in the hole of the bolt

Ramayana, Sarga
3)

Kahodaka

to

defeated in a disputation was immersed in water. Astavakra rescued his father. (See under Asfa-

who was
.

King Janaka

for

some money.

Kahodaka

KAHOLA. An
assembly.
(

vakra)

Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 7) KAIKASI. Mother of Ravana. From the wrath of Brahma the giant 1) Birth. Praheti was born and from Brahma's hunger the demigod Heti was born. The son Vidyutkesa was born to Heti, of Bhaya the sister of Kala(Godof death Time) VidyutkeSa married Salakatanka the daughter of Sandhya. A son named Sukesa was born to them. SukeSa married Devavati daughter of Manimaya, a Gandharva. Three sons Malyavan, Sumali and Mall were born to them. The three brothers Malyavan, Sumali and Mali married Sundarl, Ketumati and Vasudha respectively, the three daughters of Narmada, a gandharva woman. To Sumali, by his wife Ketumati,' were born the ten sons, Prahasta, Akampana, Vikata, Kalakamukha, Dhumraksa, Danda, Suparsva, Sarhhrada, Prakvata and Bhasakarna and four daughters Veka (Brha), Puspotkata, KaikasI and Kumbhlnasl. As Sumali was walking 2) Marriage. through forests with his wives and daughters, he saw so many Yaksas (demi-gods) going in planes to pay homage to Vaisravana. Sumali understood that Vaisravana became worthy of homage because he was the son of Visravas. So he took his daughter KaikasI and left
.

ancient sage

who

flourished

in Indra's

apparent in Ayodhya was going on, the humpy Manthara approached Kaikeyi and advised her on the Sri ways of making her son Bharata King and sending Rama to forest. At first Kaikeyi refused to agree to the repeated advice this, but at last she succumbed to of Manthara. DaSaratha came to see Kaikeyi who was lying in grief. Making use of this opportunity Kaikeyi boons promised requested for the granting of the two earlier. One boon was that Bharata should be anointed
as heir apparent making use of the preparations made and the other boon was that Sri for Sri should live in forest, wearing bark of trees and matted Dasaratha heard these hair for fourteen years.

9; Kamba Ramayana, Balakanda). Rama. As Request for the boons and the forest life of Sri the celebration of anointing Sri Rama as the Heir

Rama

Rama

When

Wife of Ajamidha, a King of the Puru II. Stanza 37) dynasty. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 95, KAIKEYI III. Sudesna, the wife of the King of Virata was known by the name Kaikeyi also. She was the born of his wife daughter of Kekaya, the King of Suta, Malavi. As she was the daughter of Kekaya, she got

requests he wishes.

became unconscious.

But he granted her

KAIKEYI

.

the name Kaikeyi. (M.B. Virata Parva, Chapter 16). all the princessBesides, it is stated in the Puranas that es of the kingdom of Kekaya were called by the name

KAILASA (KAILASAKA)
KaSyapa
in

Kaikeyi.

.

A serpent
is

family.

Mention

made about

belonging to the
this

serpent

Mahabharata, Udyoga

Parva, Chapter

103,

Stanza

KAILASA
1 )

11.

her in the

house of Visravas. After a

while,

being

The mount Mahameru has an thousand nazhikas (Indian mile of ^ area of eighteen On the Kosa) and a height of two thousand nazhikas.
General information.

KAIRATA PARVA

365
(darkness).
.

KAITABHA
The
was
Kaitabha
3)

musicians), Garudas (hawks) Mataiigas (elephants) and Gandharvas (semi-gods) The lake of lotus of Kubera which was reached by Bhimasena once, was in Kailasa. In Vana Parva, it is mentioned that the Pandavas visited Kailasa during their forest life. It could be understood from Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva, Chapter 83 that Kamadhenu performed penance on the Kailasa, once. KAIRATA PARVA. A sub section of Vana Parva in Mahabharata. KAlSlKA. See under Jyamagha. KAlSlKA (M) An ancient country in Bharata. It is mentioned in Maha Bharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 14 that Bhlsmaka the King of Vidarbha conquered this
. .

(M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 222, Stanzas 33 to 40). It mentioned in Maha. Bharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 3 that the mountain Mainaka stands to the north of Kailasa. Once Vyasa went to Kailasa. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 43, Stanza 17). In Vana Parva, Chapter 106, mention is made that the King Sagara, with his two queens, once went to Kailasa for penance. It was on the Kailasa that Bhagiratha performed penance to propitiate Siva to bring down Gariga. Kailasa is hundred yojanas high. The devas come to this place daily and return. It is mentioned in Sabha Parva, Chapter 141, that in the place where Kubera lives on Kailasa there live a large number of Yaksas (demi-gods), Raksasas (giants) Kinnaras (heavenly
is

eastern side of this mount there are two mountains called Jathara and Devakuta. Pavamana and Pariyatra are the two mountains on the western side. On the south there are the two mountains of Kailasa and Karavlra. The two mountains on the north are called Trismga and Makaragiri. It is stated in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapters 109 and 141 that the abodes of Siva and Kubera are on the mount Kailasa. Once, ^to please Siva, Mahavisnu performed penance on Kailasa.

born

other drop was hard and from it with the attribute of Rajas

Madhu-Kaitabhas' acquiring boons. Madhu-Kaitabhas were born in water, grew up in water and walked on the surface of water, haughty and arrogant. They began to think about how the big flood of water came
before them and mantra or incantation of Vagblja Reciting this mantra, Madhu and (origin of logos) Kaitabha worshipped Devi for thousand years. Devi appeared and asked them what they wished. They wanted the boon that death should befall them only as they desired. Devi granted them the boon. After this they became haughtier because of the boon, and lived
into existence.

(activity)

taught

them the
.

Then Devi appeared

water playing with the creatures in water having to confront them (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 1). Madhu Kaitabhas saw Vedas. 4) The theft of the
in the

nobody

Brahma

Vedas which he had created. They caught hold of all the Vedas and went to Patala, (the nether world) and hid themselves there. Brahma grew sad at the loss of the Vedas and followed Madhu-Kaitabhas, who began to attack Brahma. At this Brahma became terribly afraid of the Asuras and ran to Mahavisnu. who was lying in a deep sleep of contemplation. Brahma praised him. Mahavisnu woke up. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha
The death of Madhu and Kaitabha. According to the request of Brahma, Mahavisnu confronted Madhu and Kaitabha. Madhu engaged Visnu in fighting while Kaitabha took rest and when Madhu became tired, Kaitabha engaged Visnu in fighting. Thus the fight went on for a long time and Visnu became tired of continuous fight. Visnu understood that owing to the boon given by Devi the Asuras would die only if they wished for death, and that no body could kill them. So Visnu to meditate on Devi, who said "It would never began
5)

lying

in

the

lotus

flower

reciting

the

four

10).

KAITABHA.
Kaitabha was the brother of Madhu, an Asura (demon) These two brothers are known in the Puranas as Madhu-Kaitabhas. In the Puranas, two stories slightly different 2) Origin. from each other, occur about the birth of Madhu and Kaifabha. One story occurs in Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 10 and the other in Mahabharata, Santi In Devi Purana, Chapter 1, it is stated as Parva.
1)

country.

General information.

.

planet. There was only water. Mahavisnu slept on the surface of the water. From the navel of Mahavisnu the stalk of a lotus grew up and there was a lotus flower at the end of the stalk. Brahma was born in the lotus flower. Brahma stayed in the flower in deep meditation reciting the Vedas. Ear-wax flowed out from both the ear-wax two Asuras ears of Mahavisnu. From the

follows : In the beginning there

was no earth or any

other

Madhu and Kaitabha
The
following

were born.

in the Mahabharata, Santi the birth of MadhuParva, Chapter 348 about Kaitabhas. A lotus flower grew up from the navel of Mahavisnu and Brahma was born in the flower. In the flower there were two drops of water created by Mahavisnu. One drop was as sweet as honey and from that drop was born the Asura Madhu with the attributes of tamas

occurs

So you may kill them deceitfully". Hearing these words Mahavisnu approached the Asuras and said to them. "I am much pleased with you. So you may ask for any boon." Hearing this they laughed and said that they were more powerful than Visnu and that he might ask of them any boon. Taking that opportunity Mahavisnu said "Oh powerful persons. I ask you to grant me this boon. Give me the boon to kill you." This request shook them. They were willing to be killed at any place except water. They thought that Visnu would not be powerful enough to kill them. Mahavisnu instantly raised his thighs which were enlarged to a great extent over the water as solid earth seeing which the Asuras enlarged their bodies to the extent of a thousand yojanas. But Mahavisnu enlarged his thighs further, caught hold of Madhu and Kaitabha, laid them on his thighs and cut off their heads with his discus. All the surface of the sea was covered with the medas (fat) of these Asuras. This medas of Madhu and Kaitabha collected itself into a lump and became the earth. So the earth got the name 'Medini'. As the earth was the fat of the Asuras it was not fit for food. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 1). A horrible son named 6) The so of Madhu-Kaitabhas. Dhundhu was born to Madhu-Kaifabhas. He lived
deceit.
!
'

be possible for you to kill Madhu and Kaitabha because of my boon. They could be killed only by

KAITAVA
under the sand in a wilderness called Ujjalakam. A King of the Iksvaku family named Kuvalayasva killed Dhundhu. So Kuvalayasva got the name Dhundhumara. See under Dhundhu. ( Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 202). (Khara and Atikaya are the rebirths of Madhu and Kaitabha. See under Atikaya). KAITAVA. Another name of Uluka, the son of
country in ancient Bharata. Menthis country in Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 18, Stanza 13). A son of Kariisa (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha) KAKAM. A town in ancient India. (M.B. Bhisma, Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 64, contains a reference to
tion
is

366
of Avlksit and
Tarlksit'.
(ii)

KAKSlVAN
son

I

of Parlksit.

For

genealogy see

Bhlmasena were
2)

Ugrascna,

Citrasena,
his brothers.

Indrasena,

Other details.

Susena and (Chapter 94, Adi Parva).

KAITAVA

Sakuni.

made about

(M)

.

A

KAKA
this)

.

.

KAKl I. Original mother of CROW) KAKl II. One of the seven
.

the

crows.

(See under

KAKA
1 )

Kaki, Halima, Brahmika, Malinl, Palala, Arya and Mitra. (M.B. Aranya Parva, Chapter 228, Verse 10).

Subrahmanya

at his birth.

mothers who suckled The seven mothers were

Kaksasena was a member of the court of Yama. (Chapter 8, Sabha Parva). Kaksasena was considered to be one among the (ii) pious souls, like Sibi, Pratardana, Rantideva, Ambarisa, Janamejaya, Vrsadarbhi, Paras'urama, Sri Rama, Karandhama and Mitrasaha who had attained salvation by their charity and righteousness. Mahabharata states that Kaksasena the saintly king attained salvation by presenting gifts to the great Vasistha. (Sloka 14, Chapter 137, Anusasana Parva). KAKSASENA II. There was another King called Kaksasena in the court of Dharmaputra. (Sloka 22, Chapter
(i)

KAKSASENASRAMA. An ASrama

4,

(CROW).

the son of Brahma.

Origin.

Kasyapa was

daughters like Kaki, SyenI, BhasI, Grdhrka, Suki and Grlva. From Kaki were born the crows in the world. (Agni Purana, Chapter 19). the symbol of sin. There is a reference in 2) Crows Siva Purana to this. Long ago the King of KaSI had a daughter named Kalavati. Even in her youth, she received the "Saiva pancaksara mantra." After that, she was married by Dasarha, King of Mathura, who was a sinner. When he touched Kalavati who was a holy woman, he experienced unbearable heat. Kalavati said that it was because of the King's sin. So she took DaSarha to the sage Garga, who purified Dasarha with his mantras (incantations) and made him stand in water. At once the King's sins came out of his body in the shape of crows. Some of them flew away. Many of them fell down with their wings burnt. Seeing this, the sage Garga said that all those crows were the volume of sins accumulated in the course of the innumerable births through which he had passed. (Siva Purana, Pancaksara Ma.ha.tmya). In Uttara Ramayana 3) T e Crow and Rice-offerings. there is a story about the crow's right to eat the offering of rice to Pitrs. Once a King named Marutta performed a Mahesvara sattra. Indra and other gods attended the sattra. Hearing about this, Ravana came that way. The frightened gods fled away assuming the forms of different birds. Yama escaped in the form of a crow. From that time, Yama was pleased with crows. He gave a blessing that in future, when human beings worship the pifrs by offering rice to them, the crows will have the right to eat that rice. Thus the right of the crows to eat offerings of rice, originated from that
(Uttara Ramayana). KAKSA. A place of habitation of ancient Bharata. (Sloka 49, Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva). KAKSAKA. A serpent born of the family of Vasuki. This serpent was burnt to death at the Sarpasattra of
time.

the son of Marici, who was Kasyapa's wife Tamra had many

KAKSEYU
leyu,

situated on the top of the mountain, Asita. Perhaps this was constructed by Kaksasena. (Sloka 12, Chapter 89, Vana Parva). (KRSEYU). Son ofllaudrasva born of a nymph called Misrakesl. He had nine brothers, named Rkseyu, Sannateyu, Ghrteyu (Krteyu) Citeyu. Sthandi,

Sabha Parva)

.

genealogy see under 'Puruvarhsa'. (Sloka 10, Chapter Adi Parva) KAKSlVAN I. This was a Rsi well praised in the Rgveda. 1) Birth. King Kalihga did not have children for a long time. The King, therefore requested the sage Dirghatamas (Gautama) to get a son for him by his queen. The sage consented. But the queen did not like to sleep with the old sage. She therefore requested her servant maid, Usi, to lie with the sage. Kaksivan was the son born to Dirghatamas of Us I. (Sukta 125,
94,
.

Dharmeyu, Sammiteyu, Rteyu and Matinara. For

Anuvaka
2) Other

18,

Mandala

1,

Rgveda).

details.

He was of the family of Arigiras and he lived in a ( i) hermitage in the east. (Chapter 208, Sand Parva, and Chapter 135, Anusasana Parva). (ii) He praised Visnu by reciting the Rks with deep concentration and acquired many virtues. (Chapter 292, Sand Parva) (iii) Mahabharata states that Kaksivan was the preceptor of Indra and also the creator of the world with Rudratejas (majesty equal to that of Siva) .Yavakrita, Raibhya, Arvavasu, Paravasu, Kaksivan, Angiras and Kanva are seven Barhisads (a set of manes born of Brahma ) who are also gurus of Indra living in the east.
.

(iv)
18,

(Chapter 150, Anusasana Parva). Kaksivan was famous among the Yajvans.

KAKSASENA

Janamejaya. (Sloka
I.

6,

Chapter 57, Adi Parva)

.

1) General information, (i)

A

King who was

the grandson

Rgveda). v ) To test the strength of Kaksivan he was once given ( a hundred pitchers of liquor by the Asvins. (Sukta 116, Anuvaka 1 7, Mandala 1 Rgveda) returning home from the (vi) Kaksivan who was asrama of the preceptor after completing his education spent one night at a place on the way. In the morning when he awoke he saw Svanaya son of King Bhavayavya before him. The beautiful boy had strayed to that place by accident while playing with his friends nearby. Kaksivan was attracted by the enchanting features of the boy and decided to make him the husband of his daughter. Svanaya on knowing the details regarding
5,
1,
,
.

Anuvaka

Mandala

(Sukta

KAKSIVAN
Kaksivan took him
received
presents.
to his father's

367
palace and the King and gave him many Anuvaka 18, Mandala 1,

KALAI
monds). (39) Dhatusamskarana
(40)
(41)
Skill

the

sage with 125, (Sukta
II.

respect

(purification of metals). distinguishing the colours of diamonds. Khanipariksana (finding out of mines). (42)

in

KAKSIVAN

of ancient India. He was the father of Bhadra, wife of Rsitasva. (Sloka 17, Chapter 120, Adi Parva). KAKSIVAN. A son of Maharsi Gautama. Mahabharata,

Rgveda).

A King

Sabha Parva, Chapter 21, Verse 3 states that at the time when Gautama was living in Girivraja, he had connection with a Sudra woman of U&Inara land and Kaksivan was born to her. This as a result of it Gautama was not the husband of Ahalya. 1 Kaksivan had a son named Candakau:' ika and two daughters named Bhadra and Ghosa. Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 1 7 states that Kaksivan
flourished in Yudhisthira's assembly.

yoga). (43) Cockfight. (44) Understanding the language of birds like Maina. (45) Massaging. (46) Kes'apraksalana. (47) Aksara mustika kathana. (48) Vide'abhasapathana (Learning of foreign languages). (49) Desabhasa-jnana. (knowledge of the language of one's

Understanding

trees

and

their

value

(Vrksayurveda-

own

telling)

(52) (53)
(56)

KAKSIVATASUTA." A
was the daughter of

the sage Kaksivan. As she was suffering from the disease of leprosy, no one was prepared to marry her. She composed a mantra in praise of the Asvinldevas. They cured her of her disease. After that she got married. Besides Ghosa, Kaksivan

female sage

named Ghosa who

(55) Kriyavikalpa. Chandojnana poses), (57) (False (knowledge of different metres). (58) Vastragopana. (59) Game of dice. (60) Another gambling game. (61) Balalila (entertainment of children) (62) Vinayacara.

sakavana (Instant poetry-making)

Bhavikalapravacana (fortune(50) Yantranirmana (making of machines) Smaranasaktiposana (increasing memory power) Sravanapatha (studying by hearing). (54) Nimicountry)
. .

(51)

.

.

Kapatabhava

.

krama
rics).
(

(etiquette). (63) Vaitalikavidyajnana (panegyKaryagrahana (comprehension of facts). (64)
.

KALA
end,

had another

daughter

named Bhadra.

(See

under

The god of Death. When the life span of each living being allotted by Brahma is at an
I.
2

Sabdasagara)

(YAMA).

KAKUTSTHA. A
dynasty.

Bhadra).

He was

son of Sasada, a King of the Iksvaku the father of Anenas. (See under

Yama sends his agents and takes the soul to Yamapuri (the city of Yama). From there, the holy souls are sent to Vaikuntha (Heaven, the abode of Visnu) and the sinful souls to Hell.
From Mahavisnu were 1 ) Genealogy and birth of Yama. descended in the following order Brahma, Marici,
Kasyapa, Surya (Sun), Yama (Kala). Surya married Sarhjna, daughter of Vis vakarma. They had three children, Manu, Yama and Yami. Of them,

KAKUTSTHA.

Kakutstha).

Sri

Rama

cause he was born under Kakutstha) KALA I. A measure of time. See under Kalamana. KALA II. Art. The sixty four arts are as under
.

got the name Kakutstha bein the dynasty of Kakutstha. (See

;

Yama

has

(I) Gita (music). (3)
(7)

(2)

Vadya

(instrumental

music).

whose

Nrtya

(Dancing).

Citra (painting). (6)

(4) Natya (histrionics). (5) Accunirmana (making of types).

lands). (16) Kesalankara (hair dressing) (17) Vastradharana (wearing of dresses). (18) Karnabhusananirmana (making of ear-ornaments) (19) Sugandha. .

(flower-gardening). (8) Pumettaflower laying). (9) Dehalankarana (Dressing). (10) Grhalarikarana (furnishing of houses) (II) SayyanirnuTna (making of beds). (12) Jalataranga (music with water). (13) Jalavadya (music on water). (14) Vividhavesadharana (wearing different kinds of dresses). (15) Malanirmana (making of flower gar-

racana

Puspanirmana
(artistic

life-span is at an end. Once Sarhjna who was unable to bear the dazzling brilliance of Surya, ordered her maid Chhaya to attend on him and went to the forest for performing penance. Mistaking her for his

the task of taking

away

the souls of those

wife Sarhjna,

.

and Tapati. Once Chhaya cursed Sanir'cara, Yama ibr disobedience. Then Surya and Yama understood that she was not Sarhjna. After that the A:'vinithe that Yama was the brother of Manu, Yami, Asvini Kumaras, Tapati, Sanaiscaraand Bhaya. Yama's sister Bhaya was married by the Asura, Heti. Sunitha was the eldest daughter of Yama. Amga married her. The famous King Vena was her son. (Visnu Purana, Part I, Chapter 13).

Manu

Surya begot of her three sons namely,

kumaras, Revanta and Bhaya were born to Surya and Sarhjna. Thus Visnu Purana, Part III, Chapter 2 says

puspasaficayana (collection of sweet-smelling flowers). (20) Alarhkrtahara (decorating food articles). (21)

Indrajala (magic). (22) Bhanglkarana (beautification) (23) Karasucikarana (cleaning of the hands). (24) Modakanirmana (making of sweet-meats) (25) Panlyanirmana (making of drinks). (26) Tailoring. (27) Jalanirmana (making of nets). (28). Riddle. (29) Aksara;Uoka (competition in the reciting of poems according to certain rules). (30) Arthavisadikarana of meaning). (clarification (31) Granthaparayana (reading of books). (32) Natakadarsana (enacting of plays). (33) Samasya purana (part of a verse, generally the last line, proposed by one person to be completed by another as a trial of skill). (34) Nirmana (making of cots of canes). (35) Carpentry. (36) Logic. (37) Vastuvidya (science of building homes). (38) Svarnaratnapariiodhana (connoisseurship of gold and dia. .

West and Kubera in the North. Yama's city is called Samyaminl. (Uttara Ramayana) Yama was once cursed by the sage 3) Curse- on Tama. Ani Mandavya. It was as a result of it that Yama was born as Vidura. (For details see under Animandavya). Sri Rama who returned after 4) Tama became Maharfi. his forest life became king of Ayodhya. He ruled over
.

Once Kubera offered penance a Dikpalaka. for ten thousand years in water, head downwards and in the middle of Pancagni. Brahma who was pleased, appeared before him and Kubera prayed to him that he should be made one of the Lokapalakas. Accordingly Brahma ordered that thenceforth, Indra should rule in the East, Yama in the South, Varuna in the
2) to

Tama

is

Brahma

2.

It is also stated elsewhere that Kaksivan was the son of Dirghatamas, the Kala and Dharma are not the same person. See under Dharma.

father of

Gautama.

See under Dirghatamas,

KALAI

368
here that those
find their

KALAI
who have
abode
after death.
.

Yama

the country for 1 1,000 years. Then it was time to recall Mahavisnu who had incarnated as Sri Rama, to Vaikundia. Brahma sent Yama to the earth to bring back Sri Rama. Yama who assumed the guise of a young Maharsi, went to Ayodhya and visited Sri Rama. He said that he was the disciple of the sage Atibala and had come to tell him a secret. So Laksmana was posted at the entrance to prevent anyone from entering the room. It was announced that anyone who tried to enter would be slaughtered. After that, while Sri Rama and

led virtuous lives in the world, They lead a life of eternal
.

heavenly bliss there. (Garuda Purana, Chapter 14) (10) Naraka (Hell) There is a world called Pitrloka in the middle of the three worlds, on their southern side below the earth and above the Atala loka. The Agnisvattas and other pitrs stay there in meditative trance
the ruler of pitrloka. Since he is scrupulous in imparting justice, Yama is also called Yamadharma. He administers justice with an even hand to all living beings brought there by his agents, according to their virtues and vices during their earthly lives. He has power to assess the virtues and vices of people and to assign suitable punishments to them, but not to alter the laws or methods of punishment. Sinners are sent to the different Narakas by Yamadharma according to the nature and seriousness of their sins. The Puranas refer to twentyeight Narakas in all. They are: Those who rob others of their wealth, (1) Tamisram. wives, children etc, are bound with ropes by Yama's servants and cast into the Naraka known as Tamisram. There, they are given sound beating until they faint. After they recover their senses, the beating is repeated and those who try to escape are bound hand and foot and pushed again into this hell. This is repeated as long as Fate has ordained. This hell is intended for the wife (2) Andhatdmtsram. who takes food after deceiving the husband or the husband who takes food after deceiving his wife. The punishmen there is the same as that of Tamisram except the beating. But the excruciating pain suffered by the victims on being tied fast with Yama's rope by his
is

for securing prosperity to those

Yama

who come

to

pitrloka.

their secret talk, Durvasas, the sage, after a fast of 1,000 years, arrived at the door, asking for food. Laksmana told him humbly that he could not be allowed to enter just then.

who was hungry
Durvasas,

were having

who became furious, was about to curse the whole race of Kings. So Laksmana entered the room and informed Sri Rama of the arrival of Durvasas. At the same time, in fulfilment of the order, he was ready to be slaughtered. Vasistha suggested that it would be enough if Laksmana was banished from the palace. Accordingly he was expelled and he went and drowned

who was broken-hearted at his separation from Laksmana went to the same river and drowned himself there shortly after. Yama then took their souls to Vaikuntha.
Tama became crow. In Uttara Ramayana there is a story that at Marutta's Yaga, Yama who was frightened at the sight of Ravana, escaped in the form of a crow. (For details, see under Crow). 6) An Age without Tama. In the Puranas there are refe5)

himself in the depths of

the

river

Sarayu.

Sri

Rama

(Uttara Ramayana).

rences to three periods when there was no Yama. 1 One such period was in Krtayuga. At that time ( ) there was no death on earth which became overcrowded with living beings. Unable to bear their weight, the earth sank down to a depth of 100 yojanas. The goddess of Earth offered tearful prayers to Mahavisnu, who incarnated as Varaha (pig) and lifted up the earth 1 00

When Markandeya reached the age of sixteen, Yama went to him to take away his life. Markandeya hid himself behind the idol of Siva. Yama threw his
(2)

yojanas. (M.B.

Vana

Parva, Chapter 142).

calculating the life-span of living beings. They take into account the vices and virtues of human beings. To the south of Citragupta's residence is situated "Jvaramandira" (the abode of diseases). Adjacent to it are the abodes of all kinds of diseases, each disease having its own abode. Yama's home is situated at a distance of twenty yojanas from the abode of Citragupta. It has an area of two hundred yojanas and a height of fifty yojanas. It one side of
is it

round Siva's neck. Siva opened Yama who was burnt to Markandeya) (3) See under Pancall, Para 1, Sub Para 2. 7) Tama returned Satyav n' Life. (See under Satya van). See under I^rga. 8) Yama and King Nrga. 9) Tamapuri (the city of Yama) Yamapurl is thousand yojanas in extent. There is an entrance on each of the four sides. On one side of the city stands Citragupta's mansion. The fort surrounding the city is made of iron. There are a hundred street? in Yamapurl. They are all decorated with banners and festoons. There is a group of people in Citragupta's mansion. They are engaged in
it fell

noose at him but

which those who have persecuted other living beings are cast. Those who seize and enjoy another man's property or resources, also come under 'Persecution'. When such people are thrown into this hell, those whom they had persecuted or cheated while on earth, assume the shape of "ruru" and torment them severely. "Ruru" is a kind of dreadful serpent. This hell is known as "Raura(3) Rauravam.

servants,

makes them
This

fall
is

down

senseless.

the hell into

vam"
(4)

his third eye and glared at ashes in its fire. (See under
>

.

.

who abandon svadharma
Paradharma
(others'

there

supported by one thousand columns. On is an extensive assembly hall. It is

duty) and accept flogged by Yama's servants with whips made of asipatra (sharp-edged sword-shaped leaves). When they run about under the flogging they trip over stones and thorns and fall on
(one's

legitimate heirs, their inheritance and possess and enjoy others' property, are squeezed to death by these terrible serpents coiling round them. This is the hell for the punishment (5) Kumbhipakam. of those who kill and eat birds and animals. Here, oil is kept boiled in huge vessels. Yama's servants plunge sinners into this oil. The period of their torture extends to as many years as there were hairs on the bodies of the birds or animals which they killed and ate. (6) Kalasutram (Yamasuira~). This hell is terribly hot. It that those who do not respect their father, is here mother, elders, etc. are cast. They rush about in the unbearable heat of this hell and drop down exhausted, from time to time. in which those sinners (7) Asi(ta) patram. This is the hell

because of the abundance of rurus there. Maharauravam. Here also there are ruru serpents. Only they are of a fiercer type. Those who deny the

own

duty)

are

KALAI
their faces.

369

KALA
during the whole term of their punishment under

I

asipatra.

Then they are stabbed with knives made of They drop down unconscious and when they recover their senses, the same process is repeated.
(8) Sukaramukham. Kings who neglect their duties and oppress their subjects by misrule, are punished in this hell. They are crushed to a pulp by beating until they fall down unconscious and when they recover, they are again subjected to the same treatment. (9) Andhakupam. This is the hell for punishing those who oppress Brahmanas, gods and the poor. In this Kupa (well) there are wild beasts like tiger, bear etc. carnivorous birds like eagle, kite etc. venomous creatures like snakes and scorpions and insects like bugs, mosquitoes, etc. The sinners have to endure the constant attacks of these creatures, until the expiry of the period of their punishment.

mass slaughter, like incendiarism, poisoning food, ruining the country, etc. are cast into the Naraka called Sarameyasana. There, nothing but the flesh of that dogs is available for food. There are 700 dogs in Naraka and all of them are as ferocious as leopards. They attack the sinners who come there from all sides and tear their flesh from their bodies with their teeth^ This Naraka is for those guilty of bearing (20) Avici.

the constant flogging of Yama's servants. (18) Laldbhaksam. This is the Naraka for lustful people. The lascivious fellow who makes his wife swallow semen, is cast into this hell. Lalabhaksam is a sea of semen. The sinner lies in it feeding upon semen alone. (19) Sdrameydsanam. Those guilty of unsocial acts

(10) Krmibhojanam (Food for worms). Depraved Brahmanas who take their food without worshipping gods and honouring guests, are thrown into this "Krmibhojana" Naraka which is one lakh yojanas in extent. Worms, insects and serpents sting them and eat them up. Once their bodies are completely eaten up by these creatures, they are provided with new bodies, which are also eaten up in the above manner. They have to continue there in this manner, till the end of their term of punishment.
Taptamurti. Those who plunderer steal other people's gold, jewels, ornaments or money are cast into the furnaces of this Naraka, which is built of iron
(11)

They

false swearing or assuming false names. witness, are hurled into Avici from a mountain which is 100 yojanas in height. The whole region of Avici is always shaken like an ocean with turbulent waves. As soon as the sinners fall into it they are utterly smashed into dust. They are again restored to life and the

false

punishment
(2
1 )

is repeated. Ayalipanam. Those

castes

viz.

thrown into this hell. iron in liquid form.

indulge in

Brahmanas, Ksatriyas and Vaisyas who drinking Soma, Sura etc. are bound and

who belong

to the

first

three

They

are forced to drink

melted

The victim is iron, heated red-hot is placed there. urged to embrace it. Yama's servants flog the victim from behind.

and always remains red hot with blazing fire. This Naraka is intended for men and (12) Salmali. women who have committed adultery. A figure made of

Braggarts and those who insult (22) Kfhdrakardamam. people of noble birth are cast into this hell. Here, Yama's servants keep the sinners upside down and torture them in various ways. This Naraka is for the punishment (23) Raksobhakfam. of meat-eaters. There are separate compartments in
eat All the living beings they had killed before, would have arrived here in advance. They would all join together in biting and mauling these sinners. Their attacking, shrieks and complaints would be of no avail there.
this hell for those

(13) Vajrakantakasdli. This Naraka is for the punishment of those who have unnatural intercourse with cows and other animals. Here, the guilty people are made to embrace iron images full of diamond needles.

human

who perform human
flesh

sacrifice,

flesh or the

of other

creatures.

(14) Vaitarani. This is the Naraka for Kings who have violated all ordinances of Sastras and for adulterers. It is the most terrible place of punishment. Vaitarani is

(24) Siilaprotam. People who take the life of others who have done no harm to them, by deceiving them
or

a river

urine, blood, hair, bones, nails, flesh, fat and all kinds of dirty substances. There are various kinds of ferccious beasts in it. Those who are cast into it are attacked and mauled by these creatures from all sides. The sinners have to spend the term of their punishment, feeding upon the contents of

filled

with

human

excreta,

this river.

(15) Puyodakam. This is a well, filled with excreta, blood, phlegm etc. Brahmanas and others who have intercourse with women of low caste against
urine,

by treachery, with weapons like the trident, are thrown into the "Sulaprotam" hell. Yama's servants fix each of the sinners of the above class, on the top of a trident. They are forced to spend the whole term of their punishment in that position, suffering intense thirst and hunger, enduring all the tortures inflicted on them by Yama's servants. fellow Sinners who persecute (25) DandaSukam.
creatures
like

Naraka. There are
serpents here.
this hell.

venomous serpents are cast into this many wild beasts and many hooded
eat alive, the sinners

vagabonds who wander about irresponsibly like animals and birds and other such sinners are cast into this Naraka. (16) Prdnarodham. This Naraka is for the punishment of Brahmanas who keep dogs, asses and other mean animals and constantly hunt and kill animals for food. Here the servants of Yama gather round the sinners and cut them limb by limb with their arrows and subject
customs, ordinances
etc.

They

who

fall

into

them
(17)

to constant insult.

Visasanam. This

Naraka

is

for the torture of those

who perform Yaga by
wealth and

killing splendour. They will

cows have

to to

display their

remain there

(26) Vatarodham. This hell is for those who persecute the creatures living on mountain-peaks, dense forests, hollow trunks of trees, etc. It resembles mountains, caves, forests etc. After throwing them into this hell the sinners are tortured with fire, snake, poison and weapons, just as they had tortured other creatures, while on earth. One who denies food to a (27) Parydvartanakam. person who happens to come at meal- time and abuses him, is thrown into this Naraka. The moment he falls into it, his eyes are put out by being pierced with the

KALAI

370
45, Verse 30)
(xii)
.

KALABRAHMANA
Once Yama gave advice to the sage Gautama on subject of Dharma. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter

beaks of cruel birds like the crow, eagle etc. It is the most painful experience for them. Proud and miserly people who (28) Suclmukham. refuse to spend money even for the bare necessities of hell. Those who do not life, find their place in this repay the money they have borrowed, will also be cast into this hell. Here, their bodies will be continually pricked and pierced with needles. (Devi Bhagavata, 8th Skandha; Visnu Purana, Part 2, Chapter 6). 12) Mantra {incantation} to invoke Tama.

the

192).
(xiii)

Yama

Japaka. (See Chapter 199).

once gave a boon to a Brahmana named under JAPAKA. M.B. Santi Parva,

"Mahisastha Yamagaccha dandahasta mahfibala / raksa tvarh daksinadvararh Vaivasvata namos stu te". // After invoking Yama with this mantra, one should worship with the mantra "Vaivasvatarh Sarhgamanam". (Agni Purana, Chapter 56).
13) Tama Defeated by Ravana. Once the sage Narada went to Ravana and expatiated on the glory and splendour of Yama. Immediately Ravana set out to Sarhya-

(xiv) Once Mahavisnu taught Yama, Siva-Sahasranama. Yama taught it to Naciketa. (See under SlVA and NACIKETA. Also M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter

rnani with the intention of subduing Yama. Accepting Ravana's challenge, Yama came out. After a terrible battle between them, which lasted for seven days neither of them was able to defeat the other. Both of them had received Brahma's boon. In the night of the seventh day, Yama rushed forth with his staff to beat Ravana to death. Then Ravana took his Brahmastra.

At

moment, Brahma came to the battleand persuaded Yama to withdraw from the fight. Yama retreated to his city and closed the gate. Ravana went back with a triumphant shout. (Uttara
that critical
field

(water) and anna (rice) Brahmana. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 68). the secrets of Dharma. (xvii) Yama once explained (M.B. Amis' asana Parva, Chapter 130). (xviii) Yama used to worship Siva on the mountain Munjavan. (M.B. Asvamedha Parva, Chapter 8). (xix) Dhumorna is the name of Yama's wife. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 117, Verse 9). (xx) There is a story in Mahabharata, Adi Parva about the condition of the world in the absence of Yama. Once Yama started a prolonged yaga at Naimisaranya. At that time there was no death in the
"tila" (gingelly seed) "jala"
to a

sent his special agents to bring a Brahmana &ARMI. Also M.B. (See under AnuSasana Parva, Chapter 68) efficacy of giving (xvi ) Yama once lectured on the

17).

named

(xv)

Yama

Sarmi.

.

Ramayana )
14)
(i)

.

Yama

Other details concerning Tama.

Adi Parva, Chapter 186, Verse 6). "Samitra" (killing (ii) It was Yama who performed of animals) at the yaga done by devas in the Naimisaranya. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 196, Verse 1). In the fight between Indra and Arjuna in (iii) Khandavadaha, Yama joined the side of Indra. (M B Adi Parva, Chapter 226, Verse 32) in a thousand years, Yama comes to (iv) Once Bindusarovara and performs a yaga. (M.B. Sabha
.

attended Draupadi's Svayarhvara.

(M B

yaga and resumed his duties and death came to (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 199) KALA II. A Maharsi. Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 7, Verse 14, refers to this sage as offering worship to Indra, in Indra's assembly. KALA. A daughter of Daksaprajapati. (See under Kalika) KALA. See under the word Kalamana. KALA (S) A group of Manes. This group lives in the Brahmasabha. ( Chapter 1 1 Santi Parva)
his

world. All living beings continued to live indefinitely. The Devas all joined together and approached Yama with a request to solve the problem. Yama concluded
the world again.
.

.

KALABANDHAKA. An

,

.

assembly. (M.B. Verse 51). (vi) When Arjuna performed tapas and received PaSupatastra from Siva, Yama was pleased and presented Dandastra to Arjuna. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 41, Verse 25). and then (vii) Yama was one of the devas who tested

Sabha Parva, Chapter

Parva, Chapter 3, Verse 15) (v) Yama is a member of Brahma's
.

Mahisasura. his finance Ciksura was his war-minister, Tamra minister, Asiloman, Prime Minister, and Udarka, Chief of the army. Kalabandhaka, Baskala and Trinetra were the advisers of Mahisasura. (Devi Bhagavata 5th
adviser

of

11,

KALABHlTI.

blessed

Nala who went

to

(See under

the King of (viii) Indra made Yama, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 16, Verse 14).
says that when Devas milked Bhumidevi, the form of a calf. (See under Vena) .
(x)
(ix)

NALA)

Damayanti's Svayarhvara
Pitrs.

.

(M.B.

Mahabharata, Drona Parva, Chapter 69, Verse 26

Yama

took

devotee of Siva. As his father Marhti for the sake of a son for a thousand years his wife conceived, but did not deliver. Marhti asked the child in his mother's womb why he did not come out to which the latter replied that he did not come out as he feared the Asura called Kalamarga. (As be called the child feared Kalamarga it came to As advised by Siva, Marhti created in the Kalabhiti) child knowledge about dharma, renunciation etc. and thus made him conscious about higher knowledge. The child came out of the mother's womb. In due course of time Kalabhiti took to the worship of Siva, who blessed him as follows "Since you have outlived Kalamarga,

Skandha)

.

A

performed penance

.

:

In Tripuradahana (burning of Tripura) Yama remained in Saivabana (the arrow of Siva, (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 202, Verse 77. See also under

in

future

you

will

become

famous

as

Mahakala."

KALABRAHMANA. A
A

TRIPURA) (xi) Yama
Pramatha
to

.

and presented two warriors, Unmatha god Skanda) (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter
.

brahmin, who defeated Kala. great effulgence that emanated from his head two hundred years after his continuous Japa (Chan ting of mantras) blocked the passage of sky-walkers (Devas) and spread to the three worlds. When Brahma and

(Skanda Purana).

KALADA
to choose any boon, he said that he but chanting the Lord's name and mantras. Again, Brahma insisted on the brahmin's choosing some boon or other, and then he removed himself to the northern planes of the Himalayas, where also he continued chanting mantras. There too his effulgence became so powerful that Indra deputed celestial women to obstruct his Japa, but they could do nothing in the matter. Then Indra deputed Kala to end the brahmin's life, but he failed in the attempt. Ultimately King Iksvaku came to the brahmin and asked for half the power he :had earned by his tapas, which the brahmin readily granted. And, Iksvaku became thus famous all over the worlds. (Kathasaritsagara, Surya-

371

-

KALAKEYA(S)

others asked

him

KALAKAKSA. An

wanted nothing

KALAKAMUKHA
life

Asura. He was killed by Garuda. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 105). A Raksasa. ( KALAKAMMUKA) He was the brother of Prahasta, Ravana's Minister. (For Genealogy, see under Prahasta). During Sri Rama's
.

in the forest

Dusana and

others.

Kalakamukha was also among Khara, The other eleven members of that

group were Syenagami, Prthugrlva, Yajnasatru, Vihahgama, Durjaya, Karavlraksa, Parusa, Meghamali, Mahamall, Sarpasya and Rudhirasana. (Valmiki Ramayana, Aranya Kanda, 26th Sarga). KALAKANYA. Daughter of Kala (Yama). (See under

KALAKAVRKSlYA. An

Puranjana)

.

KALADA.

prabhalambaka)

.

Vasuki's dynasty. It was burnt to death at the serpent yajna of Janamejaya. (Adi Parva, Chapter 57). KALADVIJA. A serpent, which attained salvation. The story of this naga, which was at first a Sudra is told in chapter 16 of the Padma Purana as follows: Once upon a time there lived in Karavlrapura a very selfish Sudra called Kaladvija, who was sentenced by Kala to live in hell for four Manvantaras. After living in hell the whole of the period, he was born as a naga and suffered much in the crevices of a stone. While

KALADANTAKA (KALADANTA). A serpent

An urban (Bhisma Parva, Chapter

region
9).

in

ancient

India.

born in

ancient Saint. During the the country of reign of the King Ksemadarsin in Kosala, his subjects were put to great sufferings under the misrule and corruption of his courtiers. At that time, Kalakavrkslya who was a friend of Ksemadarsin and a reputed sage, came to Kosala with a caged crow. The sage went about the country claiming to know Kaka-

to tell past events. Actually, the sage was going round the country in order to gather first-hand information

vidya" (VayasI vidya) by which a crow could be

made

month of Asvina), it threw out some fried paddy andKaudi (shells) which fell before Visnu. At once the Lord redeemed it from all its sins, and on its death, in due course, the attendants of Visnu took him in a
the

living thus,

on an Asvina purnima

(Full

moon day

in

divine chariot to the Lord.

brahmin scholar in the Vedas. He was of the assembly at the serpent yajna conducted by Janamejaya. (Adi Parva, Chapter 53) KALAHA. Wife of a brahmana named Bhiksu who was an inhabitant of the city of Saurastra. This woman used to do only just the opposite of what her husband asked her to do and so Bhiksu kept it a rule to ask her to do the opposite of what he wanted her to do. But one day he asked her to float thesraddha pinda in the river Gariga, and she threw it in Saucyakupa. As a result of that she was born in a demoniac womb. But Dharmadatta got her purified by the Dvadalaksari mantra and giving her half the virtue accrued by him. By virtue of this they were reborn as Dasaratha and Kausalya. (Ananda Ramayana, Sarakanda Uttarakhanda,Padma Purana) See also under Dharmadatta. KALAJNA(S). A synonym of the Kalakeyas. (See
a

KALAGHATA. A
member

.

sage's suggestions and brought about a thorough over.haul of the administration by punishing or dismissing the culprits. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 82). In Mahabharata, Sand Parva, Chapter 106 we find that this sage once advised Drupada to make a treaty

was furious and by his secret instructions his servants shot the crow to death that same night. On the next day, the sage himself went to the King and convinced him of the Minister's guilt. The King accepted the

about the corrupt practices of the King's men. After acquiring knowledge of the exact state of affairs in the country, Kalakavrkslya reached the palace. Under the cloak of the crow's words he exposed some of the improprieties of the King's Minister. Naturally, the Minister

flourished

with King Ksemadarsin. Kalakavrkslya was a sage who in Indra's assembly. (M.B. Sabha Parva,
7).

^KALAKETU. A
.

^ Chapter

renowned Asura Emperor who was the son of Danu, the wife of Kasyapa. Once he abducted Ekavali, the wife of Ekavira and went to Patala (underworld) Ekavira fought a fierce battle with Kalaketu and recovered Ekavali. (See under Ekavira)
.

KALAKEYA(S). (KALAKHANJAS).
grandson.
2) General.

The Asuras who were born to Kala (Kalika) 1) Birth. by Kasyapa Prajapati, the son of Marici and Brahma's
"Kalakeya"
is

;

.

not

a particular Asura.

The

KALAKA

under Kalakeya)

.

Kasyapa married

(KALIKA).
her.

One

Chapter 183 states that Kalakeya and Narakasura were born to Kalaka by Kasyapa. (Valmiki Ramayana, Aranya Kanda, Chapter 14) In Mahabharata Aranya Parva, Chapter 174 we find that Kalaka once received from Brahma, a boon that her sons would never be
.

of the daughters ofDaksa. Mahabharata, Vana Parva,

collectively called 60,000. Sometimes they fought under the leadership of Vrtrasura and at other times under other Asura leaders.

Kala (Kalika) are all Kalakeyas. They number about
sons of

the proper

name

of

campaign of hatred against Bruhmanas. At nightfall they used to enter Brahmana premises and commit murders, disturb their yagas, etc. The Brahmanas
started a

3)

Agastya and

the

Kalakeyas.

Once

the

Kalakeyas

by Kasyapa. (Valmiki Ramayana, Aranya Kanda, Chapter 14). KALAKAKSA. A warrior of Skan'da deva. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 69).

KALAKA. An

killed.

Asura

born

to

Kalika

complained to the sage Agastya. Agastya set out to capture the Kalakeyas, who were alarmed and hid themselves in the ocean. Agastya dried up the ocean by drinking it. But some of the Kalakeyas escaped and fled to Patala. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 101).

KALAKIRTI
4)

372
Fifteen

KALANEMI

II

Arjuna and the Kdlakeyas. The headquarters of the Asuras was Hiranyapura, situated near Devaloka. Once they allied themselves' with thousands of other Asuras called "Nivatakavacas" and launched an attack on Devaloka. Indra sent his charioteer Matali and brought Arjuna to Devaloka. Arjuna defeated the Nivatakavacas and Kalakeyas in battle. A large number of Kalakeyas were killed in the battle. ( M.B. Vana Parva Chapters

Nimisas make one Kasfha. "Thirty Kasthas make one Kala and thirty Kalas make one Muhurta. Thirty Muhurtas make one day (man's) and thirty such days, divided into two fortnights form a Masa (month). Six months form an Ayana there are two
;

KALAKIRTI. A
Mayura.

172-175).

Ksatriya King. Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 67 says that this King was born from the limb of Suparna, the younger brother of the Asura,

ayanas called Daksina and Uttara. Daksinayana is night, and Uttarayana is day for the Devas. 12,000 Divyavarsas Deva varsas form a Caturyuga consisting of the Krta Treta -Dvapara and Kali yugas, con2000 and 1000 sisting respectively of 4000, 3000,

KALAKOTI. A
Vana
P_arva,

Divyavarsas. Before the commencement and after the end of every one of the above four yugas there is an interval respectively of 400, 300, 200, and 100 years.

KALAKUTA. The

Chapter 95, Verse
virulent

sacred place in Naimisaranya.
3)
.

(M.B.

The

interval

during the churning of the Ocean of Milk. Siva swallowed and retained it in his throat, and so he came to be called Nilakantha.

poison

that

came

Sandhya and

up

period between Sandhya and Sandhhyamsa

The smell of it sent the At the request of Brahma
save the world (Siva) retained
ter 18).
it

"And Kalaku^a

arose like

burning all the worlds. worlds into a swoon. Siva swallowed the poison to from absolute destruction. And, he
fire

three

is called Krta yuga etc. One thousand Caturyugas form one day for Brahma, and it (Brahma's one day) has 14 Manus. Again, Chapter 8, Part 2 of the Visnu Purana has the following to say about Kalamana. Fifteen nimisas make one Kastha, thirty Kasthas one Kala, thirty Kalas one muhurta and thirty rnuhurtas one day and night. Day is long or short according to

before the commencement is called that at the end is called SandhyamSa. The

in his throat".

(Adi
.

Parva,

Chap-

KALAMANA.
in

noon and evening. Despite the above variation evening

the length or shortness of parts of the day, like morning,

India

tune

manner.

time) In ancient days (Calculating was calculated in the following
to

Time taken (needed)
pierce a leaf with a

needle 30 Alpakalas 30 Trutis

Alpakala
1
1

or dusk time is always (2 nazhikas) the same. The three muhurtas from the sun's ardhodaya (when half of the sun has arisen ) is called Pratahkala, (morning) and it is l/5th of day time. The three muhurtas following are known as sarhgava. Madhyahna (noon) The time after is the three muhurtas after samgava.

Truti

30 Kalas 30 Kasthas 4 Nimisas 10 Ganitas
6 Netuvlrpus

1

Kala Kastha
Nimisa (matra) Ganita Netuvirpu (time deep sigh) Vinazhika Ghatika
a

madhyahna
for three

for

6 Vinazhikas 60 Ghatikas 15 Ahoratras 2 Paksas
2 Masas (months) 6 Rtus
1 1

Paksa (Fortnight) Candramasa (A day
the Pitrs)

Day

(Ahoratra)

for

Rtu. year for
the Devas) Divyavarsa (Divine year)

men (A day

for

300 4800 3600 2400 1200 12000

Years (Men's) Divyavarsas Divyavarsas Divyavarsas Divyavarsas Divyavarsas 71 Caturyugas 14 Manvantaras
1

1 1 1 1 1 1

1
1

Krtayuga Tretayuga Dvaparayuga Kaliyuga Caturyuga Manvantara
Brahma's one day. (Bhagavata Trtiya
1
1

Pralaya (Kalpa)

considered to be of five different kinds. The first is called Samvatsara; the second parivatsara; the third idvatsara; the fourth, anuvatsara and the fifth, vatsara. 'This period of five years is called a yuga. In a yuga of five years there are 60 saura months. 61 slvana months, 62 Candra months and 67 naksatra months. At the beginning of the sixth year the sun and moon meet in the same house and that period of five years also is

houses. Daksinayana is when the sun enters Cancer, and Uttarayana when it enters Capricorn. Fifteen days and nights constitute a Paksa (fortnight) and two Paksas one month. Two solar months constithree rtus one ayana and two tute a Rtu (season) ayanas one year. Since there are four kinds of months, i.e. Saura, Savana, Candra and Naksatra, years are
.

( afternoon) Aparahna lasts time after this is dusk. Thus, a day-time of fifteen muhurtas is divided into five parts of three muhurtas each. On Visuvat day the day will have full fifteen muhurtas. Then during Uttarayana and Daksinayana the day will be longer or shorter. During Uttarayana the day will be longer than night, and during Daksinayana vice versa. Visuvat occurs when the sun enters the Tula (Libra) and Mesa (Aries)

is

muhurtas.

aparahna

.

The

,

Pralaya

KALAMRA.

7 jNazhikas (Ghatikas)

4 Yamas
8

Yama

skandha)

KALAMUKHA

Yamas

1

(Devi Bhagavata, 9th Skandha). The 'Ka.lama.na' according to the Visnu Purana differs in certain respects from the calculations given above. Chapter 3, Part 1 of Visnu Purana says
:

day time day (day and night)

.

(Srldhariyam). See under BHADRASALA. A hybrid race born from the (S) union of men and Raksasas. Sahadeva defeated the Kalamukhas also during his conquest of the southern region. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 31, Verse 67) KALANEMI I. A great Asura. In later years he was born as Karhsa, the son of Ugrasena. (See under
.

called yuga.

KALANEMI

Karhsa )

.

II.

A

brahmin from Malava. His

father

KALANEMI
.

III

373
here
is

KALI
as

I

was called Yajnasena. (Kathasaritsagara, Kathamukhalambaka) KALANEMI III. A Raksasa. During the RamaRavana war, when Laksmana swooned, Hanuman started for Drona mountain for medicine. Ravana deputed Kiilanemi to obstruct the path of Hanuman. Well acquainted with the trickeries of the Raksasas Hanuman killed Kalanemi who appeared before him disguised as a sage. (Adhyatma Ramayana, Yuddha Kanda Canto 67) See KALANIRIVAYA. (Calculating time). under
.

good

as

making a
.

gift

of eleven

cows. (Vana

KALATOYAKA. An

urban region in ancient India. (Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 9) KALAVATI I. A daughter of the King of Kasi. This gem of a woman worshipped the sage Durvasas and became a saint by obtaining the Saiva Pancaksara
.

Parva, Chapter 85)

KALANJARAGIRI. A famous mountain tirtha. He who bathes in Vedlhrada on

Kalamana.

at
this

Medhavika mountain

will get the benefits of gifting away 1000 cows. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 25). Spread on the four sides of mount Mahameru are twenty mountains. They are Kuraiiga, Karaga, Kusumbha, Vikaiikata, Trikuta, Sisira, Patanga, Rucaka, Nila, Nisadha, Sltivasa, Kapila, Sankha, Vaidurya, Carudhi, Harhsa, Rsabha, Niiga, Kalanjara and Narada. (Devi Bhagavata, 8th
:

KALAPA. A
sthira

Skandha)

.

powerful sage of great majesty. Yudhiworshipped this sage at the end of the Rajasuyayajna. (Chapter 85, Sabha Parya) KALAPA. A great sage, who was a member of Yudhisthira's assembly. ( Sabha Parva, Chapter 4) KALAPARVATA I. A mountain on the sea coast near Lanka. (Vana Parva, Chapter 277) KALAPARVATA II. A mountain seen by Arjuna on his way to Siva with Sri Krsna during their dreamjourney. (Drona Parva, Chapter 80) KALAPATHA. A son of Visvamitra. He was a scholar in philosophy and a Brahmavadl. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 4) KALAPI&GAI. A holy place. (Sloka 43, Chapter 25,
. .

.

.

.

KALAPI&GA
jala.

Anusasana Parva)
II.

.

A

kind of bird.
It

See under
this

Kapin-

wards Dasarha, King of Mathura, married her. The King felt very hot whenever he approached her and he questioned her about it. She said she had received childhood and from the Pancaksara Mantra even sinners would feel the heat if they touched her. The King was greatly disappointed and Kalavati took him to Sage Garga to redeem him from all his sins. The sage dipped the King in the river Kalindi and when the King rose up all his sins flew away from his body as tiny birds. The King reaching the palace, embraced Kalavati and then he felt her body very cool and pleasant. They got a son also. (Pancaksaramahatmya, Siva Purana) KALAVATI II. Mother of Mrgavatl, a queen. Mrgavatl was the mother of Udayana. See under Mrgavatl). KALAVATI III. A nymph. See under Thinthakarala. KALAVEGA. A serpent born in the Vasuki dynasty. It was burnt to ashes during the serpent yajna of janamejaya. (Adi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 7) KALAYAVANA. A powerful Asura born out of the effulgence of Gargacarya. He was killed by Sri Krsna. (See under Krsna). KALEHIKA. A female attendant of Skandadeva. (Salya Parva, Chapter 46) KALEYA (S) A set of Asuras born to the great sage Kasyapa of his wife Kala. Some scholars hold the view that the Kalakeyas and the Kaleyas are one and the same. Kaleyas destroyed the Asramas of sages like Vasistha, Cyavana and Bharadvaja. (Vana Parva, Chapter 102). Devas killed some of the Kaleyas; the others
.

(five letters

pertaining to Siva

Sivaya namah)

.

After-

.

.

.

KALAPRSTHA. A

that the hair on the necks of horses chariot of Siva at the burning of the Tripuras, was tied. (Karna Parva, Chapter 34) KALARATRI. The Devata presiding over the night on the eve of death. The fierce aspect of the Devata is described in the Mahabharata as follows Coal-black in colour, with swollen mouth and eyes and wearing red garlands and clothings thus appeared the worn in (Devata) presiding over the death-night. With the fierce cord in her hand she drags away the souls of the dead. (Sauptika Parva, Chapter 9) KALA&A. serpent born of the family of KaSyapa.
.
:

serpent.

was with

serpent attached to the

KALI

ran away to Pa.ta.la. I. Incarnation of

sin,

the Sin-god.

Kasyapaprajapati, son of Brahma, 1) Birth. his wife Muni sixteen sons and Kali was the
son.

begot of
fifteenth

sons of a deva-gandharva. The other Kasyapa were: Bhimasena, Ugrasena, Suparna, Varuna Dhrtarastra, Gopati, Suvarcas, Satyavak, Arkaparna, Prayuta, Visruta, Citraratha, Salisiras, Parjanya and Narada. (4Slokasfrom verse 43, Chapter 65, Adi Parva)
.

He was

2)

How

Parikfit controlled Kali.

When

Sri

Krsna went

to

A

.

Vaikuntha, the Pandavas entrusted the administration of the state to Pariksit, son of Abhimanyu and started
for the Mahaprasthana. King Pariksit was travelling the continent conquering places when he saw Kali in the garb of a Sudra King teasing a cow and bull couple. Pariksit aimed an arrow at him and then Kali came and bowed down before the King. The King did

(Sloka 11, Chapter 103, Udyoga Parva). KALASAILA. A range of mountains in Uttarakhanda in ancient India. (Vana Parva, Chapter 139).

KALASAPOTAKA. A
KALASI.
Adi Parva)
.

serpent. (Sloka

7,

Chapter 35,

holy place. If one sips water from a pond in that place one will acquire the benefit of conducting an Agnistoma Sacrifice. (Sloka 80, Chapter 83, Vana Parva. KALASODARA. A soldier of Skanda. (Sloka 72,

A

KALASUTRA. A hell. (See under Kala) KALATlRTHA. A sacred place in Ayodhya. A
.

Chapter 85, Salya Parva).

free but ordered him to go Kali was nonplussed because all the land belonged to Pariksit and there was no place for him to go. So Kali begged of the King to give him some space to live. Pariksit then declared that Kal i could live in the following five places: Gambling' Drinking, Woman, Murder and Gold. From that day onwards the free movements of Kali were thus restricted

not

kill

him.

He

let

away from

him go

his state.

bath

(Chapter

17, 1st

Skandha, Bhagavata).

KALI
3)

I

374

KALIDASA

96000 years, Dviiparayuga 8,64000 years and Kaliyuga 4,32,000 years. The Christian era started in the Kali era 3102 and after another 4,26926 years- Kaliyuga will come to an end and the present .universe will enter the eighth Manvantara. From the beginning of the Kaliyuga acts of sin predominate and Kali, sin-god, will lord over the world. Kali was born on the day Sri Krsna ascended heaven.

There are fourteen ManKali, Lord of Kaliyuga. vantaras during the life of Brahma. The life time of a Mann is a Manvantara. This present period is the seventh Manvantara. In each Manvantara there are four yugas, Krta, Treta, Dvapara and Kali. Krtayuga consists of 1 7,28000 years, Tretayuga consists of 12,-

went

When Bhagavan Mukunda abandoned
Mahatmya).
the

his

to his place in Vaikundia. Kali came into being binding all on earth. (Sloka 66, Chapter 1, Bhagavata

body and

be short-lived and the stature of the people also will diminish. Beastly type of men will be on the increase. Taste and smell will vanish. Women will be 'Mukhebhagas'. Men will sell rice and brahmanas, the Vedas. .Women will sell their vaginas. The yield of milk from cows will decrease. Flowers and fruits will become less. Crows will be on the increase. Brahmanas would become beggars. Sages will be merchants. Brahmanas would without any reason grow hairs and nails. None will observe the four asramas correctly. Students will defile the bed of their preceptors. Rains will be in and out of season. Trees and plants will refuse to grow in many places. There will be murder of people everywhere. Merchants will be cheats and they will use false measures. Righteous persons will decrease and sinners will
increase.

pregnant and boys

movable and immovable possessions and went to the forests with Damayanti. Nala, prompted by Kali, abandoned Damayanti in the forests and went his way. Damayanti cursed Kali. It was at this time that the great serpent Karkotaka was entrapped in a wild fire. Nala saved him from the fire but in return the cobra bit him turning Nala into one of blue hue and said "Oh Nala, let Kali who cheated you and is now inside your body suffer with the poison I have injected into your body." Nala roamed about and reached Ayodhya and there became the charioteer of Rtuparna, King of Ayodhya. When Rtuparna went to the second marriage of Damayanti to Vidarbha, Nala went with him as his On the way Nala taught Rtuparna the charioteer. and Rtuparna in return science of Asvahrdaya taught him the science of Aksahrdaya. When Nala learnt the secret of Aksahrdaya he vomited all the poison inside him and Kali left him. Nala was about to curse Kali but refrained from it at the request of Kali. At once Kali climbed on a Tanni tree (Beleric Myrobalan) and went down from the tree when Nala left the place. Tanni is from that day onwards considered
all his
-

ther to a game of dice putting that bullock as a wager. Puskara accepted the challenge. Nala wagered and lost

Kali and Dvapara were going to Svayamvara of Damayanti when they met Indra and others returning from the Svayamvara. They told Kali and Dvapara that Damayanti was married to Nala. Kali and Dvapara felt it an outrage that Damayanti should have married a man of the earth and not a deva. Kali decided that Nala should be sent out of his country and his matrimonial life made most unhappy. Dvapara consented to be his accomplice in this attempt. Kali followed Nala waiting for an opportunity to enter his body. One day, by an oversight' Nala, without doing the acamana after passing urine, performed his sandhyavandana. Taking that opportunity Kali entered the body of Nala. Kali went to Puskara, brother of Nala in the guise of a bullock and made Nala challenge his bro4) Kali and Nala.

eight years will become become fathers. Young men at the age of sixteen would be grey-haired. Old men will continue practising the habits of young men. Wives will lie with their servants. Wives will be prostitutes
Girls

of seven or
will

even while their husbands are
lots

alive.

6) Kaliyugatirtha. The greatest tirtha of Kaliyuga is the river Ganga. (Chapter 85, Vana Parva) 7 ) Duryodhana was the incarnation of Kali and Sakuni, that of Dvapara. (Chapter 31, Asrama Parva). KALI II. synonym of Surya. (Sloka 20, Chapter 3,
.

of hunger." (Chapter 188.

Vana

People will die in Parva).

A

Vana

Parva)

.

KALI

III.

A

A synonym of Satyavati, mother of Vyasa. (See I. under Adrika and Satyavati) KALI II. An aspect or form of Parvatl. (See under
KALI
.

Anusasana Parva)

synonym of
.

Siva.

(Sloka 79, Chapter

17,

ParvatI)
krit.

.

KALIDASA.
Some

The greatest poet and dramatist in Sansscholars opine that Kalidasa flourished in the 8th Century B.C. while others place his date upto the period llth Century A.D. At any rate most of the scholars consider the period between 1st Century B.C. and 5th Century A.D. as the most probable date of the great poet. Some of the main theories in this regard are as follows; Towards the close of Raghu(1) Eighth century B.C. varhs a Mahakavya Kalidasa has referred to the son of King Agnimitra. Therefore the poet must have lived in the 8th Century B.C. This is the view of the scholar
Century B.C. According to Dr. Kunjan Kalidusa lived in the second Century B.C., the Raja reasons for the belief being as follows. The poet was a contemporary of King Agnimitra of the Suhga dynasty. This Agnimitra is eulogised in Kalidasa's Malavikagnimitra. Agnimitra is referred to in the Bharatavakya of the drama also. ( epilogue)
(2)

Hippolyte Fanche.
Second

Kalidasa was a

(3) First

Century B.C.

The

traditional belief

member

in the assembly

is that of poets and

a cursed tree. (Chapter 58, Vana Parva) The celebrated sage Mar5) The world in Kaliyuga. kandeya had prophesied about the happenings in Kaliyuga thus: In Kaliyuga all will be dishonest. Charity and Sacrifices will be only for a name. Brahmanas would do the duties of Sudras. Sudras will become prosperous. There will be sinners as kings. People will
.

scholars of the court of emperor Vikramaditya, started the Vikrama era in B.C. 56.

who

Dhanvantariksapanakamarasimha-Sanku

Khyato Varahamihiro nrpateh sabhayarh Ratnani vai vararucir nava vikramasya.
4) Fifth Century A.D. According to Dr. Keith, Kalidasa lived in the fifth Century A.D. One Candra-

Vetala-Bhatta-Ghatakarpara-Kalidasah

/

KALIKA
the Sakas in 339 A.D. was was known as Vikramaditya also. King Dr. Keith thinks that the great poet might have been a member of this King's court. Perhaps Kalidasa had remembered his royal patron Vikramaditya in his drama called Vikramorvahlya. Dr. Keith is further of the view that Kalidasa composed Kumarasambhava

375

KALI&GA (M)
Arjuna passed on the information to Krsna he took her and duly married her. in his chariot to Dvaraka (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha). 5) Sons of Kalindi. Ten sons, were born to Kalindl by Krsna. (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha).

gupta

II,

who

defeated

of Ujjain.

He

after attending the birth celebrations of

Kumaragupta,

son of King Vikramaditya.

(5) Sixth Century A.D. Three scholars, Fergmson, Max Muller and Kern have opined that Kalidasa lived in the sixth Century A.D. Whichever be the date of Kalidasa it could be known from his works that he spent the major part of his life in Ujjain, and was inextricably indebted to the city in

Jarasandha and the son of his minister, Haiiisa, being told that his father had been killed, committed suicide by jumping into Kalindl. But, Harhsa had not been killed, and when he returned from the battlefield and knew about the death of his son, he too jumped into suicide. Kalindi and committed Parva, (Sabha Chapter 14).
7).

6) Harhsa and his son

in

Kalindi.

Once Krsna

attacked

many
his

KALIKA.

Abhijfianah'akuntala, Vikramorvasiya and Malavikagnimitra and a lyric called Rtusamhara. He wrote also a world-famous poem called Meghasandesa.

two mahakavyas.

ways.

Raghuvamsa and Kumarasambhava

He had

also

are written three dramas,

One

(i)

Kalindl

Other information. is one of the seven tributaries of the Ganga. who drinks its water will be released from all sins.

A

female attendant of Skanda. (Salya Parva,

Chapter 46, Verse 14).

KALIKA.

KALIKASA&GA A
good
as that at

One of the attendants given to Skanda by Pusan, the other being Panitaka. (Salya Parva, Chapter'45, Verse 43)
.

Kalika<rama.

holy place.

Bathing here

is

as

(Adi Parva, Chapter 139, Verse 19). (ii) The Pandavas, during their life in exile in the forest drank Yamuna water, got- over their weariness and continued their sojourn. (Vana Parva, Chapter 5, Verse 2). (iii) Sahadeva, son of Smjaya, gave Agni Deva 1000 golden emblems on the banks of the Yamuna. (Vana Parva Chapter 90, Verse 7). ASvamedhas on (iv) Bharata performed thirty-three the banks of the Yamuna (Vana Parva, Chapter 90, Verse 8) On another occasion he conducted six Asva.

KALIKASRAMA. A
ter 25)
.

holy place. If one bathes and spends three nights here one will be released from the sorrows of life and death. (Anusasana Parva, Chapkilled

KALIKEYA. A
1

KALINDl (YAMUNA).
)

son of King Subala. He was Abhimanyu. (Drona Parva, Chapter 49).
General.

by

stayed in Ambadi for two months. One day he was picnicking on the banks of Kalindl with the Gopis. Under the influence of liquor he desired to pla'y with his companions in the waters of Kalindl. He called Kalindl to his side, but the chaste Kalindl refused to oblige him. So he dragged her by his plough hooking her to it. In great fear Kalindl saluted him, and he enjoyed with the gopis for some time on its waters. 1 Oth Skandha) ( Bhagavata, After Maya had built 4) Kalindi, &ri Krsna's wife. Indraprastha for the Pandavas, Sri Krsna spent a few days there with them. And, one day while Krsna and Arjuna were strolling on the banks of Kalindl the latter saw there a beautiful woman performing penance and he approached her. She told Arjuna that the object of her penance was to get Krsna as husband, and when
.

Yamuna is one of the holy presiding deity of the river is Kalindidevi. Kalindl, the daughter of the sun has her source in Kalinda mountain, and hence the name Kalindl for the river. Kalindl joins the Gariga at Prayaga, and this confluence of the two rivers is called Sangama, which is a sacred place. 2) Gave way for Sri Krsna, As soon as Krsna was born Vasudeva stealthily removed the child to Ambadi. Due to heavy rains the Kalindl was overflowing, and Vasudeva begged Kalindl for a passage, and the river gave way for Vasudeva to take Krsna to Ambadi. (Bhagavata 10th Skandha). Balabhadra dragged Kalindl. Balabhadrarama once 3)
Kalindl alias
rivers

in

India.

The

(Drona Parva, Chapter 68) he conducted three hundred Asvamedhas. (Santi Parva, Chapter 29). (v) Ambarlsa, the son of Nabhaga conducted a yajna on the planes of Kalindl. (Vana Parva, Chapter 129). (vi ) Agastya the great sage performed penance on the planes of Kalindl. (Vana Parva, Chapter 161). (vii) King Santanu conducted seven yajnas on the banks of the Kalindi. (Vana Parva, Chapter 162).

medhas

at the

On

same

spot.

.

yet another

occasion

The colour of Kalindi is black. Kama (Cupid) arrows of flower at Siva, who was lamenting over the death of Sati, and he (Siva) thus excited to a condition of insanity jumped into Kalindl with the result that its water turned black in colour. (Vamana Purana, Chapter 6 and also see under
(viii)

shot

KALINDlDVlPA.

It was on this island that VySsa was born as the result of the intercourse between Paraiara and Satyavati. (Adi Parva, Chapter 60) KALIistGA I. Rtayu, King of Kaliiiga was present at the svayarhvara of Draupadi. (Sloka 13, Chapter 185 Rukmi played a game of dice with Adi Parva) Balabhadra with the help of Kalinga (for details see under Rukmi) The sage Dirghatamas begot a son of the wife of the aged and senile Kalinga and the boy was named Kaksivan (Sukta 125, Anuvaka 18, Mandala 1, Rgveda). KALIJNIGA II. A warrior of the god Skandha. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 64).
. .

Yamuna)

.

.

KALI&GA
Skanda

lived in Krtayuga. In a story that he conquered heaven, drove away the Dikpalakas, posted his own forces in their place and was finally killed by Devi. KALI5IGA. Srutayus, King of Kalinga, and a member of Yudhisthira's assembly. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 4)
III.

A

Purana there

Daitya

who

is

.

KALIKIGA(M) (KALI&GA).
south of Bharata.

An

ancient place in

the

KALI&GADATTA
Other details.

376

KALPA

III

1 Arjuna visited this place while he was on a pilgrim( ) age. (Sloka 9, Chapter 214, Adi Parva) (2) Kalinga was also included in the countries conquered by Sahadeva while he was on his victory march.
. .

(Chapter 31, Sabha Parva) People from Kaliriga presented Yudhisthira with (Sloka 18, Chapter 52. Sabha gifts for the Rajasuya. Parva) was on a (4) Yudhisthira visited Kalinga while he
(3)
.

KALIYUGA.
visnu.

attack him. Kaliya vomited blood and saluted Krsna. His wives and children also saluted the Lord. Krsna sent all of them away to Ramanaka island assuring Kaliya that Garuda would not attack him on seeing the marks of his (Krsna 's) feet on Kaliya. Thus did Kaliya and his family shift their residence to Ramanaka island. (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha).

KALKI. The
The
Kalki

See under Manvantara. tenth avatara (incarnation)
ten

avataras

are

called

of MahaDasavataras.
:

pilgrimage. (Sloka 4, Chapter 114, Vana Parva). while he was on (5) Kama conquered Kalinga
.

a

victory march. (Sloka 8, Chapter 254, Vana Parva) (Sloka (6) Sahadeva defeated the King of Kalinga. 24, Chapter 23, Udyoga Parva)
.

Krsna slaughtered the people of Kalinga. (7) Sri (Sloka 76, Chapter 48, Udyoga Parva). (8) The people of Kalinga took part in the war between the Pandavas and Kauravas. (Sloka 6, Chapter
20,

is the last of them. Agni Purana, Chapter 16 says as follows about the incarnation of Kalki Towards the end of Kaliyuga, all people will lose their faith in God and become irreligious. They will accept presents from the wicked. At that time, there will be intermixture of castes. People will become thieves and evil doers. Fifteen divisions of the Veda Vajasaneya alone will become the authoritative document. People, wearing the garb of righteousness, will indulge in

(Sloka 12, (9) Parasurama conquered this place. Chapter 70, Drona Parva) KALIJsIGADATTA. See under Dharmadatta. KALI&GASENA. See under Madanamanjuka. KALIPRIYA. A prostitute. She attained svarga by observing the Karttikavrata. (Chapter 21, Brahma.

Drona Parva).

KALIYA.
1)

khanda,

Padma Purana).

unrighteousness. Mlecchas (lowest class of people) assuming the form of Kings will begin feeding upon human beings. At that time Lord Visnu will incarnate as Kalki, the son of Visnuyasas and the priest of Yajnavalkya and exterminate all mlecchas. He will restore people to caturvarnya and the four asramas and maintain proper standards of conduct. Afterwards the Lord will renounce the form of Kalki and ascend

Birth. Kasyapa, grandson of Brahma and son of Marlci begot of his wife Kadru powerful nagas like Sesa, Airavata, Taksaka, Karkotaka, Kaliya, Maninaga, Purananaga etc. and from them were born all kinds of nagas on earth. (Adi Parva, Chapter 35) Kaliya possessed one thousand heads. (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha). 2) Kaliya taok his abode in Kalindi. Vinata and Kadru were wives of Kasyapa. The former was the mother of Garuda and the latter of the nagas. In a wager
.

Vinata was defeated and had to become the slave of Kadru. Garuda brought Amrta from Devaloka and redeemed his mother from slavery. Yet Garuda and the nagas continued to be enemies, Garuda killing and eating nagas whenever he got a chance for it. At last the nagas entered into an understanding with Garuda agreeing to give him the ha vis (offering) which they got on certain days, and thus Garuda stopped eating the nagas. But Kaliya did not subscribe to the above agreement he treated O^ruda with contempt. But, in an encounter with Garuda Kaliya was put to so much
;

Heaven. Then Krtayuga will begin again. Chapter 190 of Bhasa Bharata supports almost all the above statements. In the light of them, we can gather certain features of Kalki's incarnation when Kaliyuga reaches its zenith. Mahavisnu will be born as a Brahmana with the name Visnuyasas, in the village called Sambhala. Visnuyasas will become famous under the name Kalki. He will be the priest of Yajnavalkya. He will create arms and soldiers by his will itself and destroy the wicked. With that Krtayuga will commence. There is difference of opinion as to whether Kalki's incarnation has passed or is yet to come. But in the
light of the statements in the Puranas,

Kalki has not come. Mahabharata, Vana Parva, says that Kaliyuga extends over a period of 4, 32, 000 years.
yet
It is

over 5,000 years since it began. 900 years have to pass before the end of Kaliyuga. Therefore lakhs of years have still to pass before the incarnation of Kalki. KALMASA&GHRI. See under the word KALMASAlittle

now

Still,

more than

only a

4, 26,

of hardships that he, along with his family, shifted his residence to a particular sector in Kalindi. Owing to the curse of 3) Admission denied to Garuda.

KALMASAPADA. (KALMASASIGHRI, MITRASAHA, SAUDASA) A famous king of the Iksvaku dynasty.
.

PADA.

He wandered
years. 1 ) Genealogy.
'

about in the

forest as

a Raksasa for twelve
in

a sage called Saubhari, who was performing penance on the banks of Kalindi, that Garuda would die brokenheaded if he entered Kalindi, it was a prohibited area
to

Garuda.

4)

Suppression of Kaliya. Owing to the virulent poison of Kaliya .the waters of Kalindi became poisonous and the trees on its banks dried up. Once, while Krsna and his companions, the Gopalas came to the banks of the river grazing their cows. The Gopalas drank water from the river a'nd fell down dead. Then Krsna jumped into the river from the top of a tree on its bank and danced upon the hoods of Kaliya who had rushed to

Vaivasvata Manu Iksvaku Vikuksi Sasada Kakutstha Anenas Prthulava PrasenaYuvanasva Mandhata Purukutsa Trasadasyu jit Sutanva TrayyAnaranya AryaSva Vasumanas Rohiaruna Satyavrata (Trisaiiku) Hariscandra tava Harita Cuiicu Sudeva: Bharuka Bahuka Sagara Asamafijasa Arhsuman Bhaglratha Srutana-

van

following order

From Visnu were descended Brahma Marlci Kasyapa

the

Vivas-

Puranjaya

Sindhudvipa Ayutayus Rtuparna Sarvakama Sudasa (Sudhasana) Mitrasaha (Kalmasapada). His actual name was Mitrasaha. Since he 2) Name. was the son of Sudasa, he was called Saudasa also.

bha

KALMASAPADA
(M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 78). Kalmasarighri and Kalmasapada were names which he got as a result

377

KALMASAPADA
he cooked some human flesh and offered it as food for Vasistha. The enraged sage cursed the King to become a man-eating Raksasa who would roam about for twelve years in the woods. Thus Mitrasaha became a Raksasa.

3)

of Vasistha's curse. Milrasaha became a Raksasa. Mitrasaha was a reputed and glorious king belonging to the solar dynasty of kings who ruled over Ayodhya. He had a queen

enviable married life, Mitrasaha was forced to the life of a Raksasa in the forest for a period of 12 ye"aTs, as the result of a curse. The story of this curse is given in different Puranas in different versions and they are given below; One day Mitrasaha went to 4) Sakti Cursed Mitrasaha. the forest for hunting. Visvamitra wished to get this mighty King as his disciple. While the King was passing through the forest, he saw Sakti, Vasistha's son, coming towards him. The King was a Ksatriya and Sakti was a Brahmana. They were faced with the problem of whether the Ksatriya should make way for the Brahmana or vice versa. Neither of them made way for the other. At last, Mitrasaha struck Sakti with his whip. In his anger Sakti cursed Mitrasaha that he should become a Raksasa and roam about in the forest

named Madayantl. While they were
and
lead

leading

a happy

Visvamitra who was standing nearby at time introduced a devil into the body of the King and from that day Mitrasaha wandered about in the forest in the form of a Raksasa. (M.B. Adi Parva,
for 16 years.

the

Chapter 176).
Mitrasaha once went to hunt While hunting he came across two tiger cubs. Actually, they were two Raksasas in disguise. The King who was unaware of it, killed one of them with an arrow. The other cub suddenly assumed his own form as a Raksasa and after giving Mitrasaha a warning that he would take revenge on him at the
5) Vasislh cursed Mitrasaha.

in the forest.

Mitrasaha became very angry whan he was cursed by Vasistha. He decided to pay back in the same coin by cursing Vasistha also. He took water in his hand and was about to throw it down with the words of curse. But his queen Madayantl stopped him. She reminded him that it was not right to curse a Brahmana and requested him to sprinkle that water on his own feet. The King's anger cooled down and he sprinkled the water on his own feet. Since his feet were polluted by the water of sin Mitrasaha came to be called "Kalmasapada", and Kalmasanghri" from that day. (Siva Purana, Sivaratri Mahatmya) 8) Kalmasapada 's life as Raksasa. The curse-ridden Kanmasapada began to look upon Vasistha and his sons with inveterate hatred. He roamed the countrysides and forests in the form of a Raksasa. He started man-eating by feeding upon Sakti, the eldest son of Vasistha. After that he ate all the remaining 99 sons of Vasistha. Distreseed at the loss of his children, Vasistha left his Asrama, bent on committing suicide. He tied hisVwn hands and feet securely with a rope and jumped into the river to drown himself. This attempt, like several other attempts to commit suicide, failed and he did not die. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 177). In the Mahabharata there is a story which says that once Uttanka, a disciple of the sage Gautama went to
7)
.

(Siva Purana, Sivaratri Mahatmya) How Mitrasaha got the name "Kalmasapada."
.

proper time, vanished. After the hunt the King returned to his palace. He informed Vasistha that he wished to perform Asva-

I have a great desire to eat some cooked meat to my Asrama without anyone knowing about it." After saying this,

medhayaga like his ancestors. The sage offered to assist him in it. Shortly after, one day, the old Raksasa-tiger, disguising himself as the sage Vasistha, came to Mitra"Oh King! I will tell you a secret. saha and said;
Don't
tell

meat

anyone

else.

food. Please send

pada's (Saudasa's) queen, for the sake of Gautama's wife. (For details, see under the word "Uttanka") 9) Brahmani's curse on Kalmasapada. In the course of his wanderings through the forest as a Raksasa, Kalmasapada happened to come across a Brahmana youth engaged in amorous pleasures with his wife Angirasi. The King caught hold of the youth and killed him. His wife, the Brahmani wept loudly and after cremating her husband's body in a funeral pyre, jumped into it and burnt herself to death. Just before her death she pronounced a curse on Kalmasapada that if he touched
.

beg the Kundalas (ear ornaments) worn by Kanmasa-

the place. The King told this secret to his wife Madayantl. They prepared the meat-food secretly and took it to Vasistha's Asrama. When Vasistha saw the meat food, he took it as a personal insult and transformed the King into a

the disguised Raksasa-sage

left

Raksasa. (Uttara Ramayana).

Once Another story of Vasistha's curse on Mitrasah while Mitrasaha was hunting in the forest, he happened kill a Raksasa by accident. The dead Raksasa's to younger brother swore to avenge his death. He went to the King in the disguise of a young Brahmana cook. Mitrasaha appointed him as a cook in the royal
6)
.

kitchen.

At about

that time, one day, Vasistha came to Ayodhya, on the invitation of Mitrasaha for a Sraddha. Mitrasaha, accompanied by his queen, greeted the sage with honour. He ordered the cook to prepare food for the guest at once. The Raksasa disguised as cook, decided to make the best of this opportunity. In a short time

Brahmana couple, the sin of Brahmahatya (killing of Brahmana) continued to pursue Ka Imasapada in the form of a terrible monster. He fled for life from it and at last reached the presence of King Janaka. There, he happened to see the sage Gautama who taught Kalmasapada Divyajnana (Divine wisdom). As advised by the sage, he went to the temple at Gokarna and spent some years in deep meditation. (Siva Purana, Sivaratri Mahatmya). Towards the 10) Sdpamoksa. (Liberation from Curse). close of the twelve years which Mitrasha (Kalmasapada) spent as a Raksasa, Vasistha saw him. The sage sprinkled holy water on Mitrasha- and at once the Raksasa (the spirit of the Raksasa)left his body and he
After the death of the

any

woman

in future

he would die immediately.

resumed

his original figure of

the

Vasistha as his preceptor.

They went back

King.

He

accepted together to

Ayodhya. Although Madayantl, queen of Mitrasaha was there.the King was not able to touch her owing to the Brahmani's

KALMASI

378 he became
virhsa

KAMA
a victim
to the disease of leprosy.

I

with a stone and the child was born. Since he was born with the help of a stone (A-'man), the child was named "A.'maka". (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 167). KALMASI. A river. It was while travelling by the side of this river, that King Drupada reached a Brahmana village where he happened to meet Upayaja. (M.B. Adi Parva. Chapter 166). Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 78, Verse 16 says that it was on the bank of this river that the sage Bhrgu blessed Yudhisthira.

curse. So he requested Vasistha to beget children by became pregnant by her. Accordingly MadayantI Vasistha. But she did not deliver the child even after twelve years. At last she hit the embryo in her womb

(Panca-

Brahmanam). KALYAl^I. A female

follower

of Skandadeva.
.

K MA

A Prajapati named Dharma was born 1) General. from the right breast of Brahma. Dharma was very handsome. Three sons, Sama, Kama and Harsa who were exceedingly handsome, were born to him. Of them, Karra became the god of beauty. His wife was Rati. Sama became the husband of Priipti. Harsa had Nanda for his wife. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 66,
Verses 3 1-33).

Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 6) T I. God of beauty in Indian mythology.

(M.B.

KALODAKA. A

scholars believe that the present river Yamuna)

(Modern

Kanmasi.

is

the

same

as

.

abortion of those

who bathe

sacred place.

The

sin

of

causing
will

in the tirtha here
.

be

washed away. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 60 and Santi Parva, Chapter 152, Verse 12) KALPA I. A son of Dhruva. See under DHRUVA. KALPA II. A period of one thousand Yugas or fourteen Manvantaras. See under MANVANTARA.

KALPA

The customary proceedings of Yagas. III. These proceedings are made in the form of Sutras. The Sutras describe how the Brahmanas and mantras are there are separate to be used. For each Sarhhita
Srauta Sutras. The Srauta Sutras for Rgveda Sarhhita are Asvalayana, Sarhkhayana and Saunaka. Those for

we see another story about Kama's created ten Prajapatis. After that, the woman Sandhya was created. At the very moment of her birth, Brahma and the Prajapatis were irresistibly fascinated by her charm and they sprang up from their seats. All their thoughts converged on the same from object. At this time a handsome youth emerged Brahma's mind with a floral bow in his hands. Immediately after his birth, he asked Brahma "Karh darpayami" (Whom should I make proud ?) Brahma Let the minds of living beings be the aim of replied your arrows". He suggested Rati the daughter of Daksa, to be Kama's wife. Since he stirred the mind and of Brahma, he got the name
In Kalika Purana
birth.

Brahma

.

since he

Samaveda
Those

for

Latyayana and Drahyayana. Krsna Yajurveda are Apastamba Bauddha-_
are MaSaka,

came

was extremely

"MANMATHA",
in

attractive

to

be called

"KAMA".

appearance he
see

KALPAKA.

Vadhula, Vaikhanasa, Laugaksi, Maitra, Katha and Varaha. For Suklayajurveda it is Katyayana Srauta Sutra. For Atharvaveda it is Kausika Srauta Sutra. All these Sutras contain only brief symbolic words and are difficult to understand without explanation.
(Kathasaritsagara, Kathapithakalambaka, Part
tree

yana, Satyasadha, Hiranyake^J,

Manava, Bharadvaja,

under "RATI." As soon 2) How Kdmadeva got the name "KANDARPA" as Kama was born, he went to Brahma and asked him "Karh darpayami ?" (Whom should I mak proud ?). Therefore he got the name "KANDARPA". (Katha.

(For further details,

Siva's garden.

It

is

situated

in
It

Kailasa.
I)
.

saritsagara) 3) Brahma cursed
.
.

KALPAVRKSA. A
:

in

Devaloka.

has the

power of giving any object that one wishes to get. There are five Kalpavrksas in Devaloka. Their names are Mandara, Parijata, Santana, Kalpavrksa and

purpose of creation. He carnal thoughts rising in his mind. At once a girl was born from his mind. She appeared before him and

Kama.

upon Para Brahman
felt

Once Brahma was meditating

for

the

Haricandana. Agni Purana, third Chapter mentions that among the wonderful things obtained by the churning of the ocean of milk, there was Kalpavrksa also. So Kalpavrksa was born from the ocean of milk. KALYA (KALI). Mother of Vyasa. (Agni Purana,

did obeisance to him. This girl was Sarasvatl. Brahma fell in love with her. He declared that she should stay in the tongues of all living beings, and particularly at the tip of the tongues of all scholars. After that he made Sarasvatl his wife. Soon he felt repentant for his weakness of mind. His anger blazed at Kama who was the cause of all this. He cursed that Kama would be burnt to ashes in the fire from Siva's third eye. After that Brahma gave his carnal desire to the great sage
within her and took the form of Candra, who was thus born to her. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter
itself

KALYAlSA.
this

sage. Once certain Angirases including sage observed sattra (sacrifice) for the attainment of Heaven. But nobody was sure about the Devayana path which leads to Heaven. So they selected Kalyana to find out the path. He went in search of the Devayana path and on the way he met tJrnayu, a Gandharva who was in the company of some apsara women. The gandharva disclosed the Sama which would enable Kalyana to find out the Devayana path. On his return, Kalyana told the other Rsis that he had received the Sama, but he refused to disclose from whom he obtained it. With the help of that Sama known as Aurnayuva, the Angirases attained Heaven, but because of his failure to disclose the whole truth, Kalyana was denied access to Heaven. Besides that,

Chapter 2 78).

Atri

who

transferred

it

to his wife

Anasuya.

It

hardened

A

43).
4)

Kama was burnt up in fire. Long ago an Asura named Taraka, who was proud of his invincible might, was causing much havoc and terror in the whole world.

Even the gods were afraid of him because he had received a boon that Siva's son alone was capable of killing him. It was the time when Parvatl, the daughter of Himavan, was performing a penance praying that Paramesvara should become her husband. Taking advantage of this

of opportunity, Indra sent Kama to rouse the passion love in Siva's mind. Kama reached Siva's seat and Siva who was enraged at tried to stir up his passions. with fire. Kama was this, opened his third eye blazing

KAMA I
burnt to ashes in that
fire.

379

KAMADHENU
cane, its string is made up of beetles, and the tips of his arrows are flowers. His vehicle is the parrot and the sign on his banner is fish. The five flowe'rs of his arrows

The

he

body (Anga)
lost

fell,

came

his

body,

"Ananga". (Valmiki
ter 23).

be called "Angarajya". Since Kamadeva got another name Ramayana. Bala Kanda, Chapto

place where

Kama's

5) Kama's Next Birth. When Siva burnt up Kama, the latter's wife Rati prayed to Siva to restore her husband to life. Siva was pleased and said that Rati would be born in the world and Kama would take birth as

According to Siva's blessing Rati was born in the world under the name of Mayavatl. She became the kitchenmaid of an Asura named Sambara. At that time Sri Krsna approached Siva with a request that he should be blessed with a son. Siva blessed him saying that Kama who was burnt up in the fire of his eye would be born as the son of RukminI, Sri Krsna's wife. Accordingly, Rukmini, conceived and a handsome child was born to her.

her son." (Kathasaritsagara).

was of inimitable beauty. Another name for Paramesvara. (M.B. AnuSasana Parva, Chapter 17, Verse 42) KAMA IV. Another name for Mahavisnu. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 149, Verse 45). KAMA V. A great sage. There is a reference to this sage in Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva, Chapter 150,

Unmadana, Tapana, Sosana, Stambhana and Sammo(Amara Kosa) KAMA II. An Agni who was the son of Svahadevl. Mahabharata, Vana Parva. Chapter 219, Verse 23 says
hana.
.

are: Aravinda, Asoka, Cuta, Navamalika, Nilotpala. Besides these, he has five more arrows which are

KAMA

that this agni
III.

.

Verse 41.

KAMA.

Sambara, who employed Mayavatl as his kitchen-maid had received a boon from Siva. A condition laid down in it was that Sambara would die not long after Kamadeva's birth in the world. So Sambara was making careful enquiries to ascertain whether Kama was born anywhere in the world. It was during this period that Sambara received the news that Kama had been reborn as Sri Krsna's son. At once he went secretly to Rukmini's house and stole the little baby and threw it into the sea. A sea-fish swallowed the child and a fisherman who caught it presented it to Sambara. When Sambara cut it open, he saw a lovely baby inside the fish. He entrusted the child to Mayavatl to be brought
up.

KAMADHENU. (SURABHI NANDINl)
1) General.

born in serpent This serpent was burnt up in family. Janamejaya's sarpasattra. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 16). KAMACARl. A woman follower of Skandadeva. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 23). KAMADA. Another woman follower of Skandadeva. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 27) KAMADEVA. See under Kama.
Dhrtarastra's
. .

KAMATHA (KAMATHAKA). A

Daughter of Prthusravas. She was the wife of Ayutanayi, a king of the Puru dynasty and mother of Akrodhana. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 177).

At this stage, the sage Narada happened to come there and he explained to Mayavatl in secret, that the baby was Kamadeva and she was Rati. From that time, she brought up the child with great affection and tenderness. As years passed and Kama grew up into a youth, Mayavatl began to make amorous advances towards him. Looking upon her with regard due to a mother, Kama was displeased with these advances. Then she told him what Narada had disclosed to her about their relations in the past life. She advised him to kill Sambara and to leave the place for Dvaraka as soon as possible. As advised by her, Kama killed Sambara and both he and Mayavatl went to Dvaraka in a Vimana and paid
large

1 daughter Trsa. Other names of Kama. The following names 6) have been used for Kama in the Puranas Madana, Manmatha, Mara, Pradyumna, Minaketana, Kandarpa, Darpaka, Ananga, Kama, Pancasara, Sambarari, Manasija, Kusumesu, Ananyaja, Puspadhanva, Ratipati, Makaradhvaja, Atmabhu, Iraja, Isma, Kiiikira, Abhirupa, Grdhukalakeli, Kanjana, Ramana, DIpaka, Madhudipa, Samantaka, Muhira, Rupastra, Varna, Puspaketana. Makaraketu, Ratinayaka, Ragavrnta, Samsaraguru, Gadayitnu, Mapatya, Mayl. Kama has a bow made of sugar7) Kama's weapons.
:

number of sages, Kama was christened "Pradyumna". Aniruddha, the husband of Usa, was the son of Pradyumna. Besides Aniruddha, Pradyumna had a

their respects to their parents there. In the presence of a

the light of them we may clearly arrive at the ancestry and birth of Surabhi. Valmiki Ramayana, Aranya Kanda, 14th Sarga says that Kasyapa, the son of Marici and the grandson of Brahma married Daksa Prajapati's daughters Aditi, Dili, Danu, Kalika, Tamra, KrodhaManu and Anala. From verses 20 and 21 in the vasa, same Sarga we understand that Surabhi was the daughIn ter of Krodhavas a, Daksa's daughter, by Kasyapa. the same Sarga we find that two daughters, Rohim and Gandharvi were born to this Surabhi and from Rohini were born all the cows in the world that we see today
the rebirths of

She is the first mother of cattle. She is a with marvellous powers and attainments who goddess gives milk whenever needed by gods and sages. The Puranas declare that all the cattle in the world today are descended from Kamadhenu. This sacred cow is sometimes 2) Three different names. called "Kamadhenu", at other times, "Surabhi" and also "Nandini". They are not three different cows, as some people suppose. See Bhasa Bharata, Aranya Parva Chapter 9, Verses 7 and 17. There Surabhi and Kamadhenu are names used for referring to the same cow. Again, in the Bhasa Bharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 99, Verse 14, we find the name Nandini applied to Kamadhenu. Thus we may conclude that Kamadhenu had two other names, viz. Surabhi and Nandini. But since the term "Surabhirgavi" occurs in Amarakosa, it follows that even ordinary cows may be called "Surabhi"' In the Puranas Surabhi is des3) Birth and Jamily. cribed variously as Daksa's daughter, Kasyapa's wife, Kasyapa's daughter, etc. Although at first sight there may appear some discrepancy in these statements, in

i .

From Kathasaritsagara we

find that

Udayana and Vasavadatta were

Kama

and Rati.

KAMADHENU
and from Gandharvl were born all the horses. It was by her own father KaSyapa himself that Surabhi's offTherefore, the reference to Surabhi springs were born. as the wife of Kasyapa may also be justified." Since Krodhavasa, the daughter of Daksa was the mother of Surabhi, actually Surabhi was the grand-daughter of

380

KAMADHENU
Sri Krsna. (Devi Bhagavata, 9th Skandha). Like this, several Kamadhenus are seen in the Puranas. Therefore there is no discrepancy or contradiction in

Gopas by

Daksa, But

in Bhasa Bharata, Anusasana Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 28 as Daksa's daughter is correct in that sense. 4) How Kdmadhenu Received Divine Powers. Long ago Aditi, wife of Kasyapa, conceived Mahavisnu in her womb and began an austere penance standing on one leg. At that time Surabhi went to Kailasa and offered worship to Brahma for ten thousand years. The gods who were pleased, came to Surabhi taking Brahma with them. Brahma said to her: 'Surabhi I have made you a goddess. You are now above the three worlds Heaven Earth and Hell. .Your world, "Goloka" will become famous. All people will worship you and the cows who are your offspring." From that day on which Brahma blessed her, Surabhi became a goddess with marvellous spiritual powers. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 83). There are references to 5) More than one fCdmadhenu? several Kamadhenus in the Puranas. There is one Kamadhenu in Vasistha's Asrama. At Varuna's yaga we see another Kamadhenu. There is no ground for believing that there is only one Kamadhenu and that it was borrowed by each Deva in turn for some particular occasion. It is possible that there were many Kamadhenus in the family of Kamadhenu and they were owned by different Devas. Moreover it is stated that several Kamadhenus take their origin from sources other than the family of Kasyapa. One of them is from the ocean of milk. In Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 18, we find that when the Devas and Asuras churned the ocean of milk, along with many other precious

in a broad sense, a grand-daughter may be considered as a daughter. So the reference to Surabhi

statements declaring that there were many Kamadhenus But since in different As"ramas. Kamadhenu had achieved divine powers by Brahma's grace, it is but reasonable to believe that the different Kamadhenus are really the different forms of the original Kamadhenu, the daughter of Kasyapa.
6)

Theft of Kdmadhenu by Satyavrata (Trisa/iku). Satyavrata (Trisanku) was the son of Aruna, a King of the Iksvaku dynasty. He was a vicious and immoral fellow. Once he abducted a Brahmana girl just at the time of her marriage in her bridal dress. Enraged at this his father drove him away from his palace. Satyavrata wandered about aimlessly in the country arid in the
forests.

after this there was a famine in the land. Human beings and animals began to die of starvation. At that time Visvamitra was performing penance in the forest after leaving behind his wife and children in the country. When he saw that the whole family was in danger of

Soon

death by starvation, he decided to make some money by selling one of the sons, in order to save the lives of the rest of the family. Satyavrata who came to know of and dissuaded him from selling this, met Visvamitra
his son.

He

the family by hunting animals in the forest and keeping the flesh suspended from the branch of a near-by tree. Accordingly, he began leaving the flesh regularly hangthe tree. One day he ing from the branch of

promised

to

supply some flesh every day to

could not get any
to Vasistha's

flesh by hunting. That night he went asrama and stole Kamadhenu. He killed the cow and ate some of its flesh. The rest he gave to

There

things,

Kamadhenu

also

is

a reference to another

came up

to the

Kamadhenu

surface. in

Bhasa

Udyoga Parva, Chapter 102, There, it is said, Brahma who got Amrta swallowed it beyond limit in his avidity and when he vomited, a Kamadhenu came
Bharata,

out from his mouth. That
living

in

the

Kamadhenu is said to be world known as Rasatala. The above-

mentioned passage also says that there are four other Kamadhenus living on the four sides of the Kamadhenu which lives in Rasatala. They are Saurabhi in the east Harhsika in the south, Subhadra in the west and Dhenu
in the north.

and enjoy water-sports. Numerous cows were born from the pores of Surabhi and they were presented to the
2.

a remote and secluded place. When they were tired they wished to drink some milk. At that time, Sri Krsna created by his will power, the cow Surabhi and the calf Manoratha, from the left side of his body. Sridaman milked that cow into a new earthen pot and when Sri Krsna was drinking it, the pot fell down and the milk was spilt all over the floor. The milk which spread over an area of 100 yojanas, became a lake called "Kslrasagara" for Radha and her maids to bathe
in

next Kamadhenu is the one which was born from the side of Sri Krsna. Once Sri Krsna and his consort Radha were amusing themselves by amorous pleasures

The

Visvamitra's family. next morning when Vasistha woke up, he did not see his cow. But he came to know of the whole affair by his intuition. In his fury he cursed Satyavrata and said that the world would brand him with the name "TriSanku" because he had committed three heinous sins viz. killing of cows, abducting another man's wife and incurring his father's displeasure. After that Vasistha restored Kamadhenu to life. (Devi Bhagavata, 7th Skandha) Once while Visva7) Visvamitra attacked Kdmadhenu. mitra was a ruling King, he went into a forest to hunt. In the course of his rambles through the forest, he happened to arrive at Vasistha's Asrama with his retinue. Vasistha called Kamadhenu and ordered her to provide food for Visvamitra and his party. Kamadhenu, by her divine powers, prepared food within a short time and gave them a sumptuous meal; Visvamitra was greatly pleased with this amazing feat of Kamadhenu and he asked Vasisdia to give her to him. He even offered to give crores of cows in return for her. But Vasistha refused to comply with his request. Then Visvamitra tried to seize and take her away by force. At once Kamadhenu assumed the form of a terrible monster of destruction. From the different parts of her body emerged fierce warriors who clashed with Visvamitra's followers. All the arrows shot by Visvamitra were caught by Vasistha with his hand. In the end Visvamitra admitted that the might of a Brahmana is superior to the might of a Ksatriya. (Vasistha was a Brahmana and Visvamitra a Ksatriya). Visvamitra,

The

.

In Vifi.m Purana, Part

I,

Chapter

15,

Surabhi

is

described as Kasyapa's wife.

KAMALA

I

381

K.AMPILYA
which the important ones are SarasvatI Antadi and Kanci Purana. It is said that unintelligent children of Tamil nadu are even now given sand from the burial ground of Kambar to induce intelligence into them.

soon gave up his kingly duties and began penance, thus turning himself into a "Rajarsi" (Royal saint). (Valmiki Ramayana, Bfila Kanda, 52nd Sarga M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 40 M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter
; ;

175).

Kdmadhenu was attacked by the Asia Vasus. ( See under the word "Astavasus", Para 2). 9) Kdmadhenu cried. (See under the word "Indra", Para 16). 10) Kdmadhenu revived King Baka. (See under the word
8)

KAMBOJA

"Gautama")
11)

.

Other details.

birth to Ajasa, Ekapat, Ahir(i) Kamadheuu gave budhnya, Tvasta and Rudra. Visvarupa was the son of Tvasta. (Agni Purana, Chapter 18). (ii) Kamadhenu said that she had no part in the theft of Agastya's lotus. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 94 ) Krsna turned Govardhana mountain into an (iii) Sri umbrella and defeated Indra when Kamadhenu came to Gokula and bathed Sri Krsna with her milk according to Bhagavata, 10th Skandha. (iv) Once the sage Jamadagni went to Goloka and propitiated Kamadhenu by his tapas. Kamadhenu gave her sister Suslla to Jamadagni. The sage presented that cow to his wife Renuka. (Brahmanda Purana. Chapter

In Mahabharata, Sand Parva, Chapter 166, Verse 77, we see that this Kamboja was given a sword by the King Dhundhumara. Perhaps it was from this King Kamboja that the country came to be called 'Kamboja'. KAMBOJA II. This kingdom was situated in the north western part of India. It is the modern Kabul. We get the following information from Mahabharata.
(1)
.

( r) suffix in Kambar is plural denoting respect. (See under 'Bhadrakali') I. Sudaksina, the King of the country, Kamboja. He was present at Draupadl's svayaihvara. In Mahabharata, Karna Parva, Chapter 156 we read that his younger brother was killed by Arjuna. The Kings of Kamboja were all known as Kambojas. Long ago, this country was ruled by a King named Kamboja.

The

.

Verse

From Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 23, we see that Arjuna had subdued

27,
this

KAMALA KAMALA

61).

I.

Mother of Prahlada. (Padma Purana)

.

II.

A

follower

of Skandadeva.

(Sloka

9,

A great warrior who fought on the I. Kauravas. Duryodhana sent this warrior along with Sakuni to attack Arjuna. (Chapter 156, Drona Parva. M.B.). KAMALAKSA II. A son of Tarakasura. He was one of the famous trio of demons. For details see under
side of the

KAMALAKSA

Chapter 46, Salya Parva, M.B.).

KAMALAKSI. A

'Tripura'.

follower

of

Skandadeva.

(5) At the time of Mahabharata the King of Kamboja was the brave and heroic Sudaksina. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 166, Verses 1-3). (6) In the battle between Kauravas and Pandavas, the Kambojas took their position in some places in the "Garuda Vyuha", a phalanx in the shape of an eagle made by Bhisma. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 56,

(2) The horses which were tied to Yudhisthira's chariot were brought from Kamboja. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 52, Verse 5). (3) The Mlecchas (a tribe of low-class people) of Kamboja will become Kings in Kaliyuga. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 188, Verse 36). (4) There were Kambojas in Duryodhana's army. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 160, Verse 130).
"

Kingdom.

(Chapter

Verse 7).

KAMALAVRATA. KAMANDAKA. A

See under "Jayasarman". great sage of ancient times. (Mahabharata, Santi Parva, Chapter 123) states that this sage once taught Rajadharma (kingly duties) to King Angirasa. KAMAPALA. A Yadava dependant of Sri Krsna. (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha).
I.

46, Salya Parva).

(7) The horses of Kamboja were beautiful in appearance and of the colour of parrots. The horses which were tied to Nakula's chariot, were of this kind. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 23, Verse 7)
.

(8) ears

When

KAMATHA
soul

A

KAMBUGRlVA.

36, Verse 36).

the horses of Kamboja ran, their tails and remained motionless. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter

KAMATHA II. A
by
his

This King was a prominent Yudhisthira. (Sloka 22, Chapter
great sage.

King of a country
4,

called Kamboja. member of the court of

He became

Sabha Parva).
a realised

try of Madra. Candrasena, King of Sirhhala, tried to get his daughter Mandodarl married to this King. But

Son of Sudhanva, King of the counto

Mandodarl did not consent

it.

(5th

Skandha, Devi

KAMATlRTHA. A
Parva,

penance. (Chapter 296, Santi Parva, M.B.).
sacred
place.

Chapter 82, Verse 105 says that a man who takes his bath in this holy tirtha will have all his wishes
fulfilled.

Mahabharata, Vana

KAMODA. A
the

Bhagavata.)

ocean

goddess who came out of the churning of of milk. (For further details see under

KAMPA. A

'Vihunda').
prince of Vrsnivaihsa.
his death.

He became

a

Visva-

prominent serpent of the family of Kasyapa. (Chapter 35, Adi Parva, M.B.). The Prayaga tirtha was the abode of this serpent. KAMBALA. A part of Kusadvipa. (Island ofKusa). (Chapter 12, Bhisma Parva, M.B.) KAMBAR. A celebrated Tamil poet. He was born in a poor family. At the orders of the King many poets wrote the story of Ramayana in Tamil. But Kambar's work was accepted as the best. This is the renowned Kamba

KAMBALA. A

KAMPANA
member

deva after M.B.).

(Chapter

5,

Svargarohana Parva

A mighty King. He was a prominent I. of the coort of Yudhisthira. (Chapter 4, Sabha
.

KAMPANA
Vana

Parva, M.B.)
II.

KAMPANA. A
get the benefit

demon. (See under Nahusa). one bathes in this river one will of doing a Pundarika yajna. (Chapter 84,
river. If

A

KAMPILYA. An

Ramayana. Kambar has written many other poems of

Parva, M.B.). ancient town in South Pancala. It was the capital city of King Drupada. Sikhandl had come

KAMSA

I

382

KAMSA

I

KAMSA

place and sent a BrJihtnana. messenger to Kampilya. In olden days, a King named Brahmadatta used to rule over this city. (M.B. Udyoga Parva) See under the word 'Brahmadatta'. I. Son of Ugrasena, King of Mathura, and an incarnation of an Asura called Kalaiiemi. Biahniu1) Genealogy. Descending in order from Visnu Atri - Candra - Budha-Pururavas-Ayus-Nahusa-Yayatithis
. :

came near

to this city after his marriage.

Once

the

King Dasarna

Yaya-Kuni Anamitra-Pr-:ni-Citraratha - Kukura-VahniViloma-Kapotaroman (Kapotaloman)-Tumburu - Dun-

Yadu-Sahasrajit-Satajit-Hehaya-Dharma-Kunti (Kuni) Bhadrasena-Dhanaka-Krtavlra-Kartavlryarjuna-MadhuVrsni - Yudhajit - Sini-Satyaka-Satyaki (Yuyudhana)-

came extinct the city of Mathura came into the possession of the Yadu dynasty. It was ruled then by a very brave and valiant ruler named SQrasena. Vasudeva father of Sii Krsna was the son of Suraseiia. After the
death of Surascna another King of the Yfidava dynasty, Ugrasena, became the ruler of the place, Vasudeva accepting cow-rearing as his profession. Karhsa became King keeping Ugrasena as a prisoner. (Skandha 4, Devi Bhagavata). 5) V sudeva and Devaki are imprisoned. Vasudeva married Devaki daughter of Ugrasena and sister of Kaihsa. Kariisa pleased with his sister presented her with a charjpt. Kaihsa, Vasudeva and Devaki ascended the chariot and Kaihsa himself drove the chariot. Then from an unknown source above came a voice which said "Oh King, know thou this and from this moment chalk out thy plans for the future. The eighth son of your sister will kill you for certain. You will be no match against him." (Chapter 1. Bhagavata 10th Skandha). Hearing this voice from heaven Kamsa got furious and

beautiful kingdom there. He named that place Mathura. After the death of Satrughna two of his sons ruled that country. Then when the Surya dynasty be-

a

Madhu had a son named Lavana. Lavana was a very wicked demon always ill-treating the devas. Satrughna, son of Dasaratha, killed him and lived there establishing

Hiranyakasipu. They led a pious life and pleased at this Brahma asked them what boon they wanted and they demanded that they should not be killed by anybody. Their father, Hiranyakasipu, did not like his sons getting a boon behind his back and so he cursed
his sons

daughter) Brahma became angry and cursed them to be born as demons on earth. All the six sons were, therefore, born as sons of a demon called Kalanemi on earth. In their next birth they were born as sons of
.

dubhi-Daridra-Vasu-Nahuka-Ahuka-Ugrasena-Kariisa. In the svayam2) Karhsa, an incarnation of Kdlanemi. bhuvamanvantara Marici had a wife named Crna and they had six mighty and powerful sons. One day they ridiculed Brahma saying 'A father who has married his own daughter' (Brahma married Sarasvati, his own

and

"May

you

all

Sadarbhakas. The sons begged for relief and Hiranyakasipu said that they would after sleeping for a long time be born to Devaki, wife of Vasudeva, as their children and that Kalanemi, their father in their previous birth would then be born as Karhsa and kill the children of Devaki by striking their heads on the
ground. Accordingly Kalanemi was born as Kariisa and he killed the six children of Devaki by striking them on the ground. (Skandha 4, Devi Bhagavata) The 10th Skandha of Bhagavata states "killing Kalanemi born as Karhsa" when it refers to the killing of
.

sleep

there

for

six go to Patala (nether-world) a long time under the name of

sister by the hair raised his sword to kill Vasudeva then pleaded weeping not to kill Devaki. Only the eighth child of Devaki was going to kill him. Vasudeva would hand over all the children to him as soon as they were born. Such arguments pacified Kaihsa and he left off Devaki without hurting her. Devaki delivered a son. He grew up under the name of Kirtiman and one day Narada visited Kariisa and told him that he was the incarnation of an Asura named Kalanemi and the son who would be born to Devaki to kill him was Narayana. Kariisa, blind with fury, killed Kirtiman by striking him on the earth and imprisoned both Devaki and Vasudeva.

dragging his

her.

Gandharva named Dramila disguised as Ugrasena went to her but she knew the trick and cursed him that he would go to hell. But Dramila committed rape on her and then left the place making her pregnant. When the child was born Ugrasena's wife greatly hated the child got of an evil deed and cursed it saying that the child would be killed by a member of the family of Ugrasena. Thus Kamsa was the son born to the wife of Ugrasena by the Gandharva, Dramila. It was because Kamsa was aware of it that he behaved very badly to Ugrasena and Krsna. (10th Skandha, Bhagavata).
4)

Kariisa. Kariisa 3) Another story regarding the birth of Karhsa. was not actually the son of Ugrasena. It was Narada who revealed to Karhsa the story of his birth. It is as follows. Once when the wife of Ugrasena was in her menses she went to the garden with her companions. Then a

6) Man-hunt of Kamsa. Pralamba, CanQra, Trnavarta, Mustika, Arisfaka, Kesi, Dhenuka, Agha, Vivida and Putana were born in the Asura family as servants of Karhsa. He sent them to different sides of the country to torment the Yadavas. Many Yadavas left the place. Even Kariisa 's father Ugrasena, a great devotee of Visnu

was
In

teased.

Karhsa got Mathurapuri. In olden times there famous place called Madhuvana in the river-base of Kalindi. The place got the name of Madhuvana because the demon Madhu was residing there.

How

was

a

meantime Devaki delivered six sons including Kirtiman and all of them were killed by Karhsa by smashing their heads against the ground below. The seventh foetus of Devaki was aborted. (Instructed by Mahavisnu, MayadevI invoked the seventh foetus of Devaki and transferred it to the womb of RohinI another wife of Vasudeva. The child thus born to RohinI was Sankarsana or Balabhadrarama. Mahavisnu then entered the womb of Devaki instructing Mayadevi to enter that ofYasoda, wife of Nandagopa of Ambadi at the same time. Sri Krsna was then born in (he figure of Visnu. The watchmen were sleeping. Following directions from the new-born child Vasudeva took the child to Gokula and leaving the child there brought back the child of Yasoda and p'aced it near Devaki. When the watchmen awoke and knew about the delivery of Devaki they immediately ran to Kariisa to tell
the

KAMSA

I

383

KANAKHALA

II

him. Boiling with rage Karhsa rushed to the side of Devaki and taking the child by the legs raised it for smashing it against the ground. The child to the frightened dis may of Kaihsa slipped from his hand and rising up in the air said "Hi, ill-mannered wicked Kamsa, do not waste your valour on women. Your killer has already been born on earth. Do search for

Kamsa was a fierce bow-man. All the kings hated (ii) him. Kariisa kept under him a crore of fighting men. He had eight lakhs of charioteers and an equal number of elephants. His army contained thirtytwo lakhs of horses. (Daksinatyapatha; M.B., Sabha Parva, Chap-

KAMSA

him

was born somewhere made him restless. He let off Vasudeva and Devaki finding them innocent. Then he
pondering over the future. The courtiers then advised him to kill all the children who had been born within the past ten days and that would include the killer also. Kamsa accordingly sent to different parts of the country his secret agents to kill all children, ten days old. During this campaign Putana, Sakata, Trnavarta, Aristaka and KesI tried to kill Sri Krsna also but
sat sadly

quickly." pale with fright on hearing this and went away to his palace. The thought that his killer 7) Conspiracy of Kamsa.

who was

Kamsa went

Mahabharata mentions another Kamsa by Krsna. But he was not the son of Ugrasena. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Daksinatyapatha,
II.

ter 38).

also killed
.

KAMYA. A

Page 825)

celestia^

woman.
it is

In

Mahabharata, Adi
the

Parva, Chapter 122,

said that she took part in
lived in
life.

KAMYAKAVANA.
for

celebrations at the birth of Arjuna.

The Pandavas

this forest

For details see under each head separately. (10th Skandha, Bhagavata). 8) Kamsa is slain. Aristaka was one of the prominent Asuras sent to kill Krsna. He attacked Krsna in the form of an ox. Sri Krsna killed it without any difficulty. Narada who saw this incident informed Karhsa about it adding that Krsna and Balarama were the sons of Vasudeva only and the child who slipped out of his hands was the child of Yasoda. Karhsa got furious and he again imprisoned Vasudeva and Devaki and brought to Mathura Sri Krsna and Balabhadrarama and started thinking of ways and means to kill them. Karhsa arranged to conduct a grand celebration of Ayudhapuja (worship of the weapons) and invited Krsna and Balarama for the same among many other gopas from Ambadi. He sent his chariot with Akrura to fetch Krsna and Balarama from Ambadi. Akrura privately informed Krsna of the bad intentions of Kamsa. Nandagopa and many others from Ambadi started for Mathura. When Sri Krsna and Balabhadrarama started their journey in the chariot the gopas and gopikas assembled there cried loudly. Some blamed
killed
all easily.

Krsna

them

KAN.

Narada. (M.B. Vana Parva) Daksa. (See under DAKSA) KANABHUTI. A devil. His name in the previous life was "Supratika". Once he made friends with the
. .

At that time, several sages were performing penance in Kamyakavana. Vidura who went out in search of the Pandavas met them in this forest. After that Sanjaya went to Kamyakavana and took Vidura with him. It was in this forest that the Pandavas met sages Markandeya and
a long
time, during their forest

devil Sthulasiras.
tika settled

cursed Supratika and turned him into a devil.
the

Kuberawho became angry

at

this,

down in the Vindhya new name "Kanabhuti". After

Supramountain, assuming
narrating

Brhat-

katha to Gunadhya, Kanabhuti assumed his former form. ( For further details, see under the word GUNA-

KA

famous sage of ancient India. He was the founder of the Vaisesika system. The word means one who eats Kana (atom). His foes gave him this name to ridicule him. He is also called Kanabhaksaka. Kanada is known as Pippalada also. (He got that name because he used to eat Pippall (long pepper) in large quantities). (See under PIPPALADA). KANAKA. A big forest on the southern base of Mahameru. Anjanadevi gave birth to Hanuman in this
.

DHYA). ADA. A

KANAKADHVAJA.
King

Akrura.

Krsna and Balarama reached Mathura. There they slew a huge wild elephant and the five Asuras, Canura, Mustika, Kuta, Sala and Kosala whom Karhsa had kept ready to kill Krsna and Rama. Sitting on a platform watching this, Karhsa became frightened and restless and roared with rage thus "The sons of Nandagopa should be instantly sent away from this palace. All their wealth and all that of the gopas should be conBind with ropes the rogue Nandagopa, and fiscated.

( A&GADA) A son of Dhrtarastra. He was slain by Bhlmasena) (Sloka 2 7,' Chapter 96, Bhisma Parva) KANAKAKSA. A soldier of Skandadeva. (Sloka 74,
.

forest.

(Uttara Ramayana).

KANAK

.

.

KANAKA&GADA. KANAKAREKHA.
of Paropakarl,

kill the wicked Vasudeva. Throw my father, Ugrasena, into the river Kalindi bound hand and foot. Even a father should be killed if he was a relative of one's

King of the city of Vardhamana. A brahmin named Saktideva married her. (Caturdarikalambaka, Kathasaritsagara, Taranga 1). KANAKAVARSA. A King who ruled the nuntry of Kanakapuri on the banks of the river Gangfi. (Katha-

Chapter 45, Salya Parva) See under KANAKADHVAJA. Daughter of the King of the island of Kanakapuri. By a curse she was born as the daughter
.

KANAKAVATl. A
name, Karakayus.

saritsagara)

.

follower of Skandadeva. (Chapter

enemy." Sri Krsna and Balarama boiled with rage when they heard the orders of Kamsa and Krsna, jumping on to the platform pushed Kamsa down and jumping down along with him killed him. (10th Skandha, Bhagavata).
Kaihsa had married the two daughters of Jarasandha named Asti and Prapti. (10th Skandha. Bha(i)

618) Salya Parva). KANAKAYUS. A son of Dhrtarastra.

9)

Other details.

KANAKHALA
conducted.

He had another This prince was present at the svayarhvara of Draupadi. (Sloka 185, Chapter 67, Adi Parva )
.

I.

The

place where the Daksayfiga was
4,

KANAKHALA II. A

gavata)

.

holy place on the shores of the river Ganga. If one bathes in this river one gets the

(Chapter

Vamana

Purana).

KANCANA

I

384

KANIKA

I

benefit of performing an As vamedha sacrifice. (Sloka Kalidasa speaks about 30, Chapter 84, Vana Parva) this place in his famous work 'Meghaduta'. At the
.

behest of Vasistha, Taksaka, son of Laksmana, conquered the foresters of Kanakhala and then established a

is over and dusk is coming. Why this ridicule ? Please do tell me the truth. Pramloca That I came to you one fine morning is quite true. But since that several centuries have
:

elapsed.

KANCANA

city there called Agatl.
I.

One

of the

(Uttara Ramayana).

two

PURUVAMSA. KANCANAKSA. A warrior
the

KANCANA
word

Verse 47).

Skandadeva by Mahameru. The named Meghamull. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45,
II.

to warriors given other warrior was

enjoying with you
:

Sage

:

How many years
?

have gone by since

I

started

A

Kins; of the Piiru dynasty. See under

KANCANAMALA. A
wife of Udayana.

of Skandadeva. (M.B. Salya Parva! Chapter 45, Verse 57) KANCANAKSl. A river which flows through Naimisuranya. This is a part of the river Sarasvati. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 38, Verse 19)
. .

lady

attendant

of Vasavadatta,

This was the capital city of the Cola Kings. This city was also called "Kancivaram". It is mentioned among the holy cities. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 161, Verse 21 ). KANDARA. A follower of Skandadeva. (Chapter 46.

KANCI (KANCIPURA).

KANDARPA.

Salya Parva).

Pramloca Nine hundred years, six months and three days have passed since I came to you. The great sage became very angry and scolded Pramloca much. That beautiful maiden heard it all standing bathed in perspiration. The sage in rage commanded the trembling nymph to go away from his presence. Pramloca, thus reprimanded and sent away, rose up in the air and travelled by it. As she flew, the perspiration of her body was absorbed by the tender leaves of trees on the way. She was pregnant at that time and the embryo which went forth along absorbed in bits by the with her perspiration was tender leaves and sprouts. Wind gathered them from the different trees and made everything into one. Moona light gave it development and gave it the form of woman. She was named Marisa. That was how Marisa was born of trees (Chapter 15, Arha 1. Visnu Purana). Kandu's dear son aged sixteen 2) Curse of Kandu.
died in a forest.
forest

Kamadeva. Kamadeva was born of the mind of Brahma and as soon as he was born he turned to Brahma and asked "Kam darpayami ?" (Whom should I make proud ?) So Brahma gave him the name Karhdarpa alias Kandarpa.
Another name
for

and made it a desert. There was no water dried and dead. all the trees became there and Hanuman and party who went in search of Sita came to Valmiki this place. (Chapter 48, Kiskindha Kanda,

Grief-stricken, the

sage cursed

that

(Lavanakalambaka, Kathasaritsagara, Taraiiga 6). KANDU. A great sage of ancient Bharata. He was the father of Marisa (Vurksi) wife of the Pracetas. Marisa, daughter of Kandu, took 1) Birth of Alarisa. her birth from a tree. There is an interesting story about this in Visnu Purana. Sage Kandu, chief of the devajnas, was performing penance in a hermitage on the banks of the river Gomatl. Devendra sent Pramloca, an enchanting nymph, to Kandu to distract him from his penance. Pramloca by her sweet words and enticing manners won the heart of the sage and Kandu accepting her as his wife went to the valley of Mandara and lived there happily for a hundred years. One day Pramloca went and bowed before her husband and sought his permission to go back to Devaloka. "Dear, stay here for some time more" replied the sage. Another hundred years went by. Again one day she went and sought permission to go home. Again the
sage asked her to stay for a while more. Centuries passed without the sage losing even a little of his amour. On the other hand every day it found different channels of expression. One evening the sage stepped out of his Asrama and on seeing that Pramloca en:

Ramayana)
3)
all

.

Kandu

in the presence

of Sri Rama.
exile

returned to

the four different parts came to visit him. Those who came from the south were Kandu, Dattatreya

Ayodhya

after his

When many

Sri

Rama
from

sages

KANDUTI. A

Namuci, Pramuci, Valmiki, (Uttara Ramayana).
follower

Soma

and

Agastya.

of

Skandadeva.

(Sloka

14,

KANIKA
1)

Chapter 46, Salya Parva).
I.

One of the ministers of information. a brahmin well-learned in Dhrtarastra. He was Kutaniti (Diplomacy). The bad advice he gave to Dhrtarastra became well-known as "Kanika's KutaGeneral
niti'".

2) Kanika's Kutaniti. Once Dhrtarastra asked Kanika to conquer one's enemies by using the four methods of Sama, Dana, Bheda and Danda. Kanika "Threaten the timid ones. Give respect to replied the brave and kill them by trickery. Give' gifts to the

how

:

quired where he was going. The sun is going to set. I am going to do my Sage sandhyavandana. I do not want to bring a break in my daily ablutions and duties. Pramloca Oh, Righteous one, did the sun set for you only today ? The Sunset of hundreds of years has gone by without your knowing.
:

this

Sage Dear, you came to this holy river-shore only morning. It was only this morning that I saw you
:

coming

to

my Asrama

for the first time.

Now

the

day

faithful and unfaithful alike." Kanika justified his policy by means 3) Kanika's story. of the story of a fox who put into practice the four tricks to gain his end. Once there was a very selfish fox in a forest. He felt a desire to eat the flesh of a lion. For that end he made The fox friends with a tiger, a rat and a mongoose. advised the rat to gnaw the paws of the lion and make the lion. The lion it lame. The tiger should then kill was killed and the fox suggested that they could have meal of the lion after a bath. Everybody a

greedy ones. If any one becomes your enemy kill him even if it be your father, preceptor, son, brother or friend. Never speak insulting words about others even when you are extremely angry. Never believe the

hearty

KANIKA

II

385
it

KANYAHRADA
prominent among the Rsi families of ancient India. Because he was born in the family of sage Kasyapa, son of Brahma, Kanva was known as Kaiyapa also. Kanva's father was Medhatilhi as could be seen by a reference to him in Sloka 27, Chapter 208 of Santi Parva as Medhatithisuta. Kanva was staying in a hermitage on the banks of the river Malim, with a number of disciples. 2) Kanvasrama. Vana Parva of Mahabharata states that Kanvasrama was on the northern shore of the river Pravem. According to certain critics Kanvagrama was situated on the banks of the river Cambal. four miles to the south of 'Kota' in Rajputana. Once Visvamitra started 3) How Kanva got Sakuntala. a severe penance and Indra desiring to obstruct the attempt sent the enchanting Menaka to entice him. They fell in love with each other and soon Menaka bore a girl. The parents left the child in the forest and went their way. Birds (Sakuntas) looked after her for some time and so she was named Sakuntala. Accident-

excepting the fox went for his bath and the fox stood watch over the carcass of the lion. First came the tiger after his bath. The fox looked worried and the tiger asked him the reason why. The fox said "Comrade, the rat says with arrogance that he it was that killed the lion. My pride does not allow me to eat what the rat claims to be his kill." Hearing this the proud tiger left the place saying "Let me see whether I can kill my prey without the help of anybody." Sometime later the rat came after its bath. The sly fox said "My friend, the mongoose says that the flesh of a lion is poison. It says "Let the rat eat it and die." Hearing this the rat went its way. Then came the mongoose. The fox threatened it and it went away. The fox then ate the flesh of the lion by himself and was contented. Kanika then said that the Kings should use such tricks against their enemies. (Chapter 139, Adi Parva) KAl^IKA II. There is a statement in Mahabharata about another brahmin of the Bharadvaja family who was also well-versed in Kutaniti. He was an adviser to Satrunjaya, King of Sauvira. (Chapter 140, Santi
.

can be gathered that the Kanva family was very

KANlNA. A child
Vyasa, Kama, were Kaninas.

Parva).

Asrama.
4)

ally

Kanva came

that

way and

took the child to his

born

Sibi,

unmarried woman. Astaka, Pratardana, and Vasuman
to

an

The Tdga of Bharata. Bharata, son of Dusyanra, performed a peculiar type of Yaga called 'Govitata' with

Kanva

as the

KANJALA.
KAixIKA
I.

See under Dharmasarma. of the seven famous archers of the Vrsni dynasty. The seven are Krtavarma, Anadhrsti, Samika, Samitinjaya, Karika, Saiiku and Kunti. (Chapter 14, Sabha Parva). KA5IKA II. A King of ancient India, (Sloka 233,

One

:

Chapter 74, Adi Parva) 5. Kanva and Duryodhana. Once Kanva narrated to Duryodhana how Matali and his wife Sudharma went to him in search of a suitable husband to their daughter Gunakesi. (Chapter 97, Udyoga Parva, M.B.)
.

chief preceptor

to officiate. (Sloka 130,

.

6) Kanva, usage of the

east.

KA5IKA

Chapter

1,

Adi Parva).

III.

A

to Ayodhya after his different parts came to

When Sri Rama returned exile many sages from many
visit

him.

bird,

son

of

Surasa.

KA&KA IV.

Chapter 66, Adi Parva). The name which Dharmaputra bore when he spent his life incognito at the palace of the King of Virata. (See under Dharmaputra). KA5IKA V. A place of habitation of ancient India. This place was given to Dharmaputra as a gift by the

(Sloka 69,

those

who came from

the east.

along with him were, Vasistha, Atri, ViSvamitra, Gautama, Jamadagni, Bharadvaja, Sanaka, Sarabhariga Durvasas, Matanga, Vibhandaka and Tumburu.

Kanva was one of The others who came

KAKIKAI^A.

inhabitants of the place. (Chapter 51, Sabha Parva). follower of Skandadeva. (Sloka 16,

A

KAI^TAKINI.

Chapter 46, Salya Parva)

.

A

follower of Skandadeva.

(Sloka 16,

KANTARAKA. A
Modern

city in South India. There is a reference in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 31, Verse 16, about the conquest of this place by Sahadeva.

Chapter 46, Salya Parva).

7) Kanva and Rgveda. are ten Mandalas in Rgveda. The Man(i) There dalas from two to seven are written by different Rsi families. The second Mandala was written by the Bhargava family of rsis, the third by the Vi.'vamitra family, the fourth by that of Vamadeva, the fifth by Atri, the sixth by that of Bharadvaja and the seventh by the family of Vasistha. Fifty Suktas of the first Mandala and the whole of the eighth Mandala were written by Kanva.
(ii) Kanva had a son named Medhatithi. Sukta twelve of Anuvaka four in the first Mandala of Rgveda is written making Medhatithi a sage.
.

situated

KAI<[TARlKA.

KANTI.

ancient sage. He was a worker of his gotra. It was in this family that the pre-eminent Brahmadatta was born. (Chapter 342, Santi Parva).

scholars are of the opinion that on the banks of the river Vena.

Kantaraka

is

An

A

city in ancient India.
.

Verse 40) KANTIVRATA. A Vrata observed in

(M.B. Bhisma Parva,

Chapter

9,

(iii) Kanva had a daughter named Indivaraprabha by Menaka. (Kathasaritsagara) (See under Candravaloka and Kasyapa I) KAl^TVA II. A King of Puruvarhs"a. (Puru dynasty). He was the son of the brother of Santurodha, father of Dusyanta. His father was Pritiratha and he also had
.

KAWA
1)

the month of Karttika. It consists in offering worship to Balarama and Sri Krsna and taking food only at night. By observing this Vrata for one year, beauty, longevity and health can be obtained. (Agni Purana, Chapter 177).
I.

a son named Medhatithi. (Agni Purana) KAl^VASlRAS. A caste. Originally they were
.

In Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva, Chapter 35, Verse 1 7 we find that they were reduced to low caste

Ksatriyas.

(KASYAPA).
Puranic fame

General information. Kanva attained as the father who brought up Sakuntala.

KANYAHRADA. A

Brahmanas.

because of their being jealous of the superiority of the
sacred place. If one stayed in this place for a while one would attain Devaloka. (Chapter 25, AnuSasana Parva)
.

From Rgveda

KANYAKAGUtfA

386
place
of habitation of ancient

KANYAKUMARl
"If you visit Rsabhacala of Pandyadesa you will get the benefit of conducting an As'vamedhayaga. Then you must go farther south and take a dip in Kanyatirtha. The touch of that water absolves you of all sins. Then visit Gokarna situated in the ocean famous in all the
three worlds

KANYAKAGWA. A
India. (Chapter 9,

KANYAKUBJA. (KANYAKUBJA).

Bhisma Parva).

A city ofPuranic fame on the 1) General information. banks of the river Gariga. This is the same place which now known as Kanauj. Visvamitra was the son of is Gadhi, King of Kanyakubja.
2)

From

there was a great sage the son of Brahma. He had of his wife Vaidarbhi four sons named Kusamba, Kusa-

named Ku;'a who was

Origin

of

this

city.

Once

and that Gokarna was an

understood that ot the time of Mahabharata Kanyakumarl was part of Pandyadesa
this
it is

and worshipped by
to be

all."

island.

nabha, Asurtarajasa and Vasu. Kiu'a asked them each to rule a country and so each of them built a city of his own. Kusamba named his city Kam'ambl, Kusa-

kumarl in the Puranas. The most important ones are
given below.

2) Purdnic stories about Kanyakumdri. stories regarding the origin and

There are several renown of Kanya-

nabha gave
Asurtarajasa
called

his

his city Girivraja. Of these Mahodayapura, city of Kusanabha, became later famous as Kanyakubja.
(
.

of Mahodayapura, city the name called his city Dharmaranya and Vasu

Bala Kanda, Valmiki Ramayana) How Mahodayapura became Kanyakubja. KuSanabha begot a hundred daughters of the nymph Ghrtacl. Those beautiful girls were once playing in the forests when the wind-god fell in love with them. The girls rejected his love and Vayu getting angry with them cursed them and made them hunchbacks. Because the
3)

The wife of a brahmin named (1) Absolver of sins. Apaficika living in KasI became unchaste and to wash away her sin she came (o Kanyakumarl walking all the way and did penance (here, daily bathing in its waters. She attained Salvation and it is believed that a bath in its waters would absolve anybody of all his
sins.

(2) Cakra tirtha of Kanyakumdri Punyakasi, daughter of Mayasura, once went to Kailasa and worshipped Siva.
'.

(Manimekhala).

backs) at that place, the place became known as Kanyakubja. When the daughters returned to the palace as hunchbacks Kusanabha was greatly distressed. Weeping, the girls told him what had happened. At that time a sage named Cull was performing penance in a forest nearby. Somada, daughter of Urmila, a gandharva lady, married Cull and they got a son named Brahmadatta. This Brahmadatta married the hundred hunchbacks of Kusanabha and the very touch of Brahmadatta transformed the hunchbacks into beautiful girls. After having given his daughters in marriage Kusanabha conducted a Putrakamesti yaga to get a son. In that Yaga Brahma appeared in person and blessed Kusanabha and he got a son. The son was named Gadhi. 1 Gadhi got a son and a daughter. The son was named Visvamitra and the daughter, Satyavati. Rcika married Satyavatl. Gadhi and Visvamitra were the rulers of

hundred Kanyakas

(girls)

became Kubjas

(hunch-

KANYAKUMARl (KANY^KUPA; KANYATlRTHA)
1 )

Kanyakubja. See under 'Rcika, ViSvamitra' (Sargas 32 to 34, Balakanda, Valmiki Ramayana) Narada and Kanyakubja. There was a very big lake 4) Mahavisnu once showed Maya to in Kanyakubja. Narada at that place. (See under 'Narada') 5) VUvdmitra and Indra take wine together. ViSvamitra and Indra took wine together at Kanyakubja. (Sloka 17, Chapter 87, Vana Parva)
. . .

After three yugas Siva appeared before her and asked her what she wanted. She rep'ied that she wanted to be merged in Siva always. Siva then said 'Three hundred and sixtyfive days would make a year. Four lakhs and thirtythree years would make a Kali Yuga. Krta, Treta, Dvapara and Kali are four Yugas and when two thousand such Yugas are over Brahma finishes a day. Such thirty days make one month and twelve months, a year for Brahma. When such hundred years of Brahma are over the great deluge comes. Such ten deluges make a nazhika ( twentyfour minutes ) of Visnu. Counting thus when you pass ten Vi snu deluges Siva passes a second. Then is the time for the fulfilment of your desire. Till that time you sit in meditation on the shores of the south seas. Your hermitage would be known as Kanyaksetra or Tapah Sthala. During your stay there you must kill all the wicked people like Banasura and give relief to the people. I will also come and stay with you there then." Punyakasi after prostrating before Siva went to the south seas. Taking a Japamala (necklace for prayer) in her hands she assumed the name Kanyakumarl, and started her penance. After conquering all the three worlds demon Bana was having a wicked rule over his people when he saw Kanyakumarl and asked her to be his wife. He approached her with his wicked servants
refused and in the battle that ensued, Banasura fell dead by the Cakrayudha (Discus) of Devi and at that spot is the Cakratirtha. (Skanda Purana) from the hands (3) The phantom child which escaped of Kariisa at the time of the birth of Sri Krsna was that divine lady, Kanyakumarl. (Padma Purana) It is said that there was an 3) The Geographical view. extension of the present continent to the south and that expansive land called Lamuria was later submerged in waters. There is a description of such an extended land in some of the old literature like Cilappadikaram." Kanyakumarl which was called 'Kumari-ambadi' also was the first setu; Dhanuskoti the middle setu; and
. .

Durmukha and Durdarsana. But Kanyakumarl

flatly

in
ty

speaks praisingly of Kanyakumarl and Gokarna other places. It says thus:
i

boundary. It must, therefore, be surmised that these two holy places were very ancient ones. Vana Parva, praises Kanyakumari at many places. If any one bathes at this place one will become very famous. (Anusasana Parva, M.B.). Chapter eightyfive of Aranya Parva, of Bhasa Bharata

Mahabharata makes references many places to Kanyakumarl, the southern extremiof former Kerala and Gokarna, the northern
General information.

among

Kotikkara,

last setu.

(Setu Purana)

Gadhi

This

is

found as 'Gadhi' in Mahabharata and 'Gadha' in Ramayana^

KANYASAMVEDYATIRTHA

387

KAPATA BH1KSU
Pinakl, Isvara, Kapali, Ahirbudhnya, Ajaikapat, Sthanu, Bharga and Dahana. (See under Kapardi). The eleven Rudras are referred to in different ways in Agni Purana and Visnu Purana.
II.

4) In History. Kanyakumarl had attracted the attention of foreigners long before Christ. Herodotus who lived in the third century B.C. has written about Kanyakumarl in one of his books. In the book 'Periplus' written in 60 A.D. there is a mention of Kanyakumarl. It says: "Pious persons at the fag end of their lives dedicate their lives to God and go to Kanyakumarl on a pilgrimage and stay there accepting an ascetic life. A divine lady bathed in the holy waters there grants you 'darsana'."

KAPALl
ing

Siva.

The Mahabharata

gives the

follow-

Ptolemy another traveller who lived two thousand years ago refers to Kanyakumarl in his book as 'Komaria Akron'. He had bathed in those waters and worshipped
in the

Kanyakumarl temple. Marco Polo of Venice who had

1243 A.D. has written of his worshipping in the Kanyakumarl temple. He has also recorded having seen thirty miles from Kanyakumarl a glittering figure like that of
the Pole-star.

travelled these parts

in

KANYASAMVEDYATIRTHA. An
It
is

Ibn Batuta who lived in 1203 A.D. has Kanyakumarl in his book as Raskurhhari.

referred to

KANYASRAMA.

83, Vana Parva) KAPA(S). A company of Asuras. The Mahabharata gives a story of how the brahmins killed these demons. The Asvinidevas once came to the earth and gave eye.

ancient holy place. believed that those who visit this place will attain the world of Prajapatimanu. (Chapter 84, Vana Parva) A holy place. If a man spends three nights at this place he would attain Svarga. (Chapter
.

regarding the reason for Siva's getting the name of Kapali. Once a great controversy arose regarding the supreme sovereignty of the three worlds between Brahma and Visnu. Then there came to their midst an effulgence of Siva and a voice from heaven said "He who finds the source of this brilliance is the real sovereign of the three worlds". Brahma went up to find the upper end and Visnu went down to find the lower end. They travelled for a very long time without finding the end when Brahma saw a KetakI flower coming down. On enquiry the flower said it was coming from the origin of the brilliance and that three Brahma deluges had elapsed since its starting from there. Brahma took that flower and went to Visnu. Visnu asked Brahma whether he had seen the end of the effulgence and Brahma said 'yes'. Immediately the flower in the hand of Brahma turned into the figure of Siva and cut off one of the heads of Brahma making five-headed Brahma into fourheaded. The angered Brahma cursed Siva "May you go begging with a Kapala (human skull) in your hand." Thus Siva became a Kapali. Siva cursed Brahma back saying "You will not be worshipped by anyone" (See
story

KAPARDl. One
:

under Siva, Brahma)

.

was the time when Indra had denied Soma juice to the Asvinldevas. Sage Cyavana got back his eyesight and promised the Asvinidevas that he would lift the ban on wine for them. Cyavana conducted a Yaga to which the Asvinldevas were also invited. Indra and the other devas refused to take the sacrificial wine and butter along with the Asvinidevas. Cyavana got angry and he produced from the sacrificial fire an Asura named Mada. With a huge mouth and long teeth the demon went round eating all the Devas. All at once Cyavana conquered the earth and the Kapas subjugated heaven. When they lost both heaven and earth the Devas approached the brahmins for help. The brahmins started a war against the Kapas. The Kapas sent Dhani to the brahmins for peace-talks. Dhani said "The Kapas are equal to you, Oh brahmins, and so why do you fight themPThey are well-versed in Vedas and are very wise men who are entitled to conduct Yagas. They are
sight
to the blind sage

Cyavana.

It

eleven Rudras. According to Agni Purana the Ekadasa Rudras ( eleven Rudras) are the following Hara, Bahurupa, Tryambaka, Aparajita, Vrsakapi, Sambhu, Kapardi, Raivata, Mrgavyadha, Sarpa and Kapali. (Chapter 18, Agni Purana' KAPATA. A demon. He was Kasyapa's son born of his wife Danu. (Chapter 65, Bhisma Parva)

of the

.

KAPATABHIKSU. A
that
if

.

a

man

fails

ridicule, a story of a false sage occurs in Kathasaritsagara. Since this Character has earned a place in the
:

false sage." illustrate the fact in his deceit he will be subjected to

To

persons similar to Brahmarsis. Prosperity in them. They never keep unchaste wives nor do they eat stale meat. It is not proper to fight against
righteous
lives

Indian literature his story is given below There was once a city called Makandi on the banks of In that city lived a sage who the river Ganga. observed silence as a Vrata. One day when he went begging he saw a beautiful girl in a Vaisya's house and the false ascetic was attracted by her. Breaking his silence he said "What a pity!" and left the place. The Vaisya was worried why the sage said so and approached him and asked why he broke his silence to say so. The
: '"'Your daughter is ill-omened. If you give her in marriage all of you remaining will perish. So pack her in a box and with a torch burning on the top of it set it afloat on the river." The Vaisya did so. The sage coming to his Asrama called his disciples to his side and said "To-night a box with a torch burning on the top of it will come floating on the river. You must take it and bring it to me without opening it." The disciples went to the river and seeing the box coming floating caught it and took it to their preceptor. But from a point high up in the river a prince had seen

sage said

such virtuous persons." But the brahmins did not pay heed to what Dhani said and they killed all the Kapas in bulk. The Kapas, though they were born Asuras, were good-natured persons. (Chapter 157, Anusasana Parva) KAPALA. See under Brahma, 5th Para. KAPALAMOCANA. A holy place on the shores of the river Sarasvati, in Kuruksetra. (Chapter 88, Vana Parva; See under Rahodara and Siva) KAPALl I. One of the eleven Rudras. This Rudra was the son of Sthanu, son of Brahma. (Chapter 66, Adi Parva) According to the Mahabharata the eleven Rudras are the following: Mrgavyadha, Sarpa, Nirrti,
. .

the box coming floating and had opened it. He had then released the girl from the box and had floated the box again filling it with a black monkey. When the disciples got the box to the guru he said "Take it upstairs and keep it there. There is a Puja to be conduct-

KAPI
ed with the

388

KAPILA
The Sagaraputras

VIII

recital of sacred verses. It should not be seen by others. You can all go to sleep." The false sage went up eager to enjoy the girl in the box and opened the box with pleasant thoughts. But to his utter horror there jumped from the box a ferocious black monkey who mauled him terribly. The Kapata-

bhiksu

was

fooled.
.

returned to their father when they could not find the horse. But Sagara ordered "Go and dig again till you find it". They went to the nether world. After circling the eight elephants who carry the world they dropped down to the nether world through the north-east corner of the earth. There they saw sage

(Taraiiga

1.

Lavanakalambaka,
9.

KAPl.
24).

Kathasaritsagara )

A

river.

(M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter

Verse

KAPIDHVAJA. Arjuna. KAPILA I. A fierce sage.

1 ) Genealogy and birth. Kapila was the son of Kardamaof his wife prajapati, son of Brahma, born to him

Kapila engaged in penance and the sacrificial horse grazing by his side. The sons of Sagara made a great hubbub there and Kapila produced a big sound of rebuke and stared at them. All the sixtythousand sons of Sagara were reduced to ashes. For more details see under Bhaglratha. (Sargas 39 and 40. Balakanda. Valmiki Ramayana)
.

Devahuti, grand-daughter of

Svayambhuva Manu. Svayambhuva Manu got two

Brahma and daughter

of

Kapilayogasdstra. sastra sitting in his
5)

sons named Priyavrata and Uttanapada and three daughters named Akuti, Devahuti and Prasuti. The daughters were married to Ruci, Kardama and Daksa respectively. To Ruci was born of Akuti a boy named Yajna. He was a partial incarnation of Visnu. To Kardama was born of his wife Devahuti Kapilacarya, a great sage and the celebrated exponent of the Sankhya philosophy. Prasuti got many daughters (8th Skandha, Devi Bhagavata). Sage Kapila was known as Cakradhanus also. (Sloka 1 7 Chapter 109, Udyoga Parva).

Kapila made the renowned KapilaAsrama and taught it to his mother Devahuti. Kapila was a great yogin. The yoga Sastra itself is based on the Saiikhya philosophy of Kapila. His Sarikhya Sastra, known as Kapila Sastra also, contains the distinctive yoga of meditation and it creates in you spiritual knowledge removing your ignorance totally. After teaching his mother his 'Kapila' he went to the Asrama of Pulaha and lived there. (8th Skandha, Devi

Bhagavata )
6) 'Other

.

the daughter of Vaivasvata Manu Devahuti. They spent their honeymoon in the air travelling throughout the world. Devahuti delivered nine daughters and a son named Kapila. Kardamaprajapati gave his daughters in marriage to Marici and the other sages.

Kardama married

called

(i) Kapila was the preceptor of the King of Sindhu. 5th Skandha, Bhagavata) Kapila visited Bhisma while the latter was lying (ii) on his bed of arrows before his death. (Sloka 8, Santi Parva, M.B.). There occurred a discussion once between Kapila (iii) and a Sage named 'Gau' on the subject whether Grhasthadharma (doing one's duty as a house-holder) or
.

details regarding Kapila.

Purana states that Kapila was the incarnation of Visnu. In Chapter 93 there is this statement "Bhagavan Narayana will protect us all. The Lord of the universe has now been born in the world as Kapilacarya."
:

2)

Kapila

incarnation

of

Visnu.

The Brahmanda

3) Kapila imparts spiritual knowledge to his mother. Kapila started a severe penance. At that time Kardamaprajapati died and Devahuti wife of Kardama and mother

of Kapila approached Kapila and asked him to instruct her on the path of Bhakti Yoga. Kapila imparted to her spiritual knowledge and gave her instructions to follow the path of Bhakti Yoga for Salvation. She entered into a life of austerities and attained Samadhi. (3rd Skandha,

Bhagavata )
4)

.

How

was a king called Sagara in the Solar dynasty. He had two wives named Kesini and Sumati. Kesini got a son named Asamanjasa and Sumati got sixtythousand sons. Once Sagara conducted an AsVamedha Yaga at a place where the rivers Sindhu and Ganga meet. Arhsuman, son of Asamanjasa led the sacrificial horse. Indra disguised as a

Kapila burnt

to

ashes the Sagaraputras.

Once

there

demon

stole
it

mountain

side

and hid

the horse when it came to a in the nether worlds.

Another name of Surya. (Sloka 24, ChapParva, M.B.) KAPILA III. A serpent king. It is believed that Kapila is one of the seven serpent Kings who hold the earth in its position. The others are: Dharma, Kama, Kala, Vasu, Vasuki and Ananta. (Sloka 41, Chapter 150, Anusasana Parva) KAPILA IV. Son of an Agni named Bhanu. He was his fourth son and was believed to be another incarnation of sage Kapila (Sloka 21, Chapter 221, Vana
II.

KAPILA
ter 3,

(doing yoga practices) was superior. (Chapter 286, Santi Parva) Kapila was a sage of great brilliance of body. (iv) When the sons of Sagara went to the nether world in search of the horse they saw the sage Kapila sitting there radiating a brightness equal to that of fire. (Chapter 107, Aranya Parva). Kapila was an authority on Sankhya and Veda (v) and was a worshipper of Siva. (Sloka 4, Chapter 18, AnuSasana Parva). He has written two books, namely, Sankhyapra(vi) vacana and Tattvasamasa.

yogadharma

.

Vana

.

.

complained to Brahma. Then Brahma said: "The whole of this world belongs to Visnu. He has incarnated himself as sage Kapila to kill the sons of Sagara and is now in the nether-world bearing this world. In the fire of his anger the Sagaraputras will be burnt to death". On hearing this all of them came back.

of the horse. dug the whole continent of Jambudvipa surroundThey ed by mountains. Devas, gandharvas and bhujahgas

Sagara sent

his sixtythousand sons in search

Another sage who was the father of Saliyajfia conducted by Uparicaravasu. (Chapter 336, Santi Parva). KAPILA VI. A son of Visvamitra who was a brahmavadl. (Chapter 4, Anusasana Parva) KAPILA VII. A synonym of Siva. (Chapter 17, Anusahotra.

KAPILA

Parva)

.

He

V.

officiated in a

.

KAPILA

sana Parva) VIII.

.

A

Anusasana Parva)

synonym of Visnu.
.

(Chapter

149,

KAPILA
KAPILA

I

389

KARANDHAMA
named Tumburu and Suvarcas. Kapota received much wealth from Kubera and gave it to his sons. Once Kapota cursed Taravati, the queen of Candra.'ekhara,
that she
.

I.

Daughter

of

Daksaprajapati.

married Kapila. (Sloka 12, Chapter 65, Adi Parva M.B.). KAPILA II. A holy place of Kuruksetra. If one bathes one will get the benefit of in a sacred pond there making a thousand Godanas (giving away cows as

Kasyapa

KAPILA KAPILA

gifts).

(Chapter 83,
III.

A

Vana Parva)
(Chapter

.

river.

IV.

The mother
.

Bhlsma Parva) of Paiicasikha. (Chapter 218,
9,
.

Seventh division of Kusadvipa. (M.B. 12, Verse 14). KAPILAHRADA. A sacred place in Kasi. If one bathes there one will get the benefit of performing a Rajasuya

KAPILA (M).

Santi Parva)

would bring forth two sons with monkey-faces. (Kalika Purana, Chapter 56) KAPOTAROMA (KAPOTALOMA). Son of the emperor Sibi who was greatly devoted to his dependHe had another ants, (For genealogy see under Sibi) name Audbhida. (Chapter 197, Vana Parva) He was a prominent member of the court of Varuna. (Santi
.

.

Bhlsma Parva, Chapter

KARABHA. A
King
of

Parva)

.

King who bowed before Jarasandha, Magadha. (Sloka 13, Chapter 14, Sabha
.

KAPILAKEDARATlRTHA. A

yajfia.

India. Sage Kapila stayed here for some time. If one bathes in a pond there one will acquire the art of invisible to others (Chapter 83, Vana Parva, becoming

holy

place of ancient

KARABHAJANA KARABHAJANA

Parva, M.B.)

I.

II.

KAPILASASTRA.
Skandha)
.

M.B.).

The

Sastra

made by

sage. After making this Sastra Kapila to his mother Devahuti. (Devi

communicated it 8th Bhagavata

Kapila,

the

KARABHANJAKA. A

Rsabhadeva. He imparted spiritual knowledge to these present at the yajna of the King of Videha. (Skandhas 4 and 5, Bhagavata).
place

India. of the nine celebrated sons of was a yogin of divine wisdom. He

A

One

King of ancient

of habitation in

ancient

KAPILASVA.
204,

KAPILAVATA. A
.

named Dhandhu destroyed him. (Sloka, 40 Chapter Vana Parva) KAPILA TlRTHA. A sacred pond owned by a King called Kapila. (Sloka 32, Chapter 84, Vana Parva).

Son of a King

called Kuvalasva.

A

KARAHATAKA. A country
KARAKA. A
Chapter
9,
is

KARABHI. SonofSakuni.
conquered M.B.)
.

India. (Sloka 69, Chapter 9,

Bhlsma Parva)
of south
India.
31,

.

(Matsya Purana)

.

sage

this country.

(Chapter

Sahadeva Sabha Parva,
India.

KARAKARSAKA. A
Sarabha

Bhisma Parva)

place of habitation
.

in

ancient

brother

of the

sacred place. If you stay there and observe fasting you will get the benefit of giving away in charity a thousand cows. ( Chapter 84, Vana Parva) KAPILEYA. Son of Visvamitra. After saving Sunaxsepha from death, Visvamitra was fondling the child on his lap. At that time, the child's father Ajigarta came to him and wanted Visvamitra to return the child to him. Visvamitra then told him "Like and Babhravya, this is also my son." Kapileya From this we may infer that Kapileya must have been Visvamitra's son. (Aitareya Brahmana) KAPINJALA. A river of ancient India. (Sloka 26,
'

the other brother.

with his brothers, Karakarsaka and Sarabha, helped the Pandavas in the great battle. (Sloka 47, Chapter 50, Udyoga Parva) KARAKASA. A soldier who fought on the side of the Kauravas. He stood and fought at a strategic point in the Garuda Vyuha formed by Drona. (Sloka 6, Chapter 20, Drona Parva)
.
.

The Raja of Cedi along

Raja of Cedi.

.

KARALA. A Deva
.

Gandharva.

He

.

KARALADANTA. A
member
of the court
.

birthday celebrations Parva, M.B.)

of Arjuna.

took part

in

the

(Chapter

122,

Adi

KAPINJARA. (KAPINJALA). A

bird. There is a about the origin of this bird in the Mahabharata. story Once Tvasta created Trisiras to kill Indra. Trisiras had three heads. When by one head he recited the Vedas by another head he drank wine and by the third he looked at the world wickedly. Indra envious of the growing strength of Trisiras felled him down by his Vajrayudha. A person called Taksaka carrying an axe came that way then and by orders from Indra he cut off the heads ofTriviras. When the heads fell down there emerged from them birds called Kapinjala, Tittiri and Kalawhich recited the Vedas came piiigala. From the head the birds Kapinjalas; from the head that drank the wine came the birds Kalapingalas; and from the head the that looked at the world with wickedness came birds Tittiris. (Chapter 9, Udyoga Parva) KAPISKANDHA. A soldier of Skandadeva. (Sloka 57,
.

Chapter

9,

Bhlsma Parva)

great Sage. He was a of Indra. (Chapter 7,

bright

Sabha

.

of Mithila. Vasistha imparted to him spiritual knowledge. (Santi Parva). KARALAKSA. A soldier of Skandadeva. (Chapter 45, Salya Parva) KARAMALASAMPRADAYA. The method of counting the number of recitals of a prayer by using the fingers of the hand. (See under Gayatri). KARAMBHA. Brother of Rambha, father of Mahisasura. See under Mahisa. KARAMBHA. A princess of Kalingade:'a. She was married to Akrodha, a King of the Puruvamsa. She was the mother of Devatithi. (Sloka 22, Chapter 95, Adi Parva) KARANA. Another name of Yuyutsu. See under Yuyutsu and Varna.
.

KARALAJANAKA. A King

Parva, M.B.)

.

KARANDHAMA.

Chapter 45, Salya Parva.) KAPOTA. A son of Garuda.

(Chapter
the

101,

Udyoga
of

KAPOTA. A

Parva)

.

Kakutstha and Urvasi, was

sage.

Citrangada,

his wife.

She had two sons

daughter

A King of Iksvaku Varhsa. 1) General information. Descending in order from Iksvaku came Virhsa Suvarcas later on Kalyana Khaninetra Suvarcas. became famous as Karandhama. Once there came 2) How he got his name Karandhama. a famine in the country of Suvarcas. The treasury

KARANDHAMANA

390

KARKOTAKA
I.

became empty. Taking that opportunity the enemies attacked his country. There was no army for him to fight against his enemies. Meditating upon God he blew his hands and then an army sufficient to fight his enemies appeared before him and using that he defeated them. Because he arranged an army by Karadhamana (blowing of hands) he was given the name of Karandhamana also.

KARDAMA
got of his
.

A

wife

Ksama

Urvariyan and Sahisnu. (Chapter 10, Arhsa 1, Visnu Purana) Of these three Kardama married Devahuti. Devahuti was the daughter of Svayambhuva Manu and sister of Akuti and Prasiiti. (8th Skandha, Devi Bhaga-

Prajapati. Pulaha, son of Brahma, bethree sons named Kardama,

KARANDHAMANA

The celebrated King Aviksit was the son of Karandhama. (Chapter 4, Asvamedha Parva) was a prominent member of the (ii) Karandhama court of Yama. (Sloka 16, Chapter 8, Sabha Parva) KARANDHAMANA. See under the word Karandhama.
(i)
.
.

3)

Other details.

tlrthas. At that pilgrimage, he visited these Panca time, the Sages never used to go there. There was a special reason for it. The five celestial women, Varga, Saurabheyi, Samici, Budbuda and Lata used to live in them in the form of crocodiles as a result of a sage's curse. Arjuna liberated all of them. (For details see under the word "Varga") KARANJANILAYA. Anala, the mother of all trees. She was the daughter of Daksa and the wife of
.

(M). A tirtha situated near the southern ocean. The five holy places in the southern ocean, viz. Agastya tirtha, Saubhadra tirtha, Pauloma tirtha, Karandhamana tirtha and Bharadvaja tirtha were In the course of Arjuna's tlrthas. called Panca

KARDAMA Parva). KARDAMA

Devahuti was an ideal wife and served her husband with great devotion. Kardama was pleased with his wife and presented her with an aeroplane. Kardama and Devahuti conducted then a tour of the worlds in that plane. Devahuti delivered nine daughters and a son. The daughters were married to Marlci and other and the son grew into the celebrated Sage sages Kapilacarya. Kardama then entered into Samadhi. (Sitting in yoga and courting death of one's own accord) (3rd Skandha, Bhagavata) A virtuous serpent. (Chapter 35, Adi II.
.
.

vata)

.

III.

and worships him.
Parva, M.B.)
.

This Sage sits in the court of Brahma (Sloka 19, Chapter 11, Sabha

KARDAMA IV. A celebrated
KARDAMILAKSETRA. A
(Sloka
9,

son of Viraja. He had a son Chapter 59, Santi Parva).

named

sage

who was

the grand-

Anaiiga. (Sloka 90,
the mountain
at this

Virut became a synonym of tree. It is believed that Anala stays in the tree Karanja. To obtain blessings from Anala people worship the Karanja tree. (Slokas 35 to 36, Chapter 230, Vana Parva). KARAPARVAN. A holy place in the Sarasvati river valley. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 54) KARASKARA. A despised country of ancient times. There is a reference to this country in the Mahabharata, Kama Parva, Chapter 44. KARATA. A place of habitation of ancient India.
.

Kasyapa. She

is

known

as

Virudha

also.

That was how

temple Chapter 135, Vana Parva). KARENUMATl. Daughter of Sis upala, King of Cedi. Nakula married her and they got a child named Niramitra. (Sloka 79, Chapter 95, Adi Parva). KARlSA. A son of Visvamitra. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 55).

of Samaiiga. Bharata was crowned

temple near

King

KARlSAKA. A
(Chapter
9,

KARlSINl. KARlTI. A
ter 9.

Bhlsma Parva, M.B.) A river. (Chapter 9. Bhlsma Parva)
. .

place of habitation

in

ancient

India.
.

KARATOYA. A
.

holy river. This river worships Varuna in his court. Chapter 9, Sabha (Sloka 22, sitting Parva) If one stays on the shores of this river and observes fasting for three days one would get the benefit of performing an Asvamedha (Chapter 85, yaga.

(Sloka 63,

Chapter

9,

Bhlsma Parva)

KARKAKHANDA. A
Anuvaka

Bhlsma Parva)

place of habitation in ancient India. (Chap-

.

place of habitation in India. This place was conquered by Karna for

ancient

KARKANDU. A saintly King mentioned
KARKARA. A prominent
KARKATI. See para 12 KARKI. The son of the
16,

dhana. (Vana Parva).

Duryo112,

in

Sukta

Mandala

1

KARAVlRA

A prominent serpent. (Sloka 12, Adi Parva) Chapter KARAVlRA II. A mountain on the southern side of Mahameru. See under Mahameru. KARAVlRA III. There was once a country named Karavira on the base of the mountain Gomanta. That country was being ruled by a King called Srgalavasudeva. He was killed by Sri Krsna and Balarama together as per instructions from Parasurama. ( 10th Skandha, Bhagavata) KARAVlRA IV. A forest in the neighbourhood of Dvaraka. (Chapter 38, Sabha Parva). KARAVlRAKSA. A demon. He fought against Rama and Laksmana along with Khara, Dusana and Trisiras. 26, Aranya Kanda, (Sloka 24, Chapter Valmlki Ramayana). KARAVlRAPURA. A holy place. If one bathes in this place one will attain the form of Brahma. (Chapter 25, Anusasana Parva).
I.

Vana

Parva)
35,

.

.

KARKOTAKA. A
1)

Aksasutra.
Birth.

serpent. See under Kadru. under Brahma. sage Apastamba by his wife

of Rgveda.

wife Kadru.

This serpent was born to Kasyapa, by his

terrible serpent.

The angry
have
to

2) The

curse.

remain without the power of movements in till Nala came to rescue him. From that day Karkotaka lived in that forest, awaiting the arrival of
the forest

sage cursed

Once Karkotaka cheated the sage Narada. him and said that he would

.

Nala.

Once a wild fire spread all 3) Nala and Karkotaka. over the forest. Karkotaka whose power of movement was destroyed by Narada's curse, cried aloud, calling

upon Nala to come and save him. It was at this time that Nala arrived at the spot after leaving Damayanti in the forest. Nala came to him, on hearing his cries. The serpent informed Nala about the story of Narada's curse and reducing himself to the size of a thumb sat on the ground. Nala removed him to a safe spot away

KARKOTAKA

391

KARNA I
in glory. The mantra was to be used only five times. Kunti was young and wanted to test the power of the mantra. So she recited the mantra meditating on the Sun. Instantly she felt she saw a divine person coming But the to her from the sun. She was perplexed. divine form embraced her and consoled her saying that she would never lose her virginity even if she bore a son from him. None excepting her step-mother knew about this. In due course Kunti delivered a male child and with the help of her step-mother she put that child in a box and floated it on the river Asva. That box leaving the river Asva entered the Yamuna river and leaving Yamuna it entered the river Gariga. Drifting slowly the box reached Campapurl, a country of Sutas. Adhiratha born of the Sutavarhsa and an ally of the Kauravas, saw a box floating on the river while he went for his bath and took it home. Radha, wife of Adhiratha, who was childless was greatly pleased to see a babe inside the box and they adopted it and brought it up. The boy was named Vasusena. It was this babe that became the celebrated Karna afterwards. (Four chapters from 305, Vana Parva) Karna grew up in the house of 3) Education of Karna. Adhiratha in the country of Anga bearing the names Vasusena and Vrsa. Kunti knew this through spies.
.

KARMABHtJMI. The

from the fire. The serpent asked Nala to walk a few steps counting his footsteps. Nala did so and at the tenth step, Karkotaka stung him and his whole body was turned blue. Suddenly Karkotaka assumed his own "I have original shape and spoke to Nala as follows: changed your appearance so that people may not be able to recognize you. Kali who is troubling you, still lives within you. It is he who is affected by my poison. You need not fear danger from poison any more. You will never be defeated in battle. Go and engage yourself as the charioteer of Rtuparna, King of Ayodhya. You will teach him Avahrdaya mantra. In return for it he will teach you Aksahrdaya mantra. Here are two garments which I give you. If you put them on, you will be restored to your own shape. May you be blessed again with a happy family life." After saying this, Karkotaka vanished. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 66) KARKOTAKA. A land beyond the eastern ocean. It is not far from there to the river Sltoda. The Udaya mountain is just across it. (Kathasaritsagara).
.

land of Bharata.

How

this

con-

tinent got the name of Karmabhumi is given below. All those born in this land enjoy a life in Svarga, on earth or in hell according to the class to which their actions belong namely Sattvic, Rajasic or Tamasic. It is possible for only this land to obtain for its people life in other worlds. 1 Therefore this land got the name Karmabhumi.

When

the time

came

Adhiratha sent him

to

KARMAJIT. A King

(8th Skandha, Devi Bhagavata). of the family of Arjuna. He was the son of Brhatsena and the father of Srutanjaya. (9th

Drona for teaching him Krpa and Paras urama

for imparting education to Hastinapura to the presence

Kama

of

archery. Karna studied under also. After his education he

Vana Parva)

entered into a treaty with
.

Duryodhana. (Chapter 309,

KARNA I.
vas

Skandha, Bhagavata)

.

The

eldest son of Kunti.

brother of the Pandavas he joined sides with the Kauraand became the King of Anga. So the name of Karna comes in the genealogy of the Anga royal family. 1) Genealogy. Descending in order from Visnu: Brahma- A tri- Candra-Budha-Pururavas- Ay us - Nahusa-

Though he was

the

Even while they were studying archery Arjuna and Karna vied with each other. Karna once requested Drona to teach him in private the secret of the Brahma missile to fight against Arjuna. But Drona did not
accede

4) Karna is cursed. Karna was cursed by a Para;' urama. The story is given below.

brahmin and

Yayati-Turvasu-Vahni-Bharga-Bhanu-Tribhanu-Karandhama-Marutta - (Marutta had no son and he adopted Dusyanta) - Dusyanta - Varutha - Gandira - GandharaKola-Druhyu-Babhrusetu - Purovasu Gharma - GhrtaVidusa-Pracetas-Sabhanara-Kalanara -Srnjaya - Puranjaya-Janamejaya-Mahasala-Mahamanas-Usinara - Titiksu-Rusadratha-Paila-Sutapas-Bali-Ariga (The Anga dynasty begins) - Dadhivahana - Dravlratha - Dharmaratha-Citraratha- Satyaratha

Lomapada CaturangaPrthulaksa-Carnpa-Haryanga-Bhadraratha-BrhatkarmaBrhadbhanu-Brhadatma-Jayadratha-Brhadratha- Visvajit-Karna. 2 ) Birth of Kama.

-

-

Pandu, a King of Candravamsa, married Kunti, daughter of King Surasena. This girl was brought up even from childhood by a King called Kuntibhoja. She grew up in the palace of the King. She was once put in charge of attending to the welfare of those engaged in religious duties. The sage Durvasas came there then and stayed for four months as the king's guest. Kunti served the sage during his stay there with

so

much care, patience and devotion that the sage was immensely pleased and gave her at the time of his departure a divine mantra. If she called upon any god repeating that mantra once, that god would manifest himself to her and bless her with a son equal to him
i

Karna then went to Mahendragiri and bowed before Para' urama and represented himself as a member of the Bhrgu family. He said he had come to him to be his disciple and learn the secret of the Brahma missile from him. ParaSurama believed him and accepting him as his disciple taught him many new techniques in archery. Once Karna was wandering in the vicinity of the aSrama when he saw a lonely cow grazing there and Karna without knowing that it belonged to a brahmin sent an arrow and killed it. The brahmin got furious and cursed Karna thus "Oh, sinner, the wheel of your chariot would go down in the mud when you face the enemy to fight against whom you are now taking training. Then, when you stand perplexed, your opponent would cut off your head." Karna requested for a removal of the curse but the brahmin refused to show any mercy. ParaSiirama taught Karna the secret of the Brahma missile. One day tired after a day's fast and a walk around the asrama with his disciples Paras urama slept the lap of Karna. Then a resting his head on beetle named Alarka attacked Karna and started sucking
blocd from his thigh. Blood was oozing from his thigh still Karna did not stir from his position lest it should disturb his guru in his nap. Suddenly Parasu-

to his request.

and

rama awoke and

stared at the beetle

and

the beetle

fell

According

to a belief

of old,

all

other parts of the world excepting Bharatavarsa were inhabited bv Devas,

KARIVA
dead.

I

392
then took the form of a

demon and rising up was once a demon called Dams a. Once I carried away by force the wife of the sage Bhrgu and the angered sage cursed me and made me a beetle. When I craved for pardon he said that I would be given my original form by Parasurama."
It

in the air said

"Svamin

weapon

to kill the great

Ghajotkaca in the Mahabha-

!

I

rata battle. 7) Other details.
(i)

When
all

the demon disappeared saying rama turned to Karna who stood with

so

much
:

Parasu-

covered with blood.
so

Parasurama

respect, his dress said "No brah-

min can bear

pain with such patience. Surely, are not a brahmin. Let me know the truth." Tremyou bling with fear Karna revealed his identity and then Parasurama cursed him saying "You will forget the secret of the Brahma missile at the time when you want
to use it against

much

your enemy." (Chapters 2 and
the

3,

Santi

defeated in his victory march many kings Drupada, Bhagadatta and Kerala. (Chapter 254, Aranya Parva). (vi) Karna conquered the cities of Malini and Campa and annexed them to the country of Anga. (Chapter 5,
(v) like

present at the Svayamvara of Draupadl. Chapter 185, Adi Parva) Bhima defeated Kama once in a single combat. (ii) (Sloka 20, Chapter 34. Sabha Parva). Karna took part in the Rajasuya of Yudhisthira. (iii) (Sloka 7, Chapter 34, Sand Parva) Karna defeated Jarasandha once in a single com(iv) bat. Chapter 44, Sabha Parva)

Karna was
4,

(Sloka

.

.

.

Kama

Parva) .

King of Anga. The Pandavas and Kauravas were studying archery under Dronacarya together and Karna also was among them. When their education was complete a day was fixed to exhibit the skill of the students. The public also was invited to see the skill of the princes. Everybody showed his best and
5)

How

Karna became

vas living in the forest. (Chapter
.

Karna Parva) (vii) Karna prompted Duryodhana
.

to tease the

Panda-

7,

not in order simply because Karna is not a prince it is easily remedied. I crown Karna as the King of Anga". Then there came to the scene the aged Adhiratha, the foster-father of Karna, and as Karna saw him coming he went and bowed before him and Adhitatha embraced him with tears in his eyes. (Chapters 134 to 136, Adi Parva, M.B.)
the

Arjuna displayed super-human skill so that the vast assemblage was lost in wonder and admiration. Then strode Karna to the scene and not only did he duplicate with ease Arjuna's feats but he did show something more. The assemblage was dumbfounded. Arjuna turnned pale. At this moment Krpa stood up and questioned the right of Karna to compete with those with royal blood in them. Then rose Duryodhana and said "If
:

Mahabharata lasted for eighteen days and some of the incidents touching Karna during that period are given
below
(i)
:

Karna lost his clothes during a fight against the (ix) king of Virata. (Chapter 65, Virata Parva). (x) Kandaprstham is the name of Kama's bow. The great battle of 8) Karna and the Kuruksetra battle.

(viii) Karna swo^e that he would 257, Vana'Parva)

Vana Parva).
Arjuna. (Chapter

kill

combat

is

Before the great war started Kunti went alone to the shores of Gariga and met Kama. She then confessed to him that she was his mother and that the Pandavas were his brothers. She advised Karna to join sides with the Pandavas and the Sun god approved of it. But Karna refused to do so. He said he would never forsake

Duryodhana who had brought him up from his childhood at a time when he was in peril. But he promised his mother that he would never kill any of her other four sons but would kill Arjuna in the battle-field. (Chapter
146
(ii)

.

6) Kama's armour and ear-rings. Karna was born with an armour on his body and rings in his ears.- Chapter 99 of /idi Parva says thus "To Kunti was born of Surya the mighty Karna. Even at his birth he was adorned with an armour over his body and rings in his ears." Surya had ordained that as long as Karna wore the armour and ear-rings he would be unconquerable. Indra knew this and wanted to get Karna rid of these so that Arjuna, his son, might gain a victory over Karna. Karna was reputed for his charity and Indra under the garb of a brahmin went to Karna and begged of him his ear-rings and armour. The Sun god had already warned him in a dream that Indra would thus try to
:

Udyoga Parva). Karna started his
blessings
.

deceive him.

Still

Kama

was asked of him and so he cut off the ear-rings and armour with which he was born and gave them to the Brahmana. The only request that the noble Karna did make was that in separating the ornaments from his body no wound should be made. Indra did it with great skill neither hurting him nor making even a scratch on this body. Indra bade Karna ask for any boon he wanted. The Sun god had also advised him to ask for a good weapon in return in case he gave away his assets and so he requested Indra the best of the weapons he possessed. Indra gave him his weapon, the Sakti, called VaijayantI also. Karna had to use that
any
gift

could not bring himself to refuse

that

Karna fought against the princes of Kekaya, Arjuna, Bhima, Dhrstadyunma and Satyaki in single combat. (Chapter 32, Drona Parva) (iv) Abhimanyu defeated Karna in a single combat. (Chapter 40, Drona Parva) Kama made Bhlma unconscious. (Chapter 139, (v) Drona Parva). (vi) Karna once withdrew a bit when hit by the arrow of Arjuna. (Chapter 139, Drona Parva). (vii) Karna insulted Krpacarya at one time. (Chapter 158, Drona Parva). Kama killed Ghatotkaca with the weapon Sakti (viii which Indra had given him in exchange for the armour
(iii)
. .

taking Parva)

from

fight against the

Bhisma.

Pandavas after (Chapter 3, Drona

)

Karna ran away from the battlefield when he (ix) heard that Drona was dead. (Chapter 193, Karna
was made the Generalissimo of the Kaura(x) va army when Drona died. (Chapter 10, Kama Parva). (xi) Salya became the charioteer of Karna (Chapter 86, Karna Parva) of Arjuna fell down to (xii) The beautiful headwear
.

and ear-rings which he had given Indra. (Chapter Drona Parva).

180,

Parva)

.

Kama

KARNA II
the
ter 90,
(xiii)

393

KARTAV IRYARJUNA
KARNIKA. One
of the eleven Devakanyakas who sang and danced in the Janmotsava of Arjuna. The others are: Menaka, Sahajanya, Punjikasthala, Rtusthala, GhrtacI, VisvacI, Purvacitti, Ulloca, Pramloca and Urvasi. (Chapter 123, Adi Parva).
forest to the
is

ground by the snake-faced arrow of Kama. (Chap-

Kama

When

Parva)

.

Arjuna
.

chariot-wheels of
90,

Karna sank

was fighting against Karna the
into the ground. (Chapter

Karna Parva)

Karna Parva). (xv) Karna had three sons named Citrasena, Satyasena and Susena. All the three were killed at Kuruksetra by
Nakula. (Slokas 19 to 50, Chapter 10, Salya Parva) After his death Karna went to 9) Kama goes to heaven. heaven and merged with his father, the Sun god. (Sloka
.

(xiv)

Arjuna slew Kama.

(Sloka

50,

Chapter

91,

KARNIKARAVANA. A
Sumeru. All the same time and so this
tain

north of the

moun-

six seasons

forest

Sloka 24, Bhisma Parva) KARPARA, See under Ghata. KARPASIKA. A country in ancient India. The maids of this country served in the Rajasuya of Yudhisthira.

appear there at the always filled with flowers.
.

(Chapter

6,

302.

Chapter 5, Svargarohana Parva). Names of Karna. (i) Because Karna was born with an effulgence (Vasu) he was first given the name Vasusena. (ii) Because he was born with Kundalas (ear-rings) in his Karnas (ears) he was called Kama. (Chapter
20,

10)

KARSAPANA(M).
KARSNI.

(M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 51, Verse 8).

weight for gold and

(KARSIKAM).
silver in

A

measure

of

A

(iii)

Besides these two he few are given below:

Aranya Parva)

.

KARTA. A
s'

had many

celebrations connected with Arjuna's birth. Visvadeva, (Sloka 35, Chapter 91,

A Deva Gandharva. Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 122, Verse 56 says that he participated in the
Armasana Parva)
.

ancient India.

other

names.

KARTASVARA. An
world emperor. Verse 52)
.

Asura.

Once

this

Adityanandana. Adityatanaya, Angaraja, Angesvara, Arkaputra, Bharatarsabha, Goputra, Kaunteya. Kuntlsuta, Kurudvaha, Kuruprtanapati, Kuruvira, Kuruyodha, Partha, Vrsatmaja, Radhasuta, Radhatmaja, Radheya, Ravisunu, Sauti, Savitra, Suryaja, Suryaputra, Suryasambhava, Suta, Sutanandana, Sutaputra, Sutasunu, Sutasuta, Sutatanaya. Vaikartana, Vaivasvata and Vrsa. KARNA II. A son of Dhi-tarastra. Bhlmasena killed this Kama. (Chapter 67, Bhisma Parva) KARNA HI. Younger brother of Ghanta. See under Ghantakarna. KARNAKA. A barber who lived in Kasi. (Chapter 29,
Adhirathi,
.

(M.B.

Santi

Parva,

Asura became Chapter 227,

KARTAVlRY ARJUNA (KARTAVIRYA). A
:

renowned King of the Hehaya dynasty. From Mahavisnu were descended in the 1) Genealogy. following order Brahma Atri Candra Budha Pururavas Ayus Yayati Yadu Sahasrajit Satajit Ekavira (Hehaya) Dharma Kani Bhadrasena Dhanaka Krtavirya KartavTryarjuna.
2 ) Hehaya Dynasty and Bhargava Dynasty. The Hehayas were Ksatriyas and the Bhargavas were Brahmanas. The Bhargava sages were the family preceptors of the Hehaya Kings. The Hehayas who were generous and charitable, used to give plenty of wealth to the Bhargavas. Consequently in course of time, the Bhargavas grew wealthy while the Hehayas gradually declined. In order to tide over their difficulty, the Hehayas decided to borrow some money from the Bhargavas. But the Bhargavas refused to oblige, on the plea that they had

sage who attained Svarga after observing correctly the duties of Vanaprastha. (Sloka 18, Chapter 244, Santi Parva). KARNAPARVA. One of the Parvans of Mahabharata. See under Mahabharata. KARNAPRAVARANA. A country of South India. The of Duryodhana contained soldiers from this army country. (Sloka 13, Chapter 51. Bhisma Parva).

KARNANIRVAHA. A

Harivarhsa)

.

KARNAPRAVARANA (S). An
who

ancient tribe of people inhabited the shores of the sea in the south. The one distinctive feature of this tribe was that their ears

KARNAPRAVARANA. A
KARNASRAVAS. A
Parva )
.

were extraordinarily long, drooping down to the feet. Sahadeva conquered and subdued this tribe. (Sloka 67, Chapter 31, Sabha Parva) They once brought to Yudhisthira many valuable presents and paid their respects to him. (Sloka 19, Chapter 52, Sabha Parva).
.

sage named Aurva through her thigh. With his birth the Hehayas began to lead a less aggressive life. After the lapse of many years, the mighty Kartavlryarjuna was born in the Hehaya dynasty and the mighty sage Jamadagni was born in the Bhrgu dynasty. Both of

no money. The enraged Ksatriyas (Hehayas) began to persecute the Bhrgus (Bhargavas). The Bhrgus left foi the Himalayas after burying all their treasures under the floor of their Asramas. The Ksatriyas pursued them and hunted them even there. At last a Brahman! who belonged to the Bhargava race, gave birth to a

follower

of

(Chapter 46, Sloka 25, Salya Parva).

Skandadeva,

them nourished
the
city

in

their hereditary feud. With his capital of Mahismati on the banks of the river
.

a member of sage who was the court of Yudhisthira. (Sloka 23, Chapter 26, Vana

KARNATAKA. A

KARNA
Adi
i
j

country of South India. Mahabharata says like this: "There are a few more countries to the south and they are: Dravida, Kerala, Pracya, Musika, Vanavasika, Karnataka, Mahisaka, Vikalpa and Musaka." (Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva). VESTA. A Ksatriya King. He was the incarnation of an Asura named Krodhavasa. (Chapter 67 T \
I

Narmada, Kartaviryarjuna began his reign. (See under Aurva I) Hands of Kartaviryarjuna. Once when 3) Thousand Kartaviryarjuna was living in his capital Mahismati, the sage Narada happened to come there. The King greeted him with due reverence and asked him what course of action was to be followed for attaining moksa (salvation) and at the same time for enjoying
worldly pleasures. Narada replied that by performing the rite known as "Bhadradipa Pratistha", both these objects could be achieved. Accordingly, Kartavirya went to the banks of the river Narmada with his wife

arva)

.

KARTAV IRYARJUNA
and began the observance of Bhadradlpa Pratisfha. Kartavirya's guru was Dattatreya, the son of Atri. At the conclusion of the Yaga rites, Dattatreya who was pleased, asked Kartaviryarjuna what boons he wished to have. Kartavirya with joined palms asked him many boons one of which was that he should have a thousand arms. Dattatreya granted him the boons, and Kartavirya who became proud of his new possession, ruled at MahismatI for 86,000 years. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 44)
.

394

KARTAV IRYARJUNA
(sacrificial twigs). Jamadagni's wife, Renuka swept and cleaned the Asrama and went to the river Reva to fetch water and Parasurama was left behind in the Asrama. When she reached the river bank, she saw Kartaviryarjuna indulging in amorous pleasures with his wives in the water. She waited unobserved on the bank for some time and after they had left the place, she stepped into the river. But since the water was muddy, she had to go to another place in the river to get clear water. There also she lingered for a few minutes, looking at the amorous amusements of Citraratha, King of Salva, with his wives. It was only after they had departed that she was able to return to the Asrama with water. Meanwhile Jamadagni who had returned to the Asrama earlier was angry at her delay and was waiting impatiently for her arrival. As soon as she reached the Asrama, the sage, in a fit of fury, ordered Paras urama to cut off her head and the latter obeyed him. ( Brahmanda

4)

Warning. Kartaviryarjuna who returned triumphant after receiving the boon from Dattatreya heard a mysterious voice warning him in the following
Vdyu's

words
is

:

superior to a Ksatriya ? A Ksatriya governs his subjects in alliance with the Brahmana". On hearing He understood that this, Kartavlrya became angry. Vayu, the divine messenger was behind the mysterious voice. He despised Vayu and argued that a Ksatriya was superior to a Brahmana. Vayu gave him a warning that a Brahmana would curse Kartavlrya. (M.B.

"You

fool

!

Don't you know that a Brahmana

Anusasana Parva, Chapter 152).

Purana, Chapter 58). 8) The Triumphal March of Kartavirya. All the Kings in the world acknowledged the supremacy of Kartavlrya.

5) Kartavirya cursed by the sage.

approached Kartavirya and begged for food. The King allowed him to feed upon mountains and trees from any part of his Kingdom. So Agni began to devour the woods and hills. This led to the burning down of an Asrama owned by a sage called Apava. The enraged Sage came to know that Kartaviryarjuna was responsible for the havoc and pronounced a curse that Paras urama would chop off all the thousand hands of Kartaand Ravana. In the course of his triumphal march, after conquering the whole world, Ravana once arrived with his forces on the bank of the river Narmada. Enjoying the smooth flow of the crystal clear stream of the Narmada and the pleasant sand banks in the river-bed, he spent a night there with his followers. Early next morning he took his bath in the river and setting up the idol of Siva on the sand bank, began to worship it. Just then Kartaviryarjuna and his wives came to the place and began their water sports, a few yards down the river from the place where Ravana was sitting. As part of his amusements, Kartavlrya stopped the flow of the river by making a dam with his thousand arms. This caused the level of the water to rise and Ravana with his materials of worship was submerged in the flood. Enraged at this disturbance to his worship, he sent two of his men down the river bank to find out what was happening. They traced the source of the trouble to Kartaviryarjuna and his water-sports and reported the matter to their master. At once Ravana armed himself with his bow rushed to Kartaviryarjuna and began a fierce fight. At last Ravana fell down under the heavy stroke of Kartavirya's mace and was bound in chains and imprisoned. He lay there for one year. Ravana's father sage Pulastya came to know of this and he went to Kartavirya's palace. He was received with due respect and at his request, Kartavirya released Ravana and after that they remained friends for life. (Uttara Ramayana). and Renukd's Death. One day when 7) Kartavirya Paras"urama was fourteen years old, his father sage Jamadagni went to the forest to fetch some Samits
viryarjuna. 6) Kartaviryarjuna

Once Agni

(fire-god)

In Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 16, we find that Kings of the Solar dynasty like Trayyaruna, Hariscandra, Rohitasva and Cuncu were defeated by Kartaviryarjuna. In his golden chariot he went about defeating Devas, Yaksas, Rsis and others. He challenged even Visnu. He insulted Indra in the company of Indranl.

(NO. Vana Parva, Chapter 115). Intoxicated by his successes, Kartavirya went to the sea-shore and challenged the ocean and began to destroy the animals in the sea by shooting them with his arrows. God Varuna appeared before him and asked him what he wanted. Kartavirya asked the god to name a man who had the capacity to fight with him. Varuna answered that Jamadagni's son ParaSurama was the person who satisfied that condition. Kartavirya accepted the challenge and went in search of
Paragurama. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 29). 9) Killing of Jamadagni. Once Kartavlrya went to hunt in the forest with his followers. They were roam-

'

they were preparing to return, they saw Jamadagni's Asrama. After asking his men to wait at the river-bank, Kartavirya went alone to the Asrama. He paid his respects to the sage and after their usual greetings, Jamadagni asked him to call his followers also to the Asrama. When all of them arrived the sage gave them a sumptuous feast. Kartavlrya wondered how the sage managed to do it. They spent the night there and when they returned home next morning Kartavirya's minister Candragupta told him that he saw a cow in Jamadagni's Asrama and that it was from that divine cow that the sage was able to get all the rare articles of food which he supplied to the guests. He also offered to get the cow from the sage. So the King sent Candragupta to the Asrama to beg the cow from the sage for him. Candragupta accordingly went with a few followers to the Asrama and begged for the ccw. At that time Parasurama was not in the Asrama. Jamadagni told them that the cow was Kamadhenu's sister, Susila and that it was not possible to give her. Candragupta tried to seize the cow by
force

Narmada when

ing in the Vindhya forests in search of game. At noon after a refreshing bath in the clear waters of the river

King's

but she suddenly vanished into the sky. men tried to capture her calf. Jamadagni

The who

KARTTIKEYA
came forward
Candragupta.
70).
10)
to

395
prevent them, was beaten to death Purana, Chapters 67

KASI
I.

I

by
to

KARUSA
KARUSA.
Adi

The

sixth son of Vaivasvata

Manu.

(M.B.

(Brahmanda

Parasurama to Restoration Life. Jamadagni's returned soon to the Asrama with the disciple Akrtavrana. At the sight of his father lying dead on the floor, Parasurama cried aloud. Reriuka beat her breast twentyone times. Seeing this, Parasurama took a
solemn vow that he would go round the world twentyone times and extirpate the Ksatriya Kings. The sage Sukra appeared there with Suslla who had vanished. After restoring Jamadagni to life Sukra went back. ParaSu Rama who had 11) Death of Kdrtavlryarjuna. turned himself into the very embodiment of Revenge, accompanied by Akrtavrana, took his stand at the gates
of the

An ancient land. (The King of this II. land used to suppress robbers and plunderers. He was present at Draupadl's Svayamvara. (M.B. Adi Parva,
Chapter 185). (M)
.

P'arva,

Chapter 75).

KARUSA
The

A place in ancient India. Historians are of opinion that it is the Bundelkhanda of modern India. The sin of Brahmahatya (killing of brahmins) of Indra was washed away by brahmins at this place.
fell place where Karisa (cowdung) from Indra was called Karisa and it gradually became Karusa. (See under Aiigamalaja)
.

KARVATA. An
this

army. In the terrible fight that followed, Parasurama himself with his axe (parasu) chopped off all the thousand arms of Kartaviryarjuna. All his sons were killed. Kartavirya himself fell down beheaded. This was the end of the pillar of Hehaya dynasty. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 81) sons. \2) Kdrtavirya's Kartavirya had one hundred sons. All of them were killed in the battle by Parasurama. Their names, as given in Chapter 76 of Brahmanda Purana, are given below Nirmada, Rocana, Sanku, Ugrada, Dundubhi, Dhruva, Nirdaya, Antaka, Supars'I, Satrujit, Kraunca, Santa, Akrti, Vimala, Dhlra, Niroga, Bahuti, Dama, Adhari, Vidhura, Saumya, Manasvl, Puskala, Busa, Taruna, Rsabha, Rksa, Satyaka, Subala, Bali, Ugresta, Ugrakarma, Satyasena, Durasada, Viradhanva, Dlrghabahu, Akampana, Subahu, Dirghaksa, Vartulaksa, Urdhvabahu, Carudamstra, Gotravan, Manojava, Krodha, Satyakirti, Duspradharsana, Satyasandha, Mahasena, Sulocana, Vakradarhstra, Raktanetra, Sudarhstra, Ksatravarma, Manonuga, DhumrakeiSa, Pingalocana, Avyanga, Jatila, Venuman, Sanu, Pasapani, Anuddhata, Duranta, Kapila, Sambhu, Ananta, Visvaga, Udara, Krti, Ksatrajit, Dharmi, Vyaghra, Ghosa, Adbhuta, Puranjaya, Carana. Vagmi, VIra, Rathi, Govihvala, Sangramajit, Suparva, Narada, Satanlka, Citradhanva, Satyaketu, Drdhayudha, Bhimakarma, Satrutapana, Jayatsena, Virupaksa, Duradharsa Viduratha, Sura, Surasena, Citrasena, Dhisana, Madhu, and Jayadhvaja. KARTTIKEYA. Skanda, the son of Siva. For details see under Skanda. KARUNA. See under Dhanafyaya. KARtJSA I. A King of Karusa. A lady of name Bhadra.was performing penance to get this King as her husband when Sisupala carried her away. (Sloka 11, Chapter 45, SabhaParva). KAK.USA II. One of the nine sons of Vaivasvata Manu.
. : :

city of Mahismatl and challenged Kartavlryarjuna to a fight. Kartavirya came out with a huge

KASERAKA. A
KASERU. A

Parva )

land was slain by Bhlmasena. (Chapter 30,
.

ancient country of India.

The King of
Sabha

Yaksa. Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 15 says that Kageraka continues to attend on Kubera as a member of his assembly.

lovely daughter of Tvasta, the Prajapati. Narakasura abducted Kaseru when she was fourteen years old. She was one of the virgins married by Sri Krsna who won a victory over Narakasura. (M.B. SabhaParva, Chapter 38. Daksinatya Patha). KASERUMAN (KASERUMAN). An Asura who was a Yavana. He was slain by Sri Krsna according to Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 12, Verse 32. KASI I. (VARANASI. BANARAS). (See under Divodasa also) One of the oldest and most popular 1) General. sacred centres in India, Kasi is reputed for its Visvanatha temple of hoary traditions, according to one of which the Sivalinga in the temple was installed by Brahma himself. (Halasya Mahatmya) Pilgrimage on foot to Kasi. Devotees from many 2) parts of India go on pilgrimage to Kas I on foot, bathe in the holy waters of the Ganga and thus earn spiritual satisfaction and release from worldly attachments. The reason for the above is stated in the Agni Purana as follows Once, at Kailasa Siva told ParvatI that the temple at Kasi was called 'Avimukta' (unreleased) as it never perished, and all Japa, tapa, homa and dana made there never cease to give auspicious results. One should walk on foot to Ka.il and live there. Having gone there one should never leave the place. There are eight great tlrthas at Avimukta, i.e. Haris"candra tlrtha, Avr Stakes vara tlrtha, Japyesvara tlrtha, Sri Parvatirtha, Mahalaya tlrtha, Bhrgu tlrtha, Candes'vara tirtha and Kedaratlrtha. These tlrthas extend to two yojanas to the east of the Kasi temple and half-ayojana to the west of it. The river Varana is also there, and VaranasI is at the centre of all these. Whatever is done at VaranasI like bath, Japa, homa, worship of Devas, dana, obsequies for the dead, oneself living there etc. is productive of devotion and salvation. (Agni Purana, Chapter 112). The other sons are Drsta, Iksvaku, Nabhaga, 3) References to Kasi in the Mahabharata. once conquered Kasi. Saryati, Narisyanta, Pramsunaga, Dista and Prsadhra. (i) Pandu (Bhisma Parva, (7th Skandha, Devi Bhagavata) Chapter 9). Bhlma married Balandhara, daughter of the King KARUSA. III. A Yaksa. This Yaksa accompanied by (ii ) of Kasi. (Adi Parva, Chapter 35, Verse 77). his brothers performed penance on the shores of the river Kalindl, to propitiate (iii) Bhlmasena conquered Ka.4 1. (SabhaParva, ChapDevi, taking in only ter 30, Verse 6). air. Devi was pleased and appearing before him in (iv) Sahadeva conquered Kasi. (Udyoga Parva, Chapperson said "You will become the lord of Manvanter 50, Verse 31). tara". (Skandhas 10 and 13, Devi Bhagavata)
'

.

.

:

.

.

J
KASI
II

396

KASYAPA
But in the 14th Sarga of Aranyakanda in Valmiki Ra.ma.yana there is an account of the creation of all animate and inanimate objects in this world. According

(v) In the war between the vas, the King of KasI fought

Pandavas and the Kauraon the side of the former. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 196, Verse 2) (vi) Arjuna conquered Kasi. (Adi Parva, Chapter 122, Verse 40). (vii) Sri Krsna conquered KasI. (Drona Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 15). (viii) Karna once conquered Kasi on behalf of Duryodhana. ( Karna Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 19). (ix) Kasi had been ruled by the Kings called Haryasva. Sudeva, and Divodasa. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 30,
.

to a statement in that passage, we find that Kasyapa was the youngest brother of Marlci, Atri, Pulastya and others. This means that Kasyapa was the son of Brahma. Therefore there is nothing wrong in regarding him either as the son or as the grandson of Brahma. In the Puranas we find references to him in both ways. 2) Original Gotra or Clan. Mahabharata, Santi Parva, Chapter 297, verse 17 says that all living beings belong

(x) King Vrsadarbha and Uslnara had ruled over Kasi. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 9). (xi) Bhisma conquered KaJI during the Svayarhvara of Amba. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 44, Verse 38)
.

Verses 12 to 15).

Kasyapa gotra, Bhrgu gotra and Vasistha gotra and that all the other gotras came into existence subse-

to the four original

Gotras

the

gotra

of Angiras,

KASI

The horse sent out in connection with Yudhisthira's Asvamedha passed through Kib'i also. (Asvamedha Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 14). of the name Kas I see under Divodasa. ( xiii) For the origin
(xii)

II.

An

inhabitant-citizen-of Kasi.

KASI

A son of Kaviprajapati. (Anusasana Parva, III. Chapter 85, Verse 133). KASlKA. A famous charioteer on the Pandava side (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 171, Verse 15). KASISVARA TlRTHA. A sacred place on the banks of river Ambumati on the borders of Kuruksetra. A bath in the river redeems one from all sins and raises one to Brahmaloka. (Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 57) KASMlRA (KASMIRAKAM). A state in North India, Kasmlra was famous during the Mahabharata period also. Once Arjuna conquered this state (Sabha Parva, Chapter 27) People from the state had attended Yudhisthira's Rajasuya with many articles of presentation. Sri Krsna once defeated its ruler. (Drona Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 16). Parasurama also once defeated its ruler. (Drona Parva, Chapter 70, Verse 11).
.
.

Chapter 106, Verse 18).

(Bhisma Parva,

Kasyapa had 21 wives who were: Danu, Arista, Surasa. Khasa, Surabhi, Vinata, Tamra, Krodhavasa, Ira, Kadru, Muni, Puloma, Kalaka, Nata, Danayus, Simhika, Pradha, Visva, and Kapila. Of these, the 13 wives, Aditi, Dili, Kalaka, Danayus, Danu, Simhika, Krodha, Pradha, Viiva, Vinata, Kapila, Muni and Kadru, were the
Aditi, Dili,

quently. 3) Kasyapa's wives.

the first wife Aditi had 12 sons. These 12 sons namely Visnu, Sakra, Aryama, Dhata, Tvasfa, Pusa, Vivasvan, Savita, Mitra, Varuna, Arhsa and Bhaga are called Adityas (sons of Aditi). In the sixth Manvantara

Of these

daughters of Daksa.

these 12 Adityas belonged to the tribe known as Tusitas. (The present Manvantara is the seventh one). The 33 crores of Devas came into being from the twelve

The Daityas were born from Kasyapa's second wife Dili. The chief Daityas are Hiranyakasipu, Hiranyaksa
and Simhika.
them.
All the

Adityas.

other

Daityas were born from

KASMlRAMAI^DALAM. A particular
.

place in Kasmlra where once a conference of sages was held. (Vana Parva, Chapter 203) Besides all the prominent sages of North India, distinguished persons like Nahusa, Yayati, Asi and Kasyapa attended the conference. Rivers Jhelam and Chenab flow through this place, and it is a holy centre. Those who bathe here will become
like sages.

The Danavas were the children of Danu, another wife of Kasyapa. Dvimurdha, Sambara, Ayomukha, Sankusiras, Kapila, Sankara, Ekacakra, Mahabahu, Taraka,
citti

KASTORlGANDHl.

Another name

for

KASYA
KASYA
on

gandhl) or Satyavati, the mother of Vyasa. To know how she got this name, see under Satyavati. famous King of Kasi ; father of Amba, I. Ambika and Ambalika. He was also called Krodhaof Udyoga Parva, vasa. According to Chapter 171

Kali (Matsya-

A

KaSya's real
II.

name was Senabindu.
of

One

his

bed

of the great sages who visited Bhisma arrows. (Sand Parva, Chapter 47,

KASYAPA
1
)

Kratu
the

Chief among the Prajapatis. I. Katyapa Son or Grandson of Brahma ? It is impossible to give a definite answer to this question. In Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 65, we see that six spiritual sons Marlci, Angiras, Atri, Pulastya, Pujaha and

Verse 10).

were born

to

son of Marlci and that all living beings in the world took their origin from Kasyapa. According to
this statement,

Brahma. Kasyapa was born
the grandson of

Mahabala, Svarbhanu, Vrsaparva, Puloma, and Vipraare the famous Danavas. The other Danavas were the children of the people mentioned above. Another wife of Kasyapa, Surabhi gave birth to Aja, Ekapad, Ahirbuddhnya, Tvasta and Rudra and also theEkadasa Rudras namely: Hara, Bahurupa, Tryambaka, Aparajita, Vrsakapi, Sambhu, KapardI ,Raivata, Mrgavyadha, Sarpa, and KapalT. Vinata gave birth to Garuda and Kadru was the mother of the nagas. The Puranas proclaim that all living beings that we see in the world today, sprang from Kasyapa's offsprings by his different wives. (Valmiki Ramayana, Bala Kanda, Chapter 29; Visnu Purana. Part I,' Chapters 15-21; Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapters 16 and 65 and Agni Purana, Chapter 18). The ser4) Brahma taught Kasyapa cure for snake poison. pents (Nagas) were born to Kadru, one of the wives of Kasyapa. Once Kadru asked her children to hang down like hair from the tail of Uccaissravas. They refused to do so. Kadru became angry and cursed them that they would be burnt alive at Janamejaya's Sarpa After the curse, the Nagas Sattra (snake-sacrifice) became dangerously venomous. At this stage, Brahma
.

as

Kasyapa

is

Brahma.

taught Kasyapa the art of curing snake-poison to procect other creatures that might be bitten by the Nagas. Cure of snake-bite in this world dates from that time. (M.B. Adi Parva. Chapter 20)
.

KASYAPA
5)

I

397

KASYAPA

I

Kasy pa and Garuda. Garuda is a mighty son of Kasyapa by his wife Vinata. Vinata made a bet with her sister Kadru. Kadru won the bet. Vinata became

Kadru's maid-servant as a result of the bet. To be relieved of this bondage Vinata's son Garuda had to bring Amrta from Devaloka and give it to Kadru and her Naga-sons. Garuda agreed and flew up to Heaven to fetch Amrta. On the way, he visited his father Kasyapa who was performing penance on the Gandhamadana mountain. He asked his father to give him some food, as he was very hungry. Kasyapa told him the following story: "Long ago a sage named Vibhavasu lived near this place. He and his younger brother named Supratika began to

alone was not available. Kasyapa solved the problem by stealing a cow from Varuna's cattle-shed. Aditi and Surasa concealed it in the At'rama. Enraged at the theft of his cow, Varuna complained to Brahma. A curse was pronounced by Brahma and Varuna that as a punishment for stealing and hiding the cow, Kasyapa should be reborn as a cowherd and Aditi and Surasa should be reborn as the cowherd's wives. It was by this curse that Kasyapa, Aditi and Surasa were reborn

Vasudeva Devaki and Bhagavata, 4th Skandha).
as
7)

Rohim
to

respectively.

(Devi

Parasurama' s gift of land

Kasyapa.

Parasurama

quarrel over the sharing of their father's wealth. The elder brother transformed the younger brother into an elephant by a curse and the younger brother turned the elder into a ,tortoise by his curse. They are still living in yonder lake as elephant and tortoise and continue like enemies. If you eat both of them, you will be strong enough to fight against the Devas and get possession of Amrta for yourself." On hearing this, Garuda went to the lake and caught the elephant and tortoise in his claws and flew up into the sky. The mountains began to tremble and a whirlwind swept the Heavens when Garuda beat with his wings. He flew about here and there unable to find a convenient place to sit and enjoy his meal. On the way, his eye caught sight of a huge banyan tree spreading its branches far and wide, to a distance of 100 yojanas around it. When he perched on one of its branches with the elephant and tortoise, the branch broke and fell down. From that branch certain sages known as

performed a Yaga after exterminating all Ksatriya Kings. At that Yaga he gifted all the lands he had conquered till then to Kasyapa. In Mahabharata, Aranya Parva, Chapter 117, there is a reference to this
gift.

went round exterminated the Ksatriya Kings he performed a Yaga. At that Yaga he gave the whole earth as daksina to Kasyapa. After that, Kasyapa drove away Paras urama from the earth to the south. Taking pity on Parasurama, the ocean gave him the region known as "Surparaka". Kasyapa seized Surparaka also from Parasurama and gave it to
the

8) Kasyapa and Kerala.

world

eighteen

After times

Parai urama

and

Brahmanas. Parasurama went

to the forests after it. Later on, intermixture of castes took place in this region

and anarchy prevailed
sank

there. At one time, Surparaka into Patala (lower world) Kasyapa who saw this held the earth up, brought Ksatriyas from the north and made them rulers of the country. (M.B.

down

.

Santi Parva, Chapter 49)
to

.

be Kerala.

This "Surparaka"

is

believed

Balakhilyas were hanging with their heads downwards. So, to prevent them from falling to the ground, Garuda lifted it in his beak and began to fly up again. Unable to find a suitable spot where he could deposit the branch with the sages, Garuda returned to his father again. At the request of Kasyapa, the Balakhilyas went to the Himalayas. He showed Garuda a vast, snowclad mountain on which he could deposit the broken branch he was carrying. Garuda flew to that mountain and ate up the elephant and tortoise and thus gained strength to fight with the Devas for Amrta. After that

9) Other Details about Kasyapa. arrived at the place of Arjuna's birth (i) Kasyapa accompanied by other sages. (Mahabharata, Adi

Parva, Chapter 122)
(ii)

.

(M.B. Adi Parva, Chapters 29-31). 6) Other Birth of Kasyapa. In Caksusa Manvantara, the sage Sutapas performed a penance along with his wife Prsni for 12,000 years. Lord Visnu appeared to them and asked what boon they wished to ask. They prayed that the Lord should take birth as their son. Visnu
granted their prayer and was born as their In the next Manvantara (the period of Manu) Sutapas and Prgni were re-born and Aditi respectively. At that time also
son.

he proceeded to Heaven.

Kasyapa flourished in Brahma's assembly. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 11). (iii) Once there was a dispute between Virocana, the son of Prahlada and Sudhanva, the son of Aiigiras. It was Kasyapa who settled this dispute. (See the 5th Para under the word Arigiras). (iv) Once Kasyapa went on a pilgrimage in the company of Yudhisfhira. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter
85).
(v) Once Brahma gifted the entire earth to Kasyapa at a Yajna. BhurnidevI (Goddess of the earth) who was distressed at it, went to Patala and to

lament. At that time Kasyapa propitiated the goddess by his austere penance. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter
(vi)

began

Vaivasvata
as

was born
In

to

this birth,
.

Aditi. Surasa

Kasyapa Mahavisnu Aditi as Vamana. (See under Vamana). Kasyapa had many other wives besides
was one of those wives. (Bhagavata, 10th

Skandha ) It was this Kasyapa himself who was reborn as Vasudeva and Aditi became Devaki. Surasa was born as There is another reason for RohinT, another wife. Kasyapa and Aditi to take birth for the third time. Once Kasyapa had prepared to perform a Yaga. All arrangements were complete. But the sacrificial cow

and converted that portion of the sea into land. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 70, Verses 18 and 19). (vii ) When the war between Kauravas and Pandavas was in progress, Kasyapa approached Drona and wanted him to bring the battle to a close. (M.B. Drona Parva, -Chapter 190). (viii) Kasyapa was also present with other sages at
45) the time of Skanda's birth. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter
.

had given the entire earth to Kasyapa, Kasyapa drove away Parasurama from the earth. Parasurama then shot an arrow into the sea

114). After Paras urama

KASYAPA

II

398

KATVAKU
From the above facts it may be understood that Kanva was born as a prince, and that later on, he became a sage. Moreover, the Agni Purana says that Santurodha, the brother of Kanva's father, was the father of Dusyanta. According to that Kasyapa and Dusyanta were the

some pieces of advice to (ix) Kasyapa once gave Pururavas. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 73) of Santi Parva, in (x) In the 8th verse of Chapter 208 Mahabharata, we find that Kasyapa had another name
.

Aristaiiemi.

of to Bhisma, the story (xi) KaSyapa once related Mahavisnu's Varahavatara. (Incarnation as Boar). (M.B. S'finti Parva, Chapter 209, Verse 6). Bhasa Bharata says that gingelly seeds were first (xii) introduced into this world from sage Kasyapa's body. (M. B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 10) Kasyapa explained to Vrsadarbhi, the evil of (xiii) (M.B. Anusasana (presents) receiving pratigraha
.
.

sons of brothers, Kasyapa being that of the elder one. For the time being the above are the only reasonable inferences, and the truth has to be found out by further researches. But, one thing is certain according to the genealogy, that Kasyapa was born twenty generations
after

Parva, Chapter 93) Ka:'.yapa once spoke to ArundhatI about the (xiv) weakness of his body. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter
.

93, Verse 65)

.

had

(xv)

At another

stolen his

lotus.

Bharadvaja, Visvamitra and Jamadagni. M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 150). In Bhagavata we see that Kasyapa and other (xvii) were instrumental in bringing about the destrucsages tion of Yadu Vamsa. (For further details see under

innocent. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 94). In Bhasa Bharata it is said that Kasyapa was (xvi) one of the Sap ta Gurus (seven Preceptors) of Kubera. The other six Gurus were Vasistha, Atri, Gautama,

time, Agastya suspected that Kasyapa But Kasyapa swore that he was

KASYAPA

SAMBA).

KASYAPA
the

serpent. In Mahabharata, Adi Parva, that this serpent was present at Chapter 122, the time of Arjuna's birth.
II.

we read

A

I.

ed in the Puranas, and due to the close similarity in names in some Puranas the two names are used one for the other. There is, therefore, considerable difficulty in distinguishing the one from the other and unerringly

I) General.

Two sages Kasyapa and Kasyapa are mention-

(KATSVA).

The story is told in the 2nd Skandha of Devi Bhagavata and in the Adi Parva of Bharata that Taksaka set out to bite King Parlksit and Kasyapa to cure him of Taksaka's poison, but that Taksaka bribed Kasyapa off his mission to save the King. But, the story as such is unfounded. It was Kas"yapa and not Kasyapa whom Brahma had taught the science of the treatment and cure of poison (see under Kasyapa) and, therefore, it should be Kasyapa whom Taksaka bribed. 4) Kasyapa and Sakuntald. See under KA VA. 5). Kasyapa and Rsyasrhga. Father of Rsyasriiga was one Kasyapa; may be Kasyapa or Kasyapa. The greater possibility is for Kasyapa to be the father. (See under RSYASRftGA) After a Yajfta Visvakarman made a land-gift to 6). Kasyapa once. (See under KANVA) KASYAPA II. Priest of Vasudeva; this KaSyapa lived for years as a good friend of the Pandavas. He is considered to be a very distinguished ascetic. (Asvamedha Parva, Chapter 16). KASYAPA III. Son of Sage Kasyapa. This Kasyapa was member of Indra's assembly. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 7). He was present at the Yajna conducted by emperor
3).

Kasyapa.

Kasyapa and Takfaka.

.

.

.

.

hitting

he used to drink Kasyam (liquor) is not founded No Purana refers to him as a drunkard. The sage called Ka;' yapa was the foster father of Sakuntala. The statement that he was called Kasyapa as he was born in the dynasty of Kasyapa is also not correct. Kanva was not born in the dynasty of Kasyapa. The genealogy of Kasyapa is as follows: Genealogy. Descended from Visnu thus: Brahma 2). Candra Budha Pururavas Ayus Nahusa Atri Pravlra Pracinvan Yayati Puru Janamejaya Bahuvidha Vltabhaya Sundu Sarhyati Namasyu Rahovadi RaudrasVa - - Matinara Pritiratha Medhatithi Kanva (Kasyapa). was Kanva's father. Medhatithi (Santi Parva, According to the Agni Chapter 208, Verse 27) Purana a son called Kanva was born (Kasyapa) to Medhatithi, son of King Pritiratha of the Puru dynasty. But, nothing about the family matters of Kanva is mentioned therein. In the Mahabharata itself

original father of all living beings in the universe. He the grandson of is described, in most of the Puranas, as Brahma and the son of Marlci. He was the husband of the original or first mothers of living beings, called Dili and Aditi. The interpretation that he was called Kasyaas
facts.

upon the right person in certain contexts. There is a very ancient sage the first cause or the

pa on

IV. An Agni, the son of Kasyapa. Pancajanya born from the five Agnis, Kasyapa, Vasistha, Prana, Angiras and Cyavana, all of whom were sons of Kasyapa. (Vana Parva, Chapter 220). KASYAPA V. A haughty Vaisya once felled to the ground a brahmin youth called Kasyapa by hitting him with his chariot. (See under Indra, Para 38). KASYAPA VI. Sons of Kasyapa like Vibhandaka. Rajadharman, Visvavasu, Indra, Aditya and Vasu, other Devas and other living beings born in Kasyapa's dynasty all these are also called Kasyapas. KASYAPADVlPA (ISLAND). An island in the shape of a hare visible in the moon. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 6, Verse 55 ) KASYAPl. (Earth). The earth came to be known as Kasyapi as it had been given as a gift to Kas"yapa by Paras' urama. "The whole of the earth was given to Kasyapa and thus to be called Kasyapi". (Brahmanda Purana, it came

KASYAPA
was

Prthu.

.

KATHAKA. A

Chapter 89).

soldier

of Skanda.

(Sloka 67, Chapter

.

KATHASARITSAGARA. See under BRHATKATHA. KATHOPANISAD. See under NACIKETAS. KATVAKU (KHATVAKU) A son of Vaivasvata Manu.
.

45, Salya Parva).

Brahmanda Purana
Iksvaku. In the beginning

states

that he

was an ancestor of

the

name Kas"yapa

is

often

used instead

of Kanva.

Manu, named Kafvaku. He was

alias

the

first

Vaivasvata, had a son of kings and he ruled

KATYAYANA
the world for a long time. On the banks of the river Sarayu he constructed a city called Ayodhya. Ayodhya was celebrated for its beauty and wise men proclaimed that it was more beautiful than the cities of the eight guards of the universe or the city of even Brahma, the Creator.

399

KAURAVA(S)
Bharata Pratica Rksa Devatithi Cakroddhata Santanu. Santanu had two wives Ganga and Satyavati. Bhisma was born of Ganga. Vyasa was born to SatyaParasara. vati before her marriage, from the hermit After the marriage, from Santanu, two sons Citrangada and Vicitravirya were born to her. A Gandharva killed Citrangada. Bhisma brought the three daughters of the King of Kasi, Amba, Ambika and Ambalika. as wives of Vicitravirya, but on the way knowing that Amba was was sent back. in love with the King of Salva, she Ambika and Ambalika became the wives of Vicitravirya. Shortly Vicitravirya also died. With a view to continue the royal family, Satyavati sent for Vyasa, so that he might beget children of Ambika and Ambalika. At

KATYAYANA
"Dharma

I. A grammarian who wrote a commentary on Panini's grammatical work entitled Astadhyayi. He has also written Srauta Sutras and a book on

KATYAYANA.

Sastra".
II.

KATYAYANA.

III. flourished in great sage who Indra's assembly. We see a reference to him in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 7, Verse 19). KATYAYANl. One of the two wives of Yajnavalkya. After withdrawing completely from worldly activities, Yajnavalkya asked his wives to divide his worldly assets equally between them. But MaitreyT the other wife, being of a deeply spiritual nature, KatyayanI herself had to undertake the burden of all the material affairs. (Brha-

yana" was another name of Vararuci.

Kathasaritsagara says

that "Katya-

A

KAUKUHAKA. An

daranyakopanisad)

.

ancient country in South India. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 60) KAUKULIKA. An attendant of Skandadeva. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 15). KAUMODAKl. The club of Sri Krsna. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 224, Stanza 23,
.

the time of coition Ambika closed her eys to avoid seeing the uncouth face of Vyasa. So she got as son Dhrtarastra who was blind from birth. Seeing the ugly figure of Vyasa Ambalika turned pale and so the son born to her was pale in colour. He was called Pandu. From Dhrtarastra, Duryodhana and his brothers were born and from Pandu were born the Pandavas. All members born in the family of Kuru were known as Kauravas. But later, the sons of Dhrtarastra came to be known by the name 'Kauiavas'. 2) The origin of Kauravas. (Duryodhana and his brothers) Dhrtarastra married Gandhari the daughter of Subala the King of Gandhara. Once Vyasa reached the
.

that this club was given to Sri Krsna by Varuna the god of water, at the time of the burning of the forest

KAUNAPA. A

Khandava.

serpent born in the family of Vasuki. This serpent was burnt to death in the Sarpa Sattra (sacrificial fire to kill serpents) of Janamejaya. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Stanza 6). KAUNAPASANA. A famous serpent born in the family of Kaurava. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 35, Stanza 14). KAUNDINYA I. See under Mitrabheda. KAUND1NYA II. A hermit who lived in the Palace of Yudhisthira. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Stanza 16). See under Dhrstabuddhi. KAUNDINYA III. A hermit. This hermit had erected his hermitage in Hastimatlsabhramatlsangama and lived there. Once due to excess of rain the river flooded and his hermitage was washed away. So the hermit cursed the river. "Let the river be dried up". Then he went to the realm of Vaikuntha. (Padma Purana, Uttara Khanda, Chapter 145). KAWIKUTSYA. A noble Brahmin. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 8, Stanza 25, that
this

palace weary with hunger and thirst. Gandhari gave Vyasa food and drink. Vyasa was pleased with her and told her that she might ask for any boon. She said that she wanted to get hundred sons from Dhrtarastra. Vyasa granted the boon. Gandhari became pregnant. Even after two years she did not deliver. She heard that KuntI, the wife of Pandu had given birth to a child. Gandhari became sad. She crushed her womb and gave birth to a lump of flesh. Understanding this, Vyasa came there and cutting the lump into hundred and one pieces kept them in ghee-pots. Advising Gandhari to keep the pots in secret, Vyasa went to the Himalayas. The pots were broken at the proper time and hundred sons and a daughter came out. Besides them Dhrtarastra had another son named Yuyutsu by a Vaisya woman. The hundred and one sons of Dhrtarastra beginning with Duryodhana are the Kauravas. 3 ) Names of the Kauravas. Duryodhana, Dussasana, Dussaha. Dussala, Jalagandha, Sama, Saha, Vinda, Anuvinda, Durdharsa, Subahu, Duspradharsana, Durmarsana, Durmukha, Duskarna, Karna,

Brahmin

visited

Pramadvara who died of snakeThose who were born
:

KAURAVA (S)
1)

bite.

.

King Kuru. Descended in the Brahma Atri Candra following order from Visnu Budha Pururavas Ayus -Nahusa Yayati Puru Pravira Namasyu VltabhJanamejaya Pracinvan Rahovadl Raudaya Sundu Bahuvidha Samyati
Santurodha Dusyanta Bharata Gala Garda Suketu Brhatksetra Hasti Ajamidha Rksa Sarhvarana Kuru. This is the genealogy of Kuru. From Kuru the geneaViduralogy continues as follows Jahnu Suratha
ras"va

General Information. family of the famous

in the

Matiniira

Suhotra

Suhota

:

tha

Sarvabhauma

Jayatsena

Ravaya

Bhavuka

Vikarna, Sala, Sattva, Sulocana, Citra, Upacitra, Citraksa, Carucitra, Sarasana, Durmada, Durvigaha, Vivitsu, Vikatanana, Urnanabha, Sunabha, Nanda, Upananda, Citrabana, Citravarma, Suvarma, Durvimrca, Ayobahu, Mahabahu, Citranga, Citrakundala,, Bhlmavega, Bhimabala, Valaki, Balavardhana, Ugrayudha, Susena, Kundadhara, Mahodara, Citrayudha, NisangI, PasI, Drdhavarma, Drdhaksatra, Somakirti, Vrndaraka, Anudara, Drdhasandha, Jarasandha, Satyasandha, Sadasuvak, Ugra^ravas, Ugrasena, SenanI, DusparaVisalaksa, Duradhara, jaya, Aparajita, Kundasayl, Drdhahasta, Suhasta, Vatavega, Suvarcas, Adityaketu, Krathana BahvasI, Nagadatta, Ugrasayi, Kavaci, Kundi, Bhimavikrama, Dhanurdhara, Vlrabahu, Alo,lupa, Abhaya Drdhakarman, Drdharathasraya, Anadhrsya, Kundabhedl, Viravi, Citrakundala, Pramatha,
;

KAURAVYA

400

KAUSIKA VI
Brahmin sat under a tree and performed penance. A small crane which sat on a branch of the tree passed excreta on the head of the Brahmin. He became angry and looked at the bird. Instantly the bird was reduced to ashes. The Brahmin sincerely repented and went to the countryside to live on alms. Once he reached the house of a Brahmin. The wife of the Brahmin came to the door and requested him to wait a bit. Immediately her husband arrived, and she, being engaged in looking after the needs of her husband forgot the Brahmin Kausika, who became angry and spoke cruel words to her. She argued that the noblest deed was looking after one's husband and that it was not meet and right for Brahmins to get angry. She advised Kausika to go to Mithilapuri and to receive advice from the famous Dharmavyadha. Kausika repented his rash nature, went to Dharmavyadha and received advice from him. He returned home and lived peacefully with his parents.
following reason. While he was engaged in penance in the forest some thieves came by that way with some stolen goods. The owners of the goods were chasing the thieves. Kausika told them the way by which the thieves had gone. So at the end Kausika was thrown
for

Apramathin, Dirgharoman, Suviryavan, Dirghabahu, Suvarma, Kancanadhvaja, Kundaiin, Virajas, and Yuyutsu. Dusiala (daughter). (Mahabharata. Adi Parva, Chapters 67 and 117). (For further details about the Kauravas see under Duryodhana and Dugiasana) KAURAVYA. A noble serpent which was born of Airavata. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 218, Stanza 18). KAUSALA (KAUSALA). Skandadeva once changed the shape of his face to that of the face of goat. Then he got the name Kausala. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 228, Stanza I). KAUSALYA I. A queen of King Dasaratha and mother of Sri Rama. Dasaratha had three wives Kausalya, Kaikeyl and Sumitra. Kausalya gave birth to Sri Rama, Kaikeyi to Bharata and Sumitra to Laksmana and Satrughna. (Valmlki Ramayana, Bfila Kanda, Sarga
.

II. Queen of the King of Kasi. Amba, Ambika, and Ambalika were daughters of this Kausalya. Of these daughters Ambalika also was called Kausalya. After the death of Pandu she went to the forest with Ambika. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 129) KAUSALYA III. The queen of a Yadava King. She was the mother of the Yadava named Keg in. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 9) KAUSALYA IV. Wife of Puru, the son of King Yayati. Janamejaya was born to Puru of his wife Kausalya. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 95, Stanza 11). KAUSALYA V. The queen of Janaka, the King of Mithila. Once King Janaka decided to sell his palace and everything he possessed and to goabeggingfor alms. But his brave wife Kausalya convinced her husband by her reasonable arguments that he should not venture to do so. Thus she prevented her husband from carrying
.
.

KAUSALYA

16).

(M.B. Vana Parva, ten chapters from 206). Though a man of veracity, he finally had to go
the

to hell,

KAUSlKA

into hell. (M.B.

KAUSlKA VI. A

KAUSALYA. A
disciples of

out his decision.

KAUSAMBl.

teacher, who belonged to the line of Vyasa. Jaimini was the disciple of Vyasa. Sumantu was the son of Jaimini. A son named Sutva, was born to Sumantu. Sukarman was the son of Sutva. Sukarman had two disciples Hiranyanabha. and Pauspiftji. Kausalya was another name of Hiranyanabha. (Visnu Purana, Arhsa 3, Chapter 6).

Four sons, Kusamba, Kusanabha, Asurtarajas and Vasu were born to Kusa, the son of Brahma, of his wife the princess of Vidarbha. According to the order of their father each prince built a city and began
to rule

See under Visvamitra. hermit who lived in the palace of Yudhisthira. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 83, that while going to Hastinapura, Sri Krsna met this hermit on the way. KAUSlKA III. A minister of Jarasandha. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Stanza 22, that he had another name Hamsa also. KAUSlKA IV. While the Pandavas were leading forest of a noble life, the hermit Markandeya told the story
I.

KAUSlKA KAUSlKA

city built by Kusamba. Mahodayapura Asurtarajas, the city of Dharmaranya and Vasu the city of Girivraja. (Valmlki Ramayana, Bala Kanda, Sarga 32) It is mentioned in Kathasaritsagara that the city of Kausambi stood in the middle of the kingdom of Vatsa and that Udayana born of the family of the Pandavas had once ruled this country with Kausambi as his capital.

over

it.

Kausambiis the

KuSanabha

built the city of

;

.

Pifuna, Kavi, Vagdusta, and Pitrvarttl lived with hermit Garga for learning under him. Their names indicated their character. Their father died. The sons were in poverty. At this time rain ceased altogether. Garga asked his disciples to take his milch cow to the forest for grazing. Owing to hunger the brothers decided to kill and eat the cow. But the youngest said: ''If you are bent on killing the cow, we had better make use of it as an offering to the Manes, and no sin will visit us." All agreed to this and Pitrvarttl killed the cow and began the sacrifice. Two elder brothers were employed in worshipping the gods and three were detailed to give offerings to the manes. One was asked to be the guest. Pitrvarttl was the sacrificer. Remembering the ancestors with reverence he began the sacrifice in accordance with the rites. Thus the seven hermits ate the cow and told Garga that the cow was caught by a
tiger.'

hermit. This ancient hermit lived in Kuruksetra. His sons Svasrpa, Krodhana, Hirhsra,

was and Grtsapati was his brother. The four castes Brahmana, Ksatriya, Vaisya and Sudra originated from Grtsapati. (Agni Purana, Chapter 278)
V.
his father
.

Kama Parva, Chapter 69). A King of the Puru dynasty. Kapila

(Visvamitra)

.

II.

A

In due course the seven of them died, and took rebirth as rude low-caste people in Daf'apura. Because of the Manes they had the sacrifice and offerings to the remembrance of their previous birth. So they feared god and took fast and vow at a holy bath and in the presence of a multitude cast off their lives and were

born again

lives by Prapatana (jumping down from the top of the mountain) and were born again as Ruddy geese, in the Manasasaras whentheir names were Sumanas, Kusuma, Vasu, CitradarsI, Sudam, Jiiata and Jnanaparaga

as animals in Kalanjara hills. Because of their abstinence due to knowledge they cast off their

Brahmin named Kausika,

to

Dharmaputra. Once

this

names conforming to their character. The seven brothers became pure and sinless by their union with God the

KAUSlKA VI

401

KAUTSA
of wealth and villages and sent him away contented. After anointing his son Visvaksena as King, Brahmadatta and his retinue went to Manasasaras for penance. For a while they lived in the forest engaged in penance and then cast off their lives and entered the world of Supreme bliss. (Padma Purana, Part 3, Chapter 10).

Supreme Spirit. But three of them fell out of the union because of their desire. They saw the pleasurable life led by Anuha the King of Pancala who was immensely wealthy with many beautiful wives. At the sight of this,
one of the geese

Pundarika and Subalaka. Brahmadatta was anointed as King of Pancala in the great city of Kampilya. That King was mighty, loving his father well, always desirous of giving offerings to Manes and harmonious with God, having the ability to read the hearts of every living being. He married Sannati the daughter of Sudeva. This woman in her previous birth was the cow of Garga. As this cow was used as offering to the Manes
she got rebirth as a religious-minded woman and became the queen of Brahmadatta, who ruled over the kingdom well for a long time. Once the King and the queen were walking in the

the Brahmin Pitrvartti, who performed the sacrifice of offering to the Manes because of his love wished to become a king. Seeing the two for his father wealthy ministers who led luxurious lives, two of the ruddy geese wanted to become ministers. Accordingly Pitrvartti was born as Brahmadatta the son of Vaibhraja and the other two as sons of ministers with names

KAUSIKAVII. A
transfiguration

garden when they saw two ants which were quarrelling with each other. They were husband and wife. After a time the quarrel ended and they grew more loving than before and the she-ant pressed closely against her husband. Brahmadatta hearing their conversation stood smiling. He could understand the language of every living being because of the merits of his previous births. When the King smiled his wife asked him for the readescribed to his wife the quarrel of the antcouple. The queen did not believe his words. She thought that the King had been making fun of her. She asked him how he learned the language of birds and beasts. But the King could not give an answer and he became thoughtful. The remaining four of the ruddy geese took rebirth as the sons of a poor Brahmin in the same city of Kampilya. They had the remembrance of previous births. Their names were Dhrtiman, Sarvason.
darsi, Vidyacandra and Tapodhika, names befitting their character. They decided to perform severe penance to attain

worship Lord Siva and he was liberated from the (Skanda Purana). KAUSlKA. (GOMATl). A river. The hermitage of Visvamitra stood on the bank of this river. The modern name of river Kaus ika is Kosi. The river KosT flows through Bihar. Those who bathe in this river will obtain remission of sins. See under Gomatl. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 84). KAUSlKACARYA. The king Akrti. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 21, that this King ruled over Saurastra and was known also by the name
to

Knowing this Tamracuda the king of fowls "You shall become a cock during nights." That is why your husband has become a cock." According to the advice of the hermit the King began
cursed him.
strength.
curse.

She in the night. Galava who told the queen about the previous birth of her husband as follows "In the previous birth he used to eat cocks to get
of her husband
told her grief to the hermit
:

King. This king became a cock at His wife Visala was filled with grief at this night.

KAUSlKAKUNDA. A

Kausikacarya.

holy place. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Stanza 142

He

KAUSlKASRAMA. A holy
Stanza 27)
.

that ViSvamitra got his attainments in this place. place. It was at this place that Amba, the daughter of King of Kas I performed a severe penance. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 156,

KAUSlKYARUtfASA&GAMA. A
in

confluence of Kausiki and Aruna rivers he will be absolved of all his sins. KAUSTUBHA. A brilliant precious stone. It is mention,
fasts in this place, the

man

Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 84 that

holy place.

It is stated
if

a

the following poem and advised him to recite the poem before the King the next morning, in order to get plenty of wealth.

Supreme bliss, and were about to get away from the house when, their father, the poor Brahmin cried bitterly, being helpless. They taught their father

"Noble Brahmins

in

Kuruksetra

The
Deer

seven foresters in Dasapura
in

Ruddy geese, the same now are men." Brahmadatta who was not able to give answer to the question of his wife, was about to go out from the palace for a walk with his wife and ministers, when the old brahmin made his appearance and recited the poem taught by his sons, to the King. When the King heard the stanza he remembered the previous births and fainted and fell down. The two ministers, Subalaka son of Babhravya the author of the science of love and Pundarika son of Pancala the author of the science of medicine and treatment, also remembered about their previous births and fell down with grief. The three of them lamented about their fall from the union with the Supreme Spirit. Brahmadatta gave that old Brahmin plenty

Kalanjara and in Manasa

Valmiki Ramayana ed in Agni Purana, Chapter 3 Balakanda Sarga 45, Stanza 39 and Mahabharata, Adi Parva that this precious stone floated up at the time of the churning of the sea of Milk. This jewel which originated from the ghee in the sea of Milk, was worn on the breast by Visnu. "This divine jewel called Kaustubha came up in the middle of ghee and stayed in the breast of Visnu, (M.B. Adi Parva, spreading its rays everywhere." Chapter 18, Stanza 37) KAUTHUMI. Son of a Brahmin named Hiranyanabha. Once this Brahmin youth went to the hermitage of King Janaka and entered into a controversy with the Brahmins there. In the argument Kauthumi became angry and killed a Brahmin. From that day he became a leper. The sin of Brahmahatya (murder of Brahmin) also followed him. Finally according to the advice of his father he worshipped the sun God, with Sravyasamjnakasukta (a spell or incantation) and by the blessing of the Sun God he got deliverance from the sin of Brahmahatya and the disease of leprosy. (Bhavisya Purana, Brahma Parva) KAUTILYA. See under Canakya. KAUTSA. A noble Brahmin scholar. He was present at
; .
.

the sarpa-sattra (sacrificial

fire

to

kill

serpents)

of

KAUTSYA KAUTSYA (KAUTSA). A

402

KAYASODHANAT IRTHA
sacrificial fire at the famous Yaga of Brahma. Of them Brahma made Kavi his own son. This Kavi had eight sons known as the Varunas. One of them was named Kavi and another was named Kavya.

Janamejaya. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 53, Stanza 6). hermit who was the disciple of Varatantu. When he had completed his education he asked his teacher what gift he desired. The teacher said that he wanted fourteen crores of gold coins as the emperor Raghu. The gift. Kautsya approached had just finished a sacrifice called Visvajit and emperor had emptied his treasury by giving away all the wealth he had as alms. Only pots made of wood were left as his wealth. When the emperor heard about the need of Kautsya he decided to conquer the capital city of Kubera. That night Kubera filled the treasury of Raghu by a shower of gold. The emperor Raghu gave Kautsya fourteen crores of gold coins. (Raghuvarhsa). KAVACA. A sage in the assembly of Indra. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 7) He was one of the sages of
.

KAVI

V. Rgveda, 1st Mandala, I7th Anuvaka. Sukta refers to a blind sage named Kavi.

116th

KAVIRAjA.

A Sanskrit poet who lived in India in the 12th Century A. D. His chief works are "RaghavapandaHis real name was vlya" and "Parijataharana".
Madhavabhatta.

KAVISA. A sage. There was a person named Kavisa among the sages who came to visit Sri Rama when he returned after his life in the forest. The sages who
came
there from the

western country were,

Vrsaiigu,

Kavisa, Saubhari,

Dhaumya, Raudreya,
Astfivakra,

Suka,

the western

Narada, Vamadeva, Bhrgu, LomaSa, and
.

part.

(M.B.

Santi

Parva,

KAVACI.
Parva,

One of the sons of Dhrtarastra. (M.B. Adi In Mahabharata, Chapter 67, Verse 103). Karna Parva, Chapter 84, it is said that he was killed by Bhimasena. KAVERI. A holy river in South India. Famous sacred
places like Sriranga and Kumbhakona are on its banks. of the river lives in Varuna's assembly worshipping him. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 20) The Skanda Purana has the following story as to how Kaveri came down to earth Once Agastya propitiated Siva at Kailasa and sought the boon of some water for him to found a sacred place on earth. At the same time Kaveri also was worshipping Siva. Siva filled Agastya's bowl with Kaveri water. Agastya, on his way back from Kailasa cursed the Raksasa called Kraunca and kicked the Vindhya mountain down. (See under Agastya). After overcoming various difficulties Agastya at last reached South India. He sat in meditation with the bowl of Kaveri water before him, and then, at the request of Indra, Ganapati, in the guise of a crow came and sat on the brink of the bowl and upset it. The water in the bowl flowed as a river, and that river is the

Verse 30).

Chapter 208,

The Devi

Maudgalya. (U ttara Ramayana ) KAVYA. Son of Kavi, one of the Prajapatis. (AnuSasana Parva, Chapter 85) Also, a synonym of Sukra. KAVYA (M). Agni Purana, Chapters 390 to 400 contain a discussion on poetry, which is the basis for literary criticism in India. The above discussion in Agni Purana, comprehends the forms and features of poetry, rasa (sentiment), style, the art of acting and to poetry and the drama, and other matters related
.

.

KAVYAMATA.
Daityas.
is
1

art.

:

present Kaveri. (Asurakanda, Skanda Purana). KAVI. I. A son of Vaivasvata Manu. Vivasvanwas the son of Kasyapa and Aditi. Vaivasvata Manu was the son of Vivasvan. Manu had sixteen sons who were

Manu, Yama, Yami, Asvimkumaras, Revanta, Sudyumna, Iksvaku, Nrga, Saryati, Dista, Dhrsta, Karusa, Narisyanta, Nabhaga, Prsadhra and Kavi. KAVI II. There is a reference to a sage named Kavi who was the son of the sage Bhrgu, in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 42,. He was among the sages who stole the lotus of Agastya. (M.B. Anusasana

KAVI
also

Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 32) III. An agni who was the fifth son of Brhaspati, This agni is situated in the sea in the is named Kavi. form of Badavagni. This agni has two other names
.

Udaha and Urddhvabhak.
Verse 20).
85,

(M.B. Vana Parva,

Chapter 2 19, KAVI IV. In 132j Chapter Kavi, Bhrgu

attacked the Asuras, who ran up to Kavyamata for succour, and she, by one glance, sent the Devas to long sleep. She reduced Visnu and Indra also to a state of paralysis. Then Visnu meditated upon the Sudars ana Cakra, which arrived immediately and with the Cakra he cut off Kavyamata's head. Sage Bhrgu then appeared on the scene and brought back Kavyamata to life, and she, in furious rage cursed that Visnu should take many births. As a result of the curse Mahavisnu had to incarnate himself on earth many times. (Devi Bhagavata, 4th Skandha) A group of Pit r s. The Devi (S). Bhagavata, Skandhas 11 and 15 state that this group of Pi^rs were born from the drops of sweat which came out of the bodies of Daksa and others when they were fascinated by the charm of Sandhya, the spiritual daughter of Brahma. KAYADHU. Wife of Hiranyakasipu. Prahlada was
.

Visnu and Indra powerless. Once a fierce war was fought by the Devas and the Asuras in which the latter got defeated, and they sought the help of Sukracarya. But, as the Devas enjoyed the support of Visnu, Sukra could not do anything for the asuras, and he therefore advised them to get on somehow or other for some time. After that Sukra went to Kailasa and performed penance, hanging head downwards, for a thousand years to secure rare and exceptional mantras. During this period the Devas again

of penance. In the Devi Bhagavata the following story given; how she cursed Visnu and how she made

Mother of Sukra, the preceptor of the Kavyamata possessed extraordinary powers

KAVYAVAHA

Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva, Verse

born

to her.

we

find

that three

and Angiras

persons, namely, took their birth from the

KAYASODHANAT IRTHA. A
ksetra.

holy place

in

KuruParva,

According

to

Mahabharata,

Vana

i Sukra is also known as Kavya. Certain Puranas claim Sukra as the son (if Bhrgu, while certain others refer to him as the son of Kavi son of Bhrgu. Puloma was Bhrgu's wife. But, the Puranas call the mother of Sukra Kavyamata. No mention is made about the wife of Kavi the son of Bhrgu. Puloma and Kavvamata are different persons. Therefore, Sukra might be the son of Bhrgu hy another wife, or he might be the son of Kavi.

KAYAVYA
KAYAVYA. A
would be
Chapter 86, by taking a bath at
purified.
this

403
place
the

KERALA
west of Western Ghats had a very ancient history and civilization of its own. 2) Origin of Kerala. There are two statements, slightly
different

body

Candala. He was born to a Candala woman as the son of a Ksatriya. But the Candalas who were impressed by Kayavya's moral conduct, made him the headman of the village. He taught
others that all people should honour Brahmanas and love their country. His political creed was that those who prospered by the ruin of a country were just like the worms living on a dead body. (M.B. Santi Parva,

from each other,

in

the

Puranas, about the

KEDARA. A
It is

Chapter 135).
mentioned
holy place in the
in

interior

of Kuruksetra.

KEKARALOHITA. A

Lingas consecrated Kedara.

Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter would 83, that those who bathe in this holy Bath obtain the fruits of good actions. One of the twelve
in

important

places,

is

in

great serpent which once took sage Cyavana to Patala. Cyavana, after worshipping Siva at Nakulesvara tirtha got into river Narmada to take his bath when the naga called Kekaralohita caught hold of him, dragged him and bit him. As the sage meditated upon Visnu the poison did not affect him. The serpent released him from Patala as he was unaffected by poison. Cyavana went to the palace of Prahlada accompanied by naga damsels. On the request of Prahlada Cyavana described to him the

holy places on earth, and without any delay Prahlada came to earth for hunting during which sojourn on earth he visited Naimisaranya. (Vamana Purana,

KEKAYA. The

Mahabharata mentions another Kekaya, He wedded two Malava whom were born Kicaka and Upakicaka, and from the younger was born Sudesna, also called Kaikeyi. This Sudesna married
a King of the solar dynasty. princesses from the elder of

Chapter

8)

.

the funeral ceremony of the sons 1 ( ) For performing of Sagara whose ashes wdre lying in Patala (Nether world), Bhagiratha performed penance and brought the heavenly river Ganga to the earth. (See under The river fell in North India and flowed in Ganga) torrents to the sea and the surrounding regions were submerged in water. Among the places submerged, there was the important holy place and Bath of Gokarna also, lying on the west coast of India. Those hermits who lived in the vicinity of the temple at Gokarna, escaped from the flood and went to Mahendragiri and informed Parasurama of the calamity of the flood. Paras' urama went with them to the sea-shore. Varuna did not make his appearance. The angry ParaSurama stood in deep meditation for a little while. The weapons came to his hands. Varuna was filled with fear and he instantly appeared before Paras urama, who asked him to release the land swallowed by the sea. Varuna agreed. Parasurama sent his bow and arrow back to the sky. Then he took a winnowing basket (Surpa) and threw it at the sea. The sea retreated from the place up to the spot where the winnowing basket fell, and the portion of land including Gokarna which had been swallowed by sea was recovered. This land is called Kerala, which is known by the name 'Siirparaka' also. (Brahmanda Purana,
.

origin of Kerala.

Chapters 98 and 99).

KEKAYA(M). A Kingdom General.
1 )

Matsya, the Virata King. text, Chapter 16).
of Dasaratha's wives,

(Virata Parva,

Southern

was a daughter of a
got the
:

in ancient India. Kaikeyi,

one

Kekaya
as
it

King.
2
)

was ruled by King Kekaya. His genealogy is as follows. Descended from Visnu_thus Brahma Atri Candra Budha Pururavas Ayus Nahusa AnudYayati USInara ruhyu Sabhanara Kalanara Srnjaya Sibi Kekaya. Sibi had four sons called Bhadra, Suvlra, Kekaya and Vrsadarpa. (Bhagavata 9th Skandha) Other details. (1 ) The King and the people of Kekaya were called the Kekayas. (2) Five heroic Kekaya princes met with their death in fighting Drona. (Strl Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 25) (3) Two Kekaya Princes, Vinda and Anuvinda fought on the Kaurava side. (Kama Parva, Chapter 13). KERAKA. People of an ancient country in South India. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Sabhaparva, Chapter 3 1 that Sahadeva the son of Madri conquered the Kerakas and Kerala.
.
.

Origin.

The country

name 'Kekaya'

Parasurama went round the world eighteen (2) times and killed all the Ksatriya Kings. After that he performed the sacrifice of Asvamedha (horse sacrifice) In the sacrifice he gave all the lands as alms to Brahmins. KaSyapa received all the lands for the Brahmins. After that he requested Parasurama to vacate the land. Accordingly Parasurama created new land by shooting an arrow at the sea, for his own use. "At the words of Kasyapa, he made the sea retreat by shooting an arrow, thereby creating dry land." This land was Kerala. (M.B. Drona Parva,
.

Chapter 70)'

3 ) Kerala and Patala The ancient (Nether world) worlds into sages of the Puranas have grouped the three, the Svarga (heaven), Bhumi (the earth) and the Patala ( the nether world) The three worlds taken as a whole were divided into fourteen worlds. It does not appear that this grouping was merely imaginary. keen observation of the Puranas would lead one to infer that the Himalayan plateau was considered as Devaloka-Svarga (heaven), the planes between the Himalaya and the Vindhya as Bhuloka (the earth) and the regions to the south of the Vindhya as Patala (the nether world), by the ancient people of India. The seven worlds of Patala such as Atala, Vitala,
. .

A

KERALA.
1)

Sutala, Talatala, Mahatala, Rasatala and Patala might have been seven countries in this region. The following description which occurs in Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 8,

small country lying in the south-west corner of India. From the Puranas it could be understood that this country lying to the south of Gokarna upto Cape Comorin and to the

General information.

A

would substantiate

this inference.

"Patala is below the earth. This Patala is a group of seven worlds one below the other, with names, Atala, Vitala, Sutala, Talatala, Rasatala and Mahatala. In
all

those worlds, there are

several

beautiful

cities

and

KERALA
houses, palaces and castles, parks, gardens, open temples and halls, natural arbours etc. made by Maya. There live the Asuras, the Danavas (a class of Asuras-demons) the nagas (serpents) and others, with their families, with happiness and comfort. Chirping birds, pigeons, parrots, docile parrots etc. always play there with their

404

KERALA
of Turvasu the brother of Yadu, and that from Gandhara were born the powerful families of theGandharas the Keralas, the Colas, the Pandyas and the Kolas. (5) In Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 175, it is mentioned that the people of Kerala were considered as barbarians by the North Indians. (6) In Bhagavata, Skandha 10, it is mentioned that the Kings of Cola, Pandya and Kerala, from South India, had reached the capital city of Vidarbha to take part in the Svayamvara (marriage) of Rukmini.

inseparable mates. Trees bearing sweet fruits, plants covered with fragrant flowers, arbours with creepers growing thick, beautiful houses floored with white marble, and so many other things giving pleasure and comfort are seen there in plenty. In these things the Patala surpasses heaven. Daityas, Danavas and the Nagas (the Asuras and the serpents) are the dwellers of these worlds. They lead a happy and pleasant life with their families enjoying all sorts of comfort and luxury." Patala, one of the seven divisions of the world is described as follows "This is the region of the Nagas (the serpents). At the root-place of this region there is a particular place having an area of thirty thousand yojanas. Visnu Kala who has the attribute of 'tamasa' (darkness) lives there under the name 'Ananta'. The real Ananta or Adisesa is the radiant embodiment of this Kala. The daughters of the Naga Kings are of fair complexion and very beautiful, with clean body. They use perfumeries such as sandalwood, aloewood, saffron, etc." In this description, the words Daityas, Nagas, Ananta, Sandalwood, aloewood etc. and the mention of natural beauty should be paid particular attention to. From the Ramayana we can understand that the Aryas referred to the Dravidas as Asuras, Raksasas (Giants) etc. History says that the Nagas were the early inhabitants of Kerala. The ancient -word 'Ananta' denotes Trivandrum (Tiru-Ananta-puram ) The temple of Sri
: .

(7) Mention is made in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 254, Stanza 15, that in his conquest of the countries, Karna had conquered Kerala also. (8) It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 31, that Sahadeva, one of the Pandavas, conquered the Keralas and the Kerakas. It may be noted that the Kerakas are different from Keralas. (9) Valmiki mentions the countries which could be seen by the monkeys who were sent to the South by

Sugriva to search for Slta. Nadirh Godavarirh caiva

Sarvamevanupasyata Tathaivandhran ca Paundran ca Golan Pandyan ca Keralan. // "You could see the river Godavari and beyond it the and countries of Andhra, Paundra, Cola, Pandya Kerala." This is a proof of the primitiveness of Kerala. (10) The King of Kerala had given Yudhisthira, as presents, sandalwood, pearls, Lapis Lazuli etc. (M.B. Daksinatyapatha, Sabha Parva, Chapter 51). In several other Puranas also, mention about Kerala
/

occurs.

(cidar) etc. are the wealth of Kerala. On the whole the description of Patala fits well with that of Kerala. So it is not wrong to infer that the description of Patala in the Puranas is entirely about Kerala in all its
aspects. 4) The Primitiveness of Kerala.

Padmanabha at Trivandrum answers to this description. The perfumeries such as sandalwood, aloewood

From
be
its

Puranas given below it could Kerala had an independence of

Bhagavata, Skandha 3).
(2) part

ancient days. ( 1 ) Among the Kings who attended the Svayamvara (marriage) of Sasikala, the daughter of the King of Kasi, such as, the King of Kuru, King of Madra, King of Sindhu, King of Pancala, Kings of Karnataka, Cola and Vidarbha, there was the King of Kerala also. (Devi

the portions of ascertained that own from the very

describing the various places in the Southern of Bharata, names such as Dramida, Kerala, Musika, Karnataka etc. occur in the Mahabharata. So it is to be understood that when Vyasa wrote Bharata, there was the kingdom of Kerala and that it was separate from the country of Dravida. (M.B. Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 9) (3) "Kartavlryarjuna took his majestic seat in the midst of Cola, Kerala, Pandya and other Kings of the countries under the sea, who were standing round him to pay homage to him." (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter
.

When

The ancient administration of Kerala. Parimelazhakar, a Sanga poet who was a great expounder of "Tirukkural", has stated that from the beginning of the world the three kingdoms, Cera, Cola and Pandya had existed. Though there is a bit of exaggeration in this statement, there are enough proofs to say that a long time before the birth of Christ, Kerala was under a systematic rule. In 'Tolkappiyam' the first grammatical work in Tamil mention is made about the administration of Kerala. Megasthenes, a traveller of 4th century B.C. has stated about the rule of Kerala There were five councils called the Pancamahasabhas (the five great councils) to help the Cera Kings. It is stated that these councils were formed by the King Utiyan Cera of the Trkkana fort. Besides these five councils there was an advisory Committee, of which, the priest of the King, the Chief Minister, Chief of the spies and the Chief Revenue officer (Kaviti) were members. For convenience of administration the country was divided into tarakkuttas (groups of houses villages) and and Nattukkuttas (Districts group of villages). Taras were ruled by four elders (Karanavas ) Four ( villages ) of four. Four Nalvillages formed a Nalpadu (group) padus formed a Kazhaka (a division of the country with a chief temple within it) and four Kazhakas formed a
5)
: .

a King named

54). (4) It

is

mentioned in Agni Purana, Chapter 277, that Gandhara was born in the dynasty

Peruriikazhaka was Trkkala. The assembly hall of trkkutta is called Kottil. This hall was erected generally the temple. The chief officer of the temple beside of was the chairman of the trkkutfa (assembly the people) When a trkkutta is assembled, sixtyfour elders of the "taras", the"accas" (officers) of Kazhakas,

Perumkazhaka ( greater Kazhaka)
also

.

known

as

.

KERALA

405
gate of the temple or on the

KERALA
The
stage for performances. in the hands of the rights general assembly of the people called Nattukkutta and the council of the temple officials. When the Namboothiris became powerful they became members of the council. With this change the Kings and Koil adhikaris became puppets in the hands of the Namboothiris. In the Ramesvaram edict of M.E. 278 it is mentioned that

the sixtyfour Tandans and sixteen Nalpadies had to be present. The Nalpadies were the chiefs of four taras. The accas, who were the Presidents, had to come clad in variegated silk, with waist-band of long cloth and wearing a small sword (Churika). Till recently the Kazhakas of Andallur, Rampallya, Kurvantatta, Turutti etc., and so many Nalpadus and taras and the elders thereof had been retaining and enjoying titles and distinctions of rank. The Namboothiris (Brahmins) entered Kerala before the beginning of the Malayala Era. With that, changes took place in the administration of Kerala. Certain edicts help us to ascertain the changes that took place in the administration. The edict of Vazhappally of the 9th century by Rajasekhara is an important one in this connection. This emperor of the Ceras who is considered to be a contemporary of Sri Saiikaracarya had the title beginning with "Rajadhiraja Paramesvara Bhattaraka". (T.A.S. Vol. II, P. 8-14). The subject dealt with in the edict is the 'daily worship and settlement', in the temple of Tiruvottiyur. It is stated in this edict that the people of Vazhappally and the representatives of 18 Nadus or divisions had met in the temple and taken certain decisions. The next one is the Kottayam Copper edicts known as the 'Tarisa Church Edicts.' This is a document granting the Tarisa Church in Quilon, the adjoining lands and some other institutions. This edict was granted by Ayyanati tiruvatikal the ruler of the Natu (division) , for the Cera emperor. It is mentioned as ''including the Temple Officer Vijayarakatevar", which means that Vijayaraka had been present on the occasion of granting the edict, as the representative of Emperor Sthanuravi. The Naduvazhis (local chiefs or rulers of division) were not empowered to take decision in very important matters. Titles, rights distinctions of rank etc. were granted by a council of Chief minister,
Officers,

and authorities were

King

Ramavarma Kulasekhara was punished with
'hatred' of the Aryas.

retribution for his

Nambuthiris (Malayala Brahmins) became the landlords of the country.
6)

Finally

the

in small bushes,

The people af ancient Kerala. It is assumed that the of Kerala were Dravidas. But some historians have mentioned about the 'Pro to Dravidians and the Pre Dravidians. The hill tribes such as Kanikkars, Mutuvas, Mala Vetas, Pulayas, Kuravas, Malayatis, Nayatis, Malayarayas, Malappandaras, Malayuralis, Mutuvans Pullatis etc. are said to have belonged to this group. They worshipped several things such as stone, banyan tree, elenji tree, Asclapia tree, Nim tree Terminatia Bellarica, Borassus flabelliformis, cassia fistula, Ghosts, thunder, rain, the sun etc. They worshipped good ghosts for welfare, and bad ghosts to avoid misfortunes. They had images of Mata, Catta, Cavu, Maruta, Pettucavu, Arukula, Preta, Vazhipinakki, Ayiramilli, Parakkutti, Kattujati, Malavazhi, Marini, Mankattamma, Nayattu Pe Muniyappa, Vettakkaran and so on. They worshipped
ancient inhabitants

black magic such as cursing, giving poison in meals etc. These uncivilized people were very particular about cleanliness on the occasions of delivery, menstruation,

open grounds or houses. They

knew

death
flesh

(two Vijayarakatevar, the Koil adhikari, was the representative of the emperor at Mahodayapura. The supervising officials of temples were generally called the 'Koil adhikari'. Normally the younger brothers of the Kings were appointed in this rank.

Punnattalappati
.

and Polakkutippati

high

officials)

These temple-officers were helped

in their duties by the Division-rulers, people of the locality and the inferior officers in the temple. When the empire of Kulasekhara declined, the family of Perumpadappu got this position of 'Koil adhikari'. So the title 'Koil adhikari' is added to the names of the princes of

etc. They pleased bad ghosts by offering liquor, and blood, and good ghosts with milk, ghee, honey etc. They buried dead bodies with a little raw rice meant for food at the time of entering the other world. They had collective worship. They sang songs at the time of worship using some primitive musical instruments. For each village there were elders who were priests and rulers. They erected stone huts in the burial place and buried the dead inside these in graves. These graves were called 'Pandukuzhy'. The Oralis, continue the custom of posting two stones at either end of the grave. The custom of burial prevailed more than

Cochin.

Another one is the Mampally Edicts. This is a deed of granting some lands free to the temple of Airur, in the name of Adiccan Umayamma of Trkkalayapuram, by Venattu Sri Vallabhankota in M.E. 149. Even such an unimportant thing as the granting of free lands, had to be effected with the permission of Cera kings and their councils. (T.A.S. Vol IV, Page 9).

From

these edicts it is clear that the administration of the temples was carried out by representatives elected by people. For each village temple there was an administrative council. These councils were controlled

by Naduvazhis and Desavazhis (Divisional and Sub Divisional rulers who had Nair infantry (big or small
as the case
trative

may be) at their disposal. The adminisassembly met either in the open hall at the main

cremation. Nair, Nambutiri, Izhava, Christians, Muslims and such other castes came to Kerala from other places later. 7)Ibn Batuta and Kerala. Ibn Batuta who was born in the town of Tanjlr in Morocco in Africa in A.D. 1304 had travelled all over the Eastern countries then known. He had started from his house on a Haj Pilgrimage at the age of 22. He returned home only after 29 years, having travelled all over the known countries. He has written a book in Arabic about his travels of 29 years. One third of this thick volume is devoted for descriptions of his travels in India alone. Its name is 'Tuh Phattunannar'. He passed over the Hindu Kush in A.D. 1333 and entered India. In the midst of his travels throughout the length and breadth of India, he came to Kerala also. He says as follows about Kerala in his book: "Malabar is the country of Pepper. This country's length from Gokarna to Quilon is two months' journey. All the roads in this country are rendered cool and shady by asclapia trees. On the roads at intervals of half an

KESARA
hour there are inns. Near the inn there will be a well and a person to give water. The non-Muslims are given water in pots. But water is poured into the hands of Muslims. Rice is served in plantain leaf and sauces are also served in the same leaf. Uncultivated and uninhabited land is not to be seen. Each house is situated in the centre of a cultivated area. The people of this country do not use animals to carry goods. Travelling is on foot. Only Kings use horses. There is a conveyance called mancal (Palanquin) Slaves are used as Palanquin bearers. I have seen roads which could be used so fearlessly, only in Kerala and, no where else in the world. Capital punishment is given to one who steals even a coconut. The people of this country respect Muslims. There are twelve kings in Malabar. None of them are Muslims. Many of them are powerful having an army of more than fifty-thousand soldiers. But there are no quarrels or clashes among them. The powerful do not have the desire to subjugate the less powerful. The inheritants of these kings are not sons, but nephews Besides the people of Kerala I have (sons of sisters ) seen only the Muslims of the country of Salam on the banks of the Niger in Africa who have adopted the
.

406

KESlNl
I.

V

KESI

An Asura. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 65 that forty Asuras or Danavas were born to Kasyapa, the son of Marici, and the grandson of Brahma, by his wife Danu, and that Kesi was one of them. KeSt and Indra. Once a war broke out between 2). the Devas and the Asuras. Disasters befell the Devas. Daityasena and Devasena., the daughters of Prajapati were about to be carried away by Kesi. Daityasena
1). General information.

agreed

to

Devasena cried aloud. Hearing her cry Devendra reached the spot. A terrible fight ensued and finally the defeated Kesi ran away. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter

accompany him of her own accord, but

KtH and Visnu. Once there was a fight which lasted for thirteen days, between Keg I and Visnu. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 134, Stanza 20) KESI II. A follower ofKamsa. This Asura, on the instruction of Kamsa, went to Ambadi (Gokula) taking the form ofa horse, to kill Sri Krsna. Sri Krsna killed
3).
.

223).

.

Calicut, Paliyam, Crahganiir and Quilon. Mountain in Sakadvipa (Saka KESARA.

system of inheritance in the female line." Ibn Batuta has given some minor descriptions about the towns of Mangalapuram, Ezhumala, Kannur

is seen in the Bhagavata (Malayalamj that Sri Krsna got the name Kesava because he had killed Kesi. (Skandha 10, Kesivadha). KESI III. In Bhagavata there is another Kesi who was

Kesi. It

the son of Vasudeva.

"Pauravi Rohini Bhadra

A

mountain was always filled with fragBhisma Parva, Chapter 11, Stanza 23). KESARl. A forest King who lived in the Maha Meru. While Kesari was living in the Mahameru, Brahma cursed a celestial maid named Managarva and changed her into a female monkey. She became the wife of
air

The

island)

.

on

this

rance. (M.B.

Kesari, under the name Anjana. For a long time the couple had no children. Anjana worshipped Vayu Bhagavan (Wind-God) for a child. Once during this period the gods and hermits went to Parama Siva and requested him to beget a son to help Mahavisnu who was about to incarnate as Sri Rama to kill Ravana. Siva and Parvati instantly took the form of monkeys and entered the forest for play. They having not returned for a long time the gods asked the wind-god to go in search of them. The wind god came in the form of a great storm and shook the whole of the forest. Still they did not come out. Parvati

Pauravi, Rohini, Bhadra, Madira, Rocana, Ila and Devaki were the wives of Vasudeva. From this statement made in Bhagavata, Skandha 9, Chapter 24, it is clear that Vasudeva had a number of wives. Kausalya, who was one of them, was the mother of Kesi. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9, Chapter 24, Stanza
48).

Madira Rocana Ila / Devakipramukha asan Patnya Anakadundubheh."

KESlNl

I. A celestial woman. In Mahabharata, Adi Parva Chapter 65 it is stated that the twelve celestial maids, Alambusa, Misrakesi, Vidyutparna, Tilottama, Aruna,

Rambha, Manorama, Kegini, Surata, Suraja to KaSyapa of his wife Pradha. KESlNl II. The wife of Ajamidha, a King of the Puru dynasty. The three sons Jahnu, Vraja and Rupina were
Raksita,

and Supriya were born

born to Ajamidha of Chapter 278) .'

his

wife

KeSini.

(Agni

Purana,

Siva she got on an ASoka tree and sat there. Seeing that tree alone standing motionless in the big storm Vayu god approached the tree and looked up. Siva and Parvati appeared before Vayu. Parvati refused to take the foetus in the form of monkey to Kailasa. As Siva had instructed, Parvati gave the child in the womb to the wind-god. It was at this time that Anjana had prayed to Vayu fqr a child. Vayu gave that child
to Anjana, who gave birth Hanuman. Thus Hanuman got

who was pregnant was ashamed

to

come

out.

With

KESlNl

A maid of Damayantl. When Nala reached III. Kundinapuri, as Bahuka the charioteer of Rtuparna, Kesini approached Bahuka at the request of Damayantl and by various tests found out that Bahuka was Nala.
IV. A servant of Parvati. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 231, Stanza 48
that once Siva.

KESlNl

(M.B. Vana Parva, Chapters 74 and 75).

Parvati with

her

servant Kelini praised

(son of Anjana)

,

Vayuputra
etc.

putra

(Son of Kesari)

(M.B. Vana Parva, Chap-

to it. That child was the names, Anjanaputra (son of Vayu) , Kesari-

KESlNl

V. Once there arose a quarrel between Sudhanva, the son of Angiras, and Virocana the son of Prahlada, because both wanted to marry the same girl

KESAVA. See under Kr}na. KESAYANTRI. An attendant
Salya Parva,

ter 417).

of

Skandadeva.

(M.B.

Chapter 46)

.

named Kesini. Sudhanva was a Brahmin whereas Virocana was an Asura, who argued that Asura was nobler than Brahmin and Sudhanva said that it was the other way. Both wagered their lives and accepted Prahlada as their judge. The decision of Prahlada was

KESINI VI
that the

407

KETUMAN
IV.

III

Brahmin was the nobler of the two. Because Prahlada said the truth Sudhanva did not kill Virocana. But Virocana had to wash the Ifeet of Sudhanva in the presence of Kesini, feet Sudhanva married Kesini in the presence of Virocana. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 35). KESINI. VI. A wife of King Sagara. This Kesini was the daughter of the King of Vidarbha. The son Asamanjasa was born to Sagara of Kesini. (Valmlki Ra.ma.yana, Balakanda, Sarga 38). KETAKl. (A flower). [Pandarnus odoratissimus] Though Ketaki is a flower which had been worn on
Siva's

KETU
KETU

A

head,

it

is

not worshipped for

the following

reason.

In Satyayuga Mahavisnu performed intense penance on the Sveta island for the attainment of eternal happiness. Brahma also performed penance at a beautiful place for the annihilation of desires. During their tapas Visnu and Brahma, for a rest, left their seats and walked about in the forest when they met each other. There arose a controversy between them about their respective greatness when Siva, in the form of a Linga, appeared between the two contestants and told them that he, who first found out his (Siva's) head or feet was greater than the other. Accordingly Visnu went down and Brahma went up on a tour of
enquiry.

KETU MALA
citti.

V. (DHUMAKETU). The following story is Visnudharmottara Purana about the birth of Dhumaketu. Noting that the population on earth had increased abnormally Brahma created a damsel called Mrtyu and asked her to kill people. At this command of Brahma she began crying, and from her tear drops various kinds of diseases originated at the sight of which she took to penance. Then Brahma appeared and blessed her saying that no one would die because of her at which she heaved a great sigh of relief from which was born Ketu or Dhumaketu.
told in

vata, 9th Skandha).

King born

in

Bharata's dynasty. (Bhaga-

The grandson of Priyavrata, the son of I. Manu. Agnidhra, a son of Priyavrata married PurvaNine sons were born to Agnidhra of his wife Ketumala was one of them. His brothers were Nabhi, Kimpurusa, Hari, Ilavrta, Ramyaka, Hiranmaya. Kuru and Bhadrasva. In old age Agnidhra divided his kingdom among his sons. Later, the portion given to Ketumala came to be known as Ketumala. (Bhagavata, Skandha 5)
Purvacitti.
II.

KETUMALA KETUMALA
Vana

A

.

holy place in Jambudvlpa.
.

(M.B.

KETU

the flower in his hands and went to Visnu and told him that he had found out Siva's head and showed the Ketaki flower as proof of his discovery claiming that it was taken from Siva's head. But Visnu did not believe Brahma and asked the Ketaki flower to bear witness to Brahma's claim. The flower gave false evidence in favour of Brahma. Siva got angry at this false evidence of Ketaki and cursed it. The Ketaki lost its place among the best flowers from that day onwards.
I. (KETUMAN). A Danava. He was the son of Kasyapa (grandson of Brahma and son of Marici) by his wife Danu. This Asura, who exists in the shape of a planet had thirty three brothers, i.e. Vipracitti,

Though Visnu went down deeper and deeper for a long time to find out Siva's feet he failed in the attempt and so returned and sat at the place whence he started for the search. Brahma went up a very long distance when he saw a Ketaki flower falling down from the sky. He took

Parva, Chapter 89) III. (See under Ketumala I). Ketumala is the ninth division of Jambudvlpa. The people of this part of the earth are equal to gods (Devas).The women are very beautiful. In Mahabharata, Sabha Parva it is
stated that Arjuna conquered this land. Ketumala is situated on the east of Mount Meru. In Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 6, there is the description of

KETUMAN
KETUMAN
Kalinga.

Ketumala.
I).

I.

Ketu

the Asura

Ketu

(demon). (See

under

II. King who was a luminary in the council of Yudhisthira. He was a warrior on the side of the Kauravas and a friend of Srutayudha, the of

A

KETUMAN

Sambara, Namuci, Puloma, Asiloma, KeI, Durjaya, Ayassiras, Asvasiras, Asva, Sanku, Mahabala, Garga, Amurdhan, Vegavan, Manavan, Svarbhanu, Asvapati, Vrsaparvan, Ajaka, Agvagrlva, Suksma, Tuhunda, Ekapat, Ekacakra, Virupaksa, Harahara, Nikumbha, Kapata, Sarabha, Salabha, Surya and Candramas. (Adi Parva, Chapter 65) But Ketu maintained closer relationship with Rahu, a
.

KETUMAN
in

warrior in the battle of Bharata. III. In the Mahabharata, another Ketuman who had fought on the side of Pandavas, is stated. Dhrtarastra had praised the valour of this warrior. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 10, Stanza 44). IV. A palace in Dvaraka. It is mentioned

mentioned in Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, 54, Stanza 77, that Bhimasena killed this Chapter
It
is

King

Mahabharata, Daksinatya-patha, Sabha Parva, Chapter 38, that Sudatta, the wife of Sri Krsna lived
Antapala (the guard of the boundary) At the beginning of the creation of the world Brahma had appointed as guards of the boundaries, Sudhanvan in the east, Saiikhapada in the south, Ketuman in the West and Hiranyaromaka in the North. (Agni Purana, Chapter 19). KETUMAN VI. A King of the Puru dynasty. (See under Varhs avail)
of the
west.

KETUMAN V.

in this palace.

step-brother of his, being the son of Kasyapa by another wife called Sirhhika. Rahu and Ketu are even

today considered as inauspicious planets. Rahu wears a half-moon and Ketu holds in his hands a sword and

KETU

lamp. Amitaujas was Ketu reborn. (Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 11).
II.

KETUMAN VII.

.

A

great sage of ancient

India.

He

attained
26, Verse

salvation

by

self-study. (Santi Parva,

Chapter

KETU

III.
17,

A

Chapter

Verse 38).

synonym of

Siva.

(Anugasana Parva,

KETUMAN

In Bhagavata we see a Ketuman who was the son of Dhanvantari, who gave Ayurveda to the world. "Who was the deva who made the Ayurveda in days of old ? His son was Ketuman whose son was Bhlmaratha." (Bhagavata, Skandha 9). VIII. Son of Ekalavya. In Mahabharata,

Bhisma Parva

it

is

mentioned

that

this

King of the

KETUMATI
forest tribes fought killed by Bhlma.

408

KHANDAVADAHA
I.

on the

side of

Duryodhana and was

KETUVARMAN. A
He was

Mother of Prahasta, a minister of Ravana. Ketumati had two sisters Sundari and Vasudha. These three were daughters of a Gandharva woman. Giant Heti, the son of Brahma married Bhaya and VidyutkeSa was born to the couple. Sukesa was born to Salakatarika. Three sons Vidyutktia by his wife Malyavan, Sumali and Mall were born to Sukesa by his wife Daivavati. Sundari, Ketumati and Vasudha the three beautiful sisters mentioned above, were married by the giants Malyavan, Sumali and Mall respectively. Thus Ketumati became the wife of Sumali. To Sumali and Ketumati were born ten sons, Prahasta, Akampana, Vikata, Kalakamukha, Dhumraksa, Danda, Suparsva, Sarhhrada, Prakvata and Bhasakarna and four daughters Veka, Puspotkata, Kaikasi and Kumbhinasi. Most of the sons were ministers of Ravana. (Uttara Ramayana ) KETUSR&GA. A King of ancient India. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 1).
.

KETUMATI.

of Mahavisnu. (M.B. Anusasana Stanza 43). KHALI II. An Asura dynasty. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva, Chapter 155, Stanza 22, that Vasistha once destroyed an Asura dynasty called Khali, with his effulgence. KHALU. A river of ancient India. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 28).
Parva, Chapter
17,

KHALI

A synonym

KHANAKA. A
the

messenger sent by Vidura, secretly to Prindavas who were living in the wax-house. Vidura sent a message through Khanaka to the effect that Duryodhana had decided to set fire to the waxhouse employing Purocana to do it on the 14th night of the dark lunar fortnight. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter
147).

KHANDAKHANDA. A
KHAi^DAPARASU.
bharata
stating

Mahabharata, Salya Parva, Chapter mention is made about this woman.
Siva.

female attendant of Skanda. In 46, Stanza 20,

prince of the country of Trigarta. the youngest brother of Suryavarma, the King of Trigarta. When Arjuna led the sacrificial horse of the horse-sacrifice of the Pandavas, Ketuvarman accompanied Arjuna as a helper. (M.B. Asvamedha Parva,
.

city of ancient India. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 254, Stanzas 10 and 1 1 that Kama conquered this city. KHA. This syllable has the meanings 'empty' and 'organ of sense'. (Agni Purana, Chapter 348). KHADGA. A warrior of Skandadeva. (Mahabharata, Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 67) KHADGABAHU. See under Dussasana II. KHADGI. See under Kalki. KHAGA I. A naga (serpent) born in the family of Kasyapa. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 103). KHAGA II. A synonym of Siva. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 17, Stanza 67). KHAGAMA. A Brahmana. In Mahabharata, there is a story which describes how this Brahmin Khagama changed another Brahmin to a serpent by cursing him. The Brahmin Khagama and Sahasrapat were friends. Once Sahasrapat made a snake of grass and terrified
.

KEVALA. A

Chapter 74)

name. The famous Daksa-yaga (sacrifice performed by Daksa) was performed at a time when the Nara Narayanas were engaged in penance in Badaryasrama. Daksa did not invite his sonin-law Siva. The angry Siva sent his trident against Daksa. The trident destroyed the sacrifice of Daksa and then flew against the breast of Narayana who was sitting in penance in Badaryasrama. By the power of the trident the hair of Narayana became of munja (a grass) colour. From that day onwards Narayana came to be known by the name Munjakega. By a sound "hum", the hermit Narayana deviated the trident, which reached the hands of Siva, who got angry and approached Narayana to kill him. Nara, who was close by took an arrow and reciting spells over it, released it to kill Siva. Immediately the arrow changed to an axe. Siva broke the axe. After this the axe became the weapon of Siva. In Mahabharata Sand Parva, Chapter 49, Stanza 33, it is mentioned that this axe was given to Paras urama the disciple of Siva. Thenceforward Siva got the name Khandaparasu. (Para'u means axe). (Mahabharata, Santi Parva, Chapter 343. StanSiva got
this

how

A

story occurs

in

Maha-

KHANDAVADAHA.
1)

zas 150-59, 167).

and began their extermination. Once he met with Sahasrapat. Instantly at the sight of Ruru, Sahasrapat obtained his original form. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 11). KHAGAMA. A King born in the family of Sri Rama. He was the son of Vajranabha and the father of Vidhrti.
against serpents

Agnihotra (Burnt offering in the holy fire) instantly cursed Sahasrapat to become a serpent. Sahasrapat requested for liberation from the curse. Khagama said that he would resume his original form on the day he saw Ruru the son of Pramati. From that day onwards Sahasrapat roamed about in several countries in the form of a serpent. Once Pramadvara the wife of Ruru, died by snake-bite. Ruru cried over the death of his wife for a long time. According to the advice of a messenger from the Devas Ruru gave .half of his life-time to his wife and she came to life again. But Ruru felt a bitter hatred
at

Khagama Khagama

KHAGODARA.

(Bhagavata, Skandha 10). See under Kahoda.

Brahma said that in the forest of there lived so many creatures which were enemies of the devas (gods) and that by eating their fat the disease of Agni would be cured. Accordingly Agni came to the Khandava forest.
about
his disease.

smoke coming out of the sacrificial fire. Thus the sacrifice was stopped for want of priests. Svetaki was grieved at this and performed penance to Siva for getting a priest. Siva appeared before him and pointed out hermit Durvasas as the priest. Svetaki recommenced the sacrifice and under the supervision of Durvasas the sacrifice was completed. But Fire god caught dysentery due to the continuous eating of oblations offered in the sacrificial fire for a long period. His face became pale, body became lean, and he had no taste for food. At last Fire-God went to Brahma and complained

Introduction. Long ago a King named Svetaki began perform a sacrifice of duration of 100 years. Many Brahmins took part in the sacrifice as priests conducting the rituals and ceremonies. These Brahmin priests began to depart after a few years turning blind due to the

to

Khandava

KHA1VDAVADAHA
The
serpent Taksaka, a friend of Indra, lived in this with his wife and children. Indra knew that Agni had come to burn the Khandava forest and resolved to save Taksaka at any cost. When Agni (fire) began to catch the forest, Indra had already begun rain. So it was not possible for Agni to consume the forest. Agni tried seven times to consume the forest and in all these seven attempts he failed. Agni again approached Brahma, who told him that the Nara-Narayanas would take birth in the earth as Krsna and Arjuna and that at that time it would be possible for fire to consume the
forest
forest

409
Asuras with
battle-field
,

the

on his elephant Airavata. Kala Kubera, Skanda, Asvinidevas and all the other (Time) Devas (gods) and Asuras (demons) helped Indra in the fight. But Krsna and Arjuna came out victorious. Meanwhile Krsna and 7) The advent of Maya. called Indra and told him who they were and Arjuna informed him that Taksaka had gone to Kuruksetra. Hearing this Indra blessed Krsna and Arjuna and retreated from the battlefield. Agni began to consume
riding
,

weapon

discus.

Indra came to the

Khandava.

Krsna and Arjuna in the forest of Khandava. While the Pandavas were living in Indraprastha, once the hot season became so unbearable that Arjuna took Krsna with him and went to the forest of Khandava. While they were playing in the river Yamuna with their wives Agni came there in the guise of an old Brahmin and told them all that had happened and requested their help for eating the Khandava forest. Krsna and Arjuna promised to help him in this affair. 3 ) Preparation of weapons. For the time being Krsna and Arjuna were not having sufficient weapons. Agni
2)

hermitage and lived there performing penance. He died and went to the world of ancestors. But there, the hermit did not attain any fruit of the penance he had performed. The hermit asked the Devas for the reason. They replied that it was because the hermit had no sons. The hermit

the forest more vigorously than before. Because of the unbearable heat, Maya, the architect of the Asuras, came out of the house of Taksaka and ran to Krsna and Arjuna and entreated them to save him. Accordingly Arjuna saved him from the fire. 8) The story of four birds which escaped from the fire. In that forest a hermit named Mandapala had erected his

thought of Varuna (the God of water) who instantly appeared. At the request of Agni Varuna gave Arjuna the famous bow 'Candradhanus' (Gandiva) a quiver which would never become empty of arrows and a chariot having a flag with the sign of monkey and to Sri Krsna the weapon of the discus. Varuna gave four white horses also with gold chains round their necks for drawing the chariot of Arjuna. With these weapons
(fire-god)
,

came to the forest again to marry and beget sons. Mandapala married a bird called Jarita. Four sons named Jaritari, Sarisrkka, Stambamitra and Drona, were born to them. After this Mandapala left Jarita and her sons and went after another woman Lapita. Feathers were not yet grown on the body of Jarita's

Krsna and Arjuna got ready to help Agni. Sri Krsna became the charioteer of Arjuna. When Krsna and Arjuna stood 4) Burning the forest. ready Agni began to consume the forest. Krsna and

Arjuna guarded the boundaries of the forest so that the inmates of the forest might not escape. The living creatures ran hither and thither finding no way to
escape.

died of suffocation. At that time the dwellers of that forest ran to Indra and informed him of the great calamity. Indra instantly got ready to fight and save the forest. He covered the whole of the sky with clouds and a heavy rain was showered on the forest. Arjuna created a covering of arrows like an umbrella over the fire and saved him

hermits

who were

Many

four sons. The burning of the forest began before it. Jarita and her sons were in a sorry plight. The mother could fly. But she did not think of leaving her young ones in danger. She decided to die in the fire folding the young ones under her wings. But her sons did not agree toil. They entreated her to fly away. Thus moments of tears passed by. At last Jarita told them crying, "There been taken is the hole of a rat closeby. The rat had away by n kite. I will take you to that hole and close it. Then I shall go away and return when the fire is

abated."

from the rain. The family of Taksaka. At this particular time Taksaka had been away at Kuruksetra. Asvasena the son of Taksaka was writhing with heat and pain. Seeing this his mother (wife of Taksaka) swallowed him from tail to head. Then she ran to the boundary to throw the child into the outer region. Seeing this Arjuna got angry and cut at the head of Asvasena. But at the nick of time Indra sent a storm and made Arjuna swoon and Asvasena was saved. So Arjuna became furious and began to cut down every creature he saw. Arjuna, Krsna and Agni together cursed Asvasena that he would get refuge nowhere. Asvasena kept up his hatred of Arjuna. In the Bharata battle, Asvasena got on an arrow sent by Karna at Arjuna and knocked off the crown of Arjuna and returned. But due to the curse Karna did not receive him
5)

But the young ones did not agree to this. They loved to be killed by fire, rather than to be killed by rat. Finally at their request Jarita flew away. Mandapala thought of his sons. He separated from Lapita, and came to Agni and requested him to save his sons and Jarita. Agni consumed the forest and neared the birds. The young birds requested Agni to save them. Agni Deva saved them. Mandapala and Jarita returned. That family lived for a long time in joy and happiness and finally attained the world of the gods. Agni returned to heaven after the burning of the forest of Khandava. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapters 233

KHASTJAVAPRASTHA. See under Indraprastha. KHAl^DAVAYANA. Parasurama gave all the countries conquered by him to Kasyapa. Along with the lands he gave a golden dais also. The group of hermits called Khandavayanas cut the dais into pieces and shared them with the permission of Kasyapa. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 117, Stanza 13). KHAl^pIKYA. A Ksatriya King. Kesidhvaja was the son of his paternal uncle. Both had learned well the ways of union with the divine life. Khandikya had be-

to 346)

.

back.
6)

Deadly fight. The serpents and hawks confronted Arjuna, who cut off their heads. Krsna killed the

come an expert
tried

in

becoming one with the divine
to achieve

Karmayoga

(the path
life

whereas Kesidhvaja
life

of action) for

oneness with divine

by Jnana

KHANlNETRA
Yoga ( the path of knowledge or spiritual attainment) Each desired to subdue the other. Consequently Khandikya lost his kingdom and had to live in a forest
.

410

KlCAKA
She went

with his priest and minister. (Bhagavata, Skandhas 9

Khara Dusana and Trisiras and lamented The three of them immediately started with an army of fourteen thousand giants and fought
to
;

before them.

and

Kesidhvaja who tried the path of knowledge to attain Absolution performed several sacrifices for that purpose and cut himself asunder from the bonds of action. Once, while he was performing a sacrifice, a tiger came to the place of sacrifice and killed the sacrificial cow. Then Kesidhvaja asked the priests who were conducting the sacrifice, what the atonement was for the death of the sacrificial cow. The priests sent the King to the hermit Kaseru, who sent the King to the hermit Bhrgu. Hermit Bhrgu in his turn sent the King to the hermit Sunaka. But the matter did not end there. The hermit Sunaka could not dictate the atonement for the death of the sacrificial cow. So he sent the King to Khandikya who was living in the forest. The moment Khandikya saw Kesidhvaja he stood ready to kill him. But Kesidhvaja revealed everything to Khandikya, When he understood the situation Khandikya told him with sincerity the rites given in the Sastras (Vedangas) to atone the death of the sacrificial cow. KeSidhvaja returned and completed the sacrifice. The one item of 'gift to the teacher' alone remained. So Kesidhvaja came to the forest again. Khandikya raised the sword to cut him. Kesidhvaja said that he had come to give Gurudaksina to the teacher. Khandikya repented his rashness and requested Kesidhvaja to tell him the ways of cutting himself asunder from the bonds of sorrow and grief. Kesidhvaja advised him the ways to obtain eternal bliss. (Narada Purana).
eldest son of Vivarhs'a, a King of the solar dynasty. It is mentioned in Mahabharata. ASvamedha Parva, Chapter 4, that this King was driven away from the country as he harassed the

13).

with Rama and Laksmana, who killed every one of them. (Valmiki Ramayana, Aranyakanda, Sargas 19

KHARA
battle

II. Another giant who helped Ravana in the between Rama and Ravana. In Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 285, Stanza 2, it is said that "Parvana, Patana, Jambha, Khara, Krodhavasa, Hari, Praruja, Aruja, Praghasa and others

to 30)

.

KHARAJA&GHA. A
Salya Parva,

fought with

Rama.

attendant of Skanda. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 26). KHARI. A female attendant of Skanda. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 22). KHASA. A wife of KaSyapa Prajfipati. (Visnu Purana

KHARAKARMl. A female

Chapter 46, Stanza 22)

female attendant of Skanda. (M.B.
.

KHATVA&GA.
known by
1)

Chapter 15) country in ancient India. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 122, Stanza 41) KHASlRA. A place situated on the North East corner of Ancient India. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 68)

KHASA(M). A

Arhsa

I,

.

.

.

General Information. King of the Iksvaku dynasty, the name Dilipa also. Bhagavata Skandha 9, states that Khatvanga was the son of the grandson of Kalmasapada. A<maka was the son of Kalmasapada, Mulaka the son of Asmaka and Khatvanga the son of

A

KHANlNETRA. The

KHARA

people.

I. giant (Raksasa) Kharaand Atikaya were the rebirths of Madhu and Kaitabha. For details see
.

A

born from Visravas. Kubera ruled over Lanka. Visravas who had no one to help him once looked with anger at Kubera, who, understanding the wish of his father gave

and genealogy. Mahabharata mentions 1) Birth follows about the birth of this giant: Visravas born from Pulastya the son of Brahma. Kubera

under Kaitabha and Atikaya.

as

The

Mulaka. Khatvanga who was a royal hermit once pleased God and understood how long he would live. From that day onwards he left all the work of administration in the hands of ministers and spent the remaining days in devotion and meditation. (Bhagavata, Skandha 2). In Mahabharata it is mentioned 2) Particular details. that Khatvanga was the son of the woman called Ilibila and that he had the name Dilipa also. Khatvanga was one of the sixteen famous Kings of Bharata.
sixteen

was was

Kings were Marutta, Suhotra, Paurava,
(Dilipa)

Sibi, Sri

Rama, Bhagiratha, Khatvanga,

Man-

dhata, Yayati, Ambarlsa, Sasabindu, Gaya, Rantideva, Bharata, Prthu and Parasurama. Khatvanga performed one hundred sacrifices. At the time of sacrifice he made
roads. Even Indra came to the sacrifice. The Devas blessed Khatvanga on that day. See under Dilipa. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 61). KHILA. There is an appendix to Mahabharata called Khila. This Khila is known as Harivarhsa also. This portion too was written by Vyasa. KHYATA. An attendant of Skanda. (M.B. Salya Parva,

him

three giantesses MalinI as attendants.

and Visravas was pleased with them. To Visravas two sons named Ravana and Kumbhakarna were born by Puspot' ata, Vibhisana was born by MalinI and the twin sister and brother Surpanakha and Khara were born by Raka. By and by Khara became a famous archer. Ravana, Kumbhakarna and Vibhisana performed penance to obtain boons and Khara and Surpanakha stayed with them to serve them. (M.B. Vana
Parva, Chapter 275).
2)

named Puspotkata, Raka and They attended on him faithfully

golden

KHYATI

Other

brothers.

Khara

had

two

other
.

brothers

Dusana and
3)

TriSiras. (Uttara Ramayana) The slaughter of Khara. While Sri Rama, Sita and Laksmana were staying in the forest of Dandakaranya Surpanakha the sister of Khara came there once and tried to get one of the brothers Sri Rama and Laksmana as her husband. Laksmana cut off her nose and ears.

Chapter 46, Stanza 20). A daughter of Prajapati Daksa. The hermit I. Bhrgu married her. A daughter named Laksmi and two sons named Dhata and Vidhata were born to Bhrgu by Khyati. (Agni Purana, Chapter 20) KHYATI II. Daughter of Kuru, who was born of the family of Dhruva. Six sons, Aiiga, Sumanas, Svati, Kratu, Aiigiras, and Sibi were born to Kuru by his wife Agneyi. (Visnu Purana, AnVa I, Chapter 13). Khyati was a daughter born to them. KlCAKA. Brother-in-law of Matsya, king of Virata and son of Kekaya, king of the Sutas,
.

KlKATA

411

KIMPURUSA
returning home from Bhadracala with his ass loaded with bundles of costly Rudraksas. The old ass fell down dead on the way, the weight of the Rudraksa bundles

1 To Kekaya, king of the Sutas ^General information. was born of queen Malavi, Kicaka and other 105 sons younger to him called Upa-Kicakas. Their only sister was called Sudesna. (Bharata, Southern text, Page 1898). Kicaka and Upa-Kicakas took their birth from an aspect of Bana, the eldest of the Asuras known as the Kalakeyas. (See Bharata, Page 1893). Matsya, the Virata king wedded Sudesna; and from that day onwards, the brothers too lived in the Virata palace. Kicaka was the chieftain of Virata's army, and he had, many a time, defeated in war King SuSarman of Trigarta. (Virata Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 30) 2) Kicaka and Pdncdli. During their life incognito, the Pandavas lived in the Virata palace after taking up various jobs. Pancall, under the assumed name Malini, served Sudesna. and her daughter Uttara as their chaperon. Kicaka fell in love with Pancall at first sight. But, Pancall resisted all his advances. Then, he sought the help of his sister Sudesna. to bring round Pancall to him somehow. Sudesna asked Kicaka to be ready on the New Moon day with liquor and rice and promised to send Malini (Pancall) to him. Ordered by Sudesna, she went to Kicaka with his plate of food much against her will. Kicaka caught hold of her, but she ran when the former caught her by the hair, felled her on the floor and kicked her. A Raksasa, who was deputed for Pancali's security appeared on the scene in a trice and felled Kicaka. Kicaka's Death. The very same night with tears in 3) her eyes, Pancall told Bhlma all about the indecent behaviour. He asked Pancall to invite Kicaka to a secret meeting at a specified place the next night, and promised her that he would remain concealed there and kill Kicaka. Accordingly Bhlma concealed himself the next night in the dancing hall and, as requested by Pancali, Kicaka came to the hall at midnight to spend a few hours with Pancall. Bhlma was lying there on a cot, and Kicaka, mistaking him for Pancall kissed him. Bhlma caught him in his iron grips and crushed him to death. The next morning, it was the fate of Kicaka's brothers to lament over his death. The story also was spread that Kicaka was killed by some Gandharva, the husband of Pancall. The Upa-Kicakas removed the dead body of their brother to the burning ghat. Proclaiming that Pancall, who was responsible for the death of their brother would also be burnt to death on the same pyre, the Upa-Kicakas forcibly took her with them. Hearing the
.

immediately it having been too much for it, and assumed the form of Siva and went to Kailasa. Even if a man does not know what he is carrying, if he carries sacred things he will certainly attain salvation,
like the ass that attained salvation in this

case.

Bhagavata,
1 )

1 1

th

Skandha )

(Devi

.

KILI (PARROT).
Origin.
is

following

About the origin of Kilis stated in Canto 14, Aranya

Kanda

(

parrots)

the

of the

Ramayana.
Kasyapa, the grandson of Brahma and son of Marici married the eight daughters of Daksaprajapati, one of them being called Tamra. Tamra had five daughters called Kraunci, Bhasi, Syeni, Dhrtarastrl and Suki. Sukas or Kilis (parrots) are the offsprings of Suki.
2) Parrots acquire talking faculty. Lord Siva agreed to beget a son to kill Tarakasura, at the request of the Devas. The coitus between Siva and ParvatI for the purpose did not end even after a hundred years. Due to the pressure of the process the whole world shook, and when the world appeared to get destroyed the Devas asked Agnideva to persuade Siva to stop. But, afraid of approaching Siva Agni ran off and hid himself in the ocean. The Devas followed him, and animals the heat of in the water which were burning with Agni, told the Devas that Agni was hiding in the sea. But, Agni cursed them all to dumbness, and leaving the ocean hid himself on mount Mandara. The parrots revealed this secret, when Agni cursed them also and made their tongues fold inwards. The Devas and the the curse. parrots requested for redemption from "Though the tongue Redemption was granted thus be turned inwards your sound will be melodious. Just will like the voice of a child your (parrots') sound also be sweet and wonderful."
:

.

From
6 and

singing.

KIMPUNA. A

day onwards parrots began talking and (Kathasaritsagara, Lavanakalambaka, Taranga Anusasana Parva, Chapter 85)
that
.

KIMPURUSA. A 1) General.

Devaloka. It worships Varuna in his assembly. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 20).
river in

heart-rending cries of Pancall

and

Bhlma rushed

killed

all

Bharata, the other eighteen being Kusavarman, llavarta, Brahmavarta, Aryavarta, Malaya, Bhadraketu, Sena, Indrasprk, Vidarbha, Kapi, Hari, Antariksa, Prabuddha, Pippalayana, Avirhotra, Dramida, Camasa and Karabhajana. (Bhagavata, 5th Skandha). KlKATA (M). The country ruled by King Kikata. The following story is told in Devi Bhagavata as to how an ass in this kingdom attained heaven. There was once in Kikata a merchant who had an ass to carry his merchandise. Once the merchant was

Kicaka and the Upa-Kicakas took place. (Virata Parva, Chapter 13 et seq) KlKATA. A King born in the dynasty of Priyavrata, son of Manu. He was one of the nineteen sons of King
.

from death. cremation of

the In the

Upa-Kicakas and saved Pancall
presence

to the spot

of the Virata king the

dynasty of Priyavrata, son of Manu. He became lord of the Jambu island, and married an apsara woman named Purvacitti. To them were born nine sons called Nabhi, Kimpurusa, Hari, Ilavrta, Ramyaka, Hiran-

King

called

Agnidhra was

born

in

the

maya, Kalva,

Bhadrasva and Ketumala. Agnidhra kingdom among the nine sons. The land Kimpurusa ruled over was known as Kimpurusa
partitioned the

or Kimpurusavarsa. It lay to the south of Hemakuta mountain. It was here that Hanuman spent his last

days worshipping Sri Rama. "The son of the wind God

(Hanuman)
.

lives

in the

country called Kimpurusavarsa in the Rama." (Bhagavata, 5th Skandha)

worship of Sri

According to the Sabha Parva (Chapter 23, Verses 1,2) Kimpurusavarsa guarded by the sons of Druma is situated to the north of the Himalayas facing the Dhavala mountain, and this country was once conquered by Arjuna.

KINDAMA
2)
(i)

412

KlRTIMAN

I

Other information.

(Adi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 8) They witnessed Agastya drinking up the ocean dry. (Vana Parva, Chapter 104, Verse 21 ).
.

Kimpurusas were the sons of Pulaha Prajapati.

(ii)

(iii)
;

sport with his 15 Verse 9).
,

They guard

the lotus ponds kept by Kubera to beloved ones. (Vana Parva, Chapter

In his conflict with Ravana, Kubera left behind him Lanka and his Puspaka Vimana, escaped towards the north and settled down on mount Gandhamadana with the help of the Kimpurusas. (Vana Parva, Chapter
(iv)

asvamedha of YudhiChapter 88, Verse 37). Suka Brahmarsi reached Bharata, crossing (vii) Kimpurusavarsa. (Santi Parva, Chapter 325) KINDAMA. A great sage. Once sage Kindama and his wife were roaming in the forest in the form of deer. While hunting, King Pandu discharged his arrow against the he-deer. It assumed its original form as sage Kindama and told the King that it was wrong on him (the sage) while he was his part to have hit in love play. "I am dying, but in future if engaged you physically contact your wife you too will die." After
(vi) They were present sthira. (Asvamedha Parva,

were (v) Yaksa women Chapter 207, Verse 25).

275, Verse 33)

.

their mothers.

(Santi

Parva,

at

the

have met the Kiiikaras on the Himalayas. (Avamedhika Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 6). KlJXlKII^lKASRAMA. A holy place. A bath here will lift one to heaven. (Anusasana Parva Chapter 25, Verse 23) KINNARA(S). A sect of Devas all of whom hold Vinas in their hands. (Agni Purana, Chapter 51 ). K1RATA. An urban region in ancient India. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 2, Verse 51 ). KIRATARJUNlYA. During the life in exile in the forest of the Pandavas, Arjuna performed penance to in the Himalayas. Disguised as a propitiate Siva forest-hunter Siva appeared on the scene and tested Arjuna's valour. Arjuna won in the test and was presented the Pa.supata.stra by Siva. The story is told in Chapter 167 of the Vana Parva. (See under
.

KIRlTl

Arjuna)

.

I.

A warrior of
A
71
).

Skanda deva.

(Salya

Parva,

.

KIRlTl
friend

Chapter 45, Verse
II.

KIRMlRA. A
Baka
in at the

saying so the sage fell down dead. Pandu could never have children of his own from his wives due to this
curse.

about the curse once, embraced dead. (Adi Parva, Chapter 117). KINDANA (M). A sacred place in Kuruksetra. A holy dip here is productive of innumerable auspicious

He

Madri and

forgot all
fell

down

KINDATTAKUPA. A

results.

gingelly seeds in the pond is redeemed from the three Rnas (debts) i.e. Rsi-Rna Pitr-Rna and Deva-rna. The first is to be redeemed by Brahmacarya (celibacy) the second by house-holder's life and the third by
.

holy pond.

He who

sows

KINJAPYA. A particular
bath here
results.
is

yajnas.

(Vana Parva, Chapter 88)

.

holy place in Kuruksetra. A productive of innumerable auspicious

KI51KANA.
roci,

A King born in the lunar dynasty. NamKirikana and Vrsni were the three sons of King Mahabhoja. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha) KI&KARA I. A Raksasa. Sakti, the son of Vasistha and King Kalmasapada of the solar dynasty once quarrelled with each other, and the King cursed and turned Sakti into a Raksasa. At this juncture Visvamitra invoked Kihkara, a Raksasa attendant of his, the body of Kalmasapada, and induced by into Kinkara, Kalmasapada killed all the sons of Vasistha. (Adi Parva, Chapter 175). KI&KARA II. Name of Kala's stick. It is with this Kala who stick that Kala kills living beings. "Like holds the stick Kinkara". (Karna Parva, Chapter 56, Verse 122). KI&KARA (S). A race of Raksasas. After building
.

the palace at Indraprastha for the Pandavas Mayasura (Sabha put 8000 Kiiikaras for guarding the palace Parva, Chapter 3) These guards were able to remove the palace from one place to another. Yudhisthira, who the north to collect money is said to started for
.

hands of Bhlma, Kirmira who was living forest planned a revenge against Bhlma. After being defeated in the game of dice the Pandavas came to the forest, and they confronted Kirmira. In the duel with Bhlma, Kirmira fell down dead. (Vana Parva, Chapter 11). KIRTI I. Daughter of Suka Brahmarsi, son of Vyasa. Suka wedded Pivarl, the beautiful daughter of the Pitrs. Four sons named Krsna, Gauraprabha, Bhuri and Devas ruta and a daughter Kirti were born to Suka and Pivarl. Kirti was wedded by Prince Arm, son of King Vibhrama, and a son called Brahmadatta was born to them, who grew up to become a great scholar and an ascetic. On the advice of Narada, King Brahmadatta ultimately abdicated the throne in favour of his son, performed penance at Badaryasrama and attained salvation. (Devi Bhagavata, 1st Skandha). KlRTI II. A daughter of Daksaprajapati. Svayambhuva Manu wedded his own sister Satarupa, and to them were born two sons called Priyavrata and Uttanapada and two daughters called Prasuti and Akuti. Daksaprajapati married Prasuti, and they had twenty-four daughters who were Sraddha, Laksmi, Dhrti, Tusti, Medha, Pusti, Kriya, Buddhi, Lajja, Vapus, Sand, Siddhi, Kirti, Khyati, SatI, Sambhuti, Smrti, Priti, Ksama, Sannati, Anasuya, tJrja, Svaha, and Svadha. The first thirteen of the above twentyfive girls were married by Dharmadeva. The other eleven girls were married respectively by Bhrgu, Siva, Marici, Aiigiras, Pulaha, Atri, Vasistha, Agni Kratu, Pulastya, and Pitrs. (Visnu Purana, Part 1, Chapter 7). KlRTI III. The Devi who is the basis and cause of all fame and reputation. (Vana Parva, Chapter 37, Verse 38) KIRTIDHARMA. A Ksatriya hero, who was a (Drona Parva, Chapter supporter of Dharmaputra. 158, Verse 39). KlRTIMAN I. The first son born to Vasudeva and Devakl. As a celestial voice had warned Kamsa that the eighth son of Devakl would kill him he had ordered that every child born to her should be taken to him. Accordingly the first-born son of Devaki was taken to him, but was returned to the parents as Kamsa thought

synonym of Arjuna. (See under Arjuna). of Baka and fierce Raksasa, brother of Hidimba. Having heard about the death of

Kamyaka

:

.

KIRTIMAN

II

413

KISKINDHA
Once upon a time a son
called Bali

chained in prison. Moreover he brought back the first-born son of Devaki and dashed him to death on a stone. Thus ended the life of Klrtiman. KlRTIMAN II. Mahavisnu mentally created a son

that he was not his enemy. He was brought up under the name Klrtiman. Afterwards Narada visited Karhsa and explained to him about his former birth, the object of Krsna's incarnation etc. This information so angered Karhsa that he got Vasudeva and Devaki

was born
.

to

Arunl-

Kardama was born

called Virajas,

and Klrtiman was
to

K-lRTIMAN

A Visvadeva (universal deva). III. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 91, Verse 31). KlRTIMUKHA. A Siva gana born out of the matted hair of Siva with three faces, three tails, three legs and seven hands. The Lord at first asked him to live on
corpses, but later on, in appreciation of his valour granted him the boon that if anyone saw the Lord without thinking first about Kirtimukha, he would Uttara meet with his down-fall. (Padma Purana,

59, Verse 90).

his son. A son called Kirtiman. (Sand Parva, Chapter

devi by Indra, and another son called Sugrlva was born to her by Surya. (See under Aruna) Both the boys were brought up in the Asrama of sage Gautama. When they grew up, Indra handed them over to Rksaraja, and thus Bali and Sugrlva came to Kiskindha. After the death of Rksaraja, Bali became King of Kiskindha. and Sugrlva lived in the service of his brother. At that time there was a very mighty Asura called

brother of the Naga chief Srutartha love-marriage with daughter of a brahmin, and a child was born to them. (Kathasaritsagara, Kathaplthakalambaka) KlRTISENA. A heroine who has firmly established her
the
.

KlRTISENA. Son of Vasuki. He made a

Khanda, Chapter

50)

.

with her children came to the foot of the tree. During this period the King of Vasudattapura was suffering from pain in the head because a bug entered there in numbers. All the his ear and multiplied

good woman, Kirtisena was the daughter of a merchant called Dhanapala in Pataliputra, and was married by another merchant called Devasena. Once Devasena left the country for purposes of trade, and during his absence from home the mother-in-law of Kirtisena shut her up in a dark room. But, with the help of an iron rod, which fortunately came to her hands she made a hole in the room at night, and through it escaped from captivity. Hungry and thirsty, Kirtisena travelled a long distance in the forest, and at night climbed a tree and rested thereon. Presently a Raksasa woman

reputation

in

Sanskrit literature.

An

exceptionally

cave and heard Mayavi roaring. Taking it for granted that Bali was killed, Sugrlva closed the mouth of the cave, returned to Kiskindha, and at the instance of his

sage found out the origin of the blood contaminating his body, and cursed that Bali would die the moment he set foot on the mountain. Dundubhi's son Mayavi was enraged at the death of his father. He went to Kiskindha to take revenge on Bali, but got defeated by the latter in fighting. Mayavi took to his heels; Bali followed him, and Sugrlva followed his brother. Mayavi took refuge in a cave followed by Bali, and Sugrlva waited at the mouth of cave. Even after one year neither Bali nor Mayavi emerged out of the cave, but Sugrlva saw blood coming out of the

Dundubhi. Finding no one fit to fight with, he challenged Varuna. Varuna directed him to Himavan, whose peaks he rent asunder, and played with. Then Himavan told Dundubhi that he was of a peaceful nature and that Bali would be a match for him (Dundubhi). Accordingly Dundubhi fought with Bali and got killed. Bali cast away the corpse of Dundubhi. The blood oozing out from the nose of Dundubhi fell on the body of sage Mataiiga who was engaged in penance on the peak Rsyamuka. By means of his divine powers, the

subjects assumed kingship. But, Bali forced open the cave, hurried back to his kingdom, and interpreting the action of Sugrlva as the drove one purposely done to usurp throne, Sugrlva away and took for himself Sugrlva's wife. Thus Bali became again King of Kiskindha. There is a mountain called "Bali-kera-mala" mountain prohibited to Bali in the eastern region of the former princely kingdom of Travancore. Is it in any way con-

physicians gave up the case as incurable. But, the RaksasT at the foot of the tree advised the following "Anoint cure for the King's illness to her children the King's head with ghee and make him lie in the sun at noon. After that insert a small tube into his ear, and keep the other end of the tube in a pot full of water. Then the bugs will come out from the ear into the water, and the King will be cured of his ill:

nected with Rsyamukacala ? Sugrlva founded a new kingdom at Rsyamuka mountain. Mainda, Dvivida, Hanuman and Jambavan were the ministers of Sugrlva. It was while Sugrlva was thus living on Rsyamukacala that Rama and Laksmana came that way in the course of their search for Sita. In accordance with the agreement made between Sugrlva

ness.

Kirtisena, who heard this medical advice from her seat on top of the tree disguised herself as a physician, went to the palace and cured the King of his troubles. In her disguise, she continued to live in the palace as a friend of the King. Shortly, her husband Devasena, came there and they were happily reunited. The King

and Rama, the latter killed Bali and crowned Sugrlva as the King of Kiskindha. (Valmiki Ramayana, Kiskindha Kanda, and Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 280)
.

During the triumphal tour of Sahadeva in the South he fought against Kiskindha, and after seven days' fighting the monkeys saw Sahadeva off with a present of costly

gave them costly presents. (Kathasaritsagara, Madana-

KISKINDHA. An

manjukalambaka, Taranga 3). ancient kingdom of the monkeys in South India. This kingdom is mentioned both in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. During the Ramayana period a monkey King called Rksaraja was the ruler of Kiskindha. He was childless.

"Sahadeva fought against the monkey chiefs like Mainda, Dvivida etc. for seven days, but neither of them got exhausted, and the monkey chiefs, with affection and gratitude asked Sahadeva to depart with gems." (Sabha Parva, Chapter 31). During this period nothing was heard of Sugrlva, Hanuman and Jambavan in Kiskindha. Might be Sugrlva was no more. Hanuman, after the death of Sri

gems.

KISKINDHAGUHA
Riima, lived in Gandhamadana in Kimpurusavarsa. From the (Bharata and Bhagavata, 10th Skandha) story of Prasena it may be seen that Jambavan left Kiskindha and lived in another cave with his sons and other relations. It was the other two ministers of Sugriva, Mainda and Dvivida, who were ruling Kiskindha when Sahadeva went there. The power and
.

414

KOLLAVARSA

prestige of Kiskindha

KOHALA. A
bharata,

mountainous region in Dhavad South India. Certain scholars hold the view that this was the actual Kiskindha. KlTAKA. A King born from an aspect oftheAsura called Krodhavasa. (Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 60). KITAVA (S) An ancient tribe of people. They once visited Yudhisjhira with many presents. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 51, Verse 12).
district in
.

KISKINDHAGUHA. A

course of time Kiskindha ceased to exist but in name.

had begun

to set

by then, and

in

But no documents are available to prove that there was any connection between the two families till the 5th century M.E. (Malayalam Era), i.e. 14th century A.D. See under Kollavarsa. KOLIKA (KOKILA) This is the name of a rat. Kokila is a character in the story known as Bidalopakhyana, told by Narada to Dhrtarastra. Once a cat began to perform penance holding up both of its hands, on the bank of the Gangfi. After a long time birds and rats
.

to come very close to it believing that it would not hurt them. They made the cat their leader. The wicked cat daily ate a rat secretly. Thus the body of the cat grew stronger day by day and there appeared a steady decrease in the number of the rats. Among them there was a wise rat called Kokila. He understood the

began

Brahmin

scholar.

It

is

stated in

Maha-

Adi Parva, Chapter 53, Stanza 4, that this Brahmin was present at the 'Sarpa Sattra' (sacrifice to kill serpents) of Janamejaya. Once Bhaglratha gave this hermit as alms one lakh of cows with calves. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 138, Stanza 27). KOKA. (Cakravaka bird). Ruddy Goose. To know the Puranic story about the origin of this bird (Ruddy goose) see under 'Arayanna' (Swan) KOKA.MUKHA. A holy place. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Stanza 153, that those who bathe in this holy bath will get the faculty of remembering their previous births.
.

So proclaiming independence away and saved themselves. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 160). KOLISARPA. A tribe. Formerly this tribe was of Ksatriya Caste. A Brahmin once cursed them and made them Sudras. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 33,
he
deceit played by the cat. and his fellows ran

KOLLAGIREYA. An
It is stated in

Stanza 22).

83,

KOLLAVARSA. (MALAYALAM ERA).

ancient country in South India. Mahabharata, Asvamedha Parva, Chapter that Arjuna conquered this country.

KOKANADA
is

I.

A

mentioned in Maharbharata, Sabha Parva, that at the
this

Ksatriya King of ancient India.

It
fell

have been brought forward about the starting of the Malayalam Era. There is great controversy as to the causes of starting this new era. The opinion of Sankunni Menon is as follows. The King Udayamartandavarma called together at Quilon, an assembly of the
learned men and astronomers of the -time, in Kalivarsa 3926 (A.D. 825) and made astronomical researches and taking into account the movements and positions of the various planets in the solar system, started a new era beginning with the month of Cihiiam (August-September). This new era commenced on the 15th of August 825 A.D. All the learned men and scholars of the time

Several opinions

KOKANADA

A warrior of Skanda. (M.B. Sabha II. Parva, Chapter 27) KOKAVAKA. A country in ancient India. (M.B. Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 9) KOKILA. See under Dindika. KOKILAKA. A warrior of Skanda. (Mahabharata, Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 73) KOLAGIRI. A mountain of South India. (Mahabharata Sabha Parva) Sahadeva conquered the people of this
.
. . .

time of the regional conquest of Arjuna, at his feet and sought refuge.

King

KOLAHALA
the Devas

mountain.

KOLAS' VROPA

famous Asura. In the battle between Asuras carried on by Subrahmanya, this Asura confronted Malyavan and was killed. (Padma Purana; Part IV, Chapter 13).

A

welcomed this Malayalam era. The neighbouring kingdoms also recognized this new era. Reckoning of dates based on this Malayalam Era is seen in the 'Madura and Tinnevelly Stone-edicts and copper edicts.' On the fifth day of Cinnarh of the first year of M.E., five royal families of Travancore met together and took a
decision
that the festival days of the temples should be reckoned according to the Malayalam Era. The controversy is not about the starting of the new Era, but the

and

the

(

of the second Cera empire in Kerala, several royal families such as Perumpafappu, Neduvirippu, Kolasva-

KOLATTUNADU

)

.

After the decline

rupa, Venatu etc. came into power. Some details regarding the family of Kolasvarupa are given below. In 'Kerala Mahatmya', it is given that Paras urama had made a Soma-Ksatriya, as King of Cirakkal or Kolattunadu. According to 'Keralotpatti' it was Ceraman Perumal who did this. Logan says that Kolasvarupa came into being from the children born to the last Perumal of the Venatu family. In the edicts Viraraghavapat{aya or Jutasasana no mention is made about Kolattunadu. Both the families of Venatu and Kolattunadu, from very early times had observed the customary rites of taint, pollution, defilement etc. It is said in 'Keralamahatmya' that Paras urama had enthroned the sons of two sisters in both the kingdoms.

yet been decided definitely. The opinion accepted by scholars on this subject is that of K.B. Pathak, according to whom Saiikaracarya lived from 787 to 819 A.D. If this is accepted as true, the exhortation made in 825 A.D. should be by somebody else and the Malaya-

reasons for starting the new era. Logan says that the Malayalam Era was started in commemoration of the conversion of Ceraman Perumal to Islam and his pilgrimage to Mecca. But there is impropriety in thinking that the Hindu subjects of a King would commemorate the conversion of their King into Islam religion. Some say that the new era was started to commemorate the erection of a Saivite temple. Another argument is that a new era was started in memory of the exhortation of Sri Saiikaracarya to the Brahmins of Quilon, to do away with the irregularities seen in the Hindu religion. The period of Sankaracarya has not

KOLLAVARSA
lam Era should have been established
reasons.
for

415

KOSALA(S)
Kollavarsa
with
Paras' urama.

some ot her

Buchanan

said

that

Another opinion
to

that the new era was established the independence given to the two Kolattiri Kings (North and South) by the Perumal. The North Kolattiri family should have begun the new era on the first day of Kanni (the second month) and the South Kolattiri family on the first day of Cinnarh (the first month). (Because in Malabar area, the era commences on the first day of Kanni.). Another opinion that is prevalent is that Kollavarsa was started to commemorate the erection of the two towns of Quilon (North and South). But even two centuries before A.D. 825 the town of South Quilon had become famous. So it is an objection to this argument. Some are of opinion that a new era was started in commemoration of Sankaravijaya (the victory of Sarikara) due to the fact that the Brahmins of the north and the south alike accepted the teachings of Sankaracarya. But it is difficult to believe that the northerners and the southerners accepted the teachings of Sankara.ca.rya on a particular date and issued a declaration to that effect and started a new era. Some connect the starting of the New Era with the 'Tiruvonam' a grand festival of the Malayalees. But it cannot be believed that a national festival was started by a single man. According to Logan it would appear that the grand festival of Tiruvonam was started to commemorate the journey of Perumal to Mecca. But the conversion episode is more likely to be considered as a blasphemy and the Kings and people of Malayala land are not likely to commemorate it. Prof. Sundaran Pillai has cut all the
is

commemorate

the Malayalees have a recurring of every millennium. Burnell has stated in his book "South Indian Paleography", that the theory of recurring Millennium is

wrong. An astronomer

who was a contemporary of the King established the Malayalam era has stated in his work called 'Sankaranarayaniya' (a manuscript in Palm leaves) that an astronomical movement was reckoned and a new era was started at Quilon. This palm leaf manuscript is kept in the Manuscripts who
Library at Trivandrum. An ancient
(

KOSA.

India. South Stanza 60).' KOPAVEGA. A hermit. This hermit had served Yudhisthira. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Stanza 16).

KQtslKANA.

Mahabharata, Bhlsma Parva, Chapter

country

of

9,

A

river.

It

is

stated in

Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 27, that the water of this river was used for drinking by the ancient people of Bharata.

Mahabharata,

Bhlsma

KOSAKARA. See under NiSakara II. KOSALA I. The King and the people

KOSALA

of the country of Kosala are called by the name Kosala. II. One of the wrestlers of Karhsa. The famous wrestlers of Karhsa were Canura, Mustika,

KOSALA.
1

Kuta, Sala, Kosala and others.

arguments

theory. His inference is that the new Era is the transformation of an old era known as Saptarsivatsara of the seven sages ) or iSastrasarhvatsara (scien( year

given

above

and brought forward a new

tific
is

year)
in

which

still

force

in

yala and after their arrival they adopted some slight modifications in the era according to the requirements of the new settlement, and renewed the Saptarsivatsara. Gopala Iyer, the great exponent of the Vedanta philosophy, says as follows about Kollavarsa in his Ancient India' 'Chronology of "Kaliyuga and Kollavarsa commenced in B.C. 1176." But Kollavarsa is divided into groups of recurring thousands. This has a close connection with Saptarsi Vatsara, which also might have commenced in B.C. 1176. The year
:

Vatsara was 4972 and it was known as merely 72, and that if all the hundreds are taken away, the remaining figure will be the same as that of the Kollavarsa. That at the expiry of each century the Saptarsivatsara is, begins as one, two and so on. But the Saptarsivatsara begins in the month of Metam (9th month) whereas Kollavarsa begins in Cinnam. He explains this difference also. His opinion is that the Nambutiri Brahmins took some time to reach the country of Malayala from North Indian countries and they had been using their Saptarsivatsara up to the time of their arrival in Mala-

prevailed throughout India and Ka?'m!ra. In A.D. 897 Saptarsi-

A wealthy and prosperous General information. ) country on the banks of the river Sarayu. Ayodhya was the Capital of this kingdom. This city was built by Manu, the father of Iksvaku. This city was twelve yojanas long with a breadth of three yojanas. It is understood from Valmiki Ramayana, Balakanda, Sarga 5 that during the time of Dasaratha this city was modified to such an extent as to be on a par with any
modern
2)
city.
details.

Other

Uttara Kosala
.

(1)

(north

Bhlmasena once conquered Kosala). (M.B. Sabha Parva,

Chapter 30) (2) Sahadeva during his regional conquest, subdued Daksina Kosala (South Kosala). (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 31, Stanza 12). (3) Sri Krsna once conquered the country of Kosala. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 21, Stanza 15).
(4) Abhimanyu, the son of Arjuna, of Kosala in the battle of Bharata.

killed

the

King

(M.B. Karna Parva, Chapter

(5)

Kama

once conquered,

this

8,

country for Duryodhana. Stanza 19)
.

(6) During the time of the battle of Bharata a King named KsemadarsI ruled over Kosala. (M.B. Santi

Parva, Chapter 82, Stanza 6). of (7) At the time of the Svayarhvara (marriage) Amba, Bhlsma defeated the King of Kosala. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 44, Stanza 38)
.

(8)

Arjuna who

led the horse for

sacrifice

the

country of Kosala.
in

(M.B.

Asvamedha

conquered
Parva,

mentioned above completed 2000 by A.D. 824. The third recurring thousand begins in A.D. 825, under the

Chapter 83). (9) Those who bathe
85, Stanza 10).
(S).

name

Kollavarsa.

Princent, Buchanan and Burnell are the three rable western scholars who have expressed

tirtha in Kosala, will obtain the fruits of giving one thousand cows as alms. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter

the holy

bath of Rsabha

memotheir

KOSALA
These

opinions

about

Kollavarsa.

The Ksatriyas
fled

Princent

connected

Kosalas once

to

of the country of Kosala. the southern countries

KOSTHAVAN

416

KRATU
and
intermingled from beginning to end and end to beginning. There are rules to make combined words by using prefixes and suffixes. These rules are called Pratisakhya. Because the Vedas are taught in this way with so much attention and care, their texts have never

fearing Jarasandha. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 14, Stanza 27). KOSTHAVAN. A mountain. It is stated in Mahabharata, Asvamedha Parva, Chapter 43 that this mountain was the overlord of many other mountains. KOTARA. An attendant of Skanda. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 14) KOTARAKA. A serpent born in the family of KaSyapa. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 103, Stanza 12).
.

KOTIKASYA (KOTIKA). A
er

King who was the followWhile the Pandavas were living in the Kamyaka forest once they went out leaving Pancali lone in the hut. At that time Jayadratha the King of Sindhu, the son of Vrddhaksatra came there and saw
of J .yadrat
a.
;

changes and variations. Ksatriya King. He was the rebirth of an Asura called Krodhavasa. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Stanza 61). See under Jyamagha. KRA'IHA II. A King defeated by Bhimasena during

KRATHA

been subjected
I.

A

to

his

KRATHA KRATHA KRATHA

Pancali.

He

sent

his

follower

did not succumb to temptation. At last Jayadratha carried Pancali away by force. This Kotikasya was the son of Suratha and was the KingofTrigarta (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 265) KOTILI5IGA. This word was added to the names of the members of the Koturinallur royal family. EspecialPancali,
.

who

Kotikasya

to

entice

in some of his poetic works. The word 'Kotiliagesvar 'Kotilinga' is the Sanskrit form of the Dravidian word Kotuririallur. This city was the Capital of the Cera
'

ly,

Kunjiku^tan Tampuran

is

denoted by the

name

KOTlSA.

Kings.

A

VI. AYaksa. (Demi-God). When Garuda reached the world of Devas he had to fight with this Yaksa. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 32, Stanza 18). KRATHA VII. An Asura (demon). It is stated in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 67 Stanza 57 that this Asura was born as King Suryaksa on the earth in

KRATHA

A hermit. In Mahabharata, UdyogaIII. Parva, Chapter 83, Stanza 27 it is stated that this hermit visited Sri Krsna on his way to Hastinapura. IV. There was a warrior named Kratha on the side of the Kauravas. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 120, Stanza 10). V. A warrior of Skandadeva. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 70).

30, Stanza 7).

regional conquest.

(M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter

KOTITlRTHA. A

holy bath. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 82, that those who bathe in this holy bath will get the fruits of performing the horse sacrifice. KOTTUVA. (Yawning, Gape). In Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 6, there is a story explaining how the living awn. After getting boons from beings began to Brahma, Vrttrasura swallowed Indra. The Devas were and approaching Brhaspati they refilled with fea
*

Adi Parva, Chapter

serpent born in the family of Vasuki. (M.B.
57,

Stanza 5)

.

presented their grievance. According to the instruction of Brhaspati the Devas caused Vrttrasura to gape. After opening the mouth he found it difficult to shut, and the mouth remained open. In the meanwhile Indra jumped out of Vrtra through the mouth. Gape

came

KRAMAJIT. A
.

into existence from that time. under the word Vrtra.

(For details see

Ksatriya

KRAMAPA. A
Kramapa had
Chapter 20).

follower of Dharmaputra. 4, Stanza 28)

King who was a constant (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter
to

son born a brother

named

Pulaha by

his wife Ksama. Sahisnu. (Agni Purana

KRAMAPATHA. A

that even after thousands of years variations have not crept into the original texts of the Vedas which form the earliest literature. There is a portion called 'word study' (Pada Patha) in the Vedas Every word in the Veda is separated (the scripture)
.

is due to method of teaching

method of teaching the Vedas. It the insistence on strict adherence to this

Name of a son of Dhrtarastra. (M.B. Chapter 116, Stanza 11). KRATHA I. A f mous King in Ancient India. The following details about this King are found found in the Mahabharata. 1 He was the rebirth of an Asura called Rahu, ( ) the son of Sirhhika. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Stanza 40). of (2) Kratha attended the Svayamvara (marriage) Draupadl. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 186, Stanza 15). (3) Sri Krsna defeated Kratha at the city of Jaruthi. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 12, Stanza 30). (4) In the battle of Bharata this King attacked Abhimanyu. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 26). (5) In the battle of Bharata Kratha killed the prince of Kalinga, and a King from the- mountain killed Kratha. (M.B. Kama Parva, Chapter 85, Stanza 15). KRATHA II. A King of the Puru dynasty. (M.B. Adi Parva Chapter 94, Stanza 58) KRATHA III. A captain of the army of monkeys. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 283, Stanza 19). KRATHA IV. A warrior of Skanda. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 70) KRATHA V. A famous serpent. At the time of the death of Balabhadra this serpent came there to lead his soul to Patala (nether world) (M.B. Mausala Parva, Chapter 4, Stanza 16).
VIII.
/\di Parva,
.

KRATHA

his re-birth.

.

.

KRATHA (M). An
this

ancient

from

its

prefixes

and

suffixes.

The second
prefixes

pafcha or the study of joining

and

step
is

isKramato

mentioned in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 21 that Bhlsmaka the King of Vidarbha had conquered
country.

country

in

India.

It is

suffixes

which words are combined with their prefixes and To guard against the creeping in of mistakes in this step, the next step which is known as Ghanapatha is taught. In this step the first step of Padapatha and the second step of Krama patha are mixed together
in
suffixes.

each word got by the

first step.

Next step

Jatapatha

KRATU.

One of the six mental sons of 1) General information. Brahma. Marici, Angiras, Atri, Pulastya, Pulaha and Kratu were the mental sons of Brahma. (M.B. Adi Kratu is described as one of the Parva, Chapter 65)
.

21 Prajapatis (lords of emanation).

KRAUNCA
2)

I

417

KRMI

I

Some details. (1) It is stated in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 65, Stanza 9, that the hermits called Balakhilyas were the sons of Kratu. (2) Kratu was present at the birth-celebration of Arjuna. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 122, Stanza 52).
to save the Raksasas from the Raksasa great sacrificial fire meant for the Raksasas (giants) to jump into and die by themselves) performed by the hermit Parasara. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter
(3)
sattra,

Parva, Chapter 225, Stanza 33, mention is made that through this cleavage swans and vultures fly to Mahiimeru. (For the story of how Parasurama cleft the

Kratu came

KRAUNCADVIPA. (ISLAND OF KRAUNCA). One
of the Saptadvlpas (seven islands). The seven islands are Jambudvipa, Plaksadvlpa, Salmalidvlpa, Kusadvipa, Krauncadvipa, Sakadvipa and Puskaradvipa. (Devi Bhagavata Skandha 8). Krauncadvipa is described as follows in Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, ChapIn this island there are the mountains Kraunca, ter 12: Vamanaka, Andhakara, Mainaka, Govinda, Nibida, and

KRAUNCA

Kraunca mountain
III.

see under Parasurama). (A kind of snipe) A bird.
.

(A

189, Stanza 9).

(4) Kratu was a luminary in the councils of Brahma and Indra. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 7, Stanza 17) (5) Kratu was present at the Birth celebration of Skandadeva. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 10). (6) There is a group of hermits called 'Citrasikhandins, of which Kratu is a member. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 335, Stanza 27) (7) By the blessings of Siva, Kratu got a thousand sons. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 14, Stanza 87). (8) Kratu went to visit Bhisma who was lying on the bed of arrows awaiting death in the beginning of Uttarayana of the year. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 26, Stanza 4). KRAUNCA I. An Asura. In Vamana Purana, Chapter 57 it is mentioned that this Asura was killed by Subrahmanya. KRAUNCA II. A mountain. There is a story about this mountain. Long ago there lived an Asura named Kraunca. He was leading a wicked life and was haughty and arrogant. Once Agastya went to Kailasa and worshipped Siva. KaveridevI also was standing close by, worshipping Siva. God Siva appeared before Agastya and told him that he might ask for any boon. He requested for the power to push down Vindhya by kicking and to establish a holy Tirtha (bath) on the earth. Siva granted the boons. For making the tirtha Siva turned Kaveri into a river and placed her in the water-pot of Agastya. As Agastya was returning from Kailasa with Kaveri in his water-pot, Krauftca the Asura took the shape of a mountain and hindered his way. The Asura caused a heavy rain too. Agastya wandered through the forest without finding the path for days. At last he realized the cause. He took a few drops of water from his waterpot and with chanting of Mantras and meditation threw the drops at the Asura with the curse that he would stand there for ever as a mountain. He said that he would be liberated from the curse when pierced by the arrow of Subrahmanya, the son of Siva. From that day onwards Krauiica the Asura had been standing there as a mountain. That mountain was called 'The mountain of Kraunca.' (Skanda Purana, Asura Kanda). There is another statement in Harivarhsa, Chapter 18, that the mountain Kraunca was the son of the mountain Mainaka, the son of Mena.
. .

Viskambha. The various countries in this island are Kusala, Manonuga, Usna, Pravaraka, Andhakaraka, Munidesa, Dundubhisvana etc. KRAUMCANISUDANA. A holy place on the banks of river Sarasvati. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Stanza 160 that he who bathes in this_ place would get a Vimana. KRAUNCAPADl. A holy place. He who makes oblations of balls of boiled rice in this place will obtain remission of sin of Brahmahatya (sin incurred by
killing a

Brahmin)

.

KRAUNCARUNAVYUHA.
vyuha
(strategic

KRAUNCAVYUHA. A

Another name of Krauncaof an army). Dhrstadyumna formed theKrauncarunavyuha. (Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 50).
disposition
in the shape of Kraunca
strategic formation of the

25, Stanza 42).

(M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter

of Bharata, Bhisma (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 75). The Kraunca dishas eight strategical positions, the face, eyes, position head, neck, stomach, left flank, right flank and thighs. In the disposition formed by Bhisma, Drona stood at the face, Asvatthama and Krpa stood at the eyes, Hardikya at the head and Surasena at the neck. The King of Pragjyotisa stood at the stomach of the formation. The Tusaras, Yavanas, Sakas and Cupuvas guarded the right flank. Srtayus and Bhurisravas kept

bird (snipe). In the battle made the formation of Kraunca.

army

KRAUNCI. A
his wife

the thighs.

daughter born to Kasyapaprajapati by the daughter of Daksa. Five daughters, KrauncI, Bhasi, Syeni, Dhrtarastri and Sukl were born of Tamra. From Krauftci, were born the owls, the Bhasas from Bhasi, the hawks and vultures from Syeni, the swans and ruddy geese from Dhrtarastri and Nara, the mother of Vinata from Sukl. (Vf.lmlki Ramayana,

Tamra

KRAVYADA
the deified

terrible battle with the Asuras. died. Banasura, the son of Mahabali, fled from the battlefield and hid himself inside the mountain Kraunca. Subrahmanya cleft the mountain into two with the arrow given by Agni (Fire-god) . Thus Krauncasura was liberated from the curse. (M.B. Salya

Subrahmanya fought a

Many

(S). particular group of the Manes or ancestors that receive the souls of the deceased. Mention is made about the Kravyadas in Mahabharata, Santi Parva, Chapter 269, Stanza 15. KRIYA. One of the daughters of Daksa. Dharmadeva married her and three sons Danda, Naya and Vinaya were born to him of Kriya. (Visnu Purana, Arhsa I,

Sarga 14)

.

A

KRKA^TEYU. (KAKSEYU).
King Raudrasva of
the

Chapter

7)

.

One

of the ten sons Parva,

Parva, Chapter 46) In 'Meghaduta' Kalidasa mentions about the cleavage In Mahabharata, Vana in the mountain Kraunca.
.

KRMI

Apsaras called Mistakes I. (Adi Verse 10).

Puru dynasty

whom

begot of the

Chapter 94

I. A King of the royal dynasty of Aiiga. King Uslnara had five wives named Nrga, Nara, KrmI, Das a and DrsadvatI, and of them were born respective-

KRMI

II

418
ran
in
to

KRPA
Kubera
to

II

ly the sons

KRMI KRMI

Nrga, Nara, Krmi, Suvrata and Sibi. (Agni Purana, Chapter 227). II. A wife of Usinara. (See under Krmi I).
III.

inform him of

this

theft.

It is stated

KRMI IV. A river. (Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 17). KRMIBHOJANA (M). One of the twentyeight hells.
KRMILA. A
(See

Chapter

74,

A Ksatriya Verse J3).

dynasty.

(Udyoga Parva,

Naraka under Kala

I)

.

KRMlSA. A

king born in the Puru dynasty. There was a king in the dynasty called Bahyasva, who had five sons called Srnjaya, Brhadisu, Mukula, Krmila and Yavmara. In later years they became famous as Pancalas. (Agni Purana, Chapter 278)
.

Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 285, Stanza 2 that these Krodhavasas were present in the army of Ravana. KROSANA. A female attendant of Skanda. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 1 7) KROSTA. A son of Yadu. Sahasrada, Payoda, Krosta, Nila and Ajika were the five sons of Yadu. (Harivamsa, Chapter 38).
.

KRPA

I.

A King

in ancient India.

He

never ate

flesh.

KRPA

(Anusasana Parva, Chapter
II.

115, Verse 64).
:

hell
I.)

known

as

KRODHA

under Kala
I.

Krmibhojana
to

also. (See

A

famous Asura born

KRODHA

wife Kala. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 65, Stanza 35). II. It is stated in Bhagavata thatKrodha was born from the eye-brow of Brahma. There is a story about this Krodha in the 'Jaimini-Asvamedha Parva'. Once, while the hermit Jamadagni was performing sacrificial offerings to the Manes, Krodha came there and secretly put poison in the pudding prepared from the milk of the sacrificial cow. Even though the hermit

Kasyapa by

his

Descended from Visnu thus BrahmaAtri Candra Budha Pururavas Ayus Nahusa Pravlra Pracinvan Puru Janamejaya Yayati Namasyu Vitabhaya Sundu Bahuvidha Sariiyati Matinara Santurodha Rahovadi Raudrasva Dusyanta Bharata Suhota Gala Garda Suketu
1). Genealogy.

(KRPACARYA)

.

knew this he did not get angry. Seeing this, Krodha became afraid of the hermit and approaching him said "Oh, hermit I thought that the Bhargavas (those born of the family of Bhrgu) would get angry quickly. Now I understand that it is wrong." Jamadagni pardoned him and said "But you have to appease the anger of the Manes". The Manes cursed him that he would have to take birth as a mongoose. But he was given remissiom that he would be liberated from the curse, when he narrated the story of the Brahmin Uncchavrtti
! :

Hasti Ajamidha Nila Santi Suganti Arka BhavyaSva Pancala Mudgala. A daughter called Ahalya was born to Mudgala. Maharsi Gautama married her. To Gautama was born Satananda, to him Satyadhrti, to him Saradvan and to Saradvan was born Krpacarya. The Puranas refer to the generation

Brhatksetra

Puruja

the presence of Sri Krsna. former form. KRODHAHANTA. A famous Asura. He was born to Prajapati Kasyapa by his wife Kala. The notorious Vrtrasura was the brother of Krodhahanta. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 65). KRODHANA. An attendant of Skanda. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 6) KRODHANA. A hermit of great importance in the palace of Indra. ( Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 7, Stanza 11). KRODHA&ATRU. A famous Asura who was born to Prajapati Kasyapa of his wife Kala. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 65, Stanza 35). KRODHAVARDHANA. An Asura. In Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Stanza 46, it is mentioned that in later ages this Asura was reborn under the name
in

Thus Krodha regained

at the palace of

Dharma

his

in the maternal line. It is said Chapter 130 of the Adi Parva, that Saradvan was the son of Gautama. According to Agni Purana, Bhagavata etc. Saradvan, father of Krpa was the son of the great-grand son of Gautama and grandson of Satananda. (Agni Purana, Chapter 278) 2) Birth of Krpa. Though born in a family of Sages Saradvan evinced more interest in Dhanurveda. He performed penance in the forest, with bow and arrows deposited by his side. As his penance gathered intensity the Devas got alarmed. To break his penance Indra deputed the Devata called Janapadi to the earth and she appeared before Saradvan and danced, dressed only in one piece of cloth. Emission occurred to him. But, wisdom dawned on him immediately and leaving behind him the bow, arrows and deer skin he quitted the

preceding

Gautama only

in verse 2,

.

.

place.

discharged by him fell on the arrow which broke into two giving birth to a male child and a female one. One of the attendants of King 3) Krpa in the Palace.

The semen

children and took them to the King.

Santanu,

KRODHAVASA. A

Dandadhara.

The King felt Krpa in the palace (pity) for them and brought them up and as they were thus brought up due to his Krpa they came to be called Krpa and Krpl. (Adi Parva, Chapter
forest

who had come

to the

forest

to

hunt, saw the

of Indrajit. In the battle between Ravana and Sri Rama this Asura made himself invisible and attacked the monkeys. By the help of Vibhisana, who was an expert in the art of vanishing, the monkeys killed KrodhavaSa in the battle. (M.B.
follower

KRODHAVASA.

Vana

While living in the penance Saradvan, with his divine power understood that the two children forsaken by him were growing up in the palace. He went to the palace and told the king details about the children. He
engaged
in

130). 4) Krpa's mastery of Dhanurveda.

(Valmiki Ramayana, Aranya Kanda, Sarga 14) The Asuras who were born to Krodhavas'a are also called Krodhavasas. Most of these Krodhavasas were employed to guard the lotus-lake of Kubera. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 154). Bhimasena once entered the lotus-lake of Kubera and plucked the "Saugandhika" flower. The Krodhavasas
.

Parva, Chapter 269). Wife of Prajapati KaSyapa.

also lived there in secret and taught Krpa everything contained in the four branches of Dhanurveda and the various usages in archery. Gradually Krpa became an

acarya (master) in Dhanurveda. Not only the Pandavas the Kauravas, the Yadavas and the Vrsnis but also the country kings, who came from various regions of learned archery at the feet of Krpa. (Adi Parva, Chapter 130, Verse 23 J.

KRPA
5
)

II
at the trial

419
(xix)

KR.SADRATHA
He advised Karna to enter into a compromise with the Pandavas. (Salya Parva, Chapter 4). He ran away from the battlefield to Dvaipayana (xx) lake (Salya Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 9). Yudhisthira came to the lake with an army and (xxi) ran away from there. (Salya Parva, Chapter 30, Krpa
(xxii)

of skill in archery of the Kauravas and the training of the Kauravas and the Pandavas. the Pandavas in archery was ove^ a test was arranged for them. Spectators crowded to see it. Drona, Krpa, Somadatta, Balhika, Bhisma and Vidura and other great ones took their seats in the stadium. Arjuna and Kama entered the arena for contest when Krpa intervened and said that Arjuna was the youngest son of Kunti but Kama should specify his parentage. At this Karna stood stunned, and it was then that Duryodhana declared Karna to be the King of Anga. (Adi Parva,

Krpa

When

Verse 60).

He

the suggestion of 65, Verse 43).
(xxiii)

on appointed Asvatthama chief of the army Duryodhana. (Salya Parva, Chapter

Chapter
6)

136)'. Activities of Krpa upto the great war.

(i)

He

tthama.
attended
(xxiv)

Rajasuya yajna of Yudhisthira. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 34, Verse 8). There he acted as the custodian of money and distributed daksinas (monetary presents). (Sabha Parva, Chapter 35, Verse 7) It was he who instructed the spies deputed by (ii) Duryodhana as to how to detect the Pandavas during He their life incognito. (Virata Parva, Chapter 29) also detailed to Duryodhana the various aspects of
the
. .

Pandava camp. (Sauptika
106). (xxv)

fought during the night along with Asva(Sauptika Parva, Chapter 5, Verse 35) He killed the soldiers who ran away from the
.

He

Parva,

Chapter
of
the

8,

Verse

He

set

fire

to

the
8,

politics.
(iii )

Krpa once
to

told

months.
7)

enough

annihilate

Duryodhana that he was powerful the Pandava army within two

(Virata Parva, Chapter 193). On the first day of the war he Krpa in the war. ( i) fought with Brhatksetra. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 45). In the fight with Cekitana he fell down and faint(ii) ed. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 31)
.

(iii)

He wounded

Satyaki.

101, Verse 40).

(Bhisma Parva, Chapter

(iv) Fought a duel with Sahadeva. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 110, Verse 12). He fought with Arjuna and Bhlma. (Bhisma Parva, (v) Chapter 113, Verse 114). (vi) Fought with Dhrstaketu. (Drona Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 33). (Drona Parva, (vii) Fought with Vardhaksemi. Chapter 25, Verse 41). His flag floated in the air and could be seen (viii) from anywhere in the battlefield. (Drona Parva, Chapter '105). He killed the body-guards of Abhimanyu. (Drona (ix) Parva, Chapter 42, Verse 38) Fighting with Arjuna he fainted and fell down. (x) (Drona Parva, Chapter 147 Verse 9) (xi) During the fight he ridiculed Karna. (Drona Parva, Chapter 158, Verse 13). He advised Asvatthama to prevent Duryodhana (xii) from confronting Arjuna. (Drona Parva, Chapter 150, Verse 77) In the battle that ensued he defeated Sikhandi. (xiii) (Drona Parva Chapter 169, Verse 39). When Drona fell down dead he fled from the (xiv) battle-field. (Drona Parva, Chapter 193, Verse 12). by Satyaki. (xv) He was defeated (Drona Parva, Chapter 20 Verse 53)
. .
.

(xxvi) He cried at the pitiable condition of Duryodhana. (Sauptika Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 10). Dhrta(xxvii) He went to Hastinapura after telling rastra and Gandharl that both the Kauravas and the Pandavas would be ruined. (Stri Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 21). 8 ) End of Krpa. The great war ended. Duryodhana and others were killed and, when Dhrtarastra left for the forest with Gandhari, Krpa desired to accompany them. But, Dhrtarastra did not permit it. Yudhisthira, as advised by Dhrtarastra, put up Krpa with him. (Ailramavasika Parva, Chapter 16, Verse 5). Before the Pandavas set out on their great journey Yudhisthira appointed Krpa as the preceptor of Parlksit, the son of Arjuna. (Mahaprasthana Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 4).
.

(Sauptika Parva, Chapter

Verse 109).

camp

Pandavas.

During his last days Krpa went into the forest for penance and there he breathed his last. (Sand Parva, Chapter 296, Verse 14)
.

9) Synonyms for Krpa. Acarya, Acaryasattama, BharaSaradvataputra, Brahmarsi, Saradvata, tacarya.

Gautama, Krpa.

KRPI.

Later history.

Krpi was brought up in the palace of King Santanu. She was duly married by Dronacarya and a son called Asvatthama was born to them. (Adi Parva, Chapter 1 30 ) Krpi lamented very much over
.

(See Para 2 under

Krpa II)

.

the death

of Drona in
.

the

great

war.

(Stri

Parva,

Chapter 23, Verse'33)

The

terms

Saradvati
in the

synonyms of Krpi

and Gautami Mahabharata.

are
a

used as

KRSA.
a
lot

I. A friend of sage Srngi. Since of sacrifices for the protection of

Kr

underwent
.

ousness) his was called Krsa. It was Krsa, who told Srngi about King Parlksit who had once thrown a dead snake round his (Srngi's) father's neck. (Adi Parva, Chapters 41

dharma (rightebody became very Krsa (lean) Hence he

KR&A
11).

and 42).
II.

family. The

prominent serpent born in the Airavata serpent was reduced to ashes at the serpent yajna of Janamejaya. (Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse
III.

A

.

(xvi)

He

killed

Suketu,

son
.

of Citraketu.

Parva, Chapter 54, Verse 28) Defeated Yudhamanyu. (Karna Parva, Chapter (xvii) 61, Verse 55).
(xviii)

(Karna

KR.SA
ed

He was

He

killed the
.

Kalinda prince.

Chapter 85, Verse 6)

(Karna Parva,

KRSADRATHA.
emperor
Sibi.

Chapter 26, Verse 7) Son of Titiksa, brother of the famous
.

also present in the company of sages who visitBhisma on his arrow-bed. (Anuasana Parva,

A

great sage

endowed with divine powers.

(Bhagavata,

9th Skandha)

.

KR.SAKA
KR.SAKA.

420
this life.

KRSl^A
your
In that case, in the next birth I shall satisfy I will be In the 28th Dvaparayuga incarnating on earth on behalf of the Devas. Then you also may be born as princesses. I shall incarnate as Krsna in the Yadu dynasty and marry all of you. (Bhagavata, 4th Skandha)
desire.
.

A naga born in the Kagyapa dynasty. (Udyogaparva, Chapter 106, Verse 15). KR.SANU. The sage who stood guard over Soma at the Yajiia conducted by sage Kutsa. (Rgveda, Mandala 1, Anuvaka 16, Sukta 112). KR.SASVA I. The Prajapati called Krsas"va married

KR.SASVA

Jaya and Suprabha the daughters of Daksaprajapati and to both were born fifty sons each. All the sons were really arrows called Sarhhara. Visvamitra, by the power of penance made these hundred sons (arrows) ofKrsava his own. It was these arrows, which Visvamitra gave to Sri Rama and Laksmana. (Vahnlki Ramayana, Balakanda, Cantos 21 and 26)
.

Accordingly sage Narayana was born
the

as

Sri

Krsna
Arjuna

in to

Yadu

be his companion.

dynasty, and sage

Nara was born

as

The

II.

A

king of the solar dynasty.

(Bhagavata,
in his court.
to

KR.SASVA

9th Skandha).
III.

A

(Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 17). Once he came down to earth in Indra's Vimana

King who served Yama

witness Arjuna, in the company of Uttara, the Virata prince, fight during the lifting of cows. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 56) KRSEYU. King born in the Puru dynasty. (See under
.

KRSlVALA. An
court.

A PURUVAMSA)

.

ancient
.

sage

who

lived

in Indra's

curse of Bhrgu the great sage also contributed to Mahavisnu's incarnating himself as Sri Krsna. Once in a war which lasted for 100 years between the Devas and the Asuras most of the latter were killed. Then of the Asuras went to Mount Sukra, preceptor Kailasa to secure exceptional weapons, and the Asuras took refuge under Kavyamata, the mother of Sukra. Devendra sought Mahavisnu's aid, and he cut off Kavyamata's head with his Cakra (discus). Bhrgu was enraged at this killing of a woman. He cursed that Mahavisnu should be born as man. Owing to various reasons like the above Mahavisnu happened to be born as man in the Yadava dynasty, as the son of Vasudeva. (Devi Bhagavata, 5th Skandha).

(Sabha Parva, Chapter 7, Verse 13). KRSNA (SRI KRSNA) Born in the Yadava dynasty as the son of Vasudeva and DevakI, Sri Krsna was the ninth of the ten incarnations of Mahavisnu. Brahma Descended from Visnu thus Genealogy. i ) Atri Candra Budha Pururavas -Ayus Nahusa
,
:

-

Dharma

Bhadrasena Dhanaka Krtavirya Jayadhvaja Talajangha Kartaviryarjuna Ananta Sini Vitihotra Yudhajit Durjaya Kurd AnamiSatyaka Satyaki ( Yuyudhana) Jaya Sura SiniCitraratha Viduratha Prgni tra bhoja Hrdlka Surasena Vasudeva Sri Krsna. Ten sons called Vasudeva, Devabhaga, Devas ravas, Anaka, Srnjaya, Kakanlka, Syamaka, Vatsa, Kavuka and Vasu were born to King Surasena by his wife Marisa. Of those ten sons Vasudeva married DevakI, the sister of Karhsa. He had also a second wife called Rohini and she was the mother of Balabhadrarama.

Yayati

Yadu

Sahasrajit

Satajit

Kunti

Hehaya

To Surasena, the Yadava King of Mathurapuri was born a son called Vasudeva, and DevakI was born as the grand-daughter of Devaka, the brother of Ugrasena, another Yadava King. DevakI was the sister of Karhsa. DevakI was given in marriage to Vasudeva with a dowry of twelve bharas (a Karhsa chariot. particular weight) of gold and a acted as charioteer in the wedding procession during which a celestial voice addressed Karhsa as follows 'Asyah tvam astamagarbho hanta' (Her eighth son will kill you) As soon as he heard the celestial voice Karhsa stood up in the chariot ablaze with rage. He caught hold of DevakI by her hair and raised his sword to cut her throat. All the conciliatory words of Vasudeva failed to pacify Karhsa. Then Vasudeva promised to hand over to Kamsa all the children born
3) Vasudeva' s wedding.
:

.

to

Kamsa
4)

DevakI immediately
left

after

their

birth.

them alone.

Accordingly
child of

2) Sri Krsna' s former

births.

as Varuna, Kasyapaprajapati was born on Vasudeva and his (KaSyapa) wives Aditi and Surasa were born as Devaki and Rohini. (See under Kasyapa and Aditi). Like this Sri Krsna also had previous births. Once upon a time from the heart of Brahma was born the Prajapati called Dharma, who was very truthful and wedded to righteous living according to the

Owing

to

a

curse earth

of

Vasudeva was duly

First-born son of Vasudeva.

The

first-born
to

handed over

Kamsa. But, he

returned the child to its parents as, according to the celestial voice the first-born child was not to be his

Nara and Narayana were born to him. Hari and Krsna turned out to be great Yogins, and Nara and Narayana ascetics. Naranarayanas performed penance to please Brahma for a thousand years at Badarikasrama in the valley of the Himalayas. Celestial women, whom Indra had deputed to break their penance, approached them and requested them to take them (celestial women) as their wives. Ascetic Narayana who got angry at the celestial women's request was about to curse them when sage Nara intervened and pacified him. Then sage Narayana told them
thus
:

injunctions of the Vedas. He wedded the ten daughters of Daksaprajapati, and four sons called Hari, Krsna

enemy. Vasudeva and DevakI brought it up under the name Klrtiman. On one of those days Narada visited Karhsa and told him about his previous life, the object of Krsna's incarnation etc. Then it was that Karhsa realised how fatal to him was the existence of Vasudeva and DevakI, and he hurried up to them and He killed the child by dashing its head against a rock. also kept them chained in prison.
5)

Kamsa's

excitement.

Narada upset Kamsa much. He shut Ugrasena in prison and himself became
;

The information imparted
his

by

father

"You must

protect

my

Vrata

(penance)

in

King. He deputed Asuras like Pralamba, Canura, Trnavarta, Mustika, Arista, Kesl Dhenuka, Agha, Vivida and Putana to harass the Yadavas, the Andhakas and the Vrsnis. After the death of Klrtiman, DevakI, in the prison, delivered five sons. (See under Karhsa. Para 2 for the previous history of the first six sons of DevakI) Karhsa killed all the five children also as soon as they were born.
.

421
6)

KRSNA
wherefrom
!

for her, goddess Earth, in the guise of a cow complained about it to Brahma who took her to Siva who too could not find a solution to the problem posed

Devasura war were later born as cruel and evil Kings on earth. The burden of such Kings having become
too

Birth of Sri Krsna.

The Asuras

killed

in

the

old

much

the child slipped free of his hands and rose in the sky it spoke as follows Oh unrighteous and cruel Kaiiisa thy prowess is not to be exhibited against women. Thy killer is born on earth, and search for him everywhere. (Siva Purana,
:

!

by Bhumidevi. So, all of them accompanied by the Devas approached Mahavisnu and prayed for the redress of their grievance. Mahavisnu sent them back comforted by the assurance that he would be born as the son of Vasudeva and Devaki to solve the problem. He also arranged the Devas to be born as Gopas and on earth for his the Apsara women as Gopikas
assistance.

Chapter
7)

Devaki conceived for the 7th time, and it was an aspect of Ananta. Mahavisnu instructed Mayadevi thus "You go to the earth and transfer the child in Devaki's womb to that of Rohini, the second wife of Vasudeva and after that, at the very time of my birth you should be born as daughter of YaSoda, wife of You would be worshipped by the world Nandagopa.
:

Colour of Sri Krfna and Balabhadrardma. Sii Krsna was dark in colour and Balabhadra white. There is a story in the Mahabharata to explain this difference in their colour. The Devas informed Mahavisnu of their decision to incarnate themselves on earth for the annihilation of the evil and cruel people. Pleased at their decision Visnu plucked from his head a black hair and also a white hair and threw them on the ground, and he said that the black hair would enter Devaki and be born as Krsna while the white one would enter Rohini and be born as Balabhadra. Accordingly Krsna became of the colour of the cloud (black) and Balabhadra white in colour. (Adi Parva,

1).

names like Ambika, Narayani, Candika, Bhadrakall etc. The child transferred by you to Durga, the womb of Rohini will become known as Sankarsana,
in

various

Chapter 199, Verse 31). 8) The incidents during the childhood of Sri Krfna.

Balabhadra and Rama. Accordingly Mayadevi transferred the child in Devaki's womb to that of Rohini, and it was given out that the seventh child of Devaki was aborted in the womb. Devaki conceived for the eighth time, and on Astami day in the month of Simha (Leo, August-September) when the Brahma stars were collected on the same day

to a (1) Putandmoksa (Salvation Putana). Putana, Raksasi and one of the assassins deputed by Karhsa to search out and kill Krsna, went to Krsna's house disguised as a Gopa woman and fed him on her breasts. But the child extracted her life also with her breastmilk, and she assumed her original form and fell down dead.

was Sri Krsna born. Mahavisnu incarnated himself as Krsna with the conch, the discus, the club and the Vasudeva saluted the lotus flower in his four hands. marvellous child, and the chain that bound himself and Devaki broke asunder, and the new-born child "In Svayambhuva Manvanspoke thus to Vasudeva
:

Karhsa next deputed the Asura (2 ) Sakatasura killed. called Sakata to kill Krsna. He approached the sleeping Krsna in the form of a cart and raised great
.

tara the Prajapati called Sutapas

with

his

meditated

12,000 years, and when I appeared to them and asked them to choose any boon they prayed for my being born as their son. In the next life Sutapas was born as Kasyapa and Prsni as Aditi, and I incarnated in the form of Vamana (Dwarf) as their son. Afterwards Kasyapa and Aditi took various births, and I too took various births as their son. Now also, Kasyapa and Aditi, are born as Vasudeva and Devaki. Just at this time a daughter has been born to Nandagopa and Yagoda at Gokula. You shall take me over there and replace me with the Vasudeva child born at Gokula." After having told the above facts Krsna assumed the form of an ordinary child and lay by the side of its mother. At mid-night when the guards at the prison house were deep in sleep the doors of the prison opened by themselves. Vasudeva
for

upon me

wife

Prsni

sound. Krsna jumped awake and kicked the cart into hundreds of pieces. (See under Sakata) (3) Killed Trnavartdsura. Trnavarta, son of Tarakasura, at the behest of Karhsa went to Ambadi in an invisible (formless) manner. Yasoda was then breast-feeding child Krsna, and the child appeared to gradually

increase in weight. YaSoda tried to lay the child on the bed, but had to lay him on the ground as it was too heavy for her to lift up to the bed. At once, Trnavarta, in the form of a whirl-wind, rose up to the sky

carrying Krsna along with him. Ambadi (Gokula) was chokingly filled with clouds of dust the Gopalas cried out. But, Sri Krsna clasped round the Asura's neck and rested, and on account of the child's weight he could not rise any more. The child hardened its hands around the Asura's throat and he got killed and fell down with a thud on a rock. Yasoda hurriedly took the child in her hands and covered it with kisses. (See under Trnavarta).
:

with the child Krsna, started for Gokula and on his the river Yamuna changed its course for him to were open. proceed. The doors of Yasoda's house Owing to the divine prowess of Mayadevi, the child of Yaxoda, everybody in the house went into deep sleep. Vasudeva placed Krsna by the side of YSodaa and returned home with her child. As soon as he had thus returned the prison-guards woke up and reported to Karhsa about the delivery of a child by Devaki. Karhsa rushed to the house, caught hold of the child and was about to dash it against the rock when lo

way

under Garga).

(4) Naming. During this period the famous sage Garga visited Krsna at Ambadi, and he informed Vasudeva and Devaki of the actual facts relating to Krsna. The son of Rohini was brought there, and the child Krsna, sage named him Rama, and Yasoda's and blessed them. Thenceforth Rama and Krsna grew up in Ambadi as the apple of the people's eyes. ( See
(5) All the worlds in Krsna's

she, in great anger, opened the child's mouth to look for the sand when she saw there all the worlds including she closed her herself and alarm. ~ eyes in great

saw Krsna eating

mud and

mouth. The Gopikas once informed Yasoda of it, and

!

(Bhagavata 10th Skandha)

.

KRSIiJA

422

KRS1SA
year passed by thus, and one day Krsna and his companions with their cattle went to the top of Govardhana. Brahma was alarmed to find Krsna with the artificially created Gopalas and the cattle, and while he was looking at them the colour of all of them began changing and within minutes they put on the form of Visnu. Moreover, he saw another Brahma and Brahmaloka. Upset and alarmed by the whole phenomenon he sang the praises of Mahavisnu at which his illusion was. lifted and he saw the actual Krsna, the Gopalas and the cattle. (11) Dhenukasura killed. There lived in the Kadali forest on the banks of the Kalindi an Asura called Dhenuka with his followers. The forest was thick with palm trees. Out of fear of the Asura nobody dared to travel in the forest. Sri Krsna and Balabhadra having heard the story about Dhenuka one day went to the forest with their companions. Balabhadra shook down a lot of the palm fruits the Gopalas loudly cheered him. The Asura rushed forth challenging them when Krsna and Balabhadra thrashed him to death. (12) Suppressed Kaliya. There lived in Kalindi a fierce serpent called Kaliya with his wife and relations. The trees on the banks of the river were withered and had dried up on account of the poisonous breath emitted by the serpent. One day the Gopalas and their cattle drank water in the Kalindi and fell down dead. Then Krsna climbed a tree on the banks of the river and jumped into its waters and Kaliya rushed forward to him with his hoods spread out. Krsna stepped on the hoods and danced thereon. Kaliya vomited blood, got exhausted and prayed to Krsna for mercy. At the instance of Krsna the serpent with its family emigrated to the Ramanaka island. (See under Kaliya) (13) Krfna swallows fire. When Krsna came out of the waters after having suppressed Kaliya and taking with him the gem presented by Kaliya, the Gopalas covered Krsna with embraces. People of Ambadi came to the banks of the Kalindi looking out for the children. As the sun had set by now the Yadavas spent the night there, when a wild fire enveloped them, and they cried out to Krsna. Krsna swallowed the entire fire. (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha). While the Gopalas were playing (14) Killed Pralamba. once under the shade of a giant peepal tree called Bhandiraka an Asura known as Pralamba joined their games disguised as a Gopala. Krsna and Balabhadra
,
.

Yaoda was once (6) Krsna drags Ulukhala. (Mortar). breast-feeding Krsna when she noticed milk flowing out of the boiling pan, and she put the child on the floor and went to attend to the boiling milk. Angry at at this Krsna broke the milk-pot by throwing a stone child to the mortar it. Yasoda then tried to bind the with a cord. But, any number of cords could not reach round the child's waist. At this trouble of his mother Krsna decided to oblige her and then the first cord itself sufficed to bind him round the mortar. But, Krsna then began running, dragging the mortar behind him. Dragging the Ulukhala behind him he
were shaken and at once the trees rose up in the two trees were actually as two Devas. The sky Nalakubara and Manigriva, the sons of Vaisravana, both of whom had been cursed into the form of trees by Narada. (See under Nalakubara). Sri Krsna and Balabhadrarama (7) Vatsasura killed. were one day, engaged in sports along with the Gopalas on the banks of river Kalindi. At that time an Asura sent by Karhsa got into the ranks of the cows disguised as a cow. Sri Krsna understood it; Balabhadra also pointed out the new 'cow' to him. Then Krsna leisurely went towards the herd of cattle, lifted the new 'cow' by its legs and tail and dashed it against a peepal tree. The peepal tree and the one next to it were broken, and thus ended the life of Vatsasura. On another occasion Karhsa deputed (8) Baka killedBakasura, brother of Putana. to kill Krsna. He assumed the form of a bird, and lay there on the road with his wide open. The Gopalas were terrorfierce mouth
trees

One

passed through a narrow gap between two

trees.

The

Krsna entered the cave-like mouth of the bird leaving his companions behind. The Asura closed his mouth, and the Gopalas cried out in fear and agony. But, Sri Krsna stirred round and round within Baka's stomach and he was forced to vomit
stricken. But,

Krsna

Putana, deputed by Karhsa to kill Krsna assumed the form of a serpent and with its mouth opened like a cave lay on the road used by the Gopalas. The stench that emanated from its mouth vitiated the atmosphere. The Gopalas including Krsna and Balabhadra entered

out. Along with Krsna he vomited blood died. (See under Baka) (9) Killed Aghasura. Aghasura, brother of Baka
.

and and

broken stomach. The Gopalas came out of

the serpent's mouth, and immediately its entire body shook and it vomited blood. Life escaped through its

down

On another occasion Brahma saw Mahavisnu, in the assumed form of man, playing on the banks of the Kalindi along with
(10) Brahma placed in ridiculous
situation.

unconscious. But, at the very sight regained consciousness. (See under Agha )

and fell of Krsna they
it
.

Balabhadra and his companions. To test whether God form of man also possessed powers in the assumed

Brahma

carried

Gopalas were naturally upset at the disappearance of
the forest. But, the cattle were to be found nowhere, and when Krsna returned to the banks of the Kalindi the Gopalas too had disappeared. Divining the reason for the whole affair by his divine powers, Krsna created both the Gopalas and the cows with his divine powers.
their cows. After consoling the cattle on the heights of

away

the cattle of the

Gopalas.

The
for

them Krsna searched mount Govardhana and

in

trick. They made all the others take the following pledge, i.e. that all of them would beat one another, and the vanquished should carry about the victor on his head. The beating began, and the Gopa called Srldaman defeated Krsna. Vrsabha defeated Bhadrasena and Balabhadra defeated Pralamba. According to the pledge Sri Krsna carried on his shoulders Srldaman, Bhadrasena carried Vrsabha and Pralamba carried Balabhadra. But, Pralamba rose up to the skies with Balabhadra, who broke the former's head, and Pralamba fell down dead in his actual form as an Asura. The Gopalas were once again (15) Again in wild fire. caught in wild fire at the Munja forest on the banks of the Kalindi. They cried out in great fear when Krsna

understood the

went

to

them and asked them

to

eyes closed.
fire as

They obeyed him, and he swallowed the though it were nectar. The Gopalas were aston-

remain standing with

KRSNA
ished to find themselves safe when eyes. (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha).

423
they opened
their

KRSNA
Then Krsna gave it a kick and the snake transformed itself in to a Deva called Sudarsana. He was a Vidyadhara, who had been converted into a python by the
curse of sage Aiigiras.
(22)

Krsna and his com(16) Blessed the wives of Brahmins. panions one day travelled a long way along the banks of the Kalindl. They felt very hungry and Krsna advised them to request for food at brahmin houses. They begged for food the wives of brahmins, and the wives happy at Krsna's presence there, came with food. Krsna blessed them. (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha). (17) Theft of clothes. Krsna once picked up the clothes of the Gopa women who were bathing in the Kalindi and climbed to the top of a tree with the clothes and played on his flute. The Gopa women came out of the river and saluted Krsna with folded hands. He then returned the clothes to them. (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha). Indra is the (18) Mount Govardhana used as Umbrella. rain-God. The people of Ambadi used to perform yajna every year in favour of Indra for rain- fall. Krsna opposed the custom saying that Mount Govardhana was the house-hold deity of the people of Ambadi and it was enough for them to worship the mountain. The people of Ambadi, therefore, offered the Yajna they had arranged that year for Indra to Govardhana. Angered at this Indra let loose heavy rains on Ambadi. Krsna uprooted and held Mount Govardhana like an umbrella lest the people should suffer from the heavy rains, and they took shelter under it. The rain did not stop even after seven days. Yet, due to Krsna's kindness the people did not suffer any hardships. Beaten at his own game, Indra sang the praises of Krsna. Devasurabhi (cow of the Devas) came and saluted Krsna and anointed him, as the Indra of the Gopalas. The Devas addressed him 'Govinda' meaning, he who protects the cattle. (Bhaga-

(See under Sudarsana).
(

Killed Aristdsura.

Aristasura, a follower of Kamsa, came to Ambadi disguised as an ox, and people got terror-stricken at the sight of the fierce ox. Krsna engaged himself in a duel with the ox (Arista) and killed it. (See under Arista)
.

Vrsdsura)

.

During

this

period

(23) Killed Kesi. Karhsa then sent an Asura called Kesi to Ambadi. He approached Krsna in the guise of a horse into whose mouth the latter thrust his hand, which began growing in size with the result that the Asura vomited blood and expired ; Krsna got the name Ke^ava as he killed Kesi. (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha).

was the

Vyomasura, son of Mayasura (24) Killed Vyomasura. last of the Asuras deputed by Kamsa to kill Krsna. He joined the company of the Gopas disguised as a goat. Krsna dragged him into a cave and killed him there. (Bhagavata 10th Skandha).

Kamsa

9) Sri Kr.ma quits Ambadi.
to

When

all

another

vata, 10th Skandha). Once after having (19) Nandagopa abducted by Varuna. observed Ekadas ivrata Nanda bathed in the river Kalindi. At the instance of Varuna a Deva abducted and took him to the abode of Varuna. People of Ambadi were distressed at the disappearance of Nandagopa. Krsna and Balabhadra dived into the Kalindi and rose up at Varunalaya. Varuna told them that he had abducted Nandagopa so that he might see Visnu in person, and

trick. Kamsa invited Sri Krsna and Balabhadra, feigning great affection, to witness the dhanur yajna (worshipping the bow) being held at Mathurapurl, the capital of the country. The invitation was sent through Akrura, a great devotee of Krsna. He went to Ambadi with a chariot and delivered to Krsna and Balabhadra Kamsa's invitation to them for the fourteen days' dhanur yajna. The Gopas and Gopis shed tears at the prospect of Krsna leaving Ambadi. But, Krsna and Balabhadra took leave of them and started for Mathurapurl in the chariot brought by Akrura. On their way to Mathura they bathed in the Kalindi and when they dived in its waters Akrura saw the Visvarupa (Cosmic form of Krsna) After the bath they continued their journey when Akrura informed Krsna in secret, about all the evil tactics of Kamsa and requested him to kill the latter. (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha).
.

do away with Krsna

failed

the attempts of he resorted to

10)

.

Rama and Krsna

in

Mathurapurl.

be pardoned. Meanwhile the people of Ambadi, who came to Kalindi saw all the worlds reflected in it. Krsna and Rama returned to Ambadi with their father, Nandagopa. (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha) (20) Rdsakridd. At the advent of the spring the melody of Krsna's flute rendered the Gopa women love-lorn. He went to Vrndavana with his flute, and all the Gopa women, both married and unmarried followed him. Krsna made a futile attempt to send them back
requested
to
.

is slain). Rama and Krsna duly reached Mathurapurl, and in the evening they went out for a stroll in the city to view its beauties when they saw a washerman carrying the washed clothes of Kamsa. They asked him for some of the clothes but the washerman not only refused them the clothes but also ridiculed them calling them cattle-breeders. Sri Krsna thrashed the washerman on the spot and distri-

(1) Rajakavadha

(the

washerman

Suddenly Krsna disappeared from among them, and the Gopa women mad with love roamed about Vrndavana with Radha calling "O Krsna Krsna !" Suddenly Krsna appeared before them. He entered the waters of the Kalindi with them and satisfied them. Sri Krsna thus explained Bhaktiyoga to the world. (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha). (2 ) Python swallowed Nandagopa. One day the Gopas performed Mahesvara Puja (worship) in Devi forest, and they spent the night without going to sleep on the banks of the Kalindi. A python from somewhere began swallowing Nandagopa. Though the Gopas tried their best the snake did not loosen its grip on Nandagopa.
!

to their houses. But, the

love-sick

Gopa women

did not.

buted the clothes among the children who had gathered there, himself wearing a yellow cloth from the stock and giving a blue one to Balabhadra. salvation. Nexl, they (2) Kancukakdra (tailor) .given saw a tailor who used to stitch shirts, turbans etc. for

1

Kamsa. He presented costly shirts and turbans to Rama and Krsna. Krsna gave him salvation and distributed the clothes to the Gopas with him. Then Krsna and Rama (3) Suddman presents garlands. entered the house of Sudaman who gave them each a garland. Krsna blessed him. hunch-back Rama and Trivakrd. (4) Straightened the Krsna continued their walk when they saw a female hunch-back coming opposite to them with a beautiful
vessel filled

with aiigaraga (fragrant things

like sandal-

KRSNA
wood, musk
the
.

424

KRSNA
and Kucela became intimate friends. One day, at the instance of the wife of their preceptor, Krsna and Kucela went into the forest to gather firewood. In the heavy rain and storm that followed they lost their track and wandered about in the forest. The next day the preceptor brought them back from the forest. Krsna learned the sixty-four arts and dhanurveda (science of archery) at the feet of Sandlpani. (Bharata, Southern Text,

etc. reduced into a paste to be smeared on She told them that she was the maid-inbody) attendance of Karhsa her name was Trivakra and the arigaraga in the vessel was for the use of Karhsa. She felt pure love for Krsna and gave him the angaraga along with the vessel. Rama and Krsna smeared their bodies with it. Krsna stepped on her feet and with his right hand raised her chin upwards and she was cured of her hunch. Her love for Krsna knew no bounds and she begged him to spend the night in her house. Krsna promised to oblige her on another occasion and conti;

nued the walk.

and Krsna broke it with his left hand before the guards could approach him. With the broken pieces of the bow he killed the soldiers sent by Karhsa to take him and Rama into custody. They again continued their walk. The sun set, and though they lay down to sleep thoughts about the underhand dealings of Karhsa kept them sleepless. That night Krsna (6) Krsna killed the fierce elephant. dreamt many an inauspicious dream. The next morning Karhsa set up an arena for pugilistic combats. Yadava chiefs like Nandagopa, many other important persons in Mathura and Karhsa took their seats on the dais. Famous pugilists like Canura, Mustika, Kuta, Sala and Kosala also entered the scene. Kamsa had stationed a fierce elephant called Kuvalayapida on the way Rama and Krsna had to take to enter the arena for pugilistic competition. The mahout prompted the elephant to catch hold of Krsna, and in the fight that ensued with the animal Krsna killed it and gave one tusk of it to Rama. Krsna beat the mahout also to death with the was seen
there,
tusk. After this they entered the scene.

(5) Krsna broke the bow. their walk into the Yajna

Rama and Krsna
hall of Karhsa.

A

continued
big

bow

When Rama and (Preceptor's fees) Krsna completed their studies they asked the preceptor as to what he wanted by way of tuition fee, and the guru wanted to get back his son, who was, years
(2)

Page 802

;

Sabha Parva, Chapter

38)

.

Gurudaksina

.

ago,

a conch, who had killed their preceptor's son. Sri Krsna entered the sea and killed the Asura. But, the child was not to be seen inside the conch. Blowing this conch, which in later years became famous as Pancajanya, Rama and Krsna went to Yama's abode, who on being told about the object of their visit returned the child to Rama and Krsna. They presented the child to their preceptor. He blessed them and they
returned to Mathurapuri. 1 2 ) Upto Krsna' s return to Dvaraka. 1 ( ) Message through Uddhava. Rama and Krsna who returned to Mathurapuri after their studies at Sandipani's Asrama thought about the people of Ambadi. It was a long time since they had heard about them. So Krsna sent a massage to Ambadi by his minister Uddhava. After duly delivering the message Uddhava stayed at Ambadi four or five months after which he returned to Mathura with the presents given to Krsna by Nandagopa, Yagoda and the other Gopas.

at the sea coast. Varuna told them that it was the Asura called Pancajana, who lived in the sea in the form of

Rama and Krsna went

drowned

in

Prabhasa

tlrtha.

in their chariot to

Varuna

Accordingly

Canura fought against Krsna and Mustika against Rama and both Canura and Mustika were killed. Rama and Krsna killed three other famous pugilists too, who confronted them following the death of Canura and Mustika. Thereupon the remaining pugilists ran away into the forest. Karhsa, burning with anger, jumped up
from
his seat

(7) Karhsa

killed.

The

pugilistic

competition started.

Nandgopa, drown Ugrasena, the friend of our enemies, in the Kalindl" etc. Responding to Karhsa's war-cry Sri Krsna jumped into the former's sofa and pushed him down. Krsna jumped on to the back of Kamsa and killed him. Balabhadra killed with his iron club the
eight brothers of Karhsa who rushed against Krsna. After consoling the women, who lamented over the death of Karhsa and others Sri Krsna got their dead bodies duly cremated. Rama and Krsna released Vasudeva and

roaring,

"Annihilate the Gopalas,

kill

Devaki and Ugrasena immediately from prison. Ugrasena was crowned King of Mathura. Rama and Krsna (8) Farewell to the people of Ambadi. saluted Nandagopa and Yasoda, and entrusted to them their clothes and bows for safe custody. Then saying that they would return after strengthening the Yadu dynasty, Rama and Krsna sent their parents and the other Gopas home. (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha).
1 1 )

Pandavas. The jarasandha war. Asti and Prapti, wives of Karhsa complained about the killing of their husband
to the (4)
to their father Jarasandha, King of Magadha. Jarasandha, aided by such famous Kings as Salva, Kaliiiga, Cediraja, Dantavaktra and Sisupala besieged Mathurapuri with a big army. Yadava leaders like Krsna, Balabhadra, Uddhava, Akrura and Krtavarman met the enemies in battle in which many kings got

the injustice being done against the Pandavas by the Kauravas and the continuous attempts being made to kill Bhima. Akrura visited important persons like Vidura, Dhrtarastra etc. Akrura exhorted Dhrtarastra, who had succeeded Pandu as King, to mete out equal justice to Kauravas as well as to the Pandavas. Akrura returned to Mathura and gave a report to Krsna about his visit

Krsna had promised to visit the (2) Visited Trivakra. house of Trivakra at the time he cured her of her hunch, and she had been for long awaiting Krsna. But only now he got the opportunity to fulfil his promise. He accepted her hospitality at her house and thus ended her grief. By this time (3) Interested himself in the Pandavas. Pandu had died. The Pandavas and Kunti, sister of Krsna's father were living at Hastinapura along with the Kauravas. They were victims to all sorts of miseries. Hearing about the sad plight of the Pandavas Krsna deputed Akrura to Hastinapura to enquire about them. Kuntldevi, with tears in her eyes, told Akrura about

Education of Rama and Krsna. (1 ) After bidding adieu to the people of Ambadi, Vasudeva, on the advice of sage Garga sent Rama and Krsna for their studies to the As rama of the great sage Sandlpani. During their education at the Asrama Krsna

by Krsna

KRS1VA
killed.

425

KRStfA

I

Balabhadra met Jarasandha in duel, but let him on the request of Krsna. But, Jarasandha, supported by Banasura and others besieged Mathura again and again. When Balabhadra attempted to kill Jarasandha, a celestial voice declared that it was not possible for the former to kill Jarasandha, and the war, therefore, ended for the time being.
off

Balabhadra and Krsna 14) Sri Krfna escaped from fire. started for Dvaraka carrying all the riches of Kalayavana. They met Jarasandha on their way and took to
their heels.
set fire

Mount Pravarsana where

to the heights of they disappeared. Jarasandha to the four sides of the mountain when Rama

Jarasandha followed them

eighteenth time. Though during all the wars Jarasandha was defeated, by that time the Yadava power had been weakened much and so Krsna ultimately decided to leave Mathura and found another kingdom somewhere else. Krsna had two reasons to come to this decision. Firstly, Jarasandha was the father-in-law of his uncle Kamsa. Next, it was Jarasandha's object to conquer Mathurapuri for Kariisa's sons. Taking into consideration the above two objects of Jarasandha, Krsna and Rama voluntarily quitted Mathura with the Yadavas and went and lived in the city built for them by VisVakarman on an island called Dvaraka in the western sea. (See under Kugasthali) (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha). 13) Krfna killed Kalayavana. King Kalayavana wanted to conquer Mathurapuri for which purpose he performed penance and secured from Siva the boon that none of the Yadavas would be able to kill him. Krsna had shifted to Dvaraka, somewhat dejected by the thought that Kalayavana could not be killed because of the protection accorded by Siva's boon. Another thing also happened at this juncture. King Mucukunda, son of Mandhata had on the request of Indra gone to Devaloka and defeated the Asuras in war. Indra asked him to choose his reward for this service and Mucukunda wanted to be shown a place for him to sleep as he had not slept for a long time. Indra, accordingly showed him a cave on earth and told him that he who disturbed him in sleep would be reduced to ashes by his very look. Mucukunda went to
.

Krsna and Balabhadra started for mount Gomantaka the repository of gems and on their way they saw Parasurama engaged in penance under a peepal tree. Parasurama told them that there was a kingdom at the foot of the Gomantaka called Karavira ruled by King Srgalavasudeva and advised them to kill him and collect enough money and gems. Krsna and Balabhadra did so and reached Pravarsanagiri with money and gems so collected. There Garuda brought back to Krsna his crown which had been, sometime back, stolen away by Banasura. Krsna and Rama returned to Mathurapuri. Since Srgalavasudeva had been killed by Krsna and Rama, Jarasandha attacked Mathurapuri again, for the
Sri

The conti(5) Krftia and Balabhadra meet Parasurama. nuous war with Jarasandha reduced the financial resources of the Yadavas and to replenish their treasury

Wedding of Rama and Krsna. Balabhadra married Revati, (1) Balabhadra-Revatl. daughter of King Anarta of Kusasthali, former name of Dvaraka. (2) Krsna-RukminL King Bhlsmaka of Vidarbha had five sons the eldest of whom was Rukmi. His sixth child was a daughter and she was named Rukminl. Stories about Krsna kindled in Rukmim love for him. Rukmi, who hated Krsna, wanted to give his sister in marriage to Sisupala. Rukminl sent through a brahmin a message about the affair to Dvaraka. On the day of Rukmini's Svayamvara Rama and Krsna also went to Kundinapuri, capital of Vidarbha. and Krsna. in the presence of all Kings, carried Rukminl away in his chariot. The Kings who, under the leadership of Rukmi, attacked Krsna were routed. A son called Pradyumna was born to Krsna by Rukminl. (See under
15)

and Krsna escaped secretly from the fire to Dvaraka. Jarasandha returned to Magadha believing that both his antagonists were burned to death. (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha)
.

Pradyumna)
(3)

.

King

went ahunting wearing on him the gem called Syamantaka presented to the latter by the Sungod. Jambavan saw a lion carrying off the gem after
Satrajit,

Krsna-Jdmbavati.

Prasena, brother of the

Yadava

sleep in that cave.

Kalayavana approached
latter,

Krsna

to

kill

him and the

pretending to be in fear of Kalayavana, ran before him. Kalayavana followed Krsna, who entered the cave where Mucukunda was sleeping and he followed Krsna into the cave also. Kalayavana, mistaking Mucukunda for Krsna, kicked him violently whereupon he jumped up from sleep and looked at Kalayavana, who was reduced to ashes. Then Krsna appeared before Mucukunda. who praised the former. On the advice of Krsna he performed penance at Badarikas rama and
attained salvation. (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha).

and gave it to his children to play with. A rumour was spread that it was Krsna who had killed and stolen the gem. Krsna searched for the gem in the forest and found it out in the cave of Jambavan. In the duel that ensued between Jambavan and Krsna the former was defeated. He recognised Krsna to be the Lord, and presented Syamantaka and also his daughter JambavatI to Krsna and JambavatI thus became Krsna's wife. (See under Syamantaka) Sri Krsna returned Syaman(4) Sri Kr$na-Satyabhdma. taka to Satrajit and he, in return, gave his daughter Satyabhama in marriage to Krsna. Though Syamantaka was given to Krsna by way of dowry he did not accept it. (Bhagavata, 1 Oth Skandha) The happy news that the Panda(5) Sri Kr$na-Kdlindi. vas had escaped from the lac palace and were living at Khandavaprastha took some time to reach Krsna, who had been pained to know that they were burned to death in the palace. As soon as Krsna knew that the Pandavas were safe at Khandavaprastha he went to them along with Yadava chiefs like Satyaki and others. It was then that the fire-god Vahni, requested Arjuna for the Khandava forest for his food and Arjuna consented to it. It was Krsna who drove Arjuna's chariot
from
it
. .

killing Prasena.

He killed

the lion,

recovered the

gem

in his fight with Indra at the burning of the forest by Agnideva. (See under Khandavadaha) Arjuna saved Maya from the Khandava fire and Maya, in return for the kindness, built a palace for the Pandavas at Indraprastha. Krsna also lived there for a few days. One day while Krsna was strolling on the banks of the Kalindi in the company of Arjuna they saw a woman, who told them that her name was Kalindi and that
.

KRSISA

I

426

KRSISA
Krsna
the
to alleviate the grief

I

daughter would be married down the oxen. Various Ultimately Kings attempted the task but failed. Arjuna and Krsna went to Kosala and Krsna assumed seven forms and tied down the oxen with cords. The seven oxen at once fell down. Krsna took Satya for his

she would marry none but Krsna. Krsna then took her as his wife. (See under Kalindi). After staying at Indraprastha for three or four months Krsna returned to Dvaraka with Kalindi. (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha). The King of AvantI had (6) Sri Krsna-Mitravindd. married Rajadhidevi, sister of Krsna's father and they had two sons called Vinda and Anuvinda and a daughter Mitravinda, who had fixed in her mind Krsna as her husband. Krsna, who was present at her Svayarhvara carried her off on his chariot to Dvaraka. 7 ) Sri Krsna-Satyd. King Nagnajit of Kosala, father of Satya, had seven oxen like elephants in strength. The
1

caused

return

(Bhagavata, 10th Skandha). 22 ) Krsna's sons and grand-children. Ten sons were born from Rukminl to to each of the eight chief wives Laksmana of Krsna. Names of the chief among those eighty sons are given below. Pradyumna, Carudeksna, Sudeksna, (1) Of Rukminl Carudeha, Sucaru, Carugupta, Bhadiacaru, Carucandra, Aticaru, Ca.ru. (2) Of JambavatI Samba, Sumitra. Bhanu, Subhanu, Svarbhanu, (3) Of Satyabhama

by Krsna

of

to Satyabhama by Syamantaka to Satrajit.

King proclaimed
to the person

that his

who would

tie

Prabhanu, Bhanuman, Candrabhanu, Havirbhanu, Sribhanu, Pratibhanu.
(4) (5) (6)

Brhadbhanu,

(7)

wife.

Krsna married Krsna-Kaikeyi (Bhadra). Kaikeyi, the daughter of Srutakirti, sister of Krsna's
(8) Sri
father.

A

(8)

Of Kalindi Sruta. Of Mitravinda Vrkaharhsa. Of Satya Bhanucandra. Of Bhadra Sarigramacitta. Of Laksmana Praghosa.
called

brother of Rukminl.

daughter

Rukmavati was

and Aniruddha was

born to Rukmi, Pradyumna married Rukmavati

their son. It

was

this

Aniruddha,

of Madra became Krsna's wife. (10) Krsna-i6QOO women. Brahma had given the boon to the 16000 daughters of Narakasura in their previous birth that Visnu would marry them in their next birth. While even the Devas were suffering on account of Narakasura, Sri Krsna along with Satyabhama mounted the to Garuda, went kingdom of Pragjyotisa, Narakasura, defeated him in fight and released his 16000 daughters from captivity. He returned with them to Dvaraka, assumed the guise of 16000 men and married those 16000 girls. He built a palace for each of his 16000 wives. (For details see under Narakasura)
.

(9)

Sri Krsna-Laksmana.

Laksmana, daughter of King chose Krsna at her Svayarhvara and she

who wedded Usa. Carumati,
was married by the son
of

Krtavarman. (Bhagavata,

the daughter of

Rukminl

i.e. eight women, Rukmini, Jambavati, Satyabhama, Kalindi, Mitravinda, Satya, Kaikeyi (Bhadra) Laksmana and the 16000 daughters of Narakasura constituted Krsna's harem. (The 16000 daughters of Narakasura are not mentioned by name in the Puranas). (See under Sudatta and

16) Krsna's

16008

wives.

The

down completed his sentences when Rukmini fell unconscious. Krsna then consoled her. (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha)." 24) Krsna fought with Bana. See under Bana 25) Krsna killed Paundraka. See under Paundraka. 26 ) Nrga given salvation. See under Nrga. 27) Srikrsna blessed Pdncdli at the time of her Svayarhvara
go on a pilgrimage for one year as atonement for having got into the palace where Yudhisthira was spending the days with Pancall. It was during this period of his pilgrimage that Arjuna married Subhadra, who vi as the younger sister of Krsna due to whose his wife. cleverness alone Arjuna got her as (For details see under Subhadra) 29) Krsna got the dub called Kaumodaki and he saved Maya. See under Khandavadaha. 30) Krsna with the Pdndavas. The rest of Krsna's life was intimately connected with the history of the Pandavas. Important roles played by Krsna during the period up to the great war, are summarised below. 1 He conducted Yajna continuously for many years ( ) for the protection of Dharma (righteousness). (Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 16). to Rajasuya perform (2) Permitted Yudhisthira 14, Sabha Parva, M.B.). yajna. (Chapter and Arjuna, he went to (3) Along with Bhima
to
.

10th Skandha). 23) Krsna tested Rukmini While Sri Krsna was once having a chat with Rukmini he wanted to test her love for him. So he told her that he was penniless and helpless and was hiding from his enemies there at Dvaraka and that he would only be really glad if she married some other powerful King. Krsna had not

28)

(See under Pancali) . Subhadra given in marriage

to

Arjuna.

Arjuna had

Ketuman IV.)

were two demon brothers. Krsna met Badarikasrama where he had gone after his with Rukmini, to perform penance to Siva for Krsna offered salvation to the two demon

Kama

17) Gave

Salvation

to

Ghantdkarnas.

Ghanta and them at
marriage a child.
brothers,
.

Ghanta and Kama,

18) Fight between Krsna and Arjuna. (See under Galava) 19) Killed Murdsura. (See under Mura ). 20) Killed Narakasura. (See under Naraka). 21) Plucked away Parijata. During the period when Narakasura was having his own ways on the earth and when he took away by force Indra's royal umbrella and the ear-rings of Aditi, the Devamata, Indra sought Krsna's help to suppress the Asura. Krsna along with Satyabhama, mounted Garuda, went and killed the Asura and restored the royal umbrella to Indra and the ear-rings to Aditi. On their way back home Krsna, as desired by Satyabhama, plucked by its roots the
Parijata from Devaloka at which Indra fought Krsna, but got defeated. The Parijata was brought to Dvaraka and planted in front of Satyabhama's palace. It is Stated that Parijata was thus brought and planted by

Mathura in the guise of a brahmin and killed Jarasandha. (See under Jarasandha). Sahadeva, son of Jarasandha, as (4) He crowned King of Mathura. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 24, Verse 43) of money as donation at the (5) He gave a let
.

KRSl^A

I

427

KRSNA

I

Rajasiiya Yajna of Yudhisthira. (Sabha Parva, Chapter
33, Verse 13).
(6)

He was presented with ear-rings (Sabha Parva, Page (goddess Earth)
. .

by Bhumidevi
808,

Southern

Sihupala. (See under Sisupala). the clothes of Pancali unending when Duryodhana tried to strip her naked in the royal assembly. (See under Pancali)
(7)

text)

(8)

He killed He made He

once exhibited his ViSva-rupa (Cosmic form). The Kauravas were frightened to witness Brahma on Krsna's forehead, Siva on his chest, Aditya-VasuRudras in his mouth etc. Sri Krsna granted the blind Dhrtarasfra divine eyes to see this Visvarupa and he the praise of Krsna. Krsna returned to the sang

Pandavas

after advising

Kama

to fight

on the Pandava

side in the

.

and Saubha).

(9)

fought Salva

and Saubha. (See under Salva

(10) He once took Subhadra and Arjuna to Dvaraka. (Vana Parva, Chapter 22; Verses 47, 48).

(11)

He He

consoled

the

Pandavas

at

the

forest.

ate the bit of a leaf of greens from Pancali's (12) vessel and was pleased with her. (See under Pancali) . the wedding of Abhimanyu at (13) Attended

(Vana Parva, Chapter

183, Verse 16).

Kamyaka

Krsna then enthused him to fight by advice, which came later to be known
Gita. The Gita contains the characteristics of the wise people
cription about yajnas,

36) Krsna in the great war. The parts Krsna played during the Kuru-Pandava war are briefly given below. (1) The Kaurava and the Pandava armies were gathered at Kuruksetra in full battle array and Arjuna, at the sight of the thousands of relations in the opposite camp, became a prey to a great delusion and sat down.
as

impending war.

(Udyoga Parva).

Upaplavyanagara and gave a lot of money toJDharmaputra. (Virata Parva, Chapter 72, Verse 24).

who

sent to the court of King Virata a messenger, to him the corrupt ways of the Kauravas and the righteousness of the Pandavas.
(14)

He

explained

and the unwise, desgreatness of knowledge, charaand niskamakarma, yogins, cteristics of Sarhkhya jnanayoga etc. (Bhisma Parva, Chapters 26-42). (2) At the commencement of the battle, Krsna blew
aloud his conch Pancajanya. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 15) (3) Krsna rushed forward with his Cakrayudha to kill Bhisma, who then praised Krsna. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 65) (4) He prompted Arjuna to kill Bhisma. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 106, Verse 33). (5) He received on his chest the Vaisnavastra shot by Bhagadatta against Arjuna. (Drona Parva, Chapter 29, Verse 13). (6) Consoled Arjuna, who was lamenting over the death of Abhimanyu. (Drona Parva, Chapter 72) (7) Consoled Subhadra, who was sunk in sorrow at the loss of her son. (Drona Parva, Chapter 77) (8) Consoled the crying Pancali and Uttara. (Drona Parva, Chapter 78) (9) Took Arjuna in a dream to Siva and got Siva's blessing for him. (Drona Parva, Chapter 80). (10) He looked after the horses in the battle-field.
.
.

Sankhya,

giving him the great the Yoga,

(Udyoga Parva, Chapter 1 ) Narada wanted to know how 31) Tested by Narada. Krsna managed to satisfy all his 16008 wives. For this purpose he visited their houses and Narada was wonder-struck to find Krsna engaged in conversation
.

with his wives in

all

the houses he visited. (Bhagavata,

10th Skandha). 32 ) Krsna blessed Kucela.

See under Kucela.

33) The story of Santdnagopdlam. See para 7 (d) under Arjuna. 34) Krsna feigned sleep. The Kauravas refused to part with half the kingdom to the Pandavas, who had returned from their exile in the forest. Both the sides began preparations for war. Duryodhana went to

.

.

Dvaraka

to invite

at a distance

Duryodhana occupied a stool at the head of Krsna's bed. Arjuna, who also came to seek his help, stood with folded hands at Krsna's feet. It was Arjuna whom Krsna first saw on waking up. But Duryodhana
told

Krsna to his side, and seeing him Krsna feigned sleep and lay down there.

.

was he who had come first. Krsna was in a fix, and he had to promise to help both the sides. He promised his entire army to one side and his personal help, himself without any weapons with him, his to the other side, and Arjuna was asked to make choice first as he was younger than Duryodhana. Arjuna chose Krsna without arms and Duryodhana with his infantry. Krsna agreed to act as Arjuna's

him

that

Drona Parva, Chapter 100). (11) Prompted Arjuna to
Arjuna
(13)
to kill

kill

Duryodhana.

(Drona

it

Parva, Chapter 102). (12) Krsna created illusory darkness and

He

Jayadratha. (See under Jayadratha) lifted the darkness after Jayadratha was killed
.

prompted

by Arjuna. (Drona Parva, Chapter 146). (14) As it was not proper for Arjuna and

Kama

charioteer.

fighting with each other at mid-night he Ghatotkaca to fight Karna. (Drona Parva,

to be deputed Chapter

As messenger of peace in Kaurava assembly. Dharmaputra requested Krsna to find out means to avoid war somehow or other and Krsna sent a message to Dhrtarastra through Sanjaya but nothing came out of it. Ultimately Krsna himself decided to visit the Kauravas for which purpose he went first to Dvaraka in his chariot with Satyaki. On his way Krsna held talks with many a great sage. From Dvaraka he returned to Hastinapura where he visited and consoled Kunti at Vidura's house. He had his supper also there. The next day he attended Duryodhana's court and strongly pleaded for the Pandavas. But Duryodhana and others ridiculed him and even attempted to take him captive. Sri Krsna at
35)

173).

He consoled Dharmaputra, who was grieving (15) over the death of Ghatotkaca. (Drona Parva, Chapter
153).

(16)

He prompted Arjuna
.

to

kill

Karna.

(Karna

(17) Withdrew Arjuna from confrontation with Kama on the pretext of attending to Dharmaputra, who had been wounded. (Karna Parva, Chapter 64). (18) A sudden dispute arose between Dharmaputra and Arjuna, who drew his sword to kill the former. And Krsna reconciled them by relating the story of Vyadha and Kausika (For the story see under Valaka)
.

Parva, Chapter 60)

428
(19)

KRSl^A
loudly. She realised that Krsna was the cause the destruction and cursed him as follows
:

I

Arjuna

dissuaded

him from
.

got ready
the

to

commit
attempt.

suicide:

Krsna
Parva,

of

all

(Kama

Chapter 70)

(20) (21) In the fierce battle that ensued between and Kama, Krsna pressed down the platform chariot when the latter shot the nagastra (the arrow) The arrow flew off with Arjuna's
.

Krsna again prompted Arjuna

to kill

Kama.
Arjuna
of the
serpent

service to

crown.

(22) Arjuna killed Kama after which Krsna prompted Dharmaputra to kill Salya. (Salya Parva, Chapter 7) (23) Krsna prompted Bhima to kill Duryodhana in an
.

(Kama

Parva, Chapter 90)

.

have gained any powers by my loyal and devout my husband, O Krsna I curse you on the strength of that power. Since you forsook relations like the Kauravas and the Pandavas who quarrelled with each other, you also will have to witness the killing of relations. Thirtysix years from today your relations, ministers and sons will be killed, and you too will be killed by a hunter in the forest. Your women-folk also will cry as we women cry now." (Stri Parva, Chapter
"If
I
!

illusory battle.

(Salya Parva, Chapter 58) by Yudhisthira Krsna left the (24) As requested battle-field for Hastinapura and returned after conand Gandhari. soling Dhrtarastra (Salya Parva,
.

The

25).

curse of Gandharl that the Yadava dynasty would be annihilated after thirtysix years was fulfilled. In the thirtysixth year another curse also befell the dynasty

which contributed further

to its annihilation.

Krsna cursed ASvatthama who released arrows against pregnant women. (See under Asvatthama) (26) Asked Bhlsma to instruct Yudhisthira on dharma
(25)
.

Chapter 62)

.

and

(2) Curse

Narada

of the

sages. came to

The

Dvaraka once. Some Yadavas

sages Vis vamitra,

Kanva

brought Samba dressed as a pregnant
sages
this

woman

before the

(righteousness). (Santi Parva, Chapter 51). (27) He granted the boon to Bhisma lying on the bed of arrows that he would not feel hunger and thirst and that his intellect would function powerfully as long as he was discoursing on dharma. (Santi Parva, Chapter 52). He related to Arjuna the root meaning of his ( 28 )

the sages said that the 'pregnant woman' deliver an iron tod, which would become instrumental for the destruction of the Yadava dynasty. Krsna who was told about the curse said that it was as it was destined to be. Next day Samba delivered an iron rod. The Yadavas filed it into powder and threw the
insult,

and asked them derisively what child, whether male or female, would Samba give birth to. Angry at
would

various names. (Santi Parva, Chapter 341). (29) He explained to sages and Bhumidevi some profound doctrines about God and the world. (Anusasana

powder

Parva, Chapter 167). (30) He gave permission to Bhlsma to die. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 167). (31) Consoled GangadevI who grieved over the death of Bhisma. (Anugasana Parva, Chapter 168). He once again revealed the doctrine of the Gita ( 32) in the form of discussions between Siddhamaharsis and

into the sea. Sri Krsna enforced prohibition of liquors in Dvaraka with the object of avoiding any untoward incidents in Dvaraka. It was declared that those who produced liquor would be hanged to death along with their families. (Mausala Parva, Chapter 1). the Yadavas (3 ) Evil omens. Signs of the destruction of began appearing. Agents of Kala visited house after house. Rats multiplied in numbers everywhere in the land, and they began gnawing the nails and hairs of

Kasyapa. (As"ramavasika Parva, Chapter 16). (33) After the great war was over he went to Dvaraka with Subhadra and Satyaki with the consent of Yudhisthira. (Asramavasika Parva, Chapter 57, Verses 54-58) 37) Sri Krsna again at Dvaraka. When Krsna returned to Dvaraka, Sage Uttanka visited him. The sage was told details about the Kauravas and the Pandavas by Krsna. He detailed to the sage spiritual principles too and showed him his Visvarupa (Cosmic form) Krsna participated in festival held by the Yadavas on the Raivata mountain. Afterwards when he went to Dvaraka he told his father Vasudeva details about the war. He himself performed the obsequies of Abhimanyu. (Asvamedha
.

people enjoying sleep. Sheep howled like jackals. Asses were born from cows and cats from mules. Dogs cohabited with rats. The Cakrayudha (Discus) given to Krsna by Agnideva at the time of Khandavadaha disappeared into the sky while the Yadavas were looking on. Thus symptoms of an all-round destruction were
witnessed.

Uddhava and
and

(4)

Destruction of the Yadavas.

Sri

Krsna, Balabhadra,

.

Parva)
38)

.

Killed Hamsadibhakas.

See under Dibhaka.

went

to life. Krsna again 39) Kr^na to Hastinapura. There Uttara, wife of Abhimanyu, delivered, but the child was born dead as the arrow of Asvatthama had hit her womb. Krsna brought the dead child back to life on the request of Kunti. It was this child, who became later famous as Pariksit. (Asva-

brought back

Pariksit

manufacturing and drinking liquor. They also began to quarrel with one another. The powder of the iron rod thrown into the sea was washed ashore and it grew up like arrow-like grass. The Yadavas fought with one another and many were killed. Krsna got terribly angry at the death of Satyaki, Pradyumna and others. He plucked a handful of grass and it transformed itself into an iron rod with which he beat to death those around him. Then all the people plucked up the grass which

others were about to go on a pilgrimage, the Yadus, the Vrsnis and the Andhakas began

medha

Parva, Chapter 66) 40) The evening ofKrsna's life. Most (1) The curse of Gandhari.
.

of the heroes and distinguished archers like Duryodhana had been killed in the great war, and Gandharl overwhelmed with grief and anger at the death of her sons lamented over them

soled the women-folk there. When he told them that Arjuna would come and take care of them, his wives

turned into iron rods. They fought amongst themselves with the iron rods and all of them got killed. During this period Bala(5) Death of Rama aad Krsna. bhadra went and seated himself under a tree in deep meditation. Krsna stood near him. Daruka and Babhru also arrived there. Krsna deputed Daruka to Hastinapura to inform Arjuna about the annihilation of the Yadava race. Then Krsna went to the palace and con-

KRSNA

I

429
clutches,

KRSNADVAIPAYANA
and died
(8)
(

shed tears. Krsna then took leave of Vasudeva and returned to Balabhadra. Krsna saw even at a distance a white serpent coming out of" Balabhadra's mouth and moving away to Patala through the sea. The serpent which was the soul of Balabhadra was duly received by the prominent Nagas in Patala. Krsna roamed about the forest for some time and then lay down on the ground immersed in Yoga with his feet raised up. An Asura called Jara, who saw Krsna's raised feet from a distance mistook the same for a deer and shot it with
arrows. Krsna expired at once and rose up in the guise of Visnu to Vaikuntha. (Mausala Parva) Durvasas (6) Reason for Krsna's foot being hit by arrow. once went to Dvaraka and enquired who was there to put him up as a guest. Krsna invited him to his palace and treated him as a very honoured guest. He began creating trouble there by breaking vessels, eating only very sparsely at times but eating all that he saw at other times. Krsna and Rukmini put up with the vagaries of the sage quite patiently. One day the sage expressed a desire to taste pudding, and accordingly Krsna and Rukmini cooked it and served it to the sage. After tasting some pudding he asked Krsna to smear his whole body with the balance of it and Krsna did so except the bottom of his feet. The sage asked him why he did not smear the nether surface of his feet with the pudding to which Krsna humbly answered that he
his
.

ran off and jumped into the river SarasvatI in its waters. Their souls entered heaven ( Svargarohaiia Parva, Chapters, Verse 25).

did not like doing so. Durvasas smeared Rukminl's body with what remained of the pudding. He yoked Rukmini to the chariot and rode off swiftly in it. On the way he whipped Rukmini. Krsna ran after the chariot so that he might be of service to the sage. After he had gone some distance the sage jumped out of the chariot and ran through the forest. Ultimately he turned round to Krsna and told him as follows "Oh Krsna I am pleased with your service. Let
: ! !

Rukmini have

which Durvasas had broken were found to be glittering condition than of old. Their welfare and happiness were also increased. Krsna died hit by the arrow of the hunter on the lower surface of his feet as he had not smeared that part of the body with the pudding left over by Durvasas. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 159), (There is another story to the effect that Jara, the hunter, was Bali (whom Sri Rama had killed) reborn, and he killed Krsna in retaliation for his former
vessels

the first place among your wives. She will not be affected by old age. And, you will never meet with death by being hit at those parts of your body which have been smeared with the pudding." When Krsna and Rukmini returned to. the palace the
in a

more

in Mahabhdrata. Acyuta, Adhideva, AdhokAdideva, Aja, Amadhya, Anadi, Anadimadhyaparyanta, Anadinidhana, Anadya, Ananta, Andhakavrsninatha, Asita, Atman, Avyakta, Avyaya, BhojarajaBhutesvara, nyavardhana, Bhutapati, Bhutatman, Bhutesa, Cakradhara, Cakradharl, Cakragadabhrt, Cakragadadhara, Cakragadapani, Cakrapani, Cakrayudha, Dasarha, Dagarhabharta, Dasarhadhipati, Dasarhakulavardhana, Dasarhanandana, Dasarhanatha, Dasarhasimha, Dagarhavlra, Damodara, Devadeva, Devadevesa, Devadevesvara, Devakinandana. Gadagraja, Garudadhvaja, Gopala, Gopendra, Gopijanapriya, Govinda, Haladharanuja, Hari, Hrslkesa, Janardana, Kamsakesinisudana, Kamsanisudana, Kaustubhabhusana; Kesava, Kesiha, Kesihanta, Kesinisudana, Kesisudana, Mahabahu, Pitavasas, Ramanatha, Ramanuja Saivyasugrlvavahana, Sambhu, Sankhacakragadadhara, Sankhacakragadahasta, Sankhacakragadapani, Sankhacakrasipani, Sarngadhanurdhara, Sarngadhanva, Sarngagadapani, Sarngagadasipani, SarngI, Sauri, Sulabhrt, Sull, Sarikarsananuja, Sarvadasarhaharta, Sarvanagaripudhvaja, Sarvayadavanandana, Satya, Suparnaketu, Tarksyadhvaja, Tarksyaraksana, Trailokyanatha, Triyuga, Vasudeva, Vasudevaputra, Vrajanatha, VrsniVrsnisardula, Vrsnisrestha, Vrsnikulodvaha, nandana, Vrsnipravara, Vrsnipati, Vrsnipufigava, Vrsnisattama, Vrsnisirhha, Vrsnijiva, VrsnyandhakaVrsnyandhakottama, Yadava, Yadavasardula, pati, Yadavasrestha, Yadavagrya, Yadavanandana, Yadavesvara, Yadusardula, Yadusrestha, Yadudvaha, YaduYaduttama, Yaduvarhsapungava, Yadusukhavaha, vivardhana, Yogesvara, Yoglsa, Yogi. (b) Synonyms of Krsna in Amarakosa. Visnur Narayanah Krsno Vaikuntho Vistara<ravah/ Damodaro Hrsikes'ah Kesavo Madhavah Svabhuh// Daityarih Pundarlkakso Govindo Garudadhvajah/ Pitambarocyutah Sarngl Visvakseno Janardanah // Upendra Indravarajah Cakrapaniscaturbhujah Padmanabho Madhuripur Vasudevas Trivikramah// Devakmandanassaurih Srlpatih Purusottamah/ Vanamall Balidhvarhsl Kamsaratir Adhoksajah// Visvambharah Kaitabhajid Vidhus Srivatsalanchanah.

Names of Krsna.

a ) Used

saja,

<

death).
(7)
(i)

After Kruno's death.
.

Arjuna came to Dvaraka and cremated Krsna. (Mausala Parva, Chapter 7, Verse 31) (ii) After his death Krsna, lives in the guise of Narayana in the divine sphere. ( Svargarohana Parva, Chapter 5, Verses 24-26) (Hi) Anointed queens like Rukmini and JambavatI
.

nabha, Madhuripu, Vasudeva, Trivikrama, Devakinandana, Sauri.Srlpati, Purusottama, Vanamall, Balidhvamsl, Kamsarati, Adhoksaja, Visvambhara, Kaitabhajit, Vidhu, Srlvatsalanchana.) KRSl^A. I. Another name for Pancali. under (See
.

(Visnu, Narayana, Krsna, Vaikuntha, VistaraSravas, Hrslkesa, Kesava, Madhava, Svabhu, Pundarikaksa, Daityari, Govinda, Garudadhvaja, Pltambara, Acyuta, Sarngl, Visvaksena, Janardana, Upendra, Indravaraja. Cakrapani, Caturbhuja, Padma-

Damodara,

Pancall

.

and some other wives of Krsna entered his funeral pyre and ended their lives. (Mausala Parva, Chapter 7, Verses 73 and 74). (iv) While Arjuna was leading the remaining wives of Krsna away from Dvaraka forest-dwellers attacked them on the way. But the women, to escape from their

KRSNA

II.

Parva, Verse 9). KRSNA IV. A female attendant of Skandadeva. (Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 22) KRSNADEVA. See under Dinanatha. KRSNADVAIPAYANA. Vyasa. (See under Vyasa) .

KRSI^A

A

III.
6,

river in South India. Another name for Durga. (Virata

Chapter

.

KRSNAKARNl
A
female

430
attendant of Skandadeva.
felt

KRTAVARMA

(Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 24). KRSNAKESA. A warrior of Skandadeva. (Salya Parva,

KRS1VANANDA. A Sanskrit poet who ed in the 13th century A.D. He is the author of Sahrdayananda Kavya
li

Chapter 45, Verse 61)

.

which contains ofNala.
Guardians Skandha)
.

fifteen cantos.

The theme

is

the

story

ashamed at the sight and questioned Parvati about her action whereupon she cursed and turned Citraketu into an Asura. The well known Vrtrasura was Citraketu thus reborn. Krtadyuti ended her life following the curse upon her husband. (Bhagavata, 6th Skandha). KRTAGHNA. See under Dhanasarman. KRTAGNI. A King of the Yadu dynasty. Descended
Krtagni. Krtagni was the brother of Krtavirya, who was the father of Kartavlryarjuna. Krtavirya had three brothers called Krtagni, Krtavarman and Krtaujas. (Krtayus). KRTAKSAI^A. A King of Videha, who was a member in Yudhisthira 's court. He made a present of fourteen thousand horses to Yudhisthira. (Sabha Parva)
.

KRSIVANJANA.
of

Capital city of Nirrti, one of the eight the quarters. (Devi Bhiigavata, 8th

from Yadu thus: Sahasrajit Satajit Kunti Bhadrasena Dhanaka

Hehaya

Dharma

KRSNANUBHAUTIKA. A
Bhisma on
his

bed of arrows.

He visited great sage. (Sand Parva, Chapter
.

KRSIVAPARVATA. A mountain
dear to Visnu.

in Kusa island very Parva, Chapter 12, Verse 4) (Bhisma KRSIVATREYA. A great sage of ancient India. It is said that this sage grasped the whole of Ayurveda and practised it by the strength of his penance (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 210, Verse 21)
.

47, Verse 11).

KRTAMALA. The
KRTAPARVA.
appeared as
fish.

river

in

which Mahavisnu
.

first

KRTASAUCAM.

under Yadava VarhiSa)

(See under Matsya.vata.ra) A King of the Yadava dynasty. (See
.

KRSTiJAVARTMAN.
addressed by
this

Another name
at
.

word

for Agni.

the serpent yajna

(M.B. Chapter 55, Verse 10) KRSlVAVEIill. A sacred river

Agni was by Astlka.

holy centre in Kuruksetra. He who bathes here will derive the benefits of conducting a Pundarlka Yajna. (Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Verse

A

in South India. bath in the Devakunda in this river (Jatismarahrada) will kindle in one remembrance about previous life. (Sabha

A

Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 20). Agni is supposed to originate from this hrada. (Vana Parva, Chapter 222, Verse 26). KRTA. I. A King of Janaka's dynasty. He was the son of Sunaka. (Bhagavata, 9th ofVijayaand father Skandha) Krta had seven beautiful daughters who, because of a sense of non-attachment and renunciation, forsook their father's home for the cremation ground even while they were mere children. They lay down there declaring that they had left their bodies as food for the birds; and birds and wild beasts ate up their beautiful bodies. Because of this life of renunciation,
.

they attained salvation.

(Kathasaritsagara,
.

Madana-

manjukalambaka, Tarahga 2) KRTA II. A VisVadeva (Universal Deva). Parva, Chapter 91, Verse 31 ).

(Anusasana

great sage, who had distinguished himself in the court of Yudhisthira. He lived a life of renunciation as a Vanaprastha and attained heaven. (Santi Parva, Chapter 244, Verse 18) KRTASVA. A great sage of ancient days. He was the son-in-law of Daksaprajapati. Daksa had sixty daughters by his wife Virani, thirteen of whom were wedded to Kasyapa, ten to Dharma, twenty-seven to Candra, two to Bhrgu, four to Aristanemi, two to Krtasva and two to Angiras. (Devi Bhagavata, 7th Skandha) KRTAUJAS. See under KRTAGNI. KRTAVAK. great sage, who was an admirer of Yudhisthira. (Vana Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 24) King of the Vrsni dynasty. In the previous generation of Vrsni also a Krtavarman is noticed. The genealogy of both is given below. Brahma Descended from Visnu thus 1) Genealogy. Atri Candra Budha Nahusa Pururavas Ayus
. .

KRTASRAMA. A

A

.

KRTAVARMA. A

:

KRTACETAS. A

Yayati

great sage of ancient days. (Vana Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 22). KRTADHVAJA. King of Janaka's dynasty. (See under Varhsavali) KRTADYUTI. Queen of King Citraketu. Though the King had many wives he had no children. He pleased Angiras by means of his austerities and due to thelatter's blessing Krtadyuti delivered a son. But, her co-wives poisoned the child to death at which both Citraketu and Krtadyuti fell down unconscious. Though Angiras and Narada appeared on the scene and tried their best to console the King and the queen they refused to be comforted. Then Angiras returned to them the soul of the dead child. The soul saluted them and spoke as "Oh elders, during various births I had been follows: the son of various parents. And, you please point out to me the particular parent as whose son I am to live

A
.

Yadu Sahasrajit Satajit Hehaya Dharma Sadajit Dhanaka. Dhanaka had four sons called Krtavirya, Krtagni, Krtavarman and Krtaujas, and one of the four was the first
Kunti
Krtavarman.

continues again from Krtavirya KrtaviryaMadhu Vrsni Kartavlryarjuna Yudhajit Sini Satyaka Satyaki (Yuyudhana) Jaya Kani Anamitra Prsni Citraratha Viduratha Sura Sini

The dynasty

Bhoja Hrdika Krtavarman. Hrdika had four sons, viz. Devavaha, Gadadhanvan, Krtavarman and Sura. And, Sura begot of his wife, Marisa ten sons, i.e. Vasu, Devabhaga, Devasravas, Anaka, Srnjaya, Kakanlka, Syamaka, Vatsa, Kavuka and Vasudeva. Sri Krsna was the son of Vasudeva. The Krtavarman referred to below was the brother of Krsna's grand-father. 2) Krtavarman and Syamantaka. King Satrajit had in his possession the famous gem called Syamantaka. The King's brother Prasena, went for hunting with this jewel on him. A lion killed Prasena, and Jamba van killed the lion and got the gem. A scandal was circulated to the effect that Sri Krsna had stolen the gem. But, Krsna got back the gem from Jambavan and handed it over

just

now." Nobody had any answer to this question, and the child went on its own way. Afterwards Citraketu and Krtadyuti went round the earth as great devotees of the Almighty, and during this perambulation Citraketu came to the presence of Siva on whose thigh Parvati was sitting then. Citraketu

KRTAVARMA
to Satrajit,

431

KRTEYU
(Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 113, and Drona Parva, Chapter
14).'

who in turn, gave his daughter Satyabhama in marriage to Krsna. Though Satrajit wanted to give the gem Syamantaka to Krsna as dowry, the latter
did not accept
it.

Akrura and Krtavarman were bosom friends, and they incited another Yadava King Satadhanva, to grab the Syamantaka. Satadhanva killed Satrajit and took possession of the gem. Hearing about this murder Sri Krsna and Balabhadrarama set out to kill Satadhanva, who, in great alarm, started for north after entrusting the gem to Akrura and Krtavarman. His horse died at Mithilapun and he began running. Balabhadra and Krsna ran after him, caught and killed him. But, they did not get the Syamantaka. Now Akrura and Krtavarman began their penance at KasT. Seven years passed thus when famine broke out in Dvaraka. When once upon a time famine stalked KasI the king had brought Svaphalka, father of Akrura, over to Kail, and there was no more famine in the country. Therefore, when famine broke out in Dvaraka the Yadavas thought the presence of Svaphalka's son, Akrura would dispel the famine. Accordingly Akrura was recalled to Dvaraka, and along with him returned Krtavarman also. Sri Krsna and Balabhadra decided that Syamantaka should be kept by Akrura himself.
3) Other information relating to Krtavarman. He was a very famous archer. (Adi Parva, Chapter (i) 67, Verse 81). He was a great devotee of Sri Krsna. (M.B. Adi (ii) Parva, Chapter 63, Verse 105) Svayarhvara of Panca.li. (iii) He was present at the
.

(Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Verse 18).
(iv)

He had

sents to

once gone to Khandavaprastha with preSubhadra. (Adi Parva, Chapter 220, Verse

(v) He was a member in the court of Yudhisthira. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 30) (vi) He was one of the seven Maharathas in the Vrsni
.

31).

(xxiii) Following the death of Drona he ran away from the battle-field. (Drona Parva, Chapter 139, Verse 13). (xxiv) He fainted on the field in fight with Dhrstadyumna. (Karna Parva, Chapter 54). When he regained consciousness he met Duryodhana at Dvaipayanasaras and induced him to fight. Dharmaputra followed him with the army. (xxv) He also was present with Asvatthama when he attacked those who were asleep during night. (Sauptika Parva, Chapter 5, Verse 38) (xxvi) It was he, who set fire to the camp of the Pandavas. (Sauptika Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 109). (xxvii) He returned home after informing Dhrtarastra about the death of Duryodhana, on the termination of the great war. (Strl Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 21). (xxviii) He was present along with Krsna at the Asvamedha yajna conducted by Yudhisthira. (Asvamedhika Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 3) (xxix) He was killed in the club-fight by the Yadavas. Mausala Parva, Chapter 3, Verse 28). xxx ) After death he joined the Marudgana and secured ( eternal fame. ( Svargarohana Parva, Chapter 5 3 Verse
. .

He attacked Abhimanyu and killed his horse. (Drona Parva, Chapter 48, Verse 32). (xix) He fell down and swooned in the fight with Arjuna. (Drona Parva, Chapter 92 Verses 16-33). (xx) Afterwards he fought with Yudhamanyu and Uttamaujas. (Drona Parva, Chapter 92, Verse 27) (xxi) On another occasion he defeated Sikhandi and Bhima. (Drona Parva, Chapter 114, Verse 59). (xxii) He defeated Yudhisthira also in fighting. (Drona Parva, Chapter 165, Verse 24).
(xviii)
.

13.)

dynasty, the other six being Sri Krsna, Carudeksna, Saineya, Cakradeva, Pradyumna and Samba. (vii) He was present at the marriage of Abhimanyu at Upaplavyanagara (Virata Parva, Chapter 72, Verse 21). (viii) The Pandavas invited him to war against the Kauravas. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 12). (ix) As demanded by Duryodhana he contributed an AksauhinI (a particular division of army) to the

Kaurava forces (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 7, Verse 32). (x) As ordered by Satyaki he stationed himself at the Chapter city gates to protect Krsna. (Udyoga Parva,

On the first day of the great war he fought a duel with Satyaki. (Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 12). wounded him. (Bhlsma Parva, (xii) Abhimanyu Chapter 47, Verse 10).
(xi)
(xiii)

130, Verse 10).

AnartavasI, Bhoja, BhojaMadhava, Satvata, Hardikya, Hrdikatmaja, Varsneya, Vrsnisirhha. KRTAVEGA. A very holy Rajarsi. He was a member in the court of Yama. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 89). KRTAVlRYA I. Father of the famous Kartaviryarjuna He got a Soma (For genealogy see under Kartavlrya) Yajna conducted by the sages of the family of Bhrgu and gave away a lot of wealth to people of Bhrgu's family (Adi Parva. Chapter 177, Verse 18). Krtavlrya was a member of the court of Yamaraja. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 9). KRTAVlRYA II. Father-in-law of king Aharhyati of the solar dynasty. He had a daughter called Bhanumatl. (Adi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 15)
raja,
. .

4) Synonyms for Krtavarman.

KRTAYUGA.

He was
set

Verse 17).
(xiv)

vyuha

posted at the head of the Krauncarunaup by Bhlsma. (Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 75,

Bhlmasena defeated him. (Bhlsma Parva, Chapter
(Bhlsma Parva,
Chapter

82, Verse 61).
(xv) Satyaki wounded him. 104, Verse 16).
(xvi)

was fought between him and Dhrstadyumna. (Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 110, Verse 9). (xvii) He fought with Arjuna, Bhlma and Satyaki.

A duel

KRTAYUS (KRTAUJAS). A
under

There are four Yugas (Eras) called Krta, Treta, Dvapara and Kali yugas. (For the set up etc. of the Yugas see under Manvantara). In the first Yuga, i.e. Krta yuga, people will be quite righteous. As the Yugas change righteousness will fade out in increasing measure till the world will be filled with unrighteousness and evil by the time it is Kaliyuga. When Kaliyuga is completed Mahavisnu will incarnate himself as Kalki and wipe out unrighteousness and establish Krtayuga once again.

KRTEYU. A

KRTAGNI).

brother of Krtagni. (See

king born in the

Anga

dynasty.

KRTII
KRTI

432

KRTYA
should be given to the Pandavas or not. Sakuni and others advised Duryodhana to give it, but the latter remained adamant against it. Dhrtarastra decided to

had two disciples called Hiranyanabha alias Kausalya and Pauspiiiji. Krti was a disciple of Hiranyanabha, and he composed twentyfour Samhitas for the Samaveda and taught them to his disciples. (Visnu Purana,

A Sage who belonged to the order of the disciple I. of Vedavyasa. Jaimini was the disciple of Vyasa, and Sumantu the son of Jaimini. Sumantu had a son called Sutva, and Sukarma was the son of the latter. He

KRTI

Part

purpose spread darbha grass on The Asuras heard about these developments and created a Krtya by mantras. The Krtya took Duryodhana to Patala where the Asuras advised him against any compromise with the Panda-

end

his life

and

for the

earth

and

sat thereon.

3, II.

ChapterS).

A

saintly

(Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 9) Visvadeva (universal deva) (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 91, Verse 35) KRTI IV. A synonym of Mahavisnu. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 149, Verse 22). KRTI V. A King of Sukaradesa. He presented hundred elephants to Yudhisthira. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 52, Verse 25). KRTI VI. A son of Nahusa. Nahusa had five other

King who

flourished in the court of
. .

the other hand they wanted vas. his hatred Pandavas, against the

On
to

KRTI

Yarnaraja.
III.

A

him

all

back

support.

After

that

him to intensify and they assured Krtya took Duryodhana
.

Hastinapura. (Vana Parva, Chapter 252)

.

KRTTIKA
six faces

sons called Yati, Yayati, Samyati, Ayati and Viyati. Krti was the sixth son and the youngest of the lot. When Subrahmanya was born the Devas I. deputed six mothers to breast-feed him, and they are called Krttikas. Certain Puranas hold the view that

creeper, during yajnas, and that is called Somapana) the Asvinidevas Aggrieved at the orders of Indra wandered about the world in the course of which they approached sage Cyavana of the Bhargava family. They restored sight to the blind Cyavana, who, in return, assured them that he would see to it that they
.

Devendra once (2 ) Krtya born under the name Madana. prevented the Asvinidevas from drinking Soma juice. (Devas drink a liquid-liqueur extracted from the soma

were caused

to

feed on six breasts at the same time while others opine that six mothers were deputed to feed him as he was born with six faces. Again, according to certain Puranas it was Parvati, who deputed the Krttikas. The child came to be known as Karttikeya also, as it was fed by the Krttikas. (Skanda Purana, Valmiki Ramayana,

Subrahmanya

as

he had to

Cyavana began got the right of drinking soma juice. a Yajna and Indra came for Somapana. The sage invited the Asvinidevas also for Somapana. Indra prevented them from doing so, and the sage opposed
him.

The

Balakanda. Canto 37 and Kathasaritsagara,

Lavanaka-

lambaka, Tarahga 6). After having fed Skanda the Krttikas entered into the sphere of the stars. (Vana Parva, Chapter 236, Verse

raised from the Yajnic fire a Krtya which appeared in male form under the name Madana. Sharp molar teeth hundred yojanas long, other teeth each ten yojanas long, hands ten thousand yojanas long and as big as mountains, round eyes like the Sun and Moon, mouth spitting fire such was Madana, the Krtya, a
really terrible being. Frightened at the sight of the terrible being Indra permitted the Asvinidevas to drink

sage

Then Indra drew his Vajrayudha against Cyavana. made Indra's hands paralysed. Further, he

entered is 11). The star into which the Krttikas called the Krttika star. Narada said once that if one feeds brahmins with ghee and pudding on Karttika day

Soma.

KRTTIKA
will

one may ascend Chapter 64, Verse
II.

to 5)
.

Devaloka.
place.

(Anusasana Parva,
bathes here an Atiratra
.

Ekadasi Vrata and the
obstruct
it

(3) Krtya against Ambarifa.

somehow

Ambarisa once began the Devas deputed Durvasas to or other. Durvasas came to

A

holy
benefits

He who
performing

derive

the

of

KRTTIKASIGARAKA. A
here and observes
fast

Yajna.

(Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 51)
holy centre.

bathes for two weeks will be absolved
.

He who
who

KRTTIKASRAMA. A

from

sins.

(Anusasana Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 22)
holy centre.

One

bathes

here and worships the Pitrs will be absolved from sins. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 22). KRTTIVASESVARA. See under Siva. KRTVl. Krtvl alias Kirtimati was the daughter of sage Suka. Anuha, born in the family of Ajamldha,

worlds. At last the sage sought refuge with Ambarisa himself and thus saved himself. (Bhagavata, 9th

Ambarisa, who requested him to return after bath. But, though the vrata was over the sage did not return and Ambarisa fed the Devas with the offerings (havis) Immediately after that Durvasas returned and complained that what he was given was the left-overs of the havis. By means of black art he created a Krtya, who charged against Ambarlsa's throat. Ambarisa prayed and the Sudars ana Cakra of Visnu appeared and killed the Krtya and drove Durvasas round the three
.

Skandha)

.

married Krtvi, and Brahmadatta was their son. KRTYA (KRTYAKA) I. A Raksasi who is born when the black arts as enunciated in the Atharvaveda are practised to annihilate enemies. Krtya may appear in male form too. Some of the activities of Krtya are

dharva, Arjuna saved him out of fraternal consideration for him. Duryodhana returned to Hastinapura. Now the question was whether half of the kingdom

While the Pandavas were (1) Carried off Duryodhana. living in exile in the forest, Duryodhana and others went in a procession to the forest Though Duryodhana was taken into captivity in the forest by a Gan.

given below.

While Krsna was ruling (4) Krtya opposed Sri Kr^na. Dvaraka, Paundrakavasudeva was the King of Karusa. Once he sent a messenger to ask Krsna to go and bow down before him as he was the real Vasudeva. Enraged at this insolent demand Krsna cut off Paundraka's head with the Sudan'ana Cakra. The dead King's son, Sudaksina, to gather power enough to fight Krsna went to Ka^I and performed penance to please Siva. Siva appeared and taught him the method of creating Krtya. Accordingly he created from fire, a Krtya, who dashed against Krsna roaring like hell. Krsna used the Sudarsana Cakra, which burnt to death not only the Krtya, but also Sudaksina.

KRTYA

II

433

KSEMASARMA
the hermit Kalakavrksiya began to travel throughout As if the the country with a crow kept in a cage. crow was speaking, the hermit began to tell the past, present and future fortunes of the people. The crow became famous and people began to have faith in the crow. Once Kalakavrksiya and the crow reached the palace and under the pretence that the crow was speaking, the hermit disclosed all the secret dealings of the treasury-keeper. The servants of the King stealthily put the crow to death that night. When the King knew this he made Kalakavrksiya the minister and the country began to prosper. ( M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter

To change the nature of (5) Krtya against Prahldda. Prahlada, a great devotee of Visnu, his father Hiranyakasipu deputed Asura preceptors. But, severe punishments like poisoning, throwing into fire etc. did not succeed in changing the devotee's character. At last,
the preceptors raised Krtya from fire. The Sulam, which Krtya thrust against the throat of Prahlada was broken into hundreds of pieces. Krtya then got angry and turned against the preceptors, who had sent her

on the verge of death. But, Prahlada touched their bodies and they became alive again. (Visnu Purana, Part 1, Chapter 18). KRTYA II. A river. Indians used to drink water from this river. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9 Verse 18). KRURA (KRODHA)! A daughter of Prajapati Daksa. She became the wife of Kasyapa. A large number of Asuras were born to her. They all were very cruel and were called Krodhavasas. (Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 65, Stanza 32) KRtJRA. A country in Ancient India. (Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 65)
. .

against Prahlada.

The

preceptors

fell

down unconscious

KSA(g). This letter means (1) Ksatriya (2) field (3) Narasirhha (the lion-man incarnation of Visnu) (4) Hari (Visnu) (5) Protector of temples and gate keeper. (6) Lightning (7) Destruction (8) A demon. KSAMA. Wife of Prajapati Pulaha. Three sons Kardama, Urvarlyan and Sahisnu were born to Pulaha of his wife Ksama. (Visnu Purana, Arhsa 1, Stanza 10).

another occasion the treasury of the King Ksemabecame empty. At this time King Janaka had come to war with this King. According to the sincere advice of Kalakavrksiya the King married the daughter of King Janaka. From that day onwards his country became prosperous. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 106). KSEMADHANVA. A famous archer who fought on the side of the Kauravas. This archer led Duryodhana in the battlefield. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 17, Stanza
darsi

82).

On

KSEMADHURTI.
India.
It
is

27).

I.

A
in

KSAMAKA.' A King"

'

of the

Puru

dynasty.

(Agni
a

KSATRADEVA. The

Purana, Chapter 278)

.

son

of

gikhandl.

He was

famous archer. Bhagadatta wounded the right hand of Ksatradeva in the Bharata-battle. He fought with Drona. Laksmana killed Laksmana and him. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapters 57 and 171; Bhisma Parva, Chapter 95; Drona Parva, Chapters 14, 21 and 23 Kama Parva, Chapter 6) KSATRADHARMAN. A son of Dhrstadyumna. The teacher Drona killed him. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 125, Stanza "66).
;

KSEMADHURTI
KSEMADHURTI

ruled over the country called Kuluta. In the battle of Bharata he fought on the side of the Kauravas and was killed by Bhimasena. ( M.B. Karna Parva, Chapter 12, Stanza 44). II. A King who took the side of the Kauravas. This King who was the brother of Brhantaka, fought with Satyaki in the Bharata battle. (M.B.

Parva, Mahabharata, Adi Chapter 67, Stanza 64 that this King was born from a portion of the Asura called Krodhavasa. The King
stated

Ksatriya

King

of

Ancient

Salya Parva, Chapter 21, Stanza 8).
III.

A

warrior.
fight.
(

He

.

KSEMAGIRl. Anothername

Brhatksatra and died in the Chapter 107, Stanza 6).

M.B. Drona Parva,

fought

with

KSATRANJAYA. A
killed

son

of

him. (M.B. Drona' Parva, Chapter
son

Dhrstadyumna.
10,

Drona
Stanza

of Dhrstadyumna. He fought with Jayadratha in the battle of Bharata. Drona killed him. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 186). KSATRIYA. See under Caturvarnya.

KSATRAVARMAN. A
KSATTA

53).

KSEMAKA
had

I.

Vidura.

word Varna. maid. This celestial maid took part in the birth celebration of Arjuna. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 122, Stanza 66). KSEMA. A King in Ancient India. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Stanza 65,
.See under the
celestial

KSATTA. II. KSEMA. A

that this Raksasa 2, it is mentioned KasI and that the King Divodasa killed this Raksasa and built a city there. KSEMAKA II. A serpent (Naga) born to KasyapaAdi Parva., (M.B. prajapati of his wife Kadru. Chapter 53, Stanza 11 ). KSEMAKA III. A King who was a luminary in the palace of Yudhisthira. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 4, Stanza 24, that the Pandavas had sent invitation to this King for the

of Bhadrakall (a goddess). that In Agni Purana, Chapter 12, it is mentioned Vedagarbha, Ambika, Bhadrakall, Arya, Durga, Bhadra, Ksemya and Naikabahu are also synonyms of Bhadrakall. A Raksasa (giant). In Brahmanda I.

Purana, Chapter
lived in

Parva, Chapter 21, Stanza 53) K!?EMADARSI. A King of Kosala. There is a story in the Mahabharata stating how the hermit Kalakavrkslya saved this King from the trap laid by his favourites. The treasury-keeper spent the money of the
.

that this King was the rebirth of the Asura KrodhavaSa. In the Bharata-battle this King took the side of the Pandavas and was killed by Drona. (M.B. Drona

battle of Bharata.

KSEMAMURTI. A
Jayadratha.

KSEMA5IKARA. A King who
This King

son of Dhrtarastra. Parva, Chapter 67, Stanza 100).

(M.B. Adi

was

ruled over

King

lavishly

on

himself.

The

KSEMASARMA. A

Trigarta. Nakula killed this King. (M.B. Chapters 265 and 275).

the friend of the country of

Vana

Parva,

consider

how

subjects

to

inform

the

King about

began

to

this.

Finally

warrior who fought on the side of the Kauravas. Ksemasarma stood and fought at the neck of the Garudavyuha ( the formation of the

army

KSEMAVAHA
into the shape of an

434
eagle)

KUBERA

KSEMAVAHA. A

warrior of Skanda. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 66). KSEMAVRDDHI. The minister of King Salva. He was both minister and general of the army at the same time. Samba, the son of Sri Krsna defeated Ksemavrddhi. (Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 16). KSETRA (S). Sacred spots. In Malayalam it means

Drona Parva, Chapter

20, Stanza 6).

made by Karna.

(M.B.

KSlRAVATl. A

holy bath. Those who bathe in this holy bath will obtain the fruits of performing the sacrifice of Vajapeya. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 84) KSlRIN. A tree in the family of the Uttara Kurus. This tree has six tastes. Milk flows ceaselessly from this tree. It is said that from the fruit of this tree we could get cloth, ornaments etc. (M.B. Bhisma Parva,
.

KSIT1KAMPANA. A

Temples
the soul

also.

The temples of India 1 General information. ) reflections of the outward form or body of man.
lives in

are

the

temples. The stone, rock, marble, metals etc. are equal to the bones of the body of a man.

body of man, God dwells

As
the

in

2)

Temples are of two types. types of temples. These are type is the Gramadevata temples. temples in which goddess Bhadrakali is consecrated and worshipped for the protection of villages and cities. The second type is of special temples. These are a particular temples specially meant for god or are temples for Visnu, Siva, there goddess. Thus Ganapati and so on.

Two

One

3 ) Gramadevata temples. Worship of Bhadrakali existed in India from very early times. When Mohanjodaro and' Harappa were excavated idols of Devi (goddess) more than 4000 years old, were obtained from there. During the prevalence of Buddhism in India the Hariti were goddesses Yaksi and worshipped in Hinduism was revived these India. Later when goddesses took their places in it as the goddesses of Hindu Puranas and epics. The Kali temples of UjjaCidambara yini and Calcutta are famous. In the

captain of the army of Skanda. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 59). KSUDRAKA. There was a country known as Ksudraka inhabited this country in Ancient India. Those who were called Ksudrakas. It is stated in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 52 that the Ksudrakas had brought gifts to Dharmaputra. In the battle of Bharata Duryodhana protected Sakuni with the help of the Ksudrakas. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 51, Stanza 16). It is stated in Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 19 that the Ksudrakas attacked Arjuna at the behest of Bhisma. Many Ksudrakas were killed when ParaSurama exterminated the Ksatriyas. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 70). KSUPA I. A Prajapati. There is a story about the birth of this Prajapati in Mahabharata. Once Brahma wished to perform a sacrifice. But he could not get sacrifice. So suitable priest as the performer of the

Chapter

7)

.

Brahma decided to create a befitting person as Rtvik (the priest who does the rituals of the sacrifice) and

Brahma. That Prajapati was Ksupa. He made Ksupa (Mahabharata, Sand Parva, Chapter 122) Rudra Bhagavan made him Prajapati ( the Lord of all
his Rtvik.
.

he got pregnant in his head. After a thousand years he sneezed and a Prajapati came out of the head of

Nadu.

ParamaSiva defeated Kali in a dance. In Mysore Camundi (Kali) is worshipped as chief goddess or family goddess. Kamaksi in KancI, Minaksi in Madura (South India), Mukambika in North Karnafaka and so on are the gentle and peaceful forms of Kali. In many of the temples in South 4) Devas (gods) are the gramaIndia, MunKvaran and Karuppan devatas (village gods). In some places Bhairava also is worshipped as gramadevata. In certain other places Nondi and Pancaruli Irulan, Karetti, Viran, are worshipped. Sasta or Ayyappan has a prominent place among the village gods. Importance is attached to Sasta or Ayyappan mostly in Kerala and Tamil
.

temple also the main deity

is

Kali.

The legend

is

that

KSUPA

KUBERA.

sword directly from Vaivasvata Manu. Ksupa was not in the habit of eating flesh. (M.B. Anu^asana Parva. Chapter 159, Stanza 67). KSURAKARl^I. An attendant of Skanda. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 25 )
ed a
.

A King who was the son of Prasandhi, and the grandson of Vaivasvata Manu. He was the father of Iksvaku. In Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, it is mentioned that Ksupa stayed in the Palace of Yama after his death. In Mahabharata, Santi Parva, Chapter 166 it is stated that this King had receivII.

subjects)

.

KSETRAPALA.

(having the attributes goodness, ostentatiousness and In some places figures having two or four or sloth) eight hands are seen. It is presumed that this deity is a portion of Siva. It is stated in Agni Purana, Chapter 51 that Ksetrapalas should be figures having trident in the hand. KSlRASAGARA. Sea of Milk. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 102, that Brahma drank too much of Amrta and vomited. From the vomit the cow Surabhi came into being. The milk of Surabhi flowed and collected into a sea. This sea is
.
;

Ksetrapala is consecrated on the South East corner of the temple, for protecting the villages and cities. This is a large image with three eyes. There are figures which are Sattvika, Rajasa and Tamasa

called the milk-sea or Ksirasagara.

Visravas was childless for long, and the above mentioned four sons were the fruits of the boon granted him by Brahma, whom he pleased by austerities. (For details see under Vis ravas, Para 1). Once during Krta3) Kubera' s attainment of eminence. the Devas went to Varuna, and after performing yuga a Yajna for Kubera they told him thus: "In future you live in the ocean itself as deva of all rivers, and let the ocean and the rivers obey you. As in the case of the moon you too will experience waxing and waning." From that day onwards Kubera became the lord of

Descended from Visnu thus Brahma 1) Genealogy. Pulastya Vis ravas Kubera. 2 ) Birth. Pulastya Prajapati wedded ManinI alias Havirbhu, daughter of sage Trnabindu, and a son called ViSravas was born to them, Visravas married Ilibila alias Daivavarnini, daughter of Bharadvaja. Ravana Kumbhakarna and Vibhisana were the sons of Visravas by another wife. (Refer to the genealogy of Ravana)
: .

KUBERA
oceans,
rivers,

435
streams etc.

KUBERA
sons called Vajramusti, Virupaksa, Durmukha, Suptaghna Yajnakosa, Malta and Unmatta and a daughter called Nala were born to Malyavan and Sundarl. Ten sons called Prahasta, Akampa, Vikata, Kalakamukha, Dhumraksa, Danda, Suparsva, Sarhhrada, Prakvata and Bhasakarna and four daughters called Veka, Puspotkata, Kaikasi and Kumbhinasi were born to Sumall and KetumatI. Four sons called Anala, Anila, Aha and Sampati ( these four were the ministers of Vibhisana) were born to Mall and Vasudha. When the harassments of the Raksasas became unbearable the Devas sought protection from Siva, and Indra detailed to him about the unrighteous actions of Malyavan, Sumall and Mali. Siva directed the Devas to

and

all

of them

gave him immense wealth. Siva became a particular friend of Kubera. (Salya Parva, Chapter 47). Afterwards Kubera performed 4) Kubera in Lanka. penance for ten thousand years in water with head submerged, to please Brahma. Yet, Brahma did not appear. Then he performed penance standing on one foot in the centre of Pancagni. Brahma appeared and asked him to choose any boon. Kubera requested that he might be made a lokapalaka (protector of the universe)

together

and the custodian of wealth, and Brahma responded by supplying Kubera the treasures Sarikha nidhi and Padmanidhi and also the Puspaka Vimana as vehicle. He was also appointed one of the Astadikpalakas. Indra. Agni, Yama, Nirrti, Varuna, Vayu, Kubera and Is a are the eight protectors of the eight regions). Kubera's city is called Mahodaya. Kubera felt really happy and told his father Visravas about his new status and dignity. The father also blessed the son. Kubera requested his father to get a city built for him to live in, and his father asked him to settle down in Lanka built by Maya on top of the mountain Trikuta in the middle of the south sea. From that day onwards Kubera took his abode in Lanka. ( It was originally built for Indra). 5 ) Old history of Lanka. Once upon a time when Brahma was repeating the Vedas he felt hungry. He was annoyed that at that untimely hour he should have felt hungry, and from his angry face emerged the Raksasa called Heti. From his hunger emerged the Yaksa called Praheti. The Raksasa turned out to be an unrighteous being, and the Yaksa a righteous person. Heti married Bhaya, daugher of Kala, and a son VidyutkeSa was born to them, who wedded Salakatanka, daughter of Sandhya. To them were born a child, whom they forsook in the valley of mountain Manthara and went their own. way. Siva and Parvati came that way just then, saw the forsaken child and blessed it. At once the child became a youth. Siva named him Sukesa, and he married Devavati, the daughter of a Gandharva called Manimaya. To them were born three sons called Maiyavan, Sumall. and Mall. Thanks to the blessings of Siva all of them became youths as soon as they were born. By means of penances they secured from Brahma the boon to conquer the three worlds.
(

Mall cut at Garuda, and Visnu killed him (Mali) with his Sudarsana Cakra. The other Raksasas retreated to Lanka. As their presence in Lanka was dangerous to the Devas, Visnu directed the SudarSana Cakra to go to Lanka every day and kill the Raksasas in groups. The Cakra began its work, and the remaining Raksasas escaped to Patala. Lanka became thus deserted and Kubera took his abode there. The Yaksas, born from the hunger of Brahma roamed about without a leader and ultimately settled down in Lanka under the leadership of Kubera. (Uttara Ramayana).
6) Kubera left Lanka. The other sons of Visravas like Ravana returned with boons from Brahma for the conquest of the earth, and the first thing Ravana did was to drive away his brother Kubera from Lanka. He also took by force the Puspaka Vimana of Kubera, who cursed Ravana thus: "This will never be your vehicle, but will become that of his, who kills you." Kubera, with the Yaksas, Kinnaras etc. went north and
settled
ter

Visnu,

who

set

out,

to

fight

against

the Raksasas.

on mount Gandhamadana. (Vana Parva, Chap-

7 ) Kubera's sabhd. The assembly hall of Kubera is 1 00 yojanas in length and 100 yojanas wide. High walls surround the city. In the centre of the city is a beautiful mansion studded with gems where Kubera sits surrounded by thousands of women. MarutaDeva carrying fragrance from Kalpavrksa worships him. Gandharva and Apsara women entertain Kubera with music. MiSrakesI, Ram-

275).

They then returned

to their father.

the advice of their father to lead a righteous life. They went round the three worlds harassing people. Maya built for them the city called Larika on the top of the

They did not

relish

bha, Menaka, Urvasi, Citrasena, Sucismita, Ghrtaci, Punjikasthala, Visvaci, Sahajanya, Pramloca, Varga, Saurabheyi, Samici, Budbuda, and Lata are the chief among them. Manibhadra (Manibhadra), Dhanada,
Asveta, Bhadra, Guhyaka, Kaseraka, Gandakandu, Pradyota, Mahabala, Ka, Tumburu, Pisaca, Gajakarna, Vigala, Varahakarna, Tamrostha, Halakaksa, Halodaka

Mountain Trikuta. There is a story about the origin of Trikuta. Once a controversy arose between Vasuki and Vayubhagavan as to who was the greater of the two. To prove that he was greater than Vayu, Vasuki enveloped with his body mountain Mahameru so that Vayu (wind) could not enter it, and Vayu tried to blow off the mountain'with the result that a dust storm concealed the whole world from view. The Devas took refuge in Visnu, who pacified Vasuki, and he then unwound one coil round the mountain. Vayu took advantage of the opportunity and swept off one peak of the mountain to the South into the sea, and that peak is Trikuta. Malyavan, Sumall and Mali settled down in Lanka, and they married Sundarl, KetumatI and Vasudha, the three daughters of Narmada, a Gandharva woman. Seven

Harhsacuda, Sankhavarta, Hemanetra, Vibhisana, Puspanana, Pingalaka, Sonitoda, Pravalaka, VrksabasNalakubara are the chief paniketa, Ciravasas and members in the court of Kubera. Siva, a good friend of Kubera, very often visits him. Gandharvas and sages like Visvavasu, Haha, Hu.hu, Parvata, Tumburu and Sailusa live in Kubera's assembly. Narada told Dharmaputra that the Kuberasabha was thus always sweet and pleasant. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 10). Kubera got secret 8) Fight between Kubera and Ravana. information that the Devas and the brahmins had decided jointly to complain to Mahavisnu about their unbearable harassment by Ravana. He sent a messenger to his brother Ravana warning him to lead a more righteous life. Ravana got so much enraged at the

KUBERA
advice of his brother that he cut the messenger pieces and served as food to the Raksasas.

436
into
1 1

KUBERA
)

Kubera and emperor Prthu.

While

Devas, and decided first to attack Kubera. At the head of a huge army led by heroes like Mahodara, Prahasta, Marica, Suka, Sarana, Vajradamstra, Dhumraksa, Virupaksa, Yupaksa, Mahaparsva, Malta, Unmatta, Vikata, Suptaghna, Yajnantaka, Makaraksa, Kumbhakarna, Atikaya and Aksakumara, Ravana marched to Alakapurl where a fierce battle ensued between RavaYaksas were killed na's and Kubera's armies. Many Ravana's army, and the Yaksa hero Manicara by As a last resort killed a large number of Raksasas. Ravana thrashed Manicara on the head with a club and this turned the hair on his head to one side. From that day Manicara came to be known as Parsvamauli In the fight that followed (head turned to one side) between Kubera and Ravana the former fell down unconscious. But, the Yaksas brought two Vimanas and carried Kubera to the palace. Ravana plundered Kubera's palace and carried off to Lanka a lot of costly gems and other wealth. (Uttara Ramayana) 9) Kubera became a Chameleon. King Marutta once performed a Mahesvara yajiia to which were invited Indra, Varuna, Kubera and Kala. While the yajna was progressing Ravana came that way with his army. Indra and the others, in great fear, ran away and
.

Ravana mobilised

his

army

against

Kubera and

the

in the best interests of his subjects, mountains, trees, Devas, Asuras, Saptarsis, Raksasas etc. came to the earth and sang his praises, and as ordered by the emperor the earth turned itself into a cow and they

was ruling the land

emperor

Prthu

milked her. It was Kubera who served as calf when the Raksasas began to milk the cow. (Drona Parva, Chapter 69, Verse 24). The Devas crowned Prthu as emperor, and, on that occasion imperial symbols were presented to him. The throne was presented by Kubera; the royal umbrella by Varuna; the crown by Indra and the sceptre by Yama. (Bhagavata, 4th Skandha Chapter 15, Verses 14 and 15).
12) Kubera cursed Tumburu.

The Yaksa

called

once displeased Kubera, who cursed him into a Raksasa. He was to be redeemed from the curse on his death at the hands of Sri Rama. Tumburu, who was born as Viradha, the Raksasa in Dandakaranya attacked Rama and Laksmana during their stay in exile in the forest and was killed by them. He was cremated in the forest. He resumed his former form as Tumburu and returned to Kubera's palace. (Valmlki Ramayana, Aranya
13) Kubera became Pingaldkfa. Kubera once looked with jealousy at Parvati seated on the left thigh of Siva, and When Parvati therefore, he became blind in one eye. regained her equanimity she turned that eye of Kubera into yellow in colour so that he might always remember the incident. Henceforth Kubera came to be known as

Tumburu

Kanda, Canto

4)

.

escaped disguised in various forms, Kubera assuming the form of a chameleon. After resuming his own form

Kubera gave the Chameleon the gift to change its colour. It was further blessed that to the onlookers it would seem that there was gold on its cheeks. (Uttara

Ekapingala.

Ramayana )

.

10) Kubera cursed Virupaksa. Kubera had a yaksa called Virupaksa as Manager, and he was in charge of Kubera's treasures also. Virupaksa had employed a gigantic yaksa to look after the treasures outside the capital. One day a brahmin called Pasupata came in

search of treasures

to Alakapurl. He knew a very peculiar art, viz. he would go about with a lamp lighted with 'the ghee of men' (oily substance extracted from human body) and the lamp would tumble down from his hands on earth exactly on spots where treasures lay hidden. Pasupata tried to unearth Kubera's treasures by the above means, and Virupaksa who got scent of the brahmin's activities got him killed. Since a brahmin (PaSupata) was killed the sin of brahmahatya affected the Yaksa community, and angered at this Kubera cursed Virupaksa into a man, and he was born on earth as the son of a brahmin. Virupaksa's wife complained about this curse to Kubera, who told her that she would be born as a daughter of the maidservant of the brahmin as whose son her husband was born, and that he (son) would marry her. Kubera, further told her that association with her would redeem Virupaksa from the curse and that both of them would return to him. Accordingly she lay as a human child at the gates of a brahmin maid-servant, who took it to her master. The child and the brahmin's son grew up together in his father's house, and in due course they

spat on the" head of Agastya, who was performing penance on the banks of river Kalindi. Agastya cursed them thus: "Oh Kubera, your attendant Maniman has insulted me. Therefore, he himself and the army will be killed by a man. You will grieve over their death. But, you will be absolved from this curse at the sight of the man, who had killed Maniman and his

Kubera was on when the latter

Kubera also was invited to 14) Agastya cursed Kubera. the chanting of mantras held by the Devas at Kusavati.
his

way

to

KuSavati with

Maniman

army." Bhimasena, who went to mount Gandhamadana in search of the Saugandhika flower could kill Maniman and his soldiers because of this curse of Agistya. After

killing Maniman, Bhima saw Kubera in person, and the latter got absolved from the curse. (Vana Parva, Chapter 161). 1 He comforted 5) Other information about Kubera. (i ) the Pandavas once during their life in exile in the forest.
.

(Vana Parva, Chapter 161, Verse 41) war with Ravana when Sri Rama (ii) During the fainted on the field, it was the water, purified by Kubera sent through the Yaksa, mantras, which
.

Guhyaka, which brought Rama back to consciousness. (Vana Parva, Chapter 289, Verse 9) (iii) Kubera once cursed the Yaksa called Sthunakarna. He went to live in forest Amba the woman became a male by getting the penis of Sthunakarna. (See under Amba and Sthunakarna).

were wedded to each other. They felt so happy as though at a reunion after a long separation. First the brahmin boy and after him his wife expired, and they
returned to Alakapurl. (Kathasaritsagara )

(Bhlsma Parva, Chapter

once gave Kubera a lot of wealth. 6, Verse 23) A King called Mucukunda once fought with (v) Kubera. (Santi Parva, Chapter 74, Verse 4). See under
(iv)

Sukracarya

.

Mucukunda.

KUBERATlRTHA
who complained to Siva about it. his ula, when Sukra stood on
(vi)

437
all

KUKKURA
hand and got killed. Brahma was pleased granted Kubja a place in Suryaloka.
at
this

I

Sukra once carried off

the

wealth of Kubera,

and

as Siva's son, and ParvatI prevented Siva from Sukra on the plea that it was not proper to kill one's own son. Sukra thus escaped and Kubera lost some of his wealth. (Santi Parva, Chapter 289). On another occasion Kubera entertained sage (vii) Astavakra. (AnuSasana Parva, Chapter 19, Verse 37). (viii) Kubera should be installed in temples as seated on a goat with club in his hand. ( Agni Purana, Chapkilling

Siva, in anger, raised its top and pressed it down. Siva threw Sukra off, but he fell into the palms of Siva who threw him again. Sukra then entered the stomach of Siva and roamed about there finding no path to get out. Siva waited with the sula to kill Sukra the moment he came out of his (Siva's) stomach. Sukra

KUBjAMRAKA. A
as

visit to this place is holy place. offering a gift of a thousand cows. The visitor will also attain heaven. (Vana Parva, Chapter

A

good

as

KUCELA.

84, Verse 40)

.

came out

Kucela was a the Asrama of Sandipani's wife deputed sage Sandipani. One day Kucela and Krsna to collect fire-wood from the forest, and they had to stay the whole night there as they could not find out the way back to the asrama due to heavy rain, thunder etc. After their education was over these two thick friends left the ai'rama and went

brahmin class-mate of

Sudaman,

better Sri

known

as

Krsna

at

(ix) The name of Kubera's wife wasBhadra. (Adi Parva, Chapter 198, Verse 6). (x) Kubera is called Naravahana also as he rides in a

ter 51).

ways in life. Krsna became the lord of Dvaraka, and Kucela a and starvation house-holder with many children,
their different
Sri

vehicle
as

he

is

drawn by men. He is also called Rajaraja, King of Kings. (Adi Parva, Chapter 275, Verses
and from
.

1-3).
(xi)

275,' Verses 1-3) AlakaSynonyms for Kubera used in Mahabharata. dhipa, Dhanada, Dhanadesvara, Dhanagopta, Dhanadhipa, Dhanadhipati, Dhanadhyaksa, Dhanesvara,
xii)

day (Vana Parva, Chapter

Visravas got angry with Kubera,

that he deputed three Raksasa girls to serve his father.

Rukmini prevented him from a second helping of the spending some time most happily with his old friend, Kucela started homewards. Only on his way back did he think that Krsna had not given him any monetary help. But, by the time he reached home his old dilapidated house had converted itself into a beautiful mansion, and his wife and children were in
flakes. After

for Dvaraka to visit Krsna with a packet of rice flakes as a present to him. Krsna received his old classmate most cordially, and ate one handful of rice flakes from the packet brought by Kucela.
wife,

gripped the family.

One

day,

at

the

instance

of his

Kucela started

Kailasa.
xiv)

Dhanapati, Dhanesa, Dravinapati, Gadadhara, Guhyakadhipa, Guhyakadhipati, Kailasanilaya, Naravahana, Nidhipa, Paulastya, Rajaraja, Rajarat, Raksasadhipati, Raksasesvara, Vaisravana, Vittapati, Vittagopta, Vittesa, Yaksadhipa, Yaksadhipati, Yaksapati, Yaksapravara, Yaksarat, Yaksaraja, Yaksaraksasabharta, Yak sarak sodhipa xiii) Kubera's garden is called Caitraratha, his son Nalakubara, his capital Alaka and his mountain-seat
.

great happiness. Sri Krsna's blessings thus converted poor Kucela into a very rich person. (Bhagavata, 10th

KUHA. A

Skandha)

.

KUHARA. A

Verse 11).

prince of the Sauvlra kingdom. He was a follower of Jayadratha. (Vana Parva, Chapter 265,

Kubera once did tapas for hundred years when Siva appeared and granted him the boon that he would become King of the Yaksas. (Padma Purana, Adikhanda

KUHO.
called

KUBERATlRTHA. A holy

Chapter

16).

KUBHA. A

world. The Marudganas crowned him King. He got the son Nalakubara also there. The place, thus important in many ways came to be reputed as Kuberatlrthain later years. (Salya Parva, Chapter 97).
river

place on the banks of the river Sarasvati. Once the Devas appeared to Kubera at this tirtha and granted him overlordship of wealth, friendship of Siva, Deva-hood and rulership of the

mentioned

Kuhu, Raka and Anumati. (Visnu Chapter 10). KUJA. Kuja is an individual belonging to the Devagana. His weapon is called Sakti. He wears the aksamala. (Rudraksa garland). KUJRMBHA. A very powerful and valiant Raksasa who possessed an iron rod named Sunanda. He had earned the boon that the rod would lose its power only on contact with women. He lived underground in a thick forest on the banks of the river Nirvindhya. Once he abducted Mudavatl, the beautiful daughter .of
Sinlvali,
1,

King of Kalinga. He was born from an aspect of the Asura called Krodhavasa. (Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 65) Daughter of Angiras, one of the Prajapatis. To Angiras, by his wife Smrti were born four daughters
.

Purana, Part

in

the

Rgveda.

Kubha,

Sindhu, Suvastu, Vitasta, Asikni, Parusni, Vipasa, Satadru, Sarasvati and Yamuna are the important
rivers referred to in the

KUBJA.
story
is

An

ugly

told in

Purana.

Rgveda. about whom the following Chapter 126, of Uttarakhanda in Padma

woman

Kubja became a widow in her very childhood, and she spent eight years in observing auspicious ceremonies. As she took the 'Magha bath' every year she attained salvation. This was the period when Sunda and Upasunda were harassing the world, and to destroy them Kubja incarnated as Tilottama and hooked them by her excellent beauty. They fought each other for her

KUKKURA

Viduratha, King of Vaisall. At last Vatsapri, the son of Bhalandana made Mudavatl touch the iron rod of because of the the Asura, which became powerless touch of a woman, and then he (Vatsapri) killed the Asura. Vatsapri then married Mudavatl. (Ma.rkan.deya Purana, Chapter 116). KUKARDAMA. A wicked monarch of Pindarakadesa. He had to be born in Pretayoni (womb of a ghostess) due to his many sins, and once he came to the asrama of Kahoda, and the sage recognised him as his former disciple and absolved him from his ghosthood. (Padma Purana, Uttara Khanda, Chapter 139).
I.

A

founder of the Kukkura dynasty.

King of

the

Lunar

dynasty,

the

KUKKURA

II

438
distinguished himself in Parva, Chapter 4, Verse (Sabha

KUMARl
KULATTHA. A
Parva, Chapter
9,
.

IV

KUKKURA II. A noble
Dharmaputra's
court.

sage

who

KUKKURA
(

(M). An urban region in ancient India. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 42 ) KUKKUTIKA. A female attendant of Skanda. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 15). KUKUDMIN. A son, Anarta, was born to King
.

19).

holy centre in ancient India. (Bhisma Verse 66) KULIKA. A prominent serpent born of Kadru. (Adi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 41 ). KULYA. A Rsi who belonged to the line of disciples of Vyasa. (Bhagavata. 12th Skandha). I. Skanda or Subrahmanya. (For details see

KUMARA
invited

KUKURA

Kuni Anamitra Prsni Jaya Kukura. As Kukura was a very reputed King his successors were also called Kukuras. The Ksatriyas of this dynasty were subject to the orders of Sri Krsna. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 28). Members of the Kukura and Andhaka dynasties became drunkards, and at last quarrelled with one another and died. (Mausala Parva, Chapter 3 ) KUKURA II. A serpent born in the Kasyapa dynasty. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 103, Verse 10). KUKURA (M). An urban region in ancient India. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 60).
(Yuyudhana)
Citraratha
.

of Vaivasvata Manu. Revata, the famous Rajarsi, who ruled from his capital at Kusasthali island, was the son of Anarta. Anarta had hundred sons, the eldest being Kukudmin, and also a daughter called Revati. (Devi Bhagavata, 7th Skandha). I. (KUKtJRA). A King of the Vrsni the dynasty. From Vrsni the descendants are in Satyaka following order Yudhajit -Sini Satyaki
Saryati,

the son

KUMARA

A King in ancient India. He was by the Piindavas to help them in the great war. He was defeated by Drona. ( Udyoga Parva, Chapter 4,
II.

under Skanda)

.

KUMARA KUMARA KUMARA
T KUMARA

:

A sage reputed as Sanatkumara. (For under Sanatkumara). IV. One of the prominent sons of Garuda. V. An urban region in ancient India. King Sreniman of Kumara was defeated by Bhlma during his triumphal tour. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 30, Verse
III.

Verse 24)

.

details see

1).

Sanatsujata were the sons of Brahma endowed with eternal youthfulness. They are known as the Kumaras. KUMARADASA. A Sanskrit poet of the 7th century A.D. His chief work is the great poem called Janaklharanam consisting of twenty cantos. Guardian of the mother of the

(S).

Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanatkumara

and

KUMARADATTA.

KUKSI

I.

were born two sons called Priyavrata and Uttanapada by his wife Satarupa, and Kardama Prajapati married the daughter of Priyavrata. And, to them were born three sons called Samrat, Kuksi and Viral. (Agni Purana, Chapter 18) KUKSI II. A well known Asura King. An aspect of this Asura was later reborn as King Parvatlya. (Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 56). KULACALA. (KULAPARVATA) Kulaparvatas are seven in number, Viz. Mahendra, Malaya, Sahya, Suktiman, Rksavan, Vindhya, Pariyatra. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 11). KULADHARMA. The moral and ethical codes of conduct, especially with reference to family life. Arjuna told the following about Kuladharmas to Krsna at
.

To Svayambhuva Manu

the son of

Brahma

KUMARADHARA. A
come
intelligent
.

(See under Musika). which has its source in Brahmasaras. Those who bathe in the river will beriver

Vaisya called Musika.

and wealthy.
prominent

KUMARAKA. A
Verse 13).
is

84, Verse 149)

(Vana Parva, Chapter
serpent

born

in

the

Kauravya dynasty. It was burnt to death yajiia of King Janamejaya. (Adi Parva,

at the serpent

Chapter 57,

KUMARAKOTI. A
as

.

KUMARA VANA
Sudyumna

Kuruksetra. In the decline of a family, its time-honoured usages perish; with the perishing of such rites impiety overtakes the entire family. With the growth of impiety
if

even the noble

women
corrupt,

where (M). The place King once got changed into a woman. When Sanaka and other sages went to Kumaravana to see Siva he was seated there with Parvatl on his lap. Seeing the sages Parvatl got angry and cursed that men who entered the fores t in future would be turned into women. King Sudyumna went to hunt in the forest ignorant of this curse, and as soon as he set foot was turned into a in the forest he woman. Pururavas was the son born to this woman by Budha.
(Devi Bhagavata,
1st

visit to the place holy place. good as offering a gift of a thousand cows. (Vana Parva, Chapter 2, Verse 117).

A

become unchaste, and
Hell
is

women

become

mixture of castes ensues.
verily the lot of the family and family-destroyers through caste admixture; for, their ancestors fall deprived of balls of rice and libations. The ever-lasting caste virtues and the family merits get ruined because of the chaos in the caste system. have heard that hell is verily the long-lasting abode

KUMARAVARSA. A

Skandha).
place
11,

KUMARl

We

KULAMPUNA. A KULAMPUNA. A
20).

of the men whose family religious practices have been broken. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 25 and the Gita)
.

which ought to be daily remembered. (Anufiasana Parva, Chapter 165, Verse
river

I. A princess of the Kekaya kingdom. She was the mother of Pratisravas, and wife of Bhlmasena, a King of the Puru dynasty. (Adi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 43) KUMARl II. In verse 31, Chapter 23 of the Vana Parva, it is stated that certain maidens were born from the body of Skanda. They were called Kumarls and they used to eat unborn children in the womb of their
.

(Bhisma Parva, Chapter

near mount Verse 26)
.

Raivataka.

mothers.

KUMARl
KUMARl

III.

brings holy place. about sanctification of the entire family. (Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 104).

A

bath

here

(Udyoga Parva, Chapter
IV.

Wife of the serpent called Dhananjaya. 117, Verse 17)
.

A

river

in

ancient

India.

Parva, Chapter

9,

Verse 36).

(Bhisma

KUMARI V
KUM&Rl V. A
KUMARlPUjA.
Parva,
river

439
in

KUMBHAKARNA
feed the cows their

the

Saka
item

island.

Chapter
to the

11, Verse 32). It is a special

(Bhisma

According dvivarsa ya bhavediha', Kumari is a two-year old female child. To worship such a child is Kumarlpuja, and it should be conducted accompanied by sumptuous feasts and presentation of clothes etc. There are no hard and fast rules as to how many Kumaris should be worshipped and as to the manner and method of the worship. The same Kumari may be worshipped during all the days of the Puja, or every day one more like this: one girl on the first girl may be worshipped two on the second day and so on. Or it may be day,
in

definition

'Kumarika

in Navaratripuja. tu sa prokta

keepers went with their live-stock every morning to Kumbhaka's place where summer had not yet even peeped in, and after feeding their cows there, they returned home in the evening. But, one evening they led back with them the cows used by the sage for his Pujas. When the sun set, as usual the sage sat before the sacred fire for Puja. But, the cow had not come. With his divine vision he found out the reason for the absence of the cow. He cursed that the region where the keepers of the cows lived be turned into a desert, and the kingdom of Kasi became a desert place, where-

upon king Divodasa went to the banks oftheGomati and founded a new kingdom there. (Brahmanda Purana
Chapter
1)

8 etc or 4, 8, 12, 16 etc. Even if the daily number be nine it is in order. There is no rule that Kumaris alone should be worshipped; any one of the navakanyakas would do. A girl two years old is called Kumari, three years old Trimurti; four years old Kalyanl; five years old RohinI; six years old Kali; Seven years old Candika; eight years old Sambhavi; nine years old Durga and ten years old Subhadra. These girls are called Navakanyakas. But, a child less than two years of age should not be worshipped, because to taste, smell etc. Also, it will not be fully sensitive alone does not render Kumaris suitable for worship. age They should be absolutely free from ulcers, leprosy, bad dwarnshnesp, lameness, squint-eyes, ugliness, odour, stigma of low birth etc. For the achievement of special objects a Brahmin child should be worshipped; for victory, a Ksatriya child and for profit, a Vaigya or a Sudra child should be worshipped. The Brahmin
the

order 4,

6,

KUMBHAKARNA.
Genealogy.

2)

.

Descended from Visnu thus: Brahma

Pulastya 2) Birth.

Visravas
Pulastya,

Kumbhakarna.

one of the Prajapatis married Havirbhu (ManinI) and a son called Visravas was
born
to

them.

Ravana and Kumbhakarna were born
Puspotkata, and Vibhlsana was born

to to

Vis"ravas of

him of Raka, and Khara and Surpanakha were born to him of Malini. The above version is based on verses 1 to 8 in
Chapter 275 of the Vana Parva. But, according to Uttara Ramayana, Ravana, Vibhlsana and Kumbhakarna were born to Visravas of his wife called Kaikasl. According to the Agni Purana, Puspotkata and Kaika^i were one and the same. 3) Former births of Kumbhakarna. Ravana and Kumbhakarna were originally the two Devas called Jaya and Vijaya. Visnu appointed them as gate-keepers at Vaikuntha. Once they stopped sages like Sanaka and others at the gates, and the latter cursed Jaya and Vijaya into Raksasas. When they complained about the curse to Visnu he promised to welcome them back to Vaikuntha after they had lived three births as Raksasas. Accordingly Jaya was born as Hiranyaksa and Vijaya as Hiranyakasipu, both of them Asuras. Mahavisnu incarnated himself as a Boar and killed Hiranyaksa and as Narasirhha he killed Hiranyakasipu. Hiranyaksa and Hiranyakasipu were reborn as Ravana and Kumbhakarna respectively. Mahavisnu, during his incarnation as Sri Rama killed both Ravana and Kumbhakarna. Ravana was reborn as Sisupala and Kumbhakarna as Dantavaktra. Both of them were killed by Mahavisnu during his incarnation as Sri Krsna. Thus the Deva called Vijaya, on account of the curse of Sanaka and other sages, passed through three lives as Hiranyakasipu, Kumbhakarna and Dantavaktra and finally reached Vaikuntha. (Bhagavata, 7th Skandha). 4) Kumbhakarna secured boons. Kumbhakarna spent his childhood with his brothers at the asrama of his father on mount Gandhamadana. Kubera was at the zenith of his glory at that time, having been crowned king of the Yaksas, and also having got the Puspaka Vimana. The
reputation of

may

worship brahmin children; the Ksatriya, Brahmin and Ksatriya children; the Vaisya, Brahmin, Ksatriya and the Sudra, Brahmin, and Vaisya children; Ksatriya, Vai;'ya and Sudra children. (Devi Bhagavata, 3rd Skandha) One of the three I.
.

KUMBHA

sons of Prahlada, the Nikumbha. other two being Virocana and (Adi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 19). KUMBHA. II. Son of Kumbhakarna, whose wife Vajrajvala bore him two sons called Kumbha and Nikumbha. Both of them were very powerful, and Kumbha, in the Rama-Ravana war defeated the army of monkeys on various occasions. Many of the ministers of Sugriva tried to defeat Kumbha. Arigada, son of Bali also could not stand up to him. Then Sugriva fought against Kumbha and flung him into the sea when the water in it rose up to the level of mount Vindhya. Kumbha came ashore from the sea roaring but was fisted to death by Sugriva. (Valmlki Ra.ma.yana,

KUMBHAKA'

Yuddha Kanda, Canto
I.

A

76).

warrior of Skanda.
.

KUMBHAKA
If he visited

II. (Nikumbhaka) A very reputed sage. any place at dusk he left it only after a thousand years. He visited Kasi once when King Divodasa was ruling the state after having killed the Raksasa called Ksemaka, who had lived like a king there. Kumbhaka lived in a forest in Kasi with his disciples. Prosperity reigned supreme within a radius of three Yojanas from where the sage lived. Neither wild beasts

Chapter 45, Verse 75).

(Salya Parva,

and

his brothers.

nor famine infested the area. fierce famine broke out in Kas"i, and the failure of rain caused great havoc. Finding it impossible to

Once a

forest on one foot for a thousand years. But, Brahma did not appear. They continued the penance without eating any food. Khara and Surpanakha stayed there serving their brothers. Even after the second thousand years Brahma did not appear. Then Ravana cut off his ten heads and made offerings of them to Brahma. Then Brahma appeared. Brahma restored his heads to Ravana

Kubera kindled jealousy in Kumbhakarna They too performed penance in the

KUMBHAKARI^ASRAMA
he was granted the boon that he would not be by anybody but a man. The Devas shuddered at the gift to Ravana, and feared about the future in case Kumbhakarna too got such a boon. At their request time of Sarasvati danced on his tongue at the for a boon. KumbhaKumbhakarna's request karna wanted NIRDEVATVAM (Absence of all But by a slip of the tongue (caused by SarasDevas) what he asked for was nidravatvam (sleep). vati) Brahma granted him nidravatvam he said that Kumbhakarna would sleep for six months of the year continuously. Vibhisana got the boon that he should remember righteousness in danger and use the Brahmastra without any training in its use. The brothers returned home after securing the boons, and, after driving off Kubera, the lord of Lanka, Ravana and his brothers took their abode there. (Vana Parva, Chapter 275 and Uttara Ramayana) 5) Death of Kumbhakarna. Kumbhakarna played a very important part in the Rama-Ravana war. Prominent warriors on the side of Rama, like Sugriva, his ministers and Laksmana fought with him. But, none of them could kill him. At last, Sri Rama's arrows killed him.

440
called Madhupa. Madhupa)
.

KUMUDAMALl
Ravana
killed

and

him.

(See

under

killed

.

;

and a notorious philanderer. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 39, Verse 7). KUMBHlNASl I. Wife of Angaraparna, a great Gandharva. When Arjuna was about to kill Citraratha KumbhlnasI requested Yudhisthira to save her husband, and he was accordingly set free. (For details see under Angaraparna) KUMBHlNASl II. A daughter born to Visvavasu of Anala. A Raksasa called Madhu abducted and made her his wife. The famous Lavanasura was their son.
.

KUMBHlNASA. An asura

KUMBHlPAKA
(hells). It
is

(M). One of the twentyeight narakas intended for the cruel folk, who kill for food harmless animals and birds. Since such cruel folk
this

.

(Valmlki Ramayana, Yuddha Kanda, Chapter 67). Kumbhakarna is not to be viewed merely and purely as an evil character. His advice to Ravana on various occasions shows noble traits of his character. When Sri Rama with his army of monkeys appeared on the other side of the ocean Ravana held a conference of his
brothers, ministers

A prominent serpent. KUMUDA Chapter 35, Verse 15). KUMUDA II. A prominent monkey,
I.

the boiling oil for as many years as the number of hairs the animal killed by him had on its body. (Devi Bhagavata, 8th Skandha; also see under Pitrtlrtha).

Kumbhi fire the hell came to be known name. Big vessels full of boiling oil are kept by there and the servants ofYama push the sinners into them. One who had killed an animal will be kept in
are roasted in

(Adi

Parva,

attendant of Sugriva.
4).

who was an (Vana Parva, Chapter 289, Verse

and others

at

which Kumbhakarna

spoke as follows: "You abducted Sita without consulting us, and we would not therefore be responsible for the consequences of that action of yours. But, it is not proper that the younger brother should keep away

KUMUDA III. A great elephant born in the dynasty of Supratika. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 99, Verse 15). KUMUDA IV. A son of Garuda. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 101, Verse 12). KUMUDA V. One of the five attendants given by
Brahma
to

Skanda. (Salya Parva, Chapter 45,

Verse

ready to fight Rama." These weighty words of Kumbhakarna throw considerable light on the character of Kumbhakarna. (Valmlki Ramayana, Yuddhakanda, Chapter 12). KUMBHAKARNAS'RAMA. A holy place. He who visits this place will enjoy the respect of others. (Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 157). KUMBHAl^DA. Minister of Banasura. Citralekha, companion of Usa, the daughter of Bana was the daughter of Kumbhanda. (See under USA) . (Bhagavata,
here
I

when danger

am

faces the elder one,

and on that principle

KUMUDA VI. A warrior

39).

KUMUDA

KUMUDA VIII.

who fought with Skandadeva. (Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 56). VII. A synonym of Mahavisnu. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 149, Verse 76)
.

There are four mountains supporting Mahameruon its four sides, and Kumuda is one of those four mountains, Mandara, Merumandara and Suparsva being the other three. According to the 8th Skandha of the Devi Bhagavata there are other tweny mountains on the four sides of Mahameru, viz. Kurariga, Kuraga,'

KUMBHAl^DAKODARA. A

10th Skandha).
(

Kusumbha,

Vikankata,

Trikuta,

Sisira,

Patanga,

KUMBHARETAS
VANA)
.

warrior of Skandadeva. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 69)
.

(RATHAPRABHU,
first

RATHADH-

and an Agnideva was born as their son. This Agni is known by the names Kumbharetas, Rathaprabhu and Rathadhvana. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 220, Verse
9).

Bharadvaja, the

son of Sarhyu married Vira,

Rucaka, Nila, Nisadha, Sitivasa, Kapila, Saiikha, Vaidurya, Carudhi, Harhsa, Rsabha, Naga, Kalanjara and Narada. KUMUDADI. One of those Vedic scholars, who belonged to the line of Vyasa's disciples. His forte was the Atharvaveda. Jaimini was a reputed disciple of his Sumantu, taught disciple Vyasa. His son,
the Atharvaveda. Kabandha divided it into two between Devadaiia and Pathya. Medha, Brahmaof bali, Sautkayani and Pippalada were the disciples Devadarsa, and Jabali, Kumudadi and Saunaka were the disciples of Pathya. (Visnu Purana, Part 3, Chapter

Kabandha

KUMBHASRAVAS. An

attendant
.

of

Skandadeva.

KUMBHAVAKTRA.

KUMBHAYONI KUMBHAYONI

(Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 26) A warrior of Skandadeva. (Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 75)
.

I.

Agastya.

II.

Parva, Chapter 43, Verse 30) KUMBHlNADl. Daughter of Sumali
.

Indrasabha when Arjuna came to Indraloka.

A Deva woman who

(

See under Agastya)

.

KUMUDAKSA. A
Chapter
35,'

6).

danced in

(Vana

KUMUDAMALl (KUMUDAMANl)

prominent Verse 15).

serpent.
.

(Adi

Parva,

Ketumati. She was abducted by the

by King of Mathura

the Raksasa,

One of the four attendants given by Brahma to Skanda, the other three being Nandisena, Ghantakarna and Lohitaksa. All the four were very powerful, as swift and speedy as

KUMUDODARA
wind and noted

441
for their sexual energy.
.

KUNDODARA
son of Dhrtarastra;

III

KUMUDODARA. A
island.

Chapter 45, Verse 25)

(Salya Parva,

KUNDABHEDl. A
him.

Bhima

killed

the Saka particular region in (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 25). KUMUDVATI I. Wife of King Vimarsana of Kiratadea. Kumudvati requested him one day, to put a stop to his cruelties against the people. His reply was
as follows
:

"Oh

!

dear wife, don't

commit

was a dog and, starved almost to death. I went to the gates of the Siva temple at Pampapura. It was CaturdasI day, and thousands of people had gathered there, and I stood there looking at the Sivaliriga. Then someone cried out, 'Beat the dog to death', and though, in mortal terror, I ran thrice about the temple, people beat me to death. Since, although only by accident, I had run thrice around the temple, I was born as a King in the present life. I cherish the greatest devotion for Lord Siva; but, as inherent tendencies do not die out so easily I possess certain characteristics of the dog and that is why I
past
life I

feel sorry.

In

my

(Drona Parva, Chapter 127, Verse 60). KUNDADANTA. A Videha brahmin, Kundadanta gave up his worldly possession for the attainment of spiritual knowledge, and sought the help of sage Kadamba. Finding that he had not yet completely mastered the senses Kadamba sent him to Ayodhya, where he lived with Sri Rama, and Vasistha taught him the necessary texts on the subject so that he

KUNDADHARA I. A son of Dhrtarastra. He is known as
Kundodara

attained spiritual knowledge.
also. Bhimasena Chapter 88, Verse 23)
.

(Yogavasi stha )

.

killed

him. (Bhisma Parva,

KUNDADHARA
his court.
(

II.

A

KUNDADHARA

hearing her husband's past history Kumudvati to know about her past also, and Vimarsana "In the past life you were a she-dove. Once said thus you sat on the top of a Parvati temple with a piece of flesh in your beak. Then another dove tried to snatch it from you, and with it you flew thrice round the temple. But, the other dove killed you and flew away with the piece of flesh. Since you flew around the Parvati temple thrice you are now born as a queen." VimarSana told her this also that in the next birth she would be born as the daughter of King Srnjaya, as the daughter of the King of Kalinga in her third rebirth, as the daughter of the King of Magadha in her fourth birth, as the daughter of King Dasarna in her fifth birth, as the daughter of Yayati in her sixth birth, as the daughter named Vasumati of the King of Vidarbha in her seventh birth, and that ultimately she would attain salvation. Vimarsana in his next birth would likewise be born as the Sindhu King, as the King of Saurastra in his third birth, as the King of Gandhara in his fourth birth, as King of Avanti in his fifth birth, as King Anarta in his sixth birth, as King of the Pandyas in his seventh birth, and that ultimately he

On

the present cruelties."

Verse 9) III. A cloud. None of the Devas condescended to bless a poor brahmin, who once performed penance in the forest when a cloud called Kundadhara appeared and told him that, if the Devas would permit, he (cloud) would bles him. Immediately the Deva called Manibhadra requested the cloud to bless the brahmin. The cloud did so and the brahmin
9.
.

Sabha Parva, Chapter

serpent worshipping

Varuna

in

wanted

:

KUNDAJA (KUJVDABHEDI. A
Bhima
killed
I.

attained salvation. (Sand Parva, Chapter 271). son of Dhrtarastra;

him. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 96, Verse

KUKIDALA
It

26).

KUNDALA

An urban region in ancient India. II. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 63). KUNDALAPURUSA. See under Samudrika Sastra. KUNDALl I. One of the children of Garuda. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 101, Verse 9). KUNDALl II. A river the water of which was drunk by the Indians. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 21).
Kundasi. He was killed by Bhima. (Bhisma. Parva, Chapter 96, Verse 24) KUNDALI IV. A synonym of Sri Krsna. (Anugasana Parva, Chapter 149, Verse 110). KUNDAPARANTA. An urban area in ancient India. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 49) KUNDARIKA. A female attendant of Skandadeva. (Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 15) KUNDASI. See under Kundali III. KUNDIKA. Great-grandson ofKing Kuru of the lunar dynasty, and son of Dhrtarastra. (Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 58) KUNDINA. The capital of ancient Vidarbha. Damayantl was born and brought up in this city. (See under Damayanti). KUNDlVISA. An urban region in ancient India. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 50, Verse 50) KUNDlVRSA. An urban region in ancient India. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 56, Verse 9).
.

serpent born in the Kaurava dynasty. death at the serpent yajna of Janamejaya. (Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 16).

A

was burnt

to

KUNDALl

III.

A

son of Dhrtarastra,

also

kuown

as

.

too would attain salvation. Thus Vimarsana taught his wife that both of them would ultimately attain salvation as they had gone round the temple. (Siva Purana,
.

.

KUMUDVATI

Caturdaslmahatmya) II. Wife of Kusa, son of Sri Rama. Kusa lost the ornaments on his hands in water once while he was sporting in the river. Angry at the loss Kusa was about to shoot his arrows at the Sarayii when the naga called Kumuda not only returned to him his lost ornaments but also gave Kumudvati as" wife to him.

.

.

KUNADlKA. A

(Ananda Ramayana)

.

KUNDA. A
at

Chapter 45, Verse 58).
the

warrior of Skanda deva. (Salya Parva,

KUNDODARA KUNDODARA

very erudite Brahmarsi. He was present serpent yajna of Janamejaya. (Adi Parva,

KUNDA. One
to

Chapter

53,

Verse 8)

.

of the five

Skandadeva, the other four being Kusuma, Kumuda, Dambara and Adambara. (Salya, Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 38).

attendants given by Dhata

KUNDODARA
King had

I. A son of Dhrtarastra. Bhima killed him. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 88, Verse 23). A prominent serpent. (Adi Parva, II. Chapter 35,Verse 16). III. Sixth son of King Janamejaya. The

Nisadha, Jambunada, Kundodara, Padati (Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 57)
.

eight sons, Viz. Dhrtarastra, Pandu,
'

and Vasati.

Balhlka,

KUISIGARGA
KUl^IGARGA.

442
Ki-ti

KUNTl
.

I

A reputed sage. By severe austerities he increased his spiritual powers, created a girl by his mental power, and afterwards entered into Samadhi. The girl, who did not relish the idea of marriage, began penance in solitude, and she grew old. In the Mahabharata she is known as Vrddhakanya (Old Virgin) In the evening of her life she longed to give up her material body and to attain salvation. At this juncture Narada told her that salvation was not for unmarried women. She, therefore, gave half the power of her penance to a young man called Snigavan and lived as his wife for one single night. She thus attained salvation
.

and Mali. (Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 160) Kunti and the mantra. To treat brahmins who came 2) to the court of Kuntibhoja with worshipful offerings etc. was the duty of Kunti. Once sage Durvasas visited

(Salya Parva, Chapter 52). A noble brahmin. He presented a divine conch to Yudhisthira at his Rajasuya Yajna. (Sabha Parva. Chapter 51, Southern text). KUNJA. A reputed sage. Once he enjoyed the company celestial woman. under of Pramloca, the (See

KUJVINDA.

KUNJALA
KUNJALA
85,
parrot.

Pramloca)

.

I.

A

warrior

of Skanda.

Kuntibhoja, and as he knew that the sage was easily Kunti was specially deputed for his service, annoyed and she served him to the utmost. One day, to test Kunti, he asked her to be ready with his food by the time he took his bath, and he took practically no time to return after bath and sit for meals. By that time Kunti had managed to cook his food, which she placed before him in a plate. The food was too hot and steaming, and the sage meaningfully looked at the back of Kunti. Realising the meaning of the look, Kunti turned her back to the sage for him to place the plate of food thereon. The sage placed it accordingly on her back and began eating. Though her back was really burning she showed no sign of it. Pleased at her behaviour the sage taught her a mantra and blessed her to the follow-

(Salya
the

Parva.

Chapter 45).
II.

of the river Narmada. The Padma Purana (Chapter Bhumikhanda) has the following to say about the
the

A wise

parrot which lived on

banks

mantra you invoke whichever Deva you to his favour you will get children. (Kathasaritsagara, Lavanakalambaka, Taranga 2 and Bharata (Malayalam) Chapter 111).
"Repeating
like
this

ing effect.

and thanks

wise parrot, had a wife and four sons called Ujjvala, Samujjvala, Vijvala and Kapinjala. These brothers used to feed themselves on sweet fruits etc. on the planes, mountains and other places. They also used to carry tasty fruits to their parents. The four brothers thus led a happy life in every way. (See under

Kunjala,

KUNJARA
KUNJARA

Subahu)

.

I.

A A

Hanuman was
II.

Ramayana, Kiskindha Kanda; Canto
Chapter 35, Verse 15).
III.

mother of great monkey. Anjana the daughter of Kunjara. (Valmiki
well-known serpent.
66, Verse 9).

Durvasas from the palace, Kunti developed an irresistible desire to test the efficacy of the mantra, and one day she invoked Sun-god with the mantra. Thereupon Surya approached her in the guise of a brahmin youth. Kunti got alarmed. Owing to disinclination to become an unmarried mother Kunti could not make up her mind to welcome the brahmin youth. But, Surya deva argued that his coming could not be in vain, and Kunti had to yield. She requested Surya for a son adorned with helmet, ear-rings etc. (Vana Parva Chapter 207 Verse

3)

Kunti

tested

the

mantra.

After

the

departure

of

(Adi

Parva,

KUNJARA
ished

A.D. He was a contemporary of Abhinavagupta, and a critic who maintained that the 'life' of real poetry was Vakrokti ( expressing ideas in an artistically round-about way instead of in a blunt and plain manner). KUNTALA. The King of the country Kuntala. Kuntala was a Kingdom in ancient South India. The King of the country was called Kuntala and the people were known as Kuntalas. (Sabha Parva, and Bhisma Parva ) KUNTl (PRTHA) Wife of King Pandu and the mother of the Pandavas, Kunti is a noble heroine in the Mahain the eleventh century
.

KUNTAKA (KUNTALA). A

was a follower of Jayadratha, and was (Vana Parva, Chapter 271 ).

A prince

of the Sauvira country. He killed by Arjuna.
Sanskrit poet

who

flour-

.

bharata.

Kunti was the sister of Sri Krsna's father Birth. Vasudeva. Her real name was Prtha. Vasudeva and Prtha were the children of King Surasena of the Yadava dynasty. King Kuntibhoja was the son of Surasena's sister. He had no issues. Surasena had promised to give the daughter first born to him as the adopted daughter of Kuntibhoja, and accordingly his first-born daughter Prtha was given to Kuntibhoja, and Kunti was brought up in his palace. From that day onwards Prtha came to be known as Kunti. (Adi Parva, Chapter ill). Kunti, Madri and Gandharl were born from aspects
1)

Surya assured Kunti that even though a child was born to her from him, that will not affect her virginity and departed. Kunti delivered a son in due course of time in secret. She locked up the child in a box and floated it in the Yamuna. An old charioteer called Adhiratha picked up the child from the river and brought it up as though it were his own son. That boy grew up to become the famous Kama. (Adi Parva, Chapter 112). In due course Kuntibhoja cele4) Kunti's wedding. brated Kuntl's Svayarhvara and she chose King Pandu of the lunar dynasty as her husband, and Pandu took her to Hastinapura in all pomp and glory. (Adi Parva, Chapter 112). Pandu married another wife also 5) Kunti's wedded life. called Madri, and all the three of them led a very happy life. During one of those days Pandu went a hunting in the forest and arrowed to death sage Kindama, who was making love with his wife in the forest, both of them having assumed the forms of deer. The sage cursed Pandu with death the moment he touched his wives, and grief-stricken at the curse he told his wives about it and decided to take to Sannyasa. But, the wives told him that they would commit suicide in case he took to Sannyasa. Ultimately Pfindu went to Satasrnga with his wives, and there he began the performance ofpenanc.es.

17).

respectively

of the

three

celestial

women

Siddhi,

some time Pandu asked his wives to become mothers by some noble persons. But, Kunti and Madri did not agree to it. Then Kunti told Pandu about the
After

KUNTI

I

443
8).

KUNTI
fast,

II

boon she had got from Durvasas, and with his permission she bore three sons called Dharmaputra, Bhima and Arjuna respectively from the three Devas, Dharma, Vayu and Indra. As it had been ordained that the fourth and fifth children would bring sorrows and pain to the parents Kunti satisfied herself with three children (Adi Parva, Chapter 122, Verses 77, 78)
.

Pandu desired that Madii also should have But, children by Kunti 's mantra she used the remaining mantra and two sons, Nakula and Sahadeva from the
as

Asvimdevas were born
6) Kunti

to her.

During a winter when the forest was fragrant with flowers, Pandu forgot all about the Sage's curse and indulged in sexual joys with Madri, and immediately he expired. Kunti and Madri competed with each other to end their life in the funeral pyre of their husband. But, as the sages and other relations insisted that one of them should live to bring up the children, Madri alone ended'her life, and Kunti returned to Hastinapura with the five children. (Adi Parva, Chapter 125). 7 ) Kunti at At Hastinapura differences Hastinapura. cropped up between the Pandavas and the Kauravas. Kunti and the five Pandavas removed themselves to the 'Lac palace' built at Varanavata. When the palace was gutted by fire Kunti and her sons escaped through a secret tunnel to the forest, and Bhima carried the worn out Kunti on his shoulders. In the forest the Raksasa woman HidimbI, requested Kunti to permit Bhima to become her husband, and Kunti advised Bhima to beget a child by HidimbI, and thus was born Ghatotkaca. At the city named Ekacakra, Vyasa consoled Kunti. There the brahmins complained to Kunti about the depredations of Bakasura. Kunti got Baka killed by Bhima and asked the brahmins to keep the matter secret. On the advice of a brahmin who came there accidentally Kunti and others visited the Pancala kingdom, and there Arjuna, having defeated all the Kings present at Pancall's Svayamvara wedded her. The Pandavas who returned with Pancall at dusk time were asked by Kunti to enjoy that day's bhiksa (Alms received) together among themselves. Accordingly Pancall became
widowed. the wife of all the five Pandavas. Vidura, at the court of the Pancala King saluted Kunti and presented to her various varieties of gems. Kunti and Vidura talked about the painful incidents of the past, and Vidura escorted the Pandavas back to Hastinapura.

I have vowed to kill Arjuna. quite impossible. Pandavas. You shall I will not kill the other four always have five sons alive. If Arjuna were to be no more I would be there for you in his stead." Kunti shuddered at those terrible words of Kama, and thus did both of them part with each other. (Udyoga Parva, Chapters 145 and 146) The great war ended. Thou9) Last days of Kunti. sands of warriors on the Kaurava side like the mighty Karna were no more. On the Pandava side also many were killed. Though the Pandavas won the war their Kunti hearts no more enjoyed peace or happiness. suffered as though caught in a wild fire. She asked the Pandavas to perform the obsequies for Karna also. When she let out the secret that Karna was her firstborn child Dharmaputra burst into Kunti tears. consoled Subhadra and Uttara who were lamenting over the death of Abhimanyu. She requested Sri Krsna to cremate the dead son of Uttara. Then Kunti went to Gandharl, who stood there bathed

Kunti before Kama. War clouds grew thick and Her restless. at Vidura's house got heart trembled at the disasters of war as described by Vidura. She went alone to the banks of the Ganga where just then Kama was engaged in Japa with his hands raised and face turned to the east. Kunti waited With for some time after which they began to talk. tears in her eyes Kunti told Karna that he was her son and implored him to return to the Pandava side "Oh noble lady, to which Kama replied as follows

and Kunti

:

!

that

is

.

mother from going, but she did not yield. She advised Dharmaputra to have a special eye on Sahadeva, not to forget Kama's name and not to show any distowards Bhima and Pancall. But, the pleasure Pandavas wanted to follow their beloved mother into the forest. Pancall and Subhadra stationed themselves
shed copious tears at the sight. Gandharl, who also felt deeply pained at the sight tried their best to dissuade Kunti from following them to the forest. But, Kunti consoled
Dhrtarastra and

in tears. Grief-stricken, Dhrtarastra and Gandharl started for the forest. Holding Gandhari's hand in hers Kunti led the way. The Pandavas prevented their

behind Kuril!,

who

Arjuna led a

he Kunti received Subhadra heartily. In the game of dice with Duryodhana, Dharmaputra was defeated, and the Pandavas again started for their life in the forest. During this period Kunti lived in Vidura's house. Meanwhile Sri Krsna one day visited Kunti. and she told Krsna about the fate of her

had married

then returned to Hastinapura with Subhadra

solitary

life

in the forest for one year,

whom

and

meanwhile.

year's life incognito. Sri Krsna prompted the Pandavas to war with the Kauravas, and both the parties began preparations for war. (Adi Parva, from Chapter 135 to

sons with tears in her eyes. Duryodhana refused to give half of the kingdom to the Pandavas, who returned after twelve years' life in exile in the forest and one

10)

Kunti in Devaloka. Madri and Pandu Kunti, went to Devaloka. (Svargarohana Parva, Chapter 5,

Asvamedhika Parvans)

her sons and daughters-in-law by means of sympathetic words and followed Dhrtarastra and Gandharl to the banks of the Gaiiga, where all of them lived together. The Pandavas felt acutely the absence of their mother at home. They went to the forest and paid their resKunti pects to Kunti on the banks of the Gariga. embraced Sahadeva with tears in her eyes. Though Yudhisthira and Sahadeva wanted to stay with Kunti in her service she did not allow that. Kunti, Dhrtarastra and Gandharl performed penance in the forest near the Ganga, taking food only once in a month. The three of them died there in a wild fire. (Asramavasika Parva, Chapter 37, Verse 31). Their relations inmersed their bones in the Ganga and performed the necessary obsequies. (Strl, Santi, As ramavasika and
.

Sabha. and

Vana Parvans and Udyoga Parva. upto

KUNTI

Verse 15).

Chapter 137).

II. A particular region in ancient India. The warriors there were known as Kuntis. (Sabha Parva,

Chapter

34,

Verse 11).

KUNTI KUNTI

III

444

KURU

IV

III. An urban area in ancient India. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 27). KUNTI IV. A King born in the Yayati dynasty.

KUNTIBHOJA. A King 1) General.
sister
.

of the Yadu dynasty; son of the of Surasena, who was the father of Vasudeva and grandfather of Sri Krsna. (For genealogy see under Sri Krsna) Kuntibhoja was also the foster-father of Kunti, the daughter of Surasena. (See Para 1, under

fis{i Svayambhuva Manu Uttanapada Dhruva Ripu Caksusa (Caksusa Manu) Kuru. King Kuru was the grandfather of the reputed Vena and the great grandfather of emperor Prthu. Anga was the father of Vena. Not much is said about this Kuru in the Puranas. Kuru had ten brothers called Puru, Uru,

Satadyumna,
Adhiratha,

Kunti
2)

1).

his Sahadeva, (i) during information. triumphal march over the southern kingdoms subjugated Kuntibhoja. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 31, Verse

Other

Sudyumna and Abhimanyu. Kuru had by his wife Atreyi seven sons called Anga, Sumanas Svati, Kratu, Angiras, Gaya and Sibi, and to Anga was born by his wife Sunitha the son, who became
was Vena's son. Prthu had Antardhana, Vadi, Suta, Magadha, Palita. To Antardhana was born of his wife Sikhandini a son called Havirdhana, to whom were born by his wife Dhisana six sons called Pracinabarhis, Sukra, Gaya, Krsna, Vraja and Ajina. The above is the only informabout this Kuru dynasty in the ation available Puranas. (Visnu Purana, Part 1, Chapter 13),
reputed as Vena. Prthu
five sons

Tapasvi,

Satyavak,

Suci,

Agnisthu,

called

participated in the Rajasuya Yajna of Yudhi(Sabha Parva, Chapter 34, Verse 12). The son of Kuntibhoja also became famous under (iii) the same name, and Purujit was the son of this Both of them were uncles of the Kuntibhoja. Pandavas. (Karna Parva, Chapter 6, Verse 22). Kuruksetra war Kunti(iv) On the first day of the bhoja and his sons fought with Vinda and Anuvinda. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 72), (v) It was Kuntibhoja who occupied the netrasthana
(ii)

16).

He

sthira.

KURU

II.

Two
to

were born

One King Kuru born

Svayambhuva Manu of his
in

sons, i.e.

Uttanapada and Priyavrata
wife Satarupa. of Uttanapada

(eye-position)

of

the

Krauncavyuha

set

Dhrstadyumna.
47)'.'

(Bhisma Parva,

Chapter 50, Verse

up by

has been referred to above, i.e. Kuru I. Another King Kuru is noticed in Priyavrata's dynasty. To Priyavrata were born of his wife Barhi small fourteen sons called Agnidhra, Idhmajihva, Yajnabahu, Mahavira, Ghrta-

the dynasty

were killed by AsVatthama. (Drona Parva, Chapter 96, Verse 18). KUPATA. An Asura son of KaSyapa by Danu. (Adi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 26). KURA5IGA. One of the mountains which encircle Mahameru. (Devi Bhagavata, 8th Skandha)
(ix)

Satanlka occupied the Padasthana (foot position) of the Makaravyuha on the Pandava side. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 75, Verse 11). a noble and high-bred horse. possessed (vii) He (Drona Parva, Chapter 23, Verse 46). great war he fought with Alambusa. (viii) In the (Drona Parva, Chapter 16, Verse 183).
(vi)

Kuntibhoja and

Medhatithi, Vitihotra, prstha, Sava, Hiranyareta, Kavi, Urjaspati, Uttama, Tamasa and Raivata. To Agnidhra by his wife Purvacitti were born nine sons called Nabhi, Kimpurusa, Hari, llavrta, Ramyaka,
than the fact that he married a woman called Narl is known about him. (Visnu Purana) A King, the' brother of Rantideva. (See III.
.

Hiranmaya, Kuru, Bhadrasva and Ketumala. One King Kuru appears among them but nothing more
;

Ten

of his children

KURU under Rantideva) KURU IV.
1 )

.

KURA5IGAKSETRA. A
here and observes
salvation.
fast

.

holy place.
for

He who

bathes
attain

KURA515IU.

(The Malayalam word for monkey). Kasyapa, the grandson of Brahma and son of Marlci married eight daughters of Daksaprajapati and one of them Krodhavasa delivered ten daughters. Monkeys and lions were born from Hari, one of those ten and both are daughters. Thus they are brothers, called 'hari'. (Valmiki Ramayana, Aranya Kanda, Canto 14, Verse 24). KURAPARVATA. One of the mountains which encircle Mahameru. (Devi Bhagavata, 8th Skandha)

nights will (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 25).

three

KURCAMUKHA.

.

KORMA.

KURMA
KURU

of VisVamitra. They were Brahmavadins, (expounders of Brahman) (AnuSasana Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 53) A prominent serpent, son of Kadru. (Adi I. Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 41) The second incarnation of II. (Turtle)
. . . .

One

of the sons

KURMAPURANA. One
under Puranas)
I.
.

Mahavisnu. (See under Avataras)

of the eighteen Puranas.

(See

A King

called

Kuru was born
:

in

Dhruva's

dynasty.
Genealogy.

Descended from Visnu thus

Brahma

Puru - Janamejaya - Pracinvan - Pravira Namasyu - Vitabhaya - Sundu - Bahuvidha - SarhyatiRahovadi - Raudrasva - Matinara - Santurodha Dusyanta - Bharata - Suhotra - Suhota - Gala - GardaSuketu - Brhatksatra - Hasti - Ajamldha - Rksa Sarhvarana - Kuru. To Kuru were born four sons called ParTksit, Sudhanus, Jahnu and Nisadhasva. The genealogy of the Kuru Kings is as follows Sudhanus-Cyavana - Krti Kusagraja - Rsabha Uparicaravasu Brhadratha Puspavan - Juhu. Jarasandha was another son of Brhadratha. Jarasahdha had four sons called Soma, Sahadeva, Turya and Srutasru. From Jahnu, the following sons were born Suratha - Viduratha - Sarvabhauma - JayatCakroddhata - Devatithi sena, - Raviya - Bhavuka Rksa - Bhlma and Pratlca. Pratica had three sons called Devapi, Santanu and Balhika. Santanu is known as Mahabhisak also. Dhrtarastra and Pandu were the successors of Santanu, and they came to be known as Kauravas also as they belonged to the dynasty of Kuru. But, since the sons of Pandu were born of Devas they may not be called Kauravas. Kuruksetra became holy 2) Other Information. (1)
Yayati
:

Genealogy and birth. The very famous King Kuru in the Puru dynasty. His genealogy is given Brahma hereunder. Descended from Visnu thus Atri - Candra - Budha - Pururavas - Ayus - Nahusa -

was born

:

:

KURU V
and
on account of sanctified Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 80)
.

445
Kuru's
tapas.

KUSA

II

(Adi

KURU KURU

naming and other consecratory rites, grew up like fire in which was offered ha vis (ghee). At ths age of ten he became omniscient. At the age of sixteen he married Saudaminl, daughter of Sudaman. (Vamana Purana, Chapter 21). KURUJAISIGALAM (KURU). A kingdom in ancient India of which Hastinapura was the capital. This kingdom acquired the name Kurujangala from Kuru. (Adi Parva. Chapter 94, Verse 49) KURUJIT. A king born in King Janaka's dynasty. Aja was his father and Aristanemi his son. The genealogy fromjanaka to Kurujitis as follows Janaka Virada Nandivardhana Suketu Brhaddhrta Devarata Mahavira Dhrtaketu Haryasva Maru PratisvakaKraturatha Devamidha Mahadhrta Vidhrta Krtirata Maharoma Svarnaroma Prastharoma Slradhvaja ( Janaka, the father of Sita) Kurudhvaja Bhanuman Dharmadhvaja Krtadhvaja Kes iketu Sakradyumna Suci Vanadhvaja Urjaketu -Aja Kurujit. (Bhagavata, 9thSkandha).
boy, following his
. :

Kuru was once ploughing a land in (ii) While Kuruksetra Indra appeared there, and they had a talk. (Salya Parva, Chapter 53 Verse 6) (iii) While Kuru was once performing a yajna at Kuruksetra, the river Sarasvati went there under the name Surenu (Oghavati) and watered the land. (Salya Parv'a, Chapter 38, Verses 26 and 27 i. V. One of the sages who visited Bhisma on his bed of arrows. (Sand Parva, Chapter 47, Verse 8) VI. A son born to Sarhvarana of Tapatl. The
. .

Parva, Chapter 260, Verse 3). took place here (Kuruksetra) (ix) Once a fierce fight between Bhisma and ParaSurama. Paras urama wanted Bhisma to accept Amba, daughter of the King of Kasi
as his wife.

pancaka.

Since King Kuru made this place holy it be known as Kuruksetra thereafter. (xii) It was at Kuruksetra that the Panclavas and the Kauravas waged a fierce war and it was here that Sri

(See under AMBA). (x) Bhisma lay wounded on the bed of arrows here. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 119, Verse 92). known as Samanta(xi) Kuruksetra had been formerly
to

came

Krsna taught
(xiii)

Chapter 258, Verse 42)
for his

Arjuna
.

the

Glta.

(Bhisma Parva,

Emperor Sudarsana, son of Agni, who was famous
hospitality,
2,

lived
.

here.

(AnuSasana
for

Parva,

KURUPANCALA
and Pancala
in
.

Chapter

Verse 40)

(M)

The combined name

Kuru

ancient India.

(Bhisma Parva Chapter

KURUTA. A
known

9,

Verse 56)

KURUTIRTHA. A

as Rjrasva.

Sage mentioned in Rgveda. He is also (For details see under Rjrasva).
sacred place to the south of TaijasaHe who takes a bath here will

tirtha in Kuruksetra.

KURUVAMSA. See under KURU. KURUVARNAKA. An urban area

enter Brahmaloka. (Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 166).
in ancient

India.

KURUVARSA
came
to

KURUKSETRA.
1 )
.

Chapter 83, Verse 4) According to Pulastya even those who come into contact with the dust blown by the wind from this place meet with auspicious end. Other details, lived on the banks of 2). (i) Taksaka the river IksumatI in Kuruksetra (Adi Parva, Chapter 31, Verse 139). (ii) Kuruksetra became a sacred place as king Kuru did (Adi Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 50) tapas there. (iii) Two sons called Citrangada and Vicitravlrya were born to Santanu of Satyavatl. Once while hunting in a forest Citrangada met a Gandharva, whose name also was Citrangada. The Gandharva got angry that a man bore his name and so he killed Citrangada. The incident took place at Kuruksetra (Adi Parva, Chapter
.
.

Made famous by the Maha.bha.rata, a sacred place situated to the south of the river Sarasvati and north of Drsadvatl. People who live in this region really live in heaven. (Aranyakanda,
General.

Kuruksetra

be called Kuruvarsam. KURUVINDA. An urban area in ancient India. The people of Kuruvinda were called Kuruvindas. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 87, Verse 9)
.

(Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 56). (M) The country ruled over by

Kuru

is

KUSA

He was as The famous Sage Visvamitra effulgent as burning fire. was born in Kus'a's dynasty. (For genealogy etc see
I.

A

great sage

of ancient India.

KUSA
.

under Visvamitra)
II.

.

One

of the two sons of Sri

Rama,

the

other,

being Lava.

101, Verses 8
(iv)

worlds lived in Kuruksetra (Adi Parva, Chapter 209 Verse 27) burnt down (v) Before the Khandava forest was Taksaka left the place and went to Kuruksetra and lived there. (Adi Parva, Chapter 226, Verse 4)
. .

and 9). Sunda and Upasunda, who conquered

all

the

To Sita forsaken by Rama a son called Lava Birth. 1) was born while she was living at the asrama of Valmlki. One day Sita took Lava to the stream to bathe him, and Valmlki, who did not know about it was upset not to see the child in the asrama. He feared that it might have been eaten up by some animal, and fearing that Sita might die when she missed the child he created a child with Kusa grass and laid it where Lava was lying before. When Sita returned to the asrama with Lava after their bath Valmlki explained the whole situation to Sita. Since the second child was created with Kusa grass he was called Kusa, and he was made the second son of Sita ( Uttara Ramayana and Kathasaritsagara, Alankaravatllambaka, Taranga 1).
was ordained that the emperor, who conducted a yajna should have his wife. As Sita had been abandoned, Rama had no wife for the purposes of the yajna. It was laid down that in the absence of the wife a statue of hers may be made with palasa wood. But, Vasistha decreed that a statue of Sita might be made with gold. The yajna was to be held in the Naimisa forest. During the triumphal tour of Satrughna with the yajnika horse he reached the banks of the river Tatnasa near the airama of Valmlki where
It

an Asvamedha yajna.

2)

Kusa went

to

Ayodhya. Sri

Rama

decided to conduct

During their life of exile in the forest the Pandavas visited Kuruksetra (Vana Parva, Chapter 5, Verse 1). (vii) King Mandhata once conducted a yajna within the boundaries of Kuruksetra. (Vana Parva, Chapter 126, Verse 45)
(vi)
.

(viii)

The reputed

sage

Mudgala

lived

here.

(Vana

KUSA

II

446

KUSADVIPA

Lava and Kusa captured the horse. Satrughna could not defeat Lava and KuSa, and they routed the additional force also which arrived under the leadership of Laksmana to help Satrughna. Then Valmlki intervened and the horse was returned to Satrughna. Afterwards, Valmlki, Sita and Lavakusas also attended Sri Rama's
yajna where Lava and Kusa recited the poem Ramayana composed by Valmlki. Rama recognised the boys and they were made to live in Ayodhya. Thus did
tells

Kusa visit Ayodhya. The Kathasaritsagara
Kusa's
visit to

the

following

story

about

Valmlki duly performed the thread -wearing ceremony of Lava and Kusa and taught them, even in their very
about divine arrows. The boys one day killed a deer in the asrama and worshipped with its flesh thelinga, which Valmlki used to worship daily, and as a result of that the sage became ill. SitadevI requested for penance for the action of her children, and Valmlki said that Lava should bring golden lotus flowers from Vaisravana's pond and flowers of Kalpakavrksa from his garden, and that Lava and Kusa together should worship the with those flowers. Lava then went to mount Sivalinga Kailasa and after killing many yaksas collected the flowers. On his way back he rested for some time at the foot of a tree. Just then Laksmana, who was on the look-out for a human being for the naramedha ( human of Sri Rama, also reached the spot. He sacrifice) decided to take Lava captive with him, and they fought with each other for some time. At last Lakmana took Lava captive by using mohanastra (arrow which makes the opponent unconscious) and took him to Ayodhya. Sita was pained that Lava had not returned yet, and Valmiki with his divine vision understood the reason for his absence. He deputed Kusa to Ayodhya to bring back with him Lava somehow or other. When Kusa reached Ayodhya, Sri Rama was conducting the Asvamedha yajna, and Kusa, successfully confronting a number of people, got into the yajna ground. In the combat that ensued between Kusa and Laksmana the latter was defeated, as he could not defeat Kua due to When Sri Rama asked the greatness of Valmlki. Kusa who he was he replied that he was the brother of Lava and that he had heard from his mother Sita Rama that both of them were the sons of Sri Rama. was overjoyed to hear that and he covered the boys with kisses. Sita also was brought down from the asrama of Valmlki, and all of them lived very happily. (Kathasaritsagara, Alarhkaravatllambaka, Taranga 1 ) 3). Kusa's reign. Following the demise of Laksmana Sri Rama divided the country between Kusa and Lava. A city called Kusavatl was built in the Kosala Kingdom and Kua was crowned King thereof. Thirty two out
.

Ayodhya.

childhood,

all arts

and

sciences including the

secrets

Rksa Pariyatra Vindorala dhanva Devanlka Vldhrti Vajranabha Hiranyanabha Khagana Sudarsana Dhruva Pusya Agnipurna- Slghra Maru. The solar dynasty was annihilated at the advent of Kaliyuga (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha) KUSA III. A king born in the Kuru dynasty. To Kuru, who built Kuruksetra was born a son called Sudhanva, and to him was born Suhotra, who became the father of Cyavana. Suhotra begot of another wife Girika seven sons called Brhadratha, Kusa, Yadu, Pratyagraha, Bala, Matsyakala and Vira. Kusa was one of the seven sons. (Agni Purana, Chapter 78) KUSABINDU. An urban region in ancient India. (Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 56). KUSAClRA. A river the .water of which Indians of ancient days used to drink. (Bhlsma Parva. Chapter
. .

KUSADHARA. A
used to drink.

9,

river the water from which Indians (Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 24). KUSADHVAJA I. A brahmin, son of Brhaspati. Penniless and poor, the brahmin once sought the help of

Verse 24).

The miserly king did not give him anyThereafter he began worshipping Bhagavati with the object of making some money. While meditating upon Bhagavati a girl emerged out of his mouth. She was named Devavatl. When she came of age an asura called Sambhu desired to marry her; but Kusadhvaja did not agree to the proposal. Enraged at the refusal Sambhu killed Kusadhvaja while the latter was But Devavatl cursed and reduced asleep one night. the asura into ashes. Then she took herself to penance to secure Mahavisnu as her husband when Ravana happened to come there, and he tried to make her his wife. But, she repelled all his attempts at which he caught hold of her by the hair. She escaped by cutting her hair. She then immolated herself in burning fire. It was this Devavatl, who was, in her next life, born as Sita, daughter of King Janaka (Uttara Ramayana). KUSADHVAJA II. Brother of King Janaka, father of Sita. He lived on the banks of the river Iksumatl. (Valmiki Ramayana, Balakanda, Canto 70) . See under
King Salva.
thing.

JANAKA I. KUSADHVAJA
him
is

KUSADVlPA. One of the
is

sixtyfour aksauhinis of the kings of the solar dynasty, four out of the eight ministers and half of the movable property were allotted to Kua. Lava was crowned king of north Kosala where a city called Saravati was built for him, and the other half of the army, ministers etc. became his share. While Ku^a and Lava were ruling the country thus, Sri Rama immolated himself in the depths of the river Sarayu (Uttara

of the

the seven islands. Kuga island rich in pearls. (Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 13). Jambu, Plaksa, Salmall, Kua, Kraunca, Saka and Puskara are Salmall island has the seven islands (Saptadvlpas) double the area of Plaksa. Each island, in this order, is twice as large as the preceding one. (Devi Bhaga.

The following story about III. A King. quoted from the Skanda Purana. Kusadhvaja was a monkey in his former birth, and as he had then performed the auspicious action of swinging Siva in a cradle throughout day and night, in the next One day the birth he was born as King Kusadhvaja. King abducted the daughter of the Sage Agnivesa when she was bathing. The Sage cursed the King into the form of a vulture. He was promised redemption from the curse that he would regain his human form on the day on which he helped Indradyumna.

vata, 8th Skandha) . Kuga island encircles the sea of Sura (Wine.) Jyotisman was the chief over the island. He had seven sons called

4)

KuSa's successors. Descended from Sri Rama thus: Kusa Aditi Nisadha Nabhas Pundarlka Ksema.

Ramayana).

Udbhida, Venuman, Vairatha, Lambana, Dhrti, Prabhakara and Kapila. The Subcontinents, are called by their names. In Kusa island, along with Daityas and

KUSADYA
Danavas,

447
the benefits of an

KUSIKA
Chapter
12,

I

Men, Devas, Gandharvas, Kinnaras and Kimpurusas live. There are four castes of people there called Damis, Susmis, Snehas and Mandehas, all of them leading righteous lives. The above four castes form the Brahmin, Ksatriya, Vaisya and Sudra people in the island. There are six mountains there called Vidruma, Hemasaila, Dyutiman, Puspavan, Kusesaya and Harimandira. There are also seven rivers there called Dhutapapa, Siva, Pavitra, Sammati, Vidyut. Ambha and Mahi. These rivers annihilate sins. There are also other small rivers there. There is a Kusastamba The stamba (a cluster of Kusa grass) in the island. which glows like fire illuminates the island by its The Kusa island is light and lustre. (Bhagavata) encircled by the Ghrta ocean. (Visnu Purana Part II,
.

womb of Did and cut into pieces the child in the womb. Kusaplava became famous because of the above happenings. (Valmiki Ramayana, Balakanda, Canto

asvamedha yajna. (Bhisma Parva, Verse 21). It was here that Ditidevi, wife of Kasyapa did tapas for a son who would be equal to Indra. Again it was here that Indra entered into the

KUSASTAMBA. A
He who

46).

KUSADYA. A Kingdom

Chapter 4)

.

in ancient India. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 44). KUSALA. A holy place near mount Kraunca. (Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 12, Verse 21 ). KUSALAVA(S). Kusa and Lava, the two sons of Sita.

KUSALYA. A

(For details see under Kusa)

.

KUSAMBA

holy place in ancient India. (Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 4 ) I. The third son of Uparicaravasu. KuSamba is also known of Manivaha. Vasu had five sons called
.

KUSAMBA
1

Brhadratha,
II.

Kusamba, Mavella, Yadu and Rajanya.

son of Kusa. The city he built was ) called KauSambi. (See under Kusa). Kusamba had a daughter 2) Other information, (i) called CarvangI, who was married by Bhadrasrenya, the solar King. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 2).
General.

A

sons, Sakra and Gadhi were born to Kusamba Gadhi was born a daughter, Satyavati. VisVamitra was Gadhi 's son. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter

and

(ii)

Two

to

This statement is not quite correct. Certain other Puranas maintain that Gadhi, the father of Visvamitra was the son of Kusanabha, who was the son of Kusika and brother of KuSamba. (See under Kuganabha). KUSANABHA. A son born to Kusa of Vaidarbhi. (For Genealogy see under Visvamitra) Sage Kusa had four
.

57).

ed by Deva women. See under KuSadvIpa. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 28). KUSASTHALl. The ancient name of Dvarakapuri; an island. It was emperor Revata, son of Anarta, the grandson of Vaivasvata Manu, who first built a city in Kusasthal! and ruled the country. Their genealogy: Descended from Visnu thus: Brahma Marici KaSyapa Vivasvan Vaivasvata Manu Saryati ( Sayyati) Anarta- Revata. Certain Puranas state that it was Anarta, who first built forts at Kus'asthali. It would not be incorrect to say that Anarta built forts in this city first founded by his son Revata. The city was sunk in the sea after a few years. Afterwards the region remained as a forest for long years. It was later on that Sri Krsna built Dvaraka there. Following Krsna's death the Yadava dynasty got annihilated and the region was again swallowed by the ocean. Dvaraka is believed to have been an island situated in the sea to the west of Gujarat. Even today there is a place called Dvaraka on the coast of India to the west of Gujarat. (Devi Bhagavata, 7th Skandha and Bhagavata, 10th Skandha). KUSASVA. An Iksvaku King son of King Sahadeva and father of King Somadatta. (Valmiki Ramayana, Balakanda, Canto 47) KUSAVAN. A deep region in the lake called Ujjanaka near Manasa lake. (Vana Parva, Chapter 130, Verse
.

sacred centre in the Kusa island. bathes here attains a place in heaven surround-

.

KUSAVARTAI. SonofKingRsabha,

18).

Kusavarta had

sons,

namely Kusamba, Kusanabha, Asurtarajasa and Vasu, and Kusanabha built Mahodayapura and lived there. One hundred daughters were born to him of his wife Ghrtaci. Vayubhagavan once asked the girls to marry him at which proposal they laughed at him in derision. He cursed them and made them hunch-backed ugly women, and Kusanabha felt very sorry about
this cruel fate

KUSAVARTA

KUSAVATl. A

nineteen brothers, viz. Bharata, llavarta, Brahmavarta, Aryavarta, Malaya, Bhadraketu, Sena, Indrasprk, Vidarbha, Klkata, Kavi, Hari, Antariksa, Prabuddha, Camasa and Avirhotra, Pippalayana, Dramida, Karabhajana. (Bhagavata, 5th Skandha) A holy place in ancient India. II. Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 13). (Anusasana
.

To Somada,

of his daughters. daughter of a Gandharva woman called tjrmila, had been born a son, Brahmadatta, due to the mental power of the sage Culi. Kusanabha gave in

where the Devas city in Devaloka, once conducted a mantra yajna. It was on his way to participate in this yajna that Agastya cursed Kubera and his attendant Maniman. (Vana Parva, Chapter 161, Verse 54).

KUSESAYA.
island.

whom
who

datta and became their previous beautiful selves. Kusanabha conducted the yajfta called Putrakamesti, and Kusa, who was so pleased by the yajna blessed him to have a son called Gadhi. Visvamitra was the son of this Gadhi. Visvamitra had also a sister Satyavati,

marriage his hundred daughters to Brahmadatta, and they were cured of their hunch at the touch of Brahma-

KUSlDA

KUSAPLAVA (KUSAPLAVANAM). A

Rclka wedded. Cantos 32-35)
.

(Valmiki Ramayana, Balakanda

holy place. He bathes and spends three nights there will derive

A sage belonging to the order of Vyasa's (Bhagavata 12th Skandha) KUSlDA II. To live on the interest of money lent to others. Agriculture, breeding of cows, commerce and Kusida are the professions ordained for brahmins in emergency. (Agni Purana, Chapter 152). KUSlKA I. A very famous monarch in the Puru dynasty. He was the grandfather of Visvamitra and father of Gadhi.
I.

One of six great mountains in the Kusa Durdharsa, Dyutiman, Puspavan, Kusesaya, Kumuda and Hari are the six mountains. (Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 12, Verses 10 and 11).
disciples.
.

KUSIKA
Brahma Nahusa
1)

II

448
world that he and Siva were one

LAKSMANA
and was
then
also the greatness of Agastya, the idol of all on a sudden changed into a Siva Linga.

Descended from Mahavisnu thus; Candra - Budha - Pururavas - Ayus Yayati - Puru - Janamejaya - Pracinvan Pravlra - Namasyu - Vltabha-a - Sundu - BahuvidhaSamyati - Rahovadi - Raudra^va - Matinara - Santurodha - Dusyanta - Bharata - Suhotra - Brhatputra Genealogy. - Atri
-

and the same, Visnu
Since

Aj mldha

KUVALAYAPlDA. Name
the

temple (Skanda Purana).
gates

the

has

remained
of the

a

Siva

Temple.

jahnu - Balakas'va - Kusika. Kusika began tapas for a son who 2) Indra as son. would be equal to Indra and could not be killed by
-

elephant posted at
Sri
to

Mathurapurl to kill Balabhadrarama, who went there
Rangadvararh samasadya Tasmin nagamavasthitam

of

Krsna and
witness the

others. Pleased with his tapas Indra voluntarily took birth as Kusika's son. Gadhi was that son; in fact he

dhanuryajna. But, they killed the elephant.
/

was an incarnation of Indra.

(Santi

Parva,

Chapter

KUSIKA
who
25)
.

49).

KUS.IKASRAMA. A

KUSMANDAKA. A
KUSUMA. One

holy iiSrama on the banks o. the river Kosi where the sage called Kusika is believed to have lived. (Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 131) prominent serpent. (Adi Parva,
.

On his way to Hastinapura he saw (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 27)
.

A sage who came to see Pramadvara II. died of snake poison (Adi Parva, Chapter 8, Verse
Sri

Krsna.

Apagyat Kuvalayapldarh Krsno s mbasthapracoditam (Bhagavata, Dasama Skandha, Chapter 48, Verse 2). KUVlRA. A river. (Bhlsma Parva Chapter 27). KUYAVA. An asura referred to in the Rgveda. (Rgveda, Mandala 1, Anuvaka 15, Sukta 104).

KUSTUMBURU. A

Chapter 35, Verse 11). Raksasa in Kubera's (Sabha Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 16).

LA

(?r)

This

letter

means the Creator.

(Chapter 348,
the

court.

deva by Dhata. Kunda, Kusuma, Kumuda, Dambara and Adambara were the five attendants. (Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 39). KUSUMBHAPARVATA. One of the mountains around Mahameru. (Devi Bhagavata, 8th Skandha) KUSUMBHI. A forest near Dvaraka. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 38). KtFTA. One of the pugilists deputed by Karhsa to kill Sri Krsna and Balarama when they went to Mathura to witness the dhanuryajna. Canura, Mustika, Sala and Kosala were the other prominent pugilists deputed by Karhsa for the purpose. 10th (Bhagavata,
.

of the five attendants given to Skanda-

LABDHANASA. See under Pancatantra. LAGHUPATANA. A crow, a character of

Agni Purana).

story-

book, 'Pancatantra'. (See under Pancatantra). LAJJ/\. One of the thirteen daughters of Daksaprajapati. The other daughters were, Sraddha, LaksmI, etc.

Visnu Purana) house of lac (a kind of red dye). (See for details under Arakkillam). LAKSANA I. Daughter of Duryodhana. Wife of

LAKSAGRHA. The
Samba. (See
II.

(Chapter

7,

Arhsa

1,

.

for details

LAKSANA

A

celestial

under Samba) maiden. This maiden took
.

KUTAPA.
Kutapa

Skandha).

After-noon, considered to be auspicious for

part in the birth day celebrations of Arjuna. (Sloka 62, Chapter 122, Adi Parva, M.B.). LAKSAJVA (LAKSMAISA) HI. One of the eight queens of Sri Krsna. Laksana was the daughter of Brhatsena,

performing obsequies.
are the
.

The

offerings

made

to

Pitrs

at

best.

(Adi

Parva,

Southern

text,

KUTHARA. A

prominent naga. He was present among the nagas, who went to receive Balabhadra when he went, in the form of naga, into the sea. ( Mausala
Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 15).

Chapter 93)

(Srstf Khanda, Padma Purana). Sri ten sons of her some of whom are Praghosa, Gatravan, Simha and Bala. (10th Skandha, Bhaga-

Krsna got
vata).

KingofMadra.

LAKSMANA.

Son born

Short history. 1) included in the

KUTHARA. A
was burned
to

to Das"aratha of Sumitra. Since details about Laksmana are story under 'Rama' only a short
:

naga born in Dhrtarastra's family. It death at the serpent yajna of Janamejaya. (Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 15). KUTILA. See under Parvatl. KUTSA. Son of a Rajarsi called Rviru. Kutsa is mentioned with reference to Indra in many places in
Seat of a famous Siva temple in (M) South India, originally a Visnu temple. There is a story about its conversion into the present Siva temple
.

description is given below Dasaratha, King of Ayodhya had three wives, Kausalya, Kaikeyl and Sumitra. To obtain children Dasaratha performed a sacrifice named Putrakamesti

KUTTALA

the Rgveda.

requesting the great sage Rsyasrnga to officiate at the ceremony. At the close of the ceremony a divine person rose up from the sacrificial fire with a pot of pudding and all the three wives became pregnant by eating the same. Kausalya gave birth to Sri Rama,

as follows

:

Agastya, on his journey to the south, reached Tirukkutralam (Kuttalam) in the Tirunelveli Zilla on the southern borders of Tamil Nadu. The temple there was dedicated to Visnu, and the Vaisnavas (devotees of Visnu) prevented Agastya from entering the temple with ashes on his forehead. At once he transformed himself into a devotee of Visnu, and was permitted entry into the temple. As Visnu wanted to show the

Kaikeyl to Bharata and Sumitra to Laksmana and Satrughna. Laksmana was an incarnation of Ananta and so Rama and Laksmana had more attachment to each other. Visvamitra once took Rama and Laksmana to the
forests

to

demons who gave them trouble. In the course of that Visvamitra took them to the Svayarhvara held at the married Slta and court of Janaka andj{SrI Rama

give

protection to

the

sages

against

the

Laksmana married Urmila.

LAKSMA&A
When

II

449

LAKSMI
1)

I

the coronation of Sri

Rama

was about

to

take

place, Kaikeyl demanded of Dasaratha, on the strength of the two boons granted to her on a previous occasion, to send Sri Rama to the forests for fourteen years and

compelled to accede to her request

crown Bharata her son as King.
to the forests. Sita

Das'aratha
so
Sri

was

went

and and Laksmana

Rama

Laksmana
led

him. Laksmana during the fourteen years of their exile followed his brother Rama like a shadow. Laksmana cut off the breasts and nose of Surpanakha, the demoness who made amorous overtures to them. Laksmana acted promptly and bravely when the notorious trio, Khara, Diisana and Trisiras attacked them and he was responsible for the slaughter of the three. Ravana, coming to know of that, carried away Sita to Lanka. Grief-stricken, Rama and Laksmana roamed about in the forests searching for Sita. At last they came to Sugriva with whom they made an alliance. Rama and Laksmana got back for Sugriva his kingdom of Kiskindha and Sugriva in return helped Rama and

accompanied

into two enchanting damsels both equal in figure, splendour, age, majesty, adornment and love. One of these was LaksmldevI and the other Radhadevl. That born of the left was Rama and that of the right, Radha. Radha wedded herself to the two-handed Sri Krsna and LaksmI also wanted the same person and so Bhagavan himself became two, Sri Krsna from the left side as a two-handed and as four-handed person Visnu from the right side. Devi (9th Skandha.

Paramatma (Supreme Being) The beautiful Devi by a command from the Supreme Being divided herself
.

Origin.

Devi originated

from

the

left

side of

2) Different incarnations of Laksmi. LaksmI had many incarnations and she had been on earth in different forms at different times. They are given below: from the ocean of milk. Once the Devas (i) Birth

Bhagavata)

.

Ravana. Accompanied by an army went to Lanka and defeating Ravana took back Sita to Ayodhya. Sri Rama was crowned King and Laksmana helped his
to fight

by Sugriva

Rama and Laksmana

brother in his duties. When there arose a scandal about Sita from the people, Sri Rama asked Laksmana
to take Sita

away to the forest and leave her there. In the Asvamedha conducted by Sri Rama, Laksmana led the sacrificial horse and the horse was blocked arid captured by Lava and Kus"a and Laksmana fought
VVhen the purpose of the incarnation of Rama was over, god of Death in the garb of a sage approached Sri Rama for a private talk. Rama and the sage were closeted in a room and Laksmana was asked to keep watch over the door with instructions not to allow anybody inside. After some time sage Durvasas came there and Laksmana entered the room to give his brother the information of his arrival. Rama was angry and abandoned Laksmana and, feeling repentant later, Sri Rama jumped into the river and drowned himself before a huge crowd of weeping subjects. Laksmana immediately ended his life by drowning himself at the same place where his brother did so. Laksmana was born on the day of Aglesa 2) Birth, in the lagna of Karkataka. (Sloka 15, Chapter 18, Bala Kanda, Valmlki Ramayana). LAKSMAIMA II. A very brave son of Duryodhana. He was a great archer. The Mahabharata gives the following information about him.
defeated this great battle Abhimanyu Laksmana. (Sloka 32, Chapter 73, Bhlsma Parva) Laksmana fought against Ksatradeva. (Sloka 49, (ii) Chapter 14, Drona Parva).
(i)
.

against them.

LaksmldevI properly. (9th to Devaloka, worshipped Skandha, Devi Bhagavata). was born as a mare. (See under (Ii) Mahalaksmi Ekavira, Para 2) Mahalaksmi was born as the Tulasi plant (Holy (iii) Basil. (See under Tulasi.) was born as Sita and Vedavati. (See (iv) Mahalaksmi under Sita) Mahalaksmi was born as a daughter (v) Other births When Mahavisnu to the sage Bhrgu of Khyati. the lotus. incarnated as Surya, LaksmI rose up from When Visnu became Paras urama, Laksmi became
.

all together went to Vaikuntha and represented their grievances before Mahavisnu. Visnu smiled and told "You go and be born as KsiraMahalaksmi thus sagarakanyaka using a part of your inherent power and do give relief to the Devas." Accordingly when the Devas conducted the churning of the ocean of milk (Kslrabdhimathana) Mahalaksmi, the goddess of beauty, wealth and prosperity arose from the ocean as Kslrasagarakanyaka (Daughter of the ocean of milk) and blessed the Devas and put a Vanamala ( garland of wild flowers) on Mahavisnu. The Devas got back all their lost wealth and prosperity and they, on going
:

became aged and afflicted with rugosity and Indra lost his grey hairs by a curse of Durvasas. majesty and was ousted from Svarga. Svargalaksmi deserted Devaloka and went to Vaikuntha and merged with Mahalaksmi. The Devas were greatly aggrieved on account of this to Satyaloka and plight of theirs and they went to Brahma to find a solution to their difficultappealed ies. Brahma was helpless in the matter and so they

.

:

In

the

(iii)
1

7,

Chapter 46, Drona Parva)
After the great

Abhimanyu

killed

him

in
.

the battle-field.

(Sloka
of

(iv)

KuntI and Gandharl, Vyasa by his yogic powers arrayed the dead warriors for KuntI and Gandharl to see, this Laksmana was also among them. (Sloka 11, Chapter 32, Asramavasika Parva). LAKSMAiyA. One of the queens of Sri Krsna. (Chapter 33, Sabha Parva, Daksinatyapatha) LAKSMI I. Consort of Mahavisnu.
.

war when once,

at the request

the earth. When Mahavisnu incarnated as Sri Rama, LaksmI became Sita and when Visnu was born as Krsna LaksmI became Radha. Thus whenever and wherever Mahavisnu changed his form, Mahalaksml also changed hers to form part of the changed life. ( Chapter 9, Amsa 1, Visnu Purana). Once Mahalaksmi cursed 3) Mahalaksmi cursed Visnu. Mahavisnu, her husband, that his head would drop off

from his body. (See under Cital). 4) Two forms of Laksmi. Mahalaksmi has two forms, Visnu-priya Laksmi andRajyalaksmi. The former is the embodiment of chastity and virtuousness. The latter
goes about courting Kings. RajyalaksmI is fickle and unsteady. This Laksmi enters all places where virtue and charity are found and as soon as these two vanish

LAKSMI
place.
5)

II

450
will also vanish

LASIKA
Manavcdan Raja
is tire

from any place Rajyalaksmi
Lakfmi

from that

cow dung
came
(

Chapter

so sacred

in cow-dung. The people of Bharata consider as very sacred and there is a story in the 82nd of AnusTisana Parva as to how cow-dung be:

when Laksmi happened

ground way. Mahalaksmi was pleased at the cows and bade them ask for any boon they wanted. The cows were prosperity incarnate and contented and they rejected the offer of Laksmi and when pressed again by her, said that they would like to have prosperity deposited in their dung also. Mahalaksmi did so and so even today it is believed that the
to pass that

)ncc a herd of cows

was grazing

in a large grassy

ter 13, Drona Parva). LALA'l'AKSA. A country of ancient
this

of Kozhikode Palace named Vilasini Other commentaries named Varavarnini, Cintatilaka and Vyakrti are also worth mentioning LALAliHAKSAM. A hell. (See under Kala I). LALAMA. A division among horses. The white patch on the forehead of a horse is also called Lalama and so horses with lalama arc called Lalamas. (Sloka 13, Chapbest.

cowdung
6)
.

is

embedded with
:

prosperity.

Other details

India. The King of country was picsent at the yajiia of Yudhis(hira with very many valuable: presents. (Sloka 17, .Chapter 51, Sabha Parva) LALITA. Sec under PUNDARlKAMUKHA. LALITA. A Gandharva. This Gandharva was born by a curse and by observing a vrata called Kamada Kkadai-'I he obtained relief from the curse and became Gandharva
.

Laksmi stays in the court of Kubera. (Sloka 19, Chapter 10, Sabha Parva). (ii ) Mahalaksmi is installed in temples as an idol carrying a lotus in her right hand and a Bilva fruit in her left hand. (Chapter 50, Agni Purana) in the court of Brahma also. (iii) Laksmidevi stays (Sloka 41, Chapter 11, Sabha Parva). LAKSMI II. A daughter of Daksaprajapati. She was married to Dharmadeva. (Sloka 14, Chapter 66, Adi
(i)
.

LALITAKA. An LALITTHA. A
(

again. (Uttara Khanrla, Padma Purana). ancient holy place of Hhfirala. If one bathes in a sacred pond there, one will be free from sins.
.

Sloka 34, Chapter 84, Vana Parva) country of ancient Bharata. The people of the place were called Lalitthas. They fought on the

side of the Kauravas in the great battle. Lalitthas boasted that they would kill Arjuna in the big battle. The

LAKSMlDASA. A
of SukasandeSa.
I

Parva).

Sanskrit

poet

who was

the

author

LAMBA. A
(Chapter

King of the Lalitlhas attacked Abhimanyu. Arjuna killed them all in the battle. (Sloka 47, Chapter 5, Karna Parva).

. Birth. He was born in the former state of Cochin in ) Karirigampilly Mana. This Mana (house) was near the temple of Trpputamarigala in Vellarappilly in Cochin

daughter of Daksaprajapati. Asikni wife of Daksaprajapati got a hundred daughters and ten of them were married to Dharmadeva. Lamba was one of them.
15, Aiiisa 1,

LAMBANl. A

follower

Visnu Purana). of Subrahmanya.
.

(Sloka

18,

bearing the position of Talivatiri in the village of IranikIt is over two hundred years since that Mana kula. became extinct. (The houses of Namboothiri brahmins are called Manas).
2) It is believed that the famous 'SukasandesV was written in 112 M.E. There is one set of historians who hold that it was written in 666 A.D. But the famous scholar and poet Ullur states with authority that it was written in the 10th or 1 1th century A.D.

(Kanayannur

taluk).

The

Karingampilly

Mana was

LAMBAPAYODHARA. A

Chapter 46, Salya Parva)

follower of

Subrahmanya

As usual there are legends poet also. That the poet was a very dull boy in his childhood and that he became bright and brilliant by the blessings of his guru is one legend. After writing his SukasandeSa the poet went on a pilgrimage in South India. One night he came to a brahmin's house but was not given any food or a place
?N
Stories

about this poet.

regarding

this

(Sloka 42, Chapter 121, Drona Parva) celebrated river of Puranic fame. This river worships Varuna in the form of a Devi. (Sloka 22, Chapter 9, Sabha Parva). LA5IGHATI. A river of Puranic fame. This river sits in the court of Varuna and worships him.

(Sloka 21, Chapter 46, Salya Parva) LAMPAKA. A place of Puranic fame. In the great epic battle the people of Lampaka fought on the side of the Kauravas. They attacked Satyaki and he destroyed the

Lampakas.

.

LA5IGALI.

A

LA5IKA. The kingdom of Ravana.
1)

lying awake when he heard his 'Sukasandeia' being read inside by a few people. At a stage they were not able to follow the import of a verse when Laksmi dasa shouted the meaning from outside. door opened and a voice enquired in Tamil "Are you Karingampilly ?" When he said yes they were extremely happy and took him inside and treated him with

He was

to sleep.

He

slept in

an open veranda on the outside.

Ceylon was the Lanka of the Puriinas, the city of Ravana. This city of Lanka was situated on the top of This Trikuta was a peak the mountain Trikuta. of Mahamcru. Because of a fight between Vasuki and Vayubhagavan this peak broke away from Mahamcru and fell into the ocean. (See Para 5 under
2) History. Visvakanna constructed a magnificent city on the top of the mountain Trikuta for the use of Kubera. Kubera lived there adored and worshipped by all. One day Kubera travelled by air in an aeroplane of his. Kaikasi, mother of Ravana saw that and she became jealous. She called her son to her side and said that at any cost the city of Lanka on the mount Trikuta should be captured and given to her. Ravana along with his brothers went to the Himalayas and performed nenance there and obtained several boons from Siva. Then iivana conducted a victory march as an arch-oppom u

Origin.

It

is

believed

that

the

present

island

of

A

Kubera)

.

respect.
4)

Works.

been found.

No major work other then SukasandeSa Two small poems are available.

has

Sukasandcga has been written on the model of the famous Meghasandes'a of Kalidasa. Many commentaries on this have come to light; of these the one written by

LA&K.ALAKSMI
of
all living forces and drove away Kubcra from Lanka and took possession of Lanka as the place of his abode. He took along with him all the demons residing in

451

LA VANA

II

Piitalaloka.

south making what is known as the Daksinayana and (Yuddha Kancla, Kamba Ramayana). Ultarayana. 4). No sand in Lanka. The ancient belief is that there is no sand in Lanka The fourth taraiiga of Kathamukhalambaka of Kathasarhsagara gives a story relating to the reason for this belief.

building ability of Maya brought into form the enchanting city. On the lop of Trikiita was the all important Navaralnasrriga and on a spacious plateau on its lop In the centre was the stood the majestic city of Lanka. ten-storeyed palace of Ravana and around it in eight different places stood the nine-storeyed buildings of the The nine edifices were like great ministers of Ravaiia. the Navagrahas (nine planets) of Lanka. Each of the nine edifices was built wilh one of the nine gems and the royal palace in the centre was built by using all the nine gems. Even the sun avoided passing over these buildings and changed his path either a bit to the north or to the

architect designed the beautiful

3).

The design of Laitka.

Visvakarrna,
Laiika.

the

celebrated

and the supreme

When

born in Lanka and Vijayalak.sml accordingly was became the watch-girl of Ravana 's palace. Hanuman corning to Lanka 2) Release from the curse. in search of Sita tried to find an opening through which to enter Lanka. Then he saw a huge tower-gate on the northern side of the mountain Suvelagiri.
he reached the gate he found it closed. 'I Inmighty monkey beat hard on the door and the strong door burst into two and fell on to the Iloor. Instanlly a ferocious woman of enormous size rushed to the gate with a piercing roar and blocked it. Hanuman found the situation dangerous and so gave her a powerful blow and felled her. She then very politely asked Hanuman who he was and Hanuman revealed his identity and told her the purpose of his visit. Lankalaksmi then look leave of Hanuman and leaving Lanka went to Sri Rama and worshipped him. Rama blessed her and she returned to Satyaloka and started doing her duties as before. (Sundara Kanda, Kamba
.

LAPETIKA.

Ramayana )

A

Garuda
redeem

Devaloka to bring Amrta (nectar) to mother from her servitude to his step-mother. On his way he took an elephant and tortoise from near He sat on a huge the as'rama of Kasyapa for his food. banyan tree to eat them. On the ground below the Balakhilyas were performing penance. The branch on which Garuda sat with his food sagged and before it broke Garuda took away the elephant and tortoise and deposited them on the mountain Gandhamadana near the ocean. The branch broke and fell into the ocean and the city of Lanka was built on the branch and that was why the ancient people believed there was no sand in Lanka.
(lew to
his

he would get the benefit of conducting a Vajapeya yajfia. (Sloka 15, Chapter 58, Vana Parva). LAPITA. The second wife of a sage called Mandapala. (See for details under Mandapala) LATA. A celestial maiden. She was the companion of another Devi of name Varga. Though she became a crocodile by the curse of a brahmin she was set free by Arjuna. (See under Paiicalirlha) LATA. A particular division of the Ksatriyas. Because a set of the Ksatriyas showed jealousy towards the Brahmins they became La{as. (Sloka 1 7, Chapter 35, Anusasana Parva) LATAVESTA. A mountain situated on the southern side of Dvaraka. It had five colours and so resembled the Indracapa. (Chapter 33, Daksinatya Patha, Sabha
.

holy place. If a

man

visits

this

place

.

.

5). Other details. (i) Sahadeva sent

LAUHITYA
26,

Gha(otkaca to collect tribute from the King of Lanka for the Rajasuyayajna of Dharmapulra. (Chapter 31, Daksinatyapatha) (ii) The people of Lanka attended the Rajasuyayajna of Dharmaputra and took charge of serving rice in the feast. (Sloka 23, Chapter 53, Vana Parva).
.

I. A country of Puranic fame. This country of out-castes was conquered by Bhima and he took from there different kinds of diamonds. (Sloka

Parva).

(iii)

Hanuman
his tail.

from

LA5IKALAKSMI. A
by a hard slroke of

gent of her duties Brahma cursed her "Go to the earth and be the watch-girl of the palace-gate tower of

Devi who was relieved of her curse hand by Hanuman. 1). How she came to Lanka. LankalaksmI was Vijayalaksmi in her previous birlh. She was the watch-girl of the treasury of Brahma and one day finding her neglihis

was Brahma who gave Lanka at first to Kubera. (Sloka 16, Chapter 274, Vana Parva). (v) After the death of Ravana, Vibhisana was crowned the King of Lanka (Sloka 5, Chapter 291, Vana Parva).
(iv) It

once burnt the city of Lanka with a (See under RAMA).

fire

A sacred place constructed by the powers of Sri Rama. If one bathes in a pond there one would become golden in colour. (Sloka 2, Chapter 85, Vana Parva and Chapter 25, Anuasana Parva). LAVA. A son of Sita. (See under KM:' a II for more
LAUHITYA
II.

Chapter

30,

Sabha Parva).

LAVAIVA(M). A hell. (See under Kala I) LAVAIVA I. A demon. He was the son of a demon called Madhu. Madhuvana on the banks of the river
.

details)

.

Kalindi was the abode of this demon. This demon was a great oppressor of theDevas and Satrughna had to kill him. Satrughna then constructed a beautiful city there and lived there. In recognition of the increasing prosperity of the city it was named Madhura. After the death of Satrughna his two sons lived there. (4th

Skandha, Devi Bhagavata)

.
1

be carried away by Ravana and Hanuman will come in search of her to Lanka. You will then block the way of that mightly monkey and he will then strike you down by a fierce blow of his hand. You will be then released from the curse and come back to me."

ing the incarnation of Visnu

Ravana". She begged

for relief

and Brahma

as

Rama

said,

"Dur-

LAVA1VA

his wife Sita will

a grandson of Haris candra. He once conducted a Rajasuya in his in imagination and became a Candala. (story JnanavasisUia). This story was narrated to Sri Rama by Vasistha to teach him the truth that man docs not realise that this whole universe is an illusion only because of his ignorance.
II.

A

King who was

LAVAJVA

n
the

452

LA VAN A
girl

II

Lavana was
great fame.

He was

King

wished to earn fame by performing a Rajasuya yaga as Hariscandra had done. Lavana decided to perform

of Uttarapindava, a country of the grandson of Hariscandra and

the yaga in his mind only. He made grand preparations for the yajna. He invited the Rtviks and after invoking the devas inflamed the sacrificial fire. For one year he observed yaga like that and in the end gave It was all an gifts to the brahmins and the poor. imaginary performance that the King had in the course of a single day when he indulged in a reverie. In the evening as usual he continued his day to day duties.

One who performs Rajasuya will have to bear woes and sorrows for a period of twelve years and since Lavana had performed it mentally, Iridra sent his agent to give Lavana worries mentally. Indra's agent appeared in the court of King Lavana in the guise of a magician. The magician bowing before the King with awe said, "Lord, I shall show you a magic. See it sitting on your throne. It will be as astounding as if seeing moon rise on the earth".
and waved it against the face of the King. That bundle was capable of producing different objects and visions. The King fixed his eyes on the several glittering spots on the feathers and soon he saw a relative of the Saindhava King approaching the court. Behind him was a beautiful horse. Holding the horse by the reins the new-comer addressed the King thus. "Lord, this horse is as good as UccaisSravas and it has been sent by the King of Sindhu to be
feaihers

Saying

this the

magician took a bundle of peacock-

coming with a pot of rice. I approached her and asked for some rice. She did not pay any attention to my request and moved on. I followed her and she said she would give me rice if I promised to marry her. In despair I agreed to her condition and she was pleased with my reply. She gave me half of the rice and curry she was carrying to her father and also some lemon-juice to drink. After taking that food I rested for a while. Her name was Harakeyuri. As soon as her father came from the fields she told him everything. The candala was immensely pleased to hear about our marriage and all of us went to their hut. The scene I saw at the hut was astonishing. At one place was the flesh of boars, horses, fowl and crows in a heap and on the intestines of animals hanging from ropes sat birds pecking at them. In the hands of children there were pieces of raw meat and flies hovered round them. The hut presented a disgusting atmosphere and yet I entered and sat on a leaf and my marriage with Harakeyuri was conducted there. The celebrations of the marriage lasted for seven days and all these days people danced and shouted amidst loud noises of drumming in a hilarious mood of drunkenness. Eight months passed by very soon and Harakeyuri became pregnant. She delivered a girl first and soon we had two or three children more. I had to do many cruel and nasty deeds to feed my family and gradually
I became old. My hair became grey. At that time there occurred a great famine and those residing in the forests were put to great trouble. There was no water to drink as all ponds and lakes went

presented to you. Best things should be given to the best people and only then the value of the thing would be correctly understood." The magician who was standing near-by supported the statement of the

new-comer.

He

horse has wonderful powers. Take a tour of all the worlds riding on this horse". The King sat staring at the horse and he sat thus for an hour and a half. The entire court was perplexed.

said "Lord,

what he says

is

true.

This

Vindhya mountain where there were plenty of waterfountains. A few committed suicide. We also left the also place and started walking, taking the children along with us. After some time we sat under a palm
profusely. She then kissed her children and lay down and started sleeping. Thirsty and hungry my children lay there awaiting death. Unable to witness the scene I jumped up from there deciding to commit suicide myself. Suddenly my vision faded and I was able to see this court and you all. This is the work of that
tree completely exhausted.

dry.

Some

of us

migrated

to

the

vicinity of

the

My

wife began

to

weep

some time the King awoke from his meditation and looking at his courtiers in wonder he said thus "I shall tell you what happened to me during the short period I was sitting in meditation. While I was
After
:

magician".

body were equally tired and still we went on moving till evening came. Somehow we crossed the forest and reached Jangala. There I found a cluster of lemon trees and to ease my body I caught hold of a creeper hanging from one of the lemon trees. As I did so, to my horror, I found the horse running away from me and leaving me alone. Tired by the day's travel I sat at a place and dozed. Darkness was creeping in and soon the whole place was in complete darkness. It was very cold also. Somehow I spent the night and when morning came, with hopes I walked around the place. The place was still and no living thing was in sight. As I roamed about I saw a forest-

my mind and

looking at the peacock feathers of the magician I felt a desire to go hunting riding on this horse. So I went to the forest alone riding on this horse. Very quickly the horse took me a long distance deviating from the main path and I soon found myself in the dark depths of a huge forest. By the time we reached that forest

courtiers sat dumb-founded at the incredible story of the King. Suddenly the magician disappeared. The magician after making the King experience the woes of twelve years in a very short time left for the

The

court

of Indra.

Next morning King Lavana in the hope of seeing the place and people of his dream in reality near the mountain Vindhya started with his retinue on the false pretext that he was going to conduct a victory march When he entered a big forest he met with many familiar places and hunters of his dream. Then he saw the hut where he had lived. The same men and women were there all around. Then e saw an old lady lamenting thus: "Oh my dear sons, where did you go from my lap ? My dear daughter, have you forsaken me ? Oh prince, you came here abandoning all luxury and the beautiful girls of your palace and married my daughter. But God did not allow even her to be your permanent wife. The river of life has to take worthless and mean paths forced by circumstances. A
!

LA VAN A HI

453

LIJSlGAPURAlVA
Sudyumna had become
great by

LAVAlVfA III. A demon who lived in the island of Ramamyaka. He had come to the island long before the serpents came to that place. The serpents saw him when they went there to live. (Sloka 2, Chapter
Adi Parva) LAVAliTA IV. Another King of the family of candra. Yogavasistha says that this King had pated in several Rajasuya yajnas.
27,
.

live with a very virtuous King had to come and candala girl." Hearing this the King went to her and asked her all details. When she repeated the story the king knew that the lady was the mother of his candala wife. The King and ministers were surprised to find that his vision was real and within that short period of his meditation he had lived a life of years. This perplexed the King. He then gave the old lady whatever she wanted and after consoling her started for the palace thinking about the wonderful happenings and mysteries of life.

executing the

law

LIKHITA

An evil-natured priest of Haihsadhvaja, II. the King of Campakapurl. Safikha his brother also was the King's priest. Harhsadhvaja blocked the sacrificial horse of the Asvamedha yajna of Dharmaputra and Arjuna attacked the King to get the horse released. To mobilise an army the King announced that each and every soldier should assemble at the place by day-break the next morning and added that those who disobeyed
would be put in burning oil. By early morning the next day the son of the King arrived at
the soldiers excepting palace. Sudhanva, general of the army and his
all

correctly.

the

Haris"-

partici-

LAVANAKA (LAVAl^AKA). A
kings used to
old.

Puranic place of fame near the country of Magadha. There are many forests in this place suitable for hunting and so several

was a the King's son, absence annoyed the King. Hamsadhvaja was ing whether his son should be punished when advised the King to execute the punishment. The King put Sudhanva into a big cauldron of oil but Sudhanva escaped from it unscathed
surprise of

hesitat-

Likhita
boiling the

to

come and

stay at

La.va.naka in

times of

LAVAIiJASVA.
respect to

A

sage.

Dharmaputra. (Sloka
of old.

This sage showed very high 23, Chapter 26, Vana
a
8,

LAYA.
of

Parva)

.

A deva-gana (set of celestial beings) of (S). Raivata Manvantara. In this set there are eight Devas named Dhruva, Dhruvaksiti, Praghasa, Pracetas, Brhaspati, Manojava, Mahayasas and Yuvanas. (Brahmanda Purana, 2, 36, 76) LIKHITA I. An ancient sage. The King of that land cut off his hands on a charge of theft. But they grew into their original form by the power of the penance of his brother, (Chapter 23, Sand Parva).

LEKHA

Yama.

A King

He was

member

of

the

court

(Sloka 21, Chapter

Sabha Parva).

At this moment a huge palm tree and fell on them and they were killed. split (Jaimini Asvamedhaparva) LlLADHYA. A son of ViSvamitra. He was a BrahmavadI (Sloka 53, Chapter 4, Anusasana Parva). LILATILAKAM. The first book of Literary criticism in Malayalam. The author of the book is unknown. The book is divided into eight parts. Manipravala, Malaya Alaiikara, lasabdas, Kavyagunas, Kavyadosas and Rasa are critically examined in this book.

all. Likhita and Sankha said that Sudhanva escaped because the boiling of the oil was incomplete and uneven. So they boiled the oil again and threw

Sudhanva

into into two

it.

.

.

LlLAVATl

Wife of Dhruvasandhi, King of Kosala. I. (For details see under Dhruvasandhi) LlLAVATl II. A prostitute who attained Svarga by simply observing the Suklastamivrata in the month of
Prosthapada in which was born Radhadevi. Chapter seven, Brahmakhanda of Padma Purana contains the

It

was a time when the celebrated King Sudyumna was
over
the

Bahuda in that country there lived two sages, Sankha and Likhita, in two separate hermitages of their own. Once Likhita went to the aSrama of his elder brother Sankha and finding none but feeling hungry took some vegetables from there and started eating them. While he was eating his brother walked in and he deemed
his

ruling

country.

On

the banks of the river

following story. In times of old in Krtayuga there was a beautiful prostitute of the name Lilavatl. Once she went away from her own town to another in search of better prosof people in a pects. There she saw a big assemblage

the action of his brother taking the vegetables without permission as an act of theft. Cutting the hands of the culprit was the punishment accorded by the King at that time to the offender. Sarikha sent Likhita to the King. The King received the sage respecifully and gave him a seat. The sage then told him all that had happened and then Sudyumna ordered the hands of Likhita to be cut off. Blood was oozing from his hands when Likhita went and bowed before his brother. The brother congratulated him on his accepting the punishment for his crime and asked Likhita to go and take a dip in the Bahuda river. Likhita bathed in that holy river and then he found both the hands growing like lotus-buds

from

him

Then Likhita asked his brother why he did not purify him by his power before. Saiikha replied that the power of punishing was vested in the King and the King

He rushed to his brother and showed and then Sarikha said that it was due to the power of his penance that Likhita got his hands.
his

the hands

body.

They were observing Radhastamivrata and worshipping their deity with scented flowers and incense of sweet fragrance. Some were reciting prayers, some were singing and yet others were dancing. The whole atmosphere was filled with devotion. Lilavatl went to them and enquired about it. They told her that that day was the birthday of Radhadevi, the Suklastami of the month of Prosthapada, and if anyone observed Vrata on that day worshipping Radhadevi he would be absolved of all sins. On hearing that, Lilavati decided to observe the Vrata. She joined the devotees of the temple and observed the Vrata with great devotion. Soon she died of snake-bite and the servants of Yama came to take her soul to hell because of the sins she had committed as a prostitute. But before the Yamadutas could touch her, Parsadas of Mahavisnu wearing the insignia of Saiikha, Cakra, Gada and Padma came to her with a chariot drawn by kingly swans and took her to heaven.
temple.

LIJNlGAPURAl^A.

See under Puranas.

LIPI

454

LIPI
four kinds of lipis in Bharata during the time of Buddha. inscriptions on stones and other historical records it can be gathered that the basis of all the lipis had been two main lipis named Brahmi and Kharostri. Kharostr! was used in the northwest of Bharata and became extinct by the 4th Century A.D. Brahmi was the lipi universally used in Bharata. This lipi had different forms in the north and south. The lipi in use in the south was called

LIPI (ALPHABET, SCRIPT).
1

the record in writing of the utterances by mouth. There are scientific and non-scientific statements about the origin of lipi. In the beginning people used figures of objects to express their ideas. They were called pictorial writings and are found even now in caves in Spain and France where the aborigines lived. Gradually the pictures vanished and letters took
)

Origin.

Lipi

is

From

their place.

Dravicli.

nated from Java. The voice of Indonesia, a government organ, published once a puranic story relating to the origin of the script. Lipi came into being in 78 A.D. Ajakikha, a saint among the Buddhists, was the originator of the lipi. He had Iwo disciples named Dora and Sempada. All the three went and stayed in a village in the valley of the mountains of Kontaiig. The country of Menrarigkamanal was then ruled by a King called Baka. AjaSikha heard about this wicked King who had ordered one of his subjects to go to him daily for his The people were worried. They tried in secret to food. find out someone to subdue this tyrant. One day they approached AjaSikha and requested him to find out a way to get relief from this cruel King. Ajasikha sent them back promising to do something to help them. Ajasikha sat in meditation for some time and then told "I have decided to help the people his disciples thus: of Menrangkamanal. Dora also should come with me. Sempada should stay here keeping guard over my sword and clothes. Never give them to anybody but me. You should be prepared to give your life for it." Ajasikha and Dora went to see Baka. People discouraged them and advised them not to go to the King. But they did not heed that and straight away went to the presence of Baka. Baka started to kill them but then Ajasikha said, "Oh King, you can eat me tomorrow. In return please give me today land as big as my

2) Ancient conception. sion. People of Java

Puranas
believe

give a different
that

verorigi-

the

script

headwear". Baka agreed to that and Ajasikha spread his clothes on the ground. As Baka looked with wonder that small piece of headwear began to grow big and it grew in size to cover the whole of the country. Baka got furious at this and attacked Ajasikha. But Baka was slain in the duel.

found it out. This is a statement by the Arab traveller Albariini who 'came to India in the llth century A.D. The Brahmi lipi came to south India 4) Kerala Lipi. by the 3rd century A.D. Many scholars on languages say that 'Vetteluttu' is a changed form of the Brahmi lipi. The great lipi expert L.A. Ravi Varma says that 'Eluttu' has come from the word 'Elu' or 'Alu' meaning 'to mark by cuts'. The common method of writing in South India was to use a pointed stick, long metal nail or chisel to make marks on leaves, rocks or copper plates. Writing by making marks with the pointed stick 'Koleluttu'. (Kol) got the name Vetteluttu, Koleluttu and Malayantna were the three lipis in use
in Kerala. Vetteluttu was in vogue in Tamilnadu also. But the Pallavas who were using Prakrta language when they conquered the northern Tamilnad introduced Granthaksara and Granthatamil there. T.K.Krishna Menon says that Granthaksara was a false creation to

There are those who say that the Brahmi lipi originated in Greece and Phoenicia. The great linguist Bulhar says that the Brahmi lipi came from the Semitic languages. But Lassen and Cunningham refuted it. There is a bundle of leaves in the hand of the idol of Brahma in the temple of Bldami. Hindus believe that the Brahmi lipi found in those leaves was written by Brahmi himself. The Aryans forgot that lipi and Vyasa

KharostI lipi was written from right to left and the Brahmi from left to right. Even the Brahmi was written first from right to left and gradually for the convenience of writing it was changed to one from left to right. Linguists consider Brahml lipi as the base of all the of Bharata. It underwent changes indifferent lipis parts and took different names. The scholars of Europe are of opinion that the Brahmi lipi was borrowed from foreign traders in B.C. 800. Others say that the Brahmi lipi was born out of the pictorial lipi of the Chinese.

burst into joy and made Ajasikha their King. Ajasikha then sent Dora to his asrama to fetch his sword and apparels, little thinking of the instructions he had given to Sempada. Dora went and asked for the sword and apparel. But Sempada did not give and a fight ensued in which both were killed. Ajasikha felt very sorry when he heard about the death of his disciples. He cursed himself for giving contradictory orders to his disciples and so wrote four lines, each containing five letters, to keep alive the memory of his dutiful disciples. Those twenty letters are the first ones written not only in Java but the whole world. They were the following: He no co ro ko There were two disciples. To to so vo lo They became enemies because they obeyed the orders of their guru. Both of them were brave men. Po dho jo yo fijo Mo go bo do rigo Both of them died. Different kinds of lipis were prevalent 3) Bharata lipis. in ancient Bharata. Lalitavistara mentions about sixty-

The people

Sanskrit easily. In Pandyadesa and Malanadu Ve^teluttu was in use even then. The influence of the Pallavas began to wane and the Tamil lipi slowly rose into prominence. Even then Vetteluttu was in vogue in the empire of Cera comprising of Malanadu, Mysore. Coimbatore, Salem and write

Tondamandalam.
lipi there.

When Tamilnadu came under the emperor of Vijayanagara those kings introduced Niigari

Vetteluttu was called Nanam Monam also. In the south instead of using 'Hari Sri' people used to say 'Namonarayanaya' and the first syllable 'Na' and the second one 'Mo' were used to name the language 'Nanam

When

Monam'.

This script was known as Tulu-Malayalam also. This was also born of the Brahmllipi. Gradually Vetteluttu and Koleluttu was in use in the north of Kerala among Muslims. The Alphabets now in use by the different

the Malayalis started liking the Manipravala they started using 'Arya eluttu' a form of Granthalipi.

LOBHA
languages of south
India
took

455
shape only about two

LOKA
Then
stood as the Eternal, unseen, unheard, unknown entitythere was neither sky nor day nor night. When the time of creation came Prakrti entered Visnu as Purusa creating emotion. From emotion arose Mahat or the Great Principle and from Mahat arose cosmic Aharikara divided itself into (Aharikara). egoism Vaikarika, Taijasa and Tamasa. From Ahaiikara arose Akasa with the quality of sound and from Akaga came the air having the quality of touch and from air came of colour and from fire came fire having the quality water having the quality of taste and from water came earth with the quality of smell. All these were born of tamasic egoism. From taijasic egoism came into being the organs of sense. From the Vaikarika egoism came the ten Vaikarika devas and the eleventh organ of sense, the mind. After that Mahavisnu discharged his virility into water and that virility is life. (Chapter 17, Agni

LOBHA

centuries ago. The lipi of Malayalam now in use came into shape by the time of Eluttass'an spreading the had made the belief that it was EluttasSan who It is wise to believe that the Malayalam alphabet. script came into use gradually from Arya eluttu than to give credit to one individual for its origin. I. One of the spiritual sons of Brahma. Matsya Purana mentions that Lobha was born from the lip of Brahma while Bhagavata mentions that he was the son

I. An Asura. When the Pandavaswere living incognito they kept their weapons in a secret place. Availing of this opportunity Loha made an attack on the PandaAt once the devas made him blind and thus vas. helped the Pandavas. That place later became famous as Lohanapura. ( Skanda Purana 1,2,65) LOHA. II An ancient place of India. Arjuna conquered

LOHA

of

Maya.

Purana)
(ii)

.

this

LOHAMEKHALA. A
LOHAVAKTRA. A
LOHITA
I.

Chapter 27, Sabha Parva) LOHAJAKIGHA. See under MAKARADAMSTRA.
.

place

during

his

victory

march.

(Sloka 25,

follower of

46, Sloka 18, Salya Parva). soldier of

Subrahmanya. (Chapter
75,

Subrahmanya. (Sloka
of

Chapter 45, Salya Parva).
details see
II.

LOHITA
Parva)
the

under

(ROH1TA). Son

to creating many different kinds of living things created water first and threw his whole energy into it. That energy grew into a golden mass of an egg and Brahma was born from that egg. Mahavisnu broke that egg into two, making one half heaven and the other earth. Between the two halves he created the sky. The earth was floating on the waters

Mahavisnu with a view

Hariscandra.
.

A

conquered by Arjuna.
.

king of ancient India. This king was (Sloka 17, Chapter 27, Vana
serpent.

HARISCANDRA)

(For

and he

fixed

it

LOHITA
Parva)
.

III.

A

court of Varuna.

This serpent is a member of (Sloka 8, Chapter 9, Sabha
Sri

LOHITAGA&GA. A
killed five notorious

at this

LOHITAKSA
LOHITAKSA

Parva )

Pancaja and Virupaksa place. (Chapter 33, Daksinatya Patha, Sabha
like

place of Puranic fame.

Krsna

demons

.

I. One the four Parsadas given to Subrahmanya by Brahma. The other three are Nandisena,

Rgveda, Yajurveda and Samaveda. He From his hands he created the different Bhutagramas and Sanatkumaras. He created Rudra out of Krodha. r'rom his mind were born Marici, Atri, Angiras, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu and Vasistha. He made these seven Brahmarsis. These seven Brahmarsis and Rudra began to create the prajas. Then Prajapati divided his body into two. One half of it became man and the other woman. Brahma started
from
his face

created Prajapati, Kala, Manas, Vak, Kama, Krodha and Rati. Then he created thunder, lightning, clouds, rainbows and birds. Then for yajnasiddhi he created

by anchoring

it

at ten

sides.

Then he

did sacrifices with them.

Ghantakarna and Kumudama.ll.
.

(Sloka 24,

Chapter

45, Salya Parva)
II.

complete. (Asramavasika Parva, Ch 45. Verse 15; Ch 51. Verse 6; Ch 53. Verse 12). LOHITAKSl. A follower of Subrahmanya. (Sloka 22, Chapter 46, Salya Parva). LOHlTARANl. A river of Puranic fame of ancient India (Sloka 18, Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva, M.B.). LOHITASVA (ROHITASVA). Son of Hariscandra. (See under HARlSCANDRA) LOHITAYANl. Daughter of Re