PURAJSA

verses.

618
six

The

Khandas are Srstikhanda,

Bhumi-

believe that this Purana was written after Kalidasa. If this Purana is given as gift with a cow in the month of Jyestha (June) it brings prosperity. The mode of narration is in the (vi) Varaha Purana. form of narrating the story by Varaha, the third incarnation of Visnu. The theme is about holy places and mantras. It states that the goddess of earth prayed to Mahavisnu and that prayer took the form of a goddess. This book contains fourteen thousand verses. If one
copies down this Purana and gives it as gift along with a golden image of Garuda on the full-moon day in the month of Caitra (April) one will attain Visnuloka. B. Puranas relating to Brahma.

khanda, Svargakhanda, Patalakhanda, Uttarakhanda and describes Kriyayogasara. The Uttarakhanda the importance of all months and also the lotus, the seat of Brahma. This contains the stories of Sakuntala and Sri Rama as described by Kalidasa in his works Sakuntala and Raghuvarhsa which has made some

rights of pilgrims. The book contains fourteen thousand verses and it is considered to be uttama (best) to give this book along with treacle as a gift to a brahmin on
.

Brahma Purana. This is in the form of teachings by to Daksa. This contains twentyfive thousand verses. This is called Adi Purana also. There is a special treatise in this book on Orissa, an ancient holy region of Bharata. There is in this a special annexure explaining the intimacy between Siva and Surya which is a deviation from other Puranas. Brahma Purana states about a suryaksetra (sun-temple) situated at a place

Brahma

(i)

Purana along with Jaladhenu is given as a gift on the full-moon day in the month of Vaisakha (May) the donor will attain heaven, This deals with the origin of (ii) Brahmdnda Purana. the universe as told by Brahma. In the beginning there was a golden egg and the prapanca (universe with its activities) was formed out of it. Portions of Adhyatma Ramayana, references to Radha and Krsna and the incarnation of ParaSurama are included in this. This book contains twelve thousand verses and it is believed to be uttama (best) to give this book as a gift to a brahmin. Brahmavaivarta Purana. This was instructed to (iii) Savarnika by Narada. The theme is the story of Rathantara. There are four kandas in this Purana called Brahmakanda, Prakrtikanda, Ganes"akanda and Krsnajanmakanda. This deals with Prapancasrsti (creation of the universe). It says that Prapanca is nothing but the Vaivartta ( transformation ) of Brahman.lt is considered to be holy to give this book containing eighteen thousand verses as a gift on the full-moon day in the

called Konarka near the holy place there in the year 1241 A.D. If this

of Purl, installed

the full-moon day in the month of Pausa (January) vi ) Vamana Purana. There is a great similarity between ( the contents of this Purana and that of Varaha Purana. All the incarnations of Visnu from Vamana downwards are described in this Purana. The scene of Siva marrying Parvati is vividly described in this book. This Purana contains ten thousand verses and it is considered to be uttama ( best ) to give this book as a gift in the autumn season or at the time of Visuva to a brahmin. C. Puranas relating to Siva. This Purana is told by Vayu. Bana(i) Vayu Purana. bhatta who lived in the seventh century A.D. makes references to this Purana in his works. There are many references in this Purana about the Gupta Kings who ruled Bharata in the 4th century A.D. So it is believed that this Purana must have been written in the fifth or sixth century A.D The book contains plenty of verses in praise of Siva. There are fourteen thousand verses in the Vayu Purana and it is considered to be best to give this book as a gift to a brahmin on the full-moon day in the month of Sravana (August ) (ii) Linga Purana. This contains instructions of Siva on Dharma sitting in the form of liriga (Phallus). The twentyeight different forms of Siva are described in This contains twelve thousand verses and if this this. book is given as a gift to a brahmin with tiladhenu on the full-moon day in the month of Phalguna ( March) the donor will attain Sivasayujya. is Skdnda Purana. This Purana narrated by (iii) Skanda. The theme is the slaughter of the demon
.

Tarakasura by Skanda (Subrahmanya). There is a great similarity between this Purana and the Kumarasambhava of Kalidasa. There are eightyfour thousand verses in this Purana and giving this book as a gift is thought to be good. This Purana was instructed to the (iv) Agni Purana. sage Vasistha by Agnideva. There are several references in this to Sivalinga and Durgadevi. The incarnations of Rama and Krsna are also dealt with in this. Distinct from other Puranas this book deals with arts and science like Kavyalankaranatakas (Poems, dramas, figures of speech ) Jyotiss astra ( Astronomy) and Silpakala (architecture). This Purana contains twelve thousand verses and is capable of imparting knowledge on all arts and sciences. Manu (v) Matsya Purana. This Purana was taught to by Matsya, the incarnation of Visnu, The incarnation
,

month of Magha (February).
(iv)

Markandeya Purana. This is one of the ancient There are many stories regarding Indra, Surya and Agni in this. This includes a division called Devlmahatmya containing praises about the goddess Durga. This contains nine thousand verses and it is
Puranas. considered as uttama (best) to give this book as a gift to a brahmin on a full-moon day in the month of Karttika (November)
.

Nafyas astra (histrionics) and Andhrarajavarhsa (kingKings of Andhra) are discussed in this book. The book contains thirteen thousand verses and this is to be given as gift along with a golden image of a fish at the time of Visuva. This Purana is taught by Kurma(vi) K urma Purana. murti (incarnation of Visnu as Kurma (tortoise) while

of Matsya is dealt in this. Several subjects like Jainamata (religion of Jainism), Buddhamata (Buddhism),

dom and

(v) Bhavisya Purana. This is what is told to Manu by This contains statements about future Surya (Sun) events. The book praises the worship of Surya (Sun),
.

and Naga (serpent). There is an annexure with the several holy places of Bharata and the dealing
Agni
(fire)

narrating the story of Indradyumna at Patala. All the seven islands and seven oceans are described in this book. Bharata is situated in the centre of all these and that there is called Jambudvipa. Though it is believed were four sarhhitas for this, only the Brahmasarhhita is available now. It includes 1,'varaglta and Vyasagita,

PURANA
The book

619

PURUMITRA
PURU
PURU
I.

I

the place called Nlla. (Puranas; History of Sanskrit Literature). PURA?ST A. An ancient sage. He was one among the rsis who visited Bhisma lying on his bed of arrows.

Kapila (7) Manava (8) USanas (9) Varuna (10) Kalika (11) Samba (12) Saura (13) (16) Aditya (14) Mahesvara (15) Devlbhagavata Nilamata Vasistha (17) Visnudharmottara (18) Purana. The two Upapuranas mentioned lastly are associated with Kashmir. The first is about the Vaisnava religion there and the second about the wise saying of a Naga
(5)

contains eight thousand verses and is to be given as gift along with a golden image of tortoise. There are eighteen minor Puranas 3) Upapurdnas. the eighteen major ones. They are besides ( 1) Sanatkumara (2) Narashhha (3) Naradiya (4) Siva
:

Manu had
II.

A

Ksatriya King. He was the son of Manu. eleven sons ofhis wife Nadvala. A mountain. ( Sloka 22, Chapter 90, Vana
celebrated king of Candravarhsa.

PURU
1
)

Parva).
I.

Durvasas

(6)

Visnu are BrahmaGenealogy. Descending in order from Atri Candra Budha Pururavas Ayus Nahusa

A

King of

Yayati Puru. Yayati had two wives named Sarmistha and Devayani. Sarmistha gave birth to Druhyu, Anu and Puru. Devayani gave birth to Yadu and Turvasu. Puru becomes king. Yayati, Puru's father, was turned 2) into an old man by a curse of Sukracarya. The king called all his sons to his side and requested each to take
his

PURAVATI.
PURAYA.
PURIKA.

(Sloka 12, Chapter 47 Sand Parva). A river of Bharata of Puranic fame. Sloka 24, Chapter 9, Bhisma Parva) (
.

old age and give him their youth. All the elder sons refused to do it but Puru agreed to do so. Taking the youth of Puru, his father, Yayati lived a sensuous Puru life for a thousand years. Then the king gave back his youth and crowned him as the heir apparent to his

A

King of Vedic

times.

He

is

mentioned

in

kingdom.
3) Other
(i)

(See under Devayani).

details.

PURNA PURNA
_(

the danastuti of Rgveda. A city in ancient Bharata. This city was ruled by a King named Paurika. ( Sloka 3, Chapter 111, Santi Parva). I. A serpent born of the family of Vasuki. It was burnt to death at the Sarpasatra of Janamejaya.

Sloka

2, II.

Chapter

A

wife Pradha.

(

PURINA

III.

The name

Adi Parva) Devagandharva born to Kasyapa ofhis Chapter 65, Adi Parva)
57,
. .

Puru got of his wife Kausalya alias PaustI three named Janamejaya (Pravlra), ISvara and Raudrasva. (Chapter 94, Adi Parva). Yama. (ii) After his death Puru entered the court of Sloka 8, Chapter 8, Sabha Parva) Indra in the latter's Vimana (iii) Puru along with witnessed the war between Arjuna and the Kauravas.
sons
.

of

the

tithis

PURNABHADRA

PURNABHADRA

PURNAMUKHA.
Parva).

A celebrated serpent of the family I. of Kasyapa. (Sloka 12, Chapter 35, Adi Parva). The son of a Yaksa called II. Ratnabhadra living on the mountain Gandhamadana. He had a son named HarikeSa (Pingala). Harikesa was a devotee of Siva and so Purnabhadra who was a devotee of Kubera sent Harikesa away from his house. HarikeSa was then taken care of by Siva and made one ofhis attendants. (Matsya Purana, Chapter 18). A serpent born of the race of Dhrtarastra. This serpent was burnt to death at the Sarpasatra of Janamejaya. (Sloka 1 Chapter 57, Adi
,

PancamT, DaSaml and Pancada'I. Yudhisthira was born on the Paficaml day called Purna. (Sloka 6, Chapter 122, Adi Parva).

(lunar

days)

PURU
30,

battle. (Sloka 10, Chapter 62, Drona Parva). II The name of the charioteer of Arjuna.

(Sloka 10, Chapter 56, Virata Parva) A king called Mandhata once defeated Puru in a (iv)
.

(Sloka

PURUCCHEPA.
in the
1,

Chapter 33, Sabha Parva)

.

PURUJIT.

A king who was the son of Kuntibhoja and brother of Kunti, mother of the Pandavas. He had a brother named Kuntibhoja. In the great battle he fought against Durmukha of the Kaurava army. When he died Purujit went to Yamaloka. (Chapter 14, Sabha Parva; Chapter 6, Kama Parva, Chapter 23, Drona
Parva )
.

Rgveda. Rgveda).

(PARUCCHEPA). A sage praised He was the son of Divodasa. (Mandala

PURUKUTSA. The
Mandhata ofhis
for

PLTRNAJSlGADA.

serpent born of the family of Dhrtarastra. This serpent was burnt to death at the Sarpasatra of Janamejaya. (Sloka 16, Chapter 57, Adi

A

PURI^AYUS.
Parva.

Parva)

.

A Devagandharva who was the son of KaSyapa of his wife Pradha. (Sloka 46, Chapter 65, Adi
minister of Duryodhana. It was under the guidance of this minister that the lac-palace was constructed and set fire to in order to kill the Pandavas. Purocana was also burnt to death when the lac-palace

PUROCANA. A

PUROJAVA. The

was destroyed by

fire.

PUROVASU. A

born to him of Bhagavata).

(See under Arakkilla). youngest son of the Vasu, Prana,,
wife
Orjjasvatl.
line

Genealogy). Purukutsa had a brother named Mucukunda. Descending in order from Purukutsa were Brhadasva Haryasva Tridhanva Aruna Aranya Satyavrata Tris anku. One Purukutsa is praised in the Rgveda. It is not known whether both are one and the same person. Purukutsa with his wife Narmadadevi went to the forest of Kuruksetra and doing penance there attained moksa. (Chapter 20, Asramavasika Parva). PURUMlDHA. A king ofPuruvam'a. He was the son of Brhatputra. Brhatputra had two more sons named Ajamldha and Dvimldha. Of these three sons the most
valiant
(

son born to the celebrated king, wife Bindumatl. (See under Mandhata

his

(6th Skandha,

was the son of Babhrusetu. He of Gandhara. (Chapter 270, Agni Purana)

King of the Anga

of Kings. He ruled over the country
.

PURUMITRA
Dhrtarastra.

Chapter

Ajamldha became the propagator of the dynasty. 278,' Purana )
.

I.

One
the

of the
great

eleven
battle

In

valiant sons of of Mahabharata

Abhimanyu wounded
Parva)
.

this soldier.

(Chapter 73, Bhisma

PURUMITRA
PURUMITRA.

II
II.

620

PURURAVAS

I

The

first

mentions a Rajarsi youth Vimada marrying the daughter of Purumitra. PURUNlTHA. See under Parunltha. PURURAVAS. I. A prominent king of Candravarh a
(lunar race). |} Origin of Candravamsa and birth of Pururavas. DescendCandra Budha ing in order from Brahma came Atri Pururavas. The dynasty which came from Candra was called the Candravarhxa. Though Budha was the first king of CandravarhSa it was Pururavas who became celebrated. The story of the birth of Pururavas is given

Mandala oftheRgveda

born Candra took it away and named it Budha. Brahma and other rsis gave Budha a seat among the planets. Budha married Ila and they got a son named Pururavas. ^See under Ila). After that Budha performed a hundred He then enjoyed world prosperity Asvamedhayagas. as lord of Saptadvlpa living in the beautiful Himadrisrnga. worshipping Brahma. (Chapter 12, Bhaga 3, Padma Purana).
2) Testing Pururavas and the curse. Pururavas by his brilliance performed a hundred Asvamedhayagas and lived
in

below

:

Brahma

in the beginning deputed the sage Atri for the Atrimaharsi started the penance creation. called anuttara to acquire sufficient power for creation.

work of

After some years Saccidananda brahma with an aura of lustre reflected in the heart of that pure and serene soul. In sheer ecstasy tears rolled down his cheeks and the glittering flow of water was lustfully drunk by the zones taking the form of women with a view to producing progenies. able to bear the

They became pregnant but were unembryo of Atri and so they threw them away. Brahma took them all and made them into one armoured youth and took him in his chariot to his land. Then the brahmarsis requested Brahma to make him When the rsis, devas, gandharvas and their lord. nymphs praised him reciting samaveda the majestic lustre of the youth increased. It was from this that ausadhas (medicines) originated and that is why Candra is considered to be the lord of medicines, dvija and Vedasvarupa. The Candramandala is full of It increases and decreases according to the chemicals. white half and black half of the moon-based month. Daksa gave in marriage to Candra twentyseven beautiThen Candra did penance meditating ful maidens. on Visnu for ten thousand Kalpas. Visnu pleased by his penance asked him to name a boon and Candra said
'

glory at Himadrisrnga. Great demons like Kesi became his servants. Urvasi attracted by his beauty became his wife. While he was living like that Dharma, Artha and Kama went in disguise to his palace to test him. He received them all well but paid more attention to Dharma. Artha and Kama got angry and cursed him. Artha cursed him saying that he would be ruined by his greed and Kama cursed him saying he would go mad by being separated from UrvaSI. Hearing that Dharma blessed him thus "You will live long leadwill increase and ing a virtuous life. Your race remain in glory till the end of the moon and the stars. The insanity caused by your passion for Urvasi would end by the end of sixty years. That celestial maiden would remain then with you for one Manvantara." (Chapter 12, Bhlga 3, Padma Purana).
:

Brahma should come

perform a yaga in svarga all the devas like in person to my yagasala and take the yagabhaga. Sulapani should remain as a watchman at my RajasQya." Accordingly with the blessing of Visnu, Candra conducted the yaga in which Atri, Bhrgu, Brahma, Visnu, Devas, Vasus, Maruts and ViSvadevas took part. Candra gave as yaga- fees to Rtviks all the three worlds. The yaga was complete and when Candra rose up after a bath nine devls fell in love with the amorous beauty of Candra. LaksmI, wife of Visnu, Sinivali, wife of Kardama, Dyuti, wife of wife of Vibhivasu, Pus{i, wife of Dhata, Prabha,
I

When

Pururavas used to visit Indra daily. One day while he was going through air wellarmed with a bow and arrows he saw a demon named Kes! carrying away by force Urvasi and Citralekha and after defeating Kes I in a fight recovered th" nymphs and gave them back to Indra. Indra praised Pururavas and in his honour a drama, Laksmlsvayarhvara, was enacted by Urvasi, Menaka and others. Urvasi taking the part of Laksmi started to dance but seeing Pururavas before her she became lustful and made wrong steps. Narada who was present at the function got angry and cursed her "You will forget all you have learnt. Not only that, you will live as a creeper separated from Pururavas for a period of sixty years." (For details see under Urvas'i). Padma Purana says that it was Bharata who cursed Urvasi. This story is slightly different from that found
in the other
3)

Puranas.

Siirya,

abandoned their husbands and went with Candra. Candra treated them all as his own wives and gave them erotic pleasure to their hearts' content. Those who saw this non-virtuous act stood dumbfounded unable to Attracted by the dazzling brilliance of Candra Tara, wife of Brhaspati, went with him. Enraged at this, Brhaswith other devas prepared for a fight pati joining against Candra. Devas took sides and by the mediation of Indra a conference of both the parties was held and Tara was sent back to Brhaspati. Tara was pregnant then and Tara confessed that the child in her womb was that of Candra. So when that child was
curse Candra.

Kuhu, wife ofHavisman, Klrti, wife of Jayanta, AnVumali wife of Kasyapa and Dhrti wife of Nanda,

Vasu, Divijata and Suba.hu. Of these Ayus became the propagator of the dynasty. Of the sons born to Ayus five sons, Nahusa, Vrddhar'arma, Raji, Dambha and Vipapma became celebrities. A hundred sons were born to Raji. They were called Rajeyas. (Chapter 12,

named Ayus, Drdhayus, Vasyayus, Danayus, Vrttiman,

Sons of Pururavas.

Urvasi got eight sons of Pururavas

Bhaga
some
4)

3, Padma Purana). Some Puranas state that Pururavas had

six sons

while

state that

he had seven sons.

about him

Other details. in the

The

Mahabharata.

following references

are

made

formed a yaga and thus regained his lost splendour and prosperity. (Chapter 75, Adi Parva).

(i) Once Pururavas stole the wealth of some brahmins. The brahmins took Sanatkumara along with them and made representations to the king. Pururavas did not give back their wealth. The brahmins cursed him and as a result the prosperity of the King waned. Then Pururavas brought down from svarga three Agnis and per-

PURURAVAS
(ii)

II

621
six

PUSKARAS
PURVAPALl. An
this

1

Pururavas got

sons

of Urvail

the wind-god about the origin of the four castes and the superiority of the brahmins over other castes. (Sloka 3, Chapter 72, Sand Parva). (iv) At another time he discussed about yajnapurohitas with Kasyapa. (Chapter 73, Santi Parva). (v) Iksvaku gave Pururavas a sword which in his old age he gave to his son Ayus. (Chapter 166, Santi Parva). (vi) He once declared that one can attain svarga by the blessings of brahmins. (Sloka 31, Chapter 6, Anu(iii)

Dhiman, Amavasu, Drdhayus, Vanayus and Satayus.

named Ayus,

Once he

asked

Vayu

PURVASRAMA. A
boys
It
this

king for the great Mahabharata Chapter 4, Udyoga Parva).
sacred
river Sarayu. While river with Rama and

ancient king.

The Pandavas
battle.

invited
17,

(Sloka

Laksmana, Visvamitra showed the asrama and explained to them its importance. was at this place that Siva burnt Kamadeva (god of

going

place on ti.e shores of the along the shores of this

love) to death.
this

Kamadeva

place.

(Bala Kanda, Valmlki Ramayana, Sarga female follower of Subrahmanya. (Sloka 20,
.

got

the

name Anaiiga

at

s

as ana

Pururavas was famous as a donor of cows. (Sloka 26, Chapter 76, Anusasana Parva). (Sloka 65, Chapter (vii) Pururavas never ate meat. 111, AnuSasana Parva) PURURAVAS II. A king of the race of DJptaksa. (Sloka 15, Chapter 74, Udyoga Parva). PURUSA. See under Prakrti.
(vii)
.

Parva).

PUSAiyA.

23).

A

PURUSADAKA. An
PURUSANTI. A
113,

ancient place.

(Chapter 57, Sabha

Chapter 43, Salya Parva) PUSA I (PUSAN). Pusa attended the Janmotsava of Arjuna. (Chapter 122, Adi Parva). When Arjuna and Krsna fought against Indra at Khandavaprastha Pusa stood as an ally of Indra. (Sloka 35, Chapter 226, Adi Once all the devas together performed a yaga Parva) and not knowing the importance of Siva, they did not the function invite him to the Yaga. Siva attended
.

maharsi well-praised in the Rgveda. The ASvinldevas once saved the following from trouble viz. Turviti, Dabhiti, Dhvasanti and Purusanti. (Sukta

Parva).

uninvited.

The devas

did not like

it

FURUSOTTAMA.
PURUYASAS. A
70,

Anuvaka

16,

Mandala
Sri

Siva. The twelve adityas as a team fought against Siva and in the fight Pusa lost his teeth. (Chapter 18, Sauptika Parva). Once Pusa presented to Subrahmanya

and they attacked

7,

Krsna.

Rgveda).

He

of his Purana (filling) and

Sadana

got this

name because
(Chapter
the son of

PUSA
16,

two warriors named Panitaka and Kalika. II. (PUSAN). Another name for the Sun.

(sitting)

Udyoga Parva)

.

Bhuriyasas. The King became more and more prosperous observing 'Vaisakhadharma' following the instructions of the King's preceptors Yaja and Upayaja. (Chapter 2,

king of Pancala.

He was

PUSKALA
of

Chapter
I.

3,

PUSKALA

Ravana. Hanuman fought fiercely. (Bhaga 2, Padma Purana)
II.

A

Vana

(Sloka
side

Parva).

valiant soldier

who
.

fought
against

on the

this soldier

PURVABHIRAMA. A
PURVACITTI.
Chapter
9,

Skanda Purana)

.

river of Puranic fame.
.

PCRVADlSA (PURVADIK). The
Of
1 )

A celebrated celestial maiden. She belongs to the group of six celebrated nymphs named Urvaii, Purvacitti, Sahajanya, GhrtacI, Visvaci and Menaka. (Sloka 68, Chapter 74, Adi Parva) Purvacitti was present for the Janmotsava of Arjuna. (Chapter 122, Adi Parva). Once when Arjuna went to svarga Purvacitti and others danced in his honour. (Chapter 43, Vana Parva)
. .

Bhisma Parva)

(

Sloka 22,

The youngest son of Bharata, son of Dasaratha. Mandavl was the mother of Puskala. (Chapter 88, Vayu Purana; Chapter 6, Brahmanda
Purana; Chapter Purana)
.

4,

Visnu Purana; Chapter
Puskala from

11,

Agni

Details available about

Padma Purana
:

and Valmiki Ramayana are the following (1) Puskala was with Satrughna when the

latter served

as the guardian of the horse in all the three asvamedhayagas conducted by Sri Rama. (Padma Purana, Patala
.

East.

all

the

2) 3)

The The sadhyas come and do

sides Purvadis'a is the Sun rises in the east.

most prominent.

at dusk.
4)

severe penance in the east

of offering havya to the fire spreads to the east. 5 ) The daughters of Daksa after becoming the wives of Kasyapa delivered in the east. 6) Devas made Indra the king of the east. 7) Indra and the devas did penance jointly in the east. 8) Because the devas accepted this side first (purva) the side got the name Purva. 9) The sun gives away as gifts the yajur Mantras at
this place.
1

The moon The result

rises here.

Khanda, Chapters 1 and 22) (2) He defeated Damana, son of Subahu, while he was following the sacrificial horse. (Padma Purana, Patala Khanda, Chapter 34) (3) He fought fiercely against the demons, Vidyunmali and (Padma Purana. Patala Ugradarhstra. Khanda, Chapter 34) Rukmangada and Viramani. (4) He fought against (Padma Purana, Patala Khanda, Chapter 41 ). (5) He was defeated by Lava who checked the progress of the sacrificial horse. (Padma Purana, Patala Khanda,
. .

Chapter 61).
Puskala conquered the country of Gandhara and PuskalavatI alias Puskalavata and made it his capital city. (Valmlki Ramayana, Uttara Kanda)
(6)

built there a city called
.

ed prosperity. 12) Indra selected the
13)

(10) The devas drink the soma juice lacing the east 1 Varuna once entered Patala by the east and attain)

PUSKARA

(7) His wife's name was Kantimati. (Padma Purana, Patala Khanda, Chapter 67) I. Son of Varuna. Soma's daughter was attracted by the beauty of Puskara and married him.
.

sacrificial

animals at

The

soul

of

through the

east.

man comes to Svarga and the earth (Chapter 108 Udyoga Parva).

this place.

PUSKARA

Udyoga Parva) The younger brother of Nala. It was this Puskara who jointly with Kali defeated Nala in a game of dice and drove him away from his country.
(Sloka 12, Chapter 98,
II.
.

PUSKARA HI
Puskara apologised to Nala and gave him back under Damayanti) A sage. He was the Guru of P.n-asuPUSKARA rama. (Chapter 151, Agni Pur.lna). pUSKARA IV. This is a holy place situated 1) General information. 36 Kilometres to the north of Ajmer. Brahma once did penance there. There is a temple of Brahma there. Padma Parana gives a story about the origin of this

622

PUSKARAKSA

I

At

last

his country. (See III.

.

have a son worthy of becoming an emperor. Puskaraksa was the son thus born. The boy grew up and after crowning him as King Bhadraksa left for the forests. Puskaraksa worshipped

tirtha

:

for the destruction of the devas.

Once Brahma came to a place holding a Brahma saw Vajranabha who was engaged

lotus.

Then

Siva daily to get a suitable wife. After some time Siva blessed him saying that he would get a very good wife. One day he went for hunting. He saw a camel trying to eat two cobras engaged in the act of mating. Instantly the King sent an arrow against the camel and the camel falling down turned into a Vidyadhara and that "Oh King, there was Vidyadhara told the King thus
:

in

penance

Suddenly the lotus in the hands of Brahma fell down making a thundering noise. The sound was so loud that its vibrations killed Vajranabha. From that day onwards the place was

known
2
( )

once a Vidyadhara named Rangamall. A Vidyadhara maiden named Taravali was attracted by the handsome form of Rangamall. She married him without the consent of her parents. The angered father separated them by a curse. The curse took effect and they soon
got separated losing their way in the forest. Pining to her husband Taravali roamed about in the forests and reached the other shore of the western sea. It was a colony of rsis and there was a fig tree there standing in full blossom. Taravali took the form of a beetle and sat on the tree sucking honey. After some days Rangamall also came to the place. On seeing her husband she had emission and from the virile fluid was born a After that both of them flew to the Ganfig fruit. dharva loka. I am Rangamall. One day a sage named Jitasu came that way and this fruit fell before him. From the fruit came out a beautiful maiden and Jitasu with his divine power understood the whole story behind it and so took the girl to his asrama and named her Vinayavati. VinayavatI grew into a beautiful

as Puskara.

Other details.

see
in this

i)

tirtha. (Sloka 14,
(ii)

Arjuna spent the period after his pilgrimage Chapter 220, Adi Parva)
.

Puskara.

sage Pulastya praised the greatness of Sloka 20, Chapter 82, Vana Parva) the greatness of Puskara(iii) Sage Dhaumya praised tirtha. (Sloka 16, Chapter 89, Vana Parva). (iv) Once the god of death came and did penance at
(
.

Once

this place.

(v) Once Brahma performed a Yaga at this place and then Sarasvati rose up from the place in the name of

(Sloka 26, Chapter 54, Drona Parva)

.

Suprabha. (Sloka 5, Chapter 38, Salya Parva) (vi) If one performs penance at this place peacefully one can attain moksa. (Chapter 297, Santi Parva) PUSKARA V. A mountain in the island of Puskara. This mountain is full of precious stones. (Sloka 24, Chapter 12, Bhisma Parva). PUSKARA VI. One of the seven islands. The other six
. .

are Jambudvipa, Plaksadvlpa, Salmalidvlpa, KusadvTpa, Krauncadvlpa, and Sakadvipa. (8th Skandha,

PUSKARADHARINl. The wife
once a sage

of a sage. There was country of Vidarbha. Puskaradharim was the wife of Satya. Satya who believed in Ahirhsa performed a Yaga with fruits and roots. It is believed that no yaga is perfect if performed without a sacrificial goat. But even his wife for fear of a curse did not object to a Yaga of the kind. There was another sage living in that forest in the form of a deer due to a curse and he was a great friend of Satya. The deer came to the place of the Yajna and

Devi Bhagavata).

named Satya

in the

maiden and stayed in the asrama. One day by I happened to see her and attracted by her beauty tried to rape her. She cried aloud and hearing the noise the sage came out and cursed me and turned me into a camel. I pleaded for mercy and the sage said I would be released from the curse when I was killed by the future husband of Vinayavati, Puskaraksa by name. Oh King, I am now released from the curse and you should go to the forest named Surabhimaruta on the other side of the western sea and marry that maiden." Puskaraksa was pleased to hear this and the king going back to the palace and entrusting the administration of
accident

the state to his ministers
thinking

maruta. Reaching the shore
of ways

the forest of Surabhiof the western sea he was to cross the sea when he saw a
left for

make

requested
the

Satya

blessed Satya. appeared in person and (Chapter 272, Santi Parva). PUSKARAKSA I. A King of Puranic fame. There was once a King called Bhadraksa in TaksaHe worshipped BhagavatI with 108 lotus silanagara. flowers daily in order to obtain a son. One day he found one flower missing and the brave king tore open his heart and made the number complete. The goddess was pleased and she blessed him saying that he would

but then Savitrldevi appeared in person and compelled him to kill the deer and conduct the Yaga. With great reluctance Satya killed the deer and conducted the Yaga; but the power of penance of Satya faded away by that deed of his. Then Puskaradharim performed penance to regain the power of her husband and

Yaga

to kill him as the sacrificial animal to a success. Satya did not agree to that

Dharma

on the other shore and was pleasantly surprised. He walked about on the shore and saw an asrama and peeping in saw a sage sitting inside. On seeing the king the sage told him thus "Oh Puskararaja, VinayavatI in search of whom you have come here has just gone to pluck flowers for her worship. She will come just now and you can then accept your wife of your previous birth as your wife of this life." The king wanted to know more about VinayavatI when the sage said she was his wife in his previous "Once there was a birth also. Then the sage said Vaisya called Dharmasena in Tamralipti. He married
:

Bhadrakall temple nearby. When he went to the temple he saw a violin in front of it and taking it he placed on it a few songs in praise of Kali and went to sleep in the temple. The goddess was pleased with his songs and took the sleeping king to the other side of the sea. When he woke up next morning he saw himself

PUSKARAKSA

II

623

PUSPAKA
PUSPADAMSTRA. A

I

a girl named Vidyullekha. All their wealth was stolen by thieves and grief-stricken they attempted to commit suicide by jumping into the fire. They saw two swans flying towards them and without waiting for them to reach them they committed suicide. In their next birth they became a swan couple. They lived on a date tree a storm the tree seasons. Once in during rainy fell down and in the darkness each went its own way. In the morning the male swan staried searching for his mate. In the end he found her in the lake of Manasa
in Svarga.

prominent serpent of the family of Kasyapa. (Sloka 12, Chapter 35, Adi Parva). PUSPADANTA I. One of the Astadiggajas. (The eight elephants of the quarters). PUSPADANTA II. One of the three soldiers given to Subrahmanya by Parvati. The other two were Unmada and Saiikukarna. (Sloka 51, Chapter 45, Salya Parva). PUSPADANTA 'ill. One of the attendants of Siva. Due to a curse Puspadanta was born on earth as Vararuci. See under Vararuci) There was another curse also on (
.

mountain.

swan came there and finding her husband in the net very sad. She was thinking of some way to get her husband released from the net when a man came to bathe in the pond. He wrapped the diamond necklace of his in a cloth and placed it on the shore. The sheswan took the necklace and flew making the fisherman see everything before him. Seeing the swan going with the necklace the fisherman went after it. The swan flew to a mountain nearby and placed it on its top. The fisherman started climbing up and the she-swan then flew back and released her husband from the net. One day while they were flying making a lotus as an umbrella a hunter shot them down with arrows. Fortunately the lotus fell on an idol of Siva and by the power of Siva they were born in their next birth as a king and a woman. The king is yourself and the woman is
felt

in touch with the Mrtasanjivani herb in the pond and coming to life flew away. The husband swan went into another group of swans and lived there in sorrow. One day a fisherman came and caught all the swans in a net. At that time the she-

season was over and then they went and stayed on a One day a forester killed the she-swan and while coming with the dead swan in his hands he saw a set of armed men coming that way and the frightened forester thiew the dead swan into a lake nearby.

They

lived

there

happily

till

the

rainy

PUSPADANTI.

him. (See under Jambukesvara).

The dead swan came

A relative of a Gandharva named Citrasena. Puspadanti was once dancing in the court of Indra with Malyavan and other Gandharvas. Puspadanti faltered in her steps as she was admiring the beauty of Malyavan and Indra cursed them both and turned them into devils. They then observed the Ekadasi (eleventh day of every lunar fortnight) called 'Jaya' and got themselves released from the curse. (Chapter 43,
Uttara Khanda,
'

PUSPAKA
1
)

I.'

She was married to Surya. But Saiiijna .could not live with Surya for long because of the terrible heat and so she came back and told her father about it. At once

Origin.

divine Aerial'diancl. Visvakarma had a daughter

A

Padma Purana).

named Samjfia.

Visvakarma ordered Surya
former then tried
to

to

come

to

him and

the

reduce his brightness by rubbing him on a grindstone. However much he tried he was not able to reduce even an eighth of his brightness. The brightness of the Sun which was rubbed out spread
in the atmosphere as suspended lustrous particles. Visvakarma collected that lustrous dust and from it created four brilliant things. The Cakrayudha of Mahavisnu is one, theTrisula of Siva is another, and the third is Puspakavimana (Puspaka Aerial chariot) The fourth is Sakti, a weapon of Subrahmanya. Visvakarma gave them all as presents to Brahma. (Chapter 2, Arh'a 2, Visnu Purana).
.

Vinayavati." Puskaraksa married her there and returning to his land lived happily for a long period. (Taranga 2, Sasankavatllambaka, Kathasaritsagara). PUSKARAKSA II. A king. Puskaraksa, son of king Sucandra, was cut to death by Paraturama. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 3).

2)

How

Kubera
the

PUSKARAMALINl. A

very virtuous woman. She was the wife of a sage named Satya who lived on alms in the country of Vidarbha. Because she was very strict and perfect in the observance of vratas she became lean

cows in yajnas. (Chapter 246, Santi Parva). FUSKARINl ]. Wife of Caksusa Manu. Caksusa got of Puskarini a son named Manu. (Chapter 18, Agni Purana). PUSKARINI II. Wife of Bhumanyu, emperor of
Bharata.

but pure. She was very obedient to her husband and she made her own dress out of peacock feathers gathered from forests. Puskaramalini was against sacrificing

son born to Visravas of his wife DevavarninI, daughter of sage Bharadvaja. Vi'ravas did penance to please Brahma to get a son and Vaisravana was born by the blessing of Brahma. Kubera also, even while he was a boy, went to the valley of Himavan and did penance there. Kubera did penance for ten thousand years with his head downwards in cold water and another ten thousand years in Pancagni standing on one leg. At that time Brahma appeared in person and asked what boon he wanted. He said he wanted to be one of the lokapalakas (guardians of the
universe). Granting Kubera that, Brahma gave him two treasures named Saiikhanidhi and Padmanidhi and also the Puspakavimana. After that Kubera built a city named Lanka on the mountain of Trikuta in the southern ocean and started living there.

Kubera was

got

the

Pitfpaka.

Vaisravana

alias

Kratu, Angiras and Gaya. (4th Skandha, Bhagavata) PUSPA. A serpent born of the family of Kasyapa. (Sloka
.

got of his wife Puskarini, six sons named Suhotra, Diviratha, Suhota, Suhavis, Suyajus and Rcika. (Chapter 94, Adi Parva). PUSKARI^I III. Wife of king Unmukha. Unmukha got of his wife Puskarini six sons named Ai'iga, Sumanas, Khyati,

Bhumanyu

more

3)

How

named Ravana, Kumbhakarna and Vibhisana. They did penance and acquired divine powers. Ravana then went to Lanka and after defeating Kubera and sending him north captured Lanka and made it
sons
his capital.

Ravana got

the

Puspaka.

Visravas had three

He

also took

Kubera.

by force the Puspaka from

13,

Chapter 103, Udyoga Parva).

All the victory marches of Ravana were in this Puspaka. Once Ravana was going in his Puspaka with a Yaksa

PUSPAKA

II

624

PUTANA
King. This
over
all

I

beauty kidnapped from Alakapuri when the girl cried loudly attracting the attention of Sampati, a vulture King. Sampati attacked Ravana with his fierce beak and powerful claws. Ravana's weapons proved futile against Sampati and the bird broke the Puspaka into But the Vimana was a divine one and it pieces.

PUSPAVAN. A

the three worlds also

who gave it as a gift to Sri Rama. Sri Rama sent it back to its original owner, Kubera. But Sri Rama used it again for once. A gudra named Sambuka started performing penance in Ramarajya as a consequence of which there started a
series of infant

regained the original shape and utility soon. All the weapons of Ravana were destroyed, the great weapon Candrahasa was thrown away. The crown of Ravana was struck down and trampled upon. With his sharp beak and piercing claws Sampati made bruises on the Unable to bear the attack of the face of Ravana. mighty bird Ravana begged for peace. Sampati asked Ravana to release the Yaksa girl which Ravana did at once. Ravana then returned to Lanka in the Puspaka (Kiskindha Kanda, Kamba Ramayana). It was in this Puspaka plane that Ravana kidnapped Slta. In the battle that followed, Ravana was killed and the Puspaka Vimana came into the possession of Vibhisana

is transitory in this world. (Chapter 277, Santi Parva). PUSPAVATl. A sacred place. If one stays here for three nights fasting and bathes in the holy pond there one would get the benefit of making a thousand godanas (cow-gifts) and his family will be absolved of all sins. Sloka 12, Chapter 85, Vana Parva). PUSPOTKATA. Mother of Kubera.
(|

story of this that everything

King who ruled supreme met with his death. The King was quoted by Bhlsma to illustrate

1

)

Heti and Praheti.

Heti married Bhaya, daughter of Kala and to them was born a son named Vidyutkesa. Vidyutkesa married Salakatarika daughter of Sandhya and to them was born a son named Suke a. They abandoned the child in a forest and went away. Siva took care of the child Sukesa who married Daivavati daughter of the Gandharva called Manimaya and she
delivered

Genealogy.

From Brahma were born two

demons

Mall and

all

Vimana from Kubera. When the plane came from Kubera Sri Rama got into it and flew to the place where Sambuka was doing penance and on reaching
there killed the Sudra
.

the cause

and he got down by meditation

deaths in the country.

Sri

Rama knew
Puspaka

the

palace built at Lanka by Visvakarma. At that time a Gandharva woman called Narmada named Sundarl, KetumatI delivered three daughters and Vasudha. When they came of age Sundarl was married to Malyavan, KetumatI to Sumall and Vasudha to Mali. Malyavan got of Sundarl seven

three sons named Malyavan, Sumall and the three started living in the crystal

mountain Latavesta situated to the south of Dvarakapurl. (Chapter 38, Dakstnatya Patha, Sabha Parva). PUSPANANA. A Yaksa. He lives in the court of Kubera. (Sloka 17, Chapter 10, Sabha Parva).

calamity. The Vimana was then sent back (Uttara Ramayana) PUSPAKA II. The great forest lying on one

and saved the country from a to Kubera.
side

of the

PUSPARAGAPRAKARA. (RATNASALA). The

Puranas state about a fort made of diamonds called Pusparaga shining red above the heavenly place called Manidvlpa above Brahmaloka. This fort is seven
yojanas high. All things inside it, the ground, the trees, the birds, the animals, plants, creepers and gardens are pusparaga-studded and look red like saffron. Therefore the fort is called Ratnasala also. All the dikpalakas of the universe live with their family and attendants in

Vajrapusti, Virupaksa, Durmukha, Suptaghna, Yajnakesa, Malta and Unmatta and a demoness of name Nala. Sumall got of KetumatI ten sons named Prahasta, Akampana, Vikata, Kalakamukha, Dhumraksa, Danda, Supariva, Sarhhrada, Prakvata and Bhasakarna and four daughters named Veka, Puspotkata, KaikasI and Kumbhinasl. Mall got of Vasudha four sons named Anala, Anila, Aha and Sampati. Sumall wandered in the forests with his daughters. He gave all the four daughters in marriage to ViSravas, son of Pulastya. Visravas got of KaikasI three sons named Ravana, Kumbhakarna and Vibhisana and a daughter named Surpanakha. Visravas got of Puspotkata a son named Vaisravana or Kubera. (Chapter 11, Parva, Uttara Agni Purana; Chapter 275, Vana

demons

named

PUSPARATHA. The
Parva)
.

(12th Skandha, Devi Bhagavata). chariot of the King called Vasumanas. This chariot was capable of travelling through mountains and oceans. air, (Chapter 198, Vana
this fort.

PUSPARI^A.

He

married a
.

A King
girl

named Prabha. (Skandha
King of
to

born of the family of Dhruva. 4, Bhaga-

Ramayana). PUSTI. A daughter born to Daksaprajapati of his wife Prasuti. Dharma married her. Pusti had twelve sisters. Dharma married them also. Besides these thirteen daughters Daksa got of Prasuti another eleven daughters. They were Khyati, SatI, Sambhuti, Smrti, Prlti, Ksama, Santati, Anasuya. Urjja, Svahadevi and Svadha. They were married in order to Bhrgu, Siva,
Atri, Pulaha, Kratu, Marlci, Ahgiras, Pulastya, Vasistha, Agni and the Pitrs. (Chapter 7, Arhs"a 1, Vi snu Purana)
.

PUSPAVAHANA. A
give daily lotus

vata)

a harlot who was doing worship of Visnu observing the Dvadasivrata. He was doing this service with such devotion that in the next birth he was born under the name Puspavahana (carrier of flowers). The sage Bhrgu once told him about his previous birth and asked him to observe dvadaslvrata. Puspavahana observed the vrata and attained bliss. (Srsji khanda, Padma Purana)
flowers
.

Rathantarakalpa. He got ten thousand sons of his wife Lavanyavatl. Puspavahana was a hunter in his previous birth. He used to

PUSTIMATI.
Bharata. If

Another
this

name
.

for

the

agni

called

appeased there will be health. (Chapter 221, Vana Parva) PUTANA I. A demoness who was killed by Krsna at Ambadi. Her previous birth, her relationship with Karhsa and such other details are found differently in different Puranas.
agni
is

1) Karhsa and
(i
;

P Stand.

Putana was the daughter of a demoness called Kajtavl and was the servant maid of the wife of

POTANA

II

625
a

RAGHU
consort. (Devi
2,

Kamsa. She had

younger

sister

called

Vrkodari.

(ii) Putana was the dha.tr! (foster-mother) of Kamsa. She entered Gokula in the form of a bird. (Harivam:'a, Chapter 2, Verse 6). Putana was the sister of Kamsa and the wife of (iii) Ghatodara. (Brahmavaivarta Parana)
.

(Adi Parva, Chapter 18).

Bhagavata 9, 1 Brahmavaivarta Purana, 49 and 56-57 and Adi Parva Chapter 11). Different versions about the birth of Radha are given in the Puranas, as follows in Gokula as daughter of Vrsabhanu (i) She was born and Kalavati. (Brahmavaivarta Purana, 2, 49; 35-42 Narada Purana, 2. 81).
;
:

;

2) Purvajanma (previour birth). Putana in her previous birth (i) daughter of Mahabali bearing the

was born as the name Ratnamala. When Vamana appeared before Mahabali during the time of the latter's Yajna, Ratnamala mentally desired thus "Oh if only this Vamana became my child I could have then breast-fed him." Vamana, the omniscient, understood the desire of Ratnamala. So during the incarnation as Krsna, Ratnamala was born as Putana, and Krsna gave her salvation by drinking her breast-milk. (Brahma Vaivarta Purana, Chapters 4 and
: !

(earth-girl) when (ii) She was got as Bhumi-kanya King Vrsabhanu was preparing the ground to conduct a Yajna. (Padma Purana; Brahma Purana 7). from the left side of Krsna. (Brahma(iii) She was born

vaivarta Purana). (iv) At the time of Krsna's birth Visnu asked his attendants to be born on earth. Accordingly Radha, took her birth in Gokula dear consort of Krsna, under the star Jyestha in the morning of Suklastami

10).
(ii)

Once when the

Carumati were travelling together they saw the sage Kakslvan doing penance on the shores of the river SarasvatT. Kalabhiru saw in Kakslvan a suitable husband for his daughter and so gave Carumati in marriage to him. They were thus living happily together when once Kakslvan had to go on a pilgrimage alone leaving Carumati in his asrama. Taking advantage of her loneliness a Sudra made her his concubine and when Kakslvan returned he found out the deceit and cursed her to be born as a demoness. She begged for relief and the sage said she would get relief when Visnu incarnated as Krsna. Putana was the cursed form of Carumati. (Chapter 18, Adi Parva). PUTANA II. An evil spirit. This spirit which torments children stays with Subrahmanya. (See under Graha-

sage Kalabhiru and

his

daughter

Bhadrapada month. (Adi Parva 1 ), Krsna once went with Viraja, the GopI woman, to (v) the hall of enjoyment ( rasamandalam ) Knowing about it Radha followed them to the hall, but both of them
day
in
1
.

were not to be found Viraja

seen. in the

she, in great anger, cursed her to be born in

another occasion when Radha company of Krsna and Sudama insulted Krsna whereupon Sudama

On

PUTIKA.
Parva)
.

pida. (Chapter Parva) creeper. This can be used in Yagas as a substitute for Somalata. (Sloka 33, Chapter 35, Vana

A

23,

Vana

.

PUTRADARSANAPARVA. A
Asramavasika Parva.
It

sub-divisional
.

Parva of

PUTRAKA. A King. (See under Patallputra) PUTRIKAPUTRA. A son born to a woman who
one without a broiher. (Sloka Chapter 3, Manusmrti). PU YAVAHA. A hell. ( See under Naraka )
either a prostitute or
.

comprises chapters 29 to 36.

is

As she was loved by all beings she came to be called Raga. (Vana Parva, Chapter 203). RAGAKHANDAVA. A cake-like thing formed in a Yajna performed by King Dillpa. (Drona Parva, Chapter 61, Verse 8).
ras.

RAGA.

which help Visnu in the process of creation. (Devi Bhagavata 9. 1 Narada Purana 2. 81) (vii) Radha is the mental power of Sri Krsna. (For details see under Pancapranas) RADHA II. Wife of Adhiratha, the foster-father of Karna and the foster-mother of Karna. (See under Karna).
;
.

pangs of separation from Krsna. (Narada Purana 2. 8; Brahmavaivarta Purana. 2. 49) and Radha cursed him in turn to be born in the danava dynasty. It was on account of this curse of Radha that Sudama was born as the asura called Sankhacuda. (Brahma Vaivarta Purana, 2. 4. 9. 34) (vi) Radha is considered to be one of the five forces
.

human womb and experience

the

.

One

of the seven daughters of Brhaspati

Angi-

1

1,

RAGHU.

R
R.
'

This
348).

letter

means "sound". (Agni Purana, Chapter
ra

A famous king of the Solar dynasty. The 1 General. ) great king Dillpa was his father. (For Genealogy, birth etc., see under Da^'aratha and Dillpa). 2) Other information. also occupies a place in the list of famous (i) Raghu kings of ancient days. (Adi Parva, Chapter 1, Verse
Kauravas (over the
between the king of Virata and the lifting of cows) Raghu was present along with Indra to see Arjuna fight. (Virata Parva, Chapter 56, Verse 10). iii ( ) Raghu got from King Yuvanasva a sword, which he presented to Harinasva. (Santi Parva Chapter 166, Verse 78). flesh. ( Amis' asana Parva, Chapter (iv) He did not eat 150, Verse 81). (v) Ksatriyas who praise Raghu will not be defeated in war. (AnuS asana Parva, Chapter 165, Verse 51 ). to be remembered at dawn and (vi) In the list of kings too is included. (Anu 'asana Parva, at dusk Raghu Chapter 165, Verse 51).
the fight

RA.

The

letter

means
,

fire,

strength,

Indra.

(Agni

232). (ii) In

RABHASA
RABHASA
play in

A monkey in Sri Rama's army. I. Ramayana, Yuddhakanda, Canto 4)
II.

Purana, Chapter 348)

(Valmiki

A

.

Raksasa on Ravana's
.

side.

Ramayana, Yuddha Kanda, Canto RABHYA. An ancient king wedded

(Valmiki

RADHA

Ekavlra )

ruling
.

the

kingdom.

9) to justice and fair(For details see under

I. Sri Krsna's dearest consort. Radha is considered to be one of the two forms of Laksmidevi. When Krsna lived in Gokula as a man with two hands Radha was his dearest consort. But when he lives in Vaikuntha as four-handed Visnu, Laksmi is his dearest

626

RA1VATAKA

I

A
and
elder

celestial
sister

woman,

daughter of
(For
details

Himavan
see

of Parvati.

under

RAHASYAVEDA. A Veda
This Veda Verse 19).
is

Parvati).

composed by
(Bharata,

mni Arvavasu.
Chapter
137,

about Surya.
.

RAHODARA (RAHODARA)

There is a story in Chapter 39 of the Vamana Purana about a skull falling on the muni's neck and the place where the skull was removed from his neck coming to be known as Kapalamocana.
Sri

A muni

of ancient days.

Rama

killed the

Raksasas

who

lived

in

Dandaka

of one of the Raksasas cut by a very sharp knife was thrown off at a distance in the forest and who happened to be it fell on the neck ofRahodara, walking at the time in the forest. It (the head) cut deep into the bones of the Sage and that made it difficult for him to move about. Yet, he visited all the holy places on the earth with the skull of the Raksasa around his neck. At last he told the noble Rsis about his misfortune and they directed him to visit 'Au^anasatirtha', and the moment he touched the water in the tlrtha the skull fell into the water. Having been told about the incident, the Rsis named the tirtha 'Kapalaforest.

The head

(4) Raibhya was once an assistant at the sacrifice of Uparicaravasu. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 33, Stanza 7). (5) Raibhya was one of the hermits who visited Bhisma in his bed of arrows. (M.B. Anu:'asana Parva, Chapter 26, Stanza 26). RAIBHYA II. An ancient hermit. This hermit learned the Satvatadharma from Virana. After that he taught his son Dikpala, this dharma. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 343, Stanza 42). RAIBHYA III. The father of Dusyanta, the husband of Sakuntala. This Raibhya was the son of Sumati.

RAIBHYA

RAHOVADl. A

mocana'.

king of the Puru dynasty. He was the son of Sarhyati and the father of BhadraSva. (Agni Purana, Chapter 278). RAHU.' An Asura. Son of Kasyapaprajapati by his wife Sirhhika. 1) Birth. (Adi Parva. Chapter 65, Verse 31). 2) Rdhu and the Solar eclipse. The oldest story about

immediately started to Gaya to do penance. There he met with the Sanatkumaras. ( Varaha Purana) Urvasi made an earnest effort to hinder the severe vow and penance of Raibhya. But it was of no use, and by woman became ugly. She his curse, that celestial entreated him for liberation from the curse. Raibhya blessed her and said that she could obtain her original form by bathing in Yodhinikunda. (Yogini Kunda). Urvasi bathed in Yodhinikunda and from that day onwards that tirtha (holy bath) came to be known as
.

(Bhagavata, Skandha 9). IV. One of the sons of Brahma. Once Raibhya went with Vasu and Angiras to Brhaspati and asked him several questions, about the attainment of Supernal bliss. Brhaspati replied that attainment of heaven could be had, not by action but only by devotion. Raibhya

RAIKVA.
fame of

UrvaSIyoginikunda.

There was a
King.

noble

named Janasruti. The
this

King
is

following

in ancient India a story about the

Rahu

is

that about

IV, Para 4).
3) Other information.

the solar eclipse (See under

Candra

of Brahma's court. (Sabha (i) Rahu is a member Parva Chapter 11, Verse 29). (ii) Sanjaya once spoke to Dhrtarasfra about Rahu. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 12, Verse 40)! (iii) Rahu exists 10,000 yojanas below the Sun. (Bhagavata, 5th Skandha). (iv) Rahu is installed in temples as wearing a half-moon on his head. (Agni Purana, Chapter 51). T RAHUGA!S A. A sage who lived in Rgvedic times. It was his son Gotama, who composed the 74th Sukta of the first Mandala of Rgveda. .RAIBHYA I. A hermit who was famous in the Palace of Yudhisthira. Information about this hermit, found in the Mahabharata is given below 1 ) Raibhya who was a friend of Bharadvaja had two ( named Arvavasu sons and Paravasu. They were scholars. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 135,
:

night while this King was sleeping, some hermits took the form of swans and were flying through the air. One of them saw the radiance of the fame of Janasruti shining brightly. The other swans said that the fame of Raikva was far greater than this. Jana.'ruti heard this. He found out Raikva and placed all his wealth at the foot of Raikva and gave him his daughter in

One

RAIVATA
(1)

marriage.
I.

Information about
is

this

Mahabharata

Once he heard the from Samaveda in the singing arbours of Mandara mountain in the south and becoming so much immersed in it, he desired to renounce his country, city, wife and everything and go to the forest. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 109, Stanza 9). (2) He got a sword from Marutta. He gave that sword to Yuvanasva. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 166, Stanza
ancient

An

given below
songs

King found

in

the

:

Gandharvas

King

in Bharata.

treat tanza 12).

(2) Bharadvaja once forbade his son Yavakrita from going to the hermitage of Raibhya. Getting angry at this, Raibhya struck his matted hair on the ground and created a wicked fairy and ordered her to kill Yavakrita. Knowing this Bharadvaja ran to that place and cursed Raibhya that his eldest son would kill him. Once Paravasu, mistaking his father for a cruel animal killed him. By the effort of his second son Arvavasu, Raibhya was brought to life again. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 138, Stanza 137) (3) Raibhya was the son of Angiras. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 208, Stanza 26).
.

(3) Raivata never ate meat. ( M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 115, Stanza 63). (4) He is one of the Kings who should be praised in the mornings and evenings. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 165, Stanza 53). RAIVATA II. One of the eleven Rudras. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 208, Stanza 19). RAIVATAKA I. A mountain in Gujarat. It stands near the present Junagadh. The present name of Raivataka mountain is Girnar. In Mahabharata it is spoken of as

77).

SriKrsna and Arjuna were travelling through Prabhasaksetra once, they got to the top of this mountain. (Adi Parva, Chapter 217, Verse 8)
.

Ujjayantagiri. It

is

stated in

Mahabharata

that

while

RAIVATAKA

II

627
celebrated
It

RAJANITI
blessings of the preceptor the King should attend court. (Agni Purana. Chapter 235). According to Chapter 8 of the Manusmrti ( a great authority on law and ethics) Kings are born from the shoulders of Indra, Vayu, Yama. Surya, Agni, Varuna,
also the

a great festival on the was during this festival that Arjuria carried away Subhadra, the sister of Sri Krsna. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 219; Bhagavata, Skandha

The Yadavas once

Raivataka mountain.

RAIVATAKA
is

10).

II.

A

made about

this

Son of Priyavrata, the brother of Uttanapada. had two wives Priyavrata Surupa and Barhismatl. Surupa. gave birth to ten sons beginning with Agnidhra. Three sons Uttama, Tamasa and Raivata were born to Barhismati. These three sons became Lords of Manvantara, in course of time. (See under Manvantara). RAJA I. A warrior of Subrahmanya. (Salya Parva,
.

RAIVATAKA (RAIVATA)

Parva, Chapter 11, Stanza 18.

mountain in Saka Island. Mention mountain in Mahabharata, Bhisma

Candra and Kubera.
(S).

RAJA
the

One
six

of the seven sons of Vasistha

by

tJrja,

Ordhvaba.hu, Savana, being Gotra, Anagha, Sutapas, and Sukra. Holy souls, these seven

other

RAJADHARMA. A

were Saptarsis in the third Purana, Part 1, Chapter 10).
stork,

Manvantara.
was
a

(Visnu
friend

which

of

RAJADHARMANUSASANA PARVA. A sub-Parva
married Rajadhidevl. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha).
.

Brahma and a son of Kasyapaprajapati. This stork was known asNadljangha also. (See under Nadijangha).

of

RAJA

Chapter 45, Verse 78)
II.

.

A

Sage. of
the

He was one

of the sons born to

two gate-keepers of Suryadeva. (Bhavisya Purana, Brahmakanda). RAJA (N) All the important Puranas have laid special emphasis on the importance of rule by Kings. All living It was Brahma beings will have Kings of their own.

Vasistha of Urja.

Sand Parva, Chapters 1-130). RAjADHIDEVl. The youngest of the five daughters of the solar King Sura by Marisa. Kingjayasena of Avanti

RAJA.

One
.

RAJAGRHA (GIRIVRAJA)
capital of

An

who

first assigned or ordained Kingship. After the creation of the Prajapatis, Brahma made Candra the King of the stars and medicines; Varuna was appointed King of waters like sea, river etc; Vaisravana was appointed King of Kings; Visnu, King of Devas; Agni, King of Vasus; Indra King of Maruts; Daksa King of the Prajapatis; Prahlada King of the danavas; Himavan, King of mountains; Citraratha, King of Gandharvas; Vasuki, King of nagas; Garuda, King of birds; Airavata, King of elephants; Ox, King of cattle, Tiger, King of animals, Peepal tree, King of trees and Uccais'sravas, that of horses. (Agni Purana). As to what type the King of man-kind should be and what should form his duties it is ordained as follows. The Raja should appoint either a Ksatriya or a brahmin as

by King Pandu. (Adi Parva, Chapter 112, Verse 27). Another King, Ambuvica, had for a time ruled over the Afterwards city. (Adi Parva, Chapter 203, Verse 17). Jarasandha became its King. Girivraja is a holy place as well. He who bathes here will become as pleasantlooking as King Kaksivan. (Vana Parva, Chapter 84,

Magadha. Dirgha King of Girivraja was

ancient city in

India,
killed

RAjAMUKHl. A celestial woman. (Skanda Purana). RAjANl. A holy river in ancient India. (Bhisma Parva,
RAJANITI.
Politics
(Politics and administration). and administration or administrative politics in ancient India is dealt with in Manusmrti and Agni Purana. A very brief summary of it is given below The King should organise six kinds of army formations, worship the Devas duly and then set out for war.
:

Verse 104)

.

Chapter

9,

Verse 21).

his

Commander

-

in

-

chief.

should be of noble birth and well-versed in

a strong man who can speak boldly and openly should be appointed emissary or ambassador. Either a male or a female may be appointed to carry chewing materials. But, that person should be loyal, friendly and capable of putting up with hardships. The body-guard of the King should be a good swords-man. Ministers should be conversant with dharmasastras (moral and

The Commander-in-chief law. Only

Suhrdbala, Satrubala kinds of army formations. The list is given in order of the comparative importance of the bala. The army has six parts i.e. Mantra (adviKosa (treasury), Padati (infantry), Turaga sers),

Mulabala, Bhutabala, Srenibala,
six

and Atavikabala are the

(Cavalry), Gaja (elephant) and Ratha (chariot). an attack is feared either against the forts or across rivers or trenches, the army should be marched for their
If

protection.

ethical codes). Also, the King should be surrounded by the royal physician, chief of the elephant division of the; army, the mahout, chief of the cavalry force, master of the forts, the architect, preceptor in archery and the chief of the internal administration of the palace. When it is yet three hours for the dawn, the King should wake up from sleep. Music, praises by courtiers

should herald his waking up. As soon woken up, the King should hold talks with Then he should examine accounts and only
etc.

as

he has
spies. this

his

after

should he begin the ablutions. After his puja (worship) is over, cows with gold should be gifted to brahmins. With their blessings he must look first into the mirror and then in ghee along with gold. Then he must look

up

the

almanac

taken

the

medicine

for the day's star etc.

And

The Army Chieftains surrounded by mighty warriors should lead the divisions. The King and his wife should be at the centre of the army-division along with the treasury and first class soldiers. On both sides of the King should march the cavalry and the chariots should form the farther wings. Elephants should proceed on the two sides of the chariot and soldiers recruited from forests must march on the sides of the elephants. The supreme commander will march behind all the others guiding the army. If there is cause for fear in front of the army during the march, three Vyuhas (Phalanxes) Makara, Syena The Sakata or SucI should be put in the Vanguard. is more suited to meet an attack from behind. If Vyuha attack is feared from the flanks then also the Saka^avyuha is advisable. When attack from all the sides is feared sarvatobhadravyuha is indicated. It is the duty of the Supreme Commander to safe-guard his army
and suppress reactionary
weakened, when
it

after

prescribed

by the physician and

having

forces whenever the army gets marches through caves, mountains or

RAJAPURA
rocks or

1

628

RAKSAS
Bhrgu dynasty Chapter 10).
multiplied.

other difficult terrain or weakened by the persistent attacks of the enemy. When the time, place and the people's attitude are favourable, the King should engage himself in open war with the enemy, and if they are unfavourable he shall not go in for war. If confrontation with the enemy occurs under circumstances in which the King is visible to the enemy, powerful divisions of the army consisting of warriors of great calibre should be stationed either at the front or in the rear.
there

(Visnu
.

Purana,

Part

1,

RAJI (RAjI).

RAJAYOGA.
He was

In the formation of vyuhas (phalanx)
factors called

are seven

Paksas
(rear).

At

bold soldiers. The leader is the very life of the war. the Uras of the vyuha powerful elephants, at the Kaksas chariots and at the Paksas cavalry should be stationed. This is called paksabhedivyuha. If at the centre cavalry and at Kaksas and Paksas elephants are

Uras (breast), Kaksas (arm-pits), two and Prstha (sides), two Madhyas (centre) The commanders should be surrounded by

elephants may be stationed in the place of chariots, if chariots are not available. (Agni Purana, Chapter 242) RAJAPURA I." An ancient and famous cily in Kamboja. Here Kama defeated the Kambojas. (Drona Parva,
.

stationed, it is called antarbhedivyuha. If there are no chariots, cavalry or infantry may be put in their place. Certain authorities maintain that in every vyuha

one of the five sons of Ay us by Svarbhinu the other four being Nahusa, Ksatravrddha, ( Vrddhasarman) Rambha and Anenas. (Asrama Parva, Chapter 70, Verse 23,. Puranas contain stories that Indra destroyed people borninRaji's dynasty as they hated the former. That side in which the powerful Raji fought used to win. In a fight between the asuras and the Devas, when Indra felt that his side was losing, he secured the participation of Raji in the fight on condition that the latter would be given Indra-hood. The asuras were defeated and Raji was made king of svarga. Raji had thousands of children and they were known under the common name Rajeyaksatriyas. But they were a foolish lot and lacked the capacity to distinguish themselves

See under Yoga A prominent king of the

Piiru

dynasty.

in

Indra's

Brhaspati, preceptor

RAJAPURA

Chapter

4,

Verse 5).

II. Capital city of King Citrangada of Kalihga. Innumerable kings gathered together in the city in connection with the Svayarhvara of the princesses. (Santi Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 3). RAjAibEKHARA. A Sanskrit dramatist who lived in India in 7th century A.D. Balabharata or Prakanda-

grammarian. In Panini'sastadhyayl depicted as a maharsi possessing great knowledge ofjhe Vedas. RAjNl. Second of the three wives of Vivas van. The couple had a son called Revata. RAJYAVARDDHANA. A king of Vaisali. Rajyavarddhana was a great ascetic, who could comprehend
he
is

RAJJUKANTHA. A

all and resumed his former position and status. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha Vayu Purana, Chapter 92, Harivarhsa 1,28; Verse 76; Brahmanda Purana 11 Matsya Purana. Chapter 24, Verses 34-49).

place. Therefore, at the instance of of the Devas, Indra destroyed
;

them

;

pandava, Balaramayana, Viddhasalabhanjika and Karpuramanjari are his more famous dramatic works. Karpuramanjar! refers to him as the preceptor of a king of Kanauj. RajaSekhara was known by the name Kaviraja also. Balaramayana, called also Mahana^aka, is a drama in ten Acts. Balabharata contains only two Acts. Its theme is the wedding of Draupadi and the ruin caused by the game of dice. Viddhasalabhanjika is a drama in
four Acts.

death was near, he

the past, the present

and the

future.

told his subjects

about

Knowing
it

that

his

and went

into the forests for tapas.

He

mlmarhsa

scholars hold the view that Rajasekhara lived in the 10th century A.D. RAjASUYA. A great yajfta. Hariscandra and also

Some

in eighteen chapters.

has a further work to his credit, Kavya-

Sorry over the departure of their king, his subjects as well as ministers began worshipping Surya, who appeared and blessed them saying that their king would live for ten thousand years in perfect health, victory and with all wealth and prosperity and other resources and with unimpaired youthfulness. The ministers and subjects greatly elated over the boon informed their king in the forest about it, but he only felt sorry about it. He told them that during his life for ten thousands years he would have to witness the death of
his sons,

Dharmaputra performed
35, 84).

it.

(Sabha Parva, Chapters
of

33.

RAJASUYAPARVA. A
(Chapters 33-35)
.

consoled and made them return. Then hs did rigorous tapas to Surya and secured from him the

The king

be sad throughout

grandsons and subjects and would thus have
life.

to

sub-Parva

Sabha Parva.

RAJASOYARAMBHA PARVA. A
Parva, Chapters 13-19. RAJATANABHA. A Yaksa.

sub-parva of Sabha

RAKA

boon that during kandeya Purana).

his life-time

none would

die.

(Mar-

He

married

daughter ofAnuhrada and two sons, Manivara and Manibhadra were born to them. RAjAVAN. A muni born in the Bhrgu dynasty. To

Manivara,

I. The presiding Devi of the full moon. She too was present at the birth of Subrahmanya. (Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 14) RakadevI was the daughter of Angiras, who had by his
.

Bhrgu were born of his wife Khyati, LaksmI, the wife of Visnu and also two sons called Dhata and Vidhata. They married Ayati and Niyati daughters of Meru. Two sons, Prana and Mrkandu were horn to the couples. From Mrkandu was born Markandeya and from him Veda'iras. Prana had a son called Dyutiman and he a son called Rajavan. It was from Rajavan that the

RAKA

A Raksasa girl. She served, at the instance of II. Kubera, Maharsi Vi:':ravas, and a son called Khara and a daughter, Surpanakhfi, were born to her by the maharsi. (Vana Parva, Chapter 275, Verse 3) RAKSAS. A particular sect of asuras. Yaksas and Raksas were offsprings born to Kasyapa prajapati of his wife Muni. (Agni Purana, Chapter 19).
.

wife Smrti four daughters called Sinlvali, Kuhu, and Anumati. (Visnu Purana. Part I, Chapter 1)

Raka

.

RAKSASA

I

629

RAKTABlJA
Parasara a yajna to annihilate the Raksasas altogether. (Adi Parva, Chapter 180). The provocation for ParaSara to conduct the yajna was that a Raksasa

RAKSASA

I.

A

had ordained that Raksasas should not be killed at dusk. Valmiki Ramayana, Balakanda, Canto 22, Verse 22). Uttararamayana, contains the following story about the origin of Raksasas. When Brahma was reciting the Vedas at the beginning of Krtayuga he felt very hungry and certain forms emanated from his face. Those who were born from his anger assumed the form of Raksasas and those from his hunger that of Yaksas. The Raksasas turned out to be evil folk killing and eating cows and brahmins. Praheti and Heti were the first born Raksasas, the latter of whom wedded Bhaya, daughter of Kala, and to them was born a son called
Vidyutkesa.

particular

sect of asuras.

The

ancients

RAKSASAYAJNA

Muni once conducted

(RAKSASASATRA).

that way and after Kailasa. The child was named Sukei a. He married Devavati, daughter of the Gandharva called Manimaya and three children were born to the couple, viz. Malyavan, Sumall and Mali. They did tapas to propitiate Brahma and when he appeared requested him thus "We must defeat Yaksas
that time Siva and Parvati blessing the child returned to

married Salakatanka, daughter of Sandhya. Though a child was born to them they forsook it in the Himalayan slopes and went their own way.

He

At

came

:

called Kalmasapada ate Sakti, the father of the muni and the son of Vasistha. When the yajna had reached its climax Pulastya, Pulaha and Kratu went to Parasara and held conciliatory talks with him, and Parasara, ended the yajna. The Agni that he had made to devour the Raksasas was discarded on the slopes of the Himato this layas. According to the Puranas that fire, even day, continues consuming the Raksasas, trees and rocks. (For details see under Kalmasapada and Parasara) RAKSITA. A celestial woman, daughter of Kasyapaprajapati by Pradhadevi. (Adi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 50). RAKSOBHAKSA. A hell. (For details see under Kala.) RAKSOVAHA. A kingdom in ancient India. The Ksatriyas there were annihilated by Paras urama. (Drona Parva, Chapter 70, Verse 12). RAKTA. A son of Mahisasura. He had two sons called Bala and Atibala. He had also a number of mighty army generals like Dhumraksa and thousand aksauhinis under each general. (Skanda Purana, 7.1.119).
.

all their prayers. The three, proud and haughty due to these boons, began roaming about consuming cows and brahmins. They asked Visvakarma to build a city for them and he built for them Lanka on Mount Trikuta in the south sea. The three brothers took their abode in Larika Malyavan, Sumall and Mall married respectively Sundari. Ketumati, and Vasudha, daughters of the Gandharva woman Narmada Malyavan begot of Sundari seven sons called Vajramusti Virupaksa, Durmukha, Suptaghna, Yajnakosa, Malta, and Unmatta, and also a daughter called Nala. To Sumall were born of Ketumati ten sons and also four

Kinnaras, Gandharvas^ Siddhas, Vidyadharas, Yama, Kubera, Vasava, Naga kings and daityas and danavas and we must not be defeated by any one. We must kill all enemies and they shall not kill us. We three shall never quarrel among ourselves."

RAKTABlJA.

1 General. Rebirth of Rambhasura, ) sasura. Stories of Raktablja and

father of MahiRambhasura are

Brahma granted

inextricably intertwined. 2) Origin of Raktabija. Once upon a time there lived an asura king called Danu. His two sons, Rambha and Karambha who had no children, did tapas at Pancanada for the blessing of having issues. Rambha and Karambha meditated upon Miilavata Yaksa, the former seated at the centre of the five fires and the latter standing in the water. Indra in the guise of a crocodile dragged Karambha away by the feet and killed him. Angry at the death of his brother, Rambha decided to cut off his

head and offer it in Agni appeared and

daughters. Four sons were born to Mall of his wife Vasudha, they became the ministers of Vibhlsana.

and

Then thousands

of Raksasas were born as sons, grandsons, brothers, nephews, etc. to the above and they lived in Larika, a terror to the whole world.

While the daughters of Sumali, Veka, Puspotkata, Kaikasi and Kumbhinasi were once walking in the forest they saw Kubera on a visit to Brahma in all pomp and glory. They understood that Kubera owed his pomp and glory to his being the son of ViSravas and therefore, the next day one of the four, Kaikasi, went to Visravas's asrama and prayed for children by him. Three sons called Ravana, Vibhisana and Kumbhakarna and a daughter called Surpanakha were born to her by Vigravas. They secured boons by performing and Ravana lived in Lanka as king of the tapas
Raksasas.

RAKSASA

II.

RAKSASAGRAHA. An

under Vivaha).

An approved

system of marriage.

(See

evil spirit connected with the Raksasas. Affected by this spirit man will immediately become mad. (Vana Parva, Chapter 23, Verse 50).

handsome and skilled in archery. Agni blessed Rambha that he would have, as desired, a son by the woman whom he coveted. On his way back home he saw a beautiful she-buffalo, which he married. He took the buffalo which got pregnant by him, to Patala to protect it from the attack by other buffaloes. One day another buffalo felt a passion for Rambha's wife and in the fight that ensued Rambha was killed by it. Rambha's wife died in his funeral It was from the centre of the fire that the pyre. very powerful Mahisasura was born. Ramhhasura also rose from the fire under the name' Raktabija. (Vamana Purana, Chapter 17; Devi Bhagavata, 5th Skandha). 3) Boon to Raktabija. Raktabija secured from Siva a boon according to which if one drop of blood from his body fell on the battlefield, many Raktabijas would arise from the blood and Each of fight the enemies. these Raktabijas would also be like the others in the matter of strength, form and weapons. (Devi Bhagavata, 5th Skandha).

he was about to do so, suicide was worse than killing others, and promised to grant him whatever he desired. Accordingly Rambha requested Agni for a son more effulgent than the latter, who would conquer the three worlds and would not be defeated even by the Devas and the Asuras. Rambha further wanted that son to be as powerful asVayu, exceptionally
fire.

When

told

him

that

RAKTAJA
and
4) His death. War between Devas and Asuras broke out in the fight between Devi and Raktabija blood from When Devi found it impossible to his body (lowed. kill the lakhs of Raktasuras who arose from the blood, She asked Camundi to lick off she resorted to a trick. the blood flowing from Raktabija before it fell on the ground. Accordingly Devi began killing the asuras and Camundi consuming their blood and flesh. When the killed thus, the original artificial Raktabijas were all Raktabija alone remained and in the fight between them, Devi cut off his head with her sword. Camundi did not permit even a drop of blood to fall on the

630

RAKTAJA
what he should do. Then Siva ordered him thus You kill this asura (Svedaja) created by Brahma with his own effulgence." And Siva led Raktaja out of the
:

skull
lies

RAKTAJA.
birth.

ground.

The

(Devi Bhagavata, 5th Skandha). A form assumed by Arjuna in
following story
is

his

told

in

Padma Purana

previous

(Chapter 14) about Arjuna being reborn as such at the meeting of Kali and Dvapara yugas and Svedaja being born as Kama during the same period. Once during a quarrel between Siva and Brahma the former nipped off Brahma's head. (For details see under Brahma). Some drops of sweat appeared on the forehead of the angry Brahma, and from the sweat which Brahma wiped with his hand arose a person wearing a thousand shields, bow and quiver. That person was Svedaja. He asked Brahma what he should do and the former granted him permission to destroy Siva. He then approached Siva with bow drawn and the frightened Siva ran to Visnu and sought refuge. Svedaja followed Siva and when Visnu, seeing him, raised a loud noise 'Hum'. Siva prostrated at Visnu's feet. Siva extended the skull in his hand towards Visnu requesting something to be given to him. Mahavisnu, who had nothing else to give Siva, put his right hand into the skull as alms, Siva wounded the hand with his Sula and pure red blood began ( three-pronged weapon ) flowing from the hand into the skull. The blood continued flowing for a thousand years in a length of fifty yojanas and thickness of ten yojanas. At the end of the period Visnu asked whether the skull was not filled yet, and looking into the skull with his three eyes Siva answered that it was full. Then Visnu stopped the
hand. The blood gradually turned into a bubble, and a person possessing thousand hands and as glowing as fire appeared in the skull. He had a crown on his head and he held in his hands a bow and quiver. He wore And, that was Raktaja, an ingloves on his hands. carnation of Nararsi. Looking at Raktaja, Siva told Visnu thus "This master in archery is Nara. You spoke Nara, and let his name, therefore be Nara. Oh Narayana, you both will be called Naranarayanas. This Nara will be of help to you on behalf of the Devas and also in the sustenance and protection of the world. He will further help you to kill the asuras. Nara, the great intellectual that he is, will become a mifni, of surpassing wisdom. Brahma's
:

Svedaja continued for two years. By then Svedaja had lost everything but one of his shields and Raktaja had only his two arms to fight with. At this stage Vasudeva asked Brahma (Visnu) in great alarm went and whether Raktaja might not kill Svedaja. Brahma answered, 'In the next birth Nara may defeat Svedaja'. Saying 'Right, let that be so', Visnu returned to the battlefield and withdrew them from fighting with the assurance that they would be given an opportunity to Kali and the fight again during the period of the

the terrible person I spoke about made unconscious by the cry of 'Hum' by Visnu. Awake him immediaAfter having said this Siva disappeared. Nara, tely." in the presence of Narayana, kicked the unconscious Svedaja with his left foot, and he came out of his unconscious state. The fierce fight that ensued between Raktaja and

by

his

hands and told him again

:

"Look,

here

Afterwards Visnu directed Aditya (Sun) and Akhandala ( Indra) to look after Raktaja and Svedaja. He told Aditya further "At the end of the Dvapara yuga you should see that Svedaja is reborn, in the In the Yadu interests of the Devas, as your son. dynasty will be born a very powerful fellow called Sura and he will have a very beautiful daughter named Durvasas will advise her some mantras as a Prtha. boon and she will have some sons from the Devas whom she will invoke with the mantras. With that object in view, while in her periods, she would, at the time of dawn gaze at you with love. Then he (Svedaja) will be born as the son called Vasusena of Kunti, the
:

Dvapara yugas.

The Sun-God agreed to obey Visnu and told him further
:

virgin."

flow of blood, and Siva, in the presence of Visnu, looked into the blood for a thousand years and stirred it with his

instructions of "I shall procreate in the virgin a very powerful and valiant son, who will become well-known in the world as Kama. He will gift away all wealth to brahmins." After saying this Surya dis-

the above

with his wives, Kunti and Madrl, and he will then become the object of an animal's curse. He will therefore, in a spirit of renunciation, go to mount Satasrhga where he would ask Kunti to become a mother by another man. Unwilling to do so Kunti will desire to have sons by Devas, and when she prays to you, you should favour her wilh this Nara as son. Devenclra raised a legal objection to the above injunction of Visnu as follows "You, who incarnated yourself as Rama in the twentyseventh yuga of the last
forest
:

"You this Visnu told Indra as follows should, at the end of the Dvapara yuga see that this Nara, born from blood, is reborn as an aspect of yours on earth. King Pandu will one day go into the
After
:

appeared.

divine fifth head possesses so much of effulgence. Nara is created from that effulgence and also from the blood from your hands and my look at it. He will annihilate all enemies in war. He will be a terror to those persons who cannot be conquered by you, Indra and the other

Devas.

While Visnu stood there amazed Raktaja praised him and Siva with folded hands and asked from the skull

purpose of killing Ravana, killed Therefore I do not wish to procreate my Nara as my son." To this objection of Indra Visnu assured him that as a penalty for the mistake of killing Bali, he would be a companion of Nara (Arjuna) who would be born as Indra's son. According to the above terms and conditions fighting between Raktaja and Svedaja ended. In the next birth Raktaja was born as Arjuna and Svedaja as
for the

Manvantara

son Bali.

RAKTA&GA

631

RAMA
To have
a son, Dai'aratha took as his second wife Kaikeyi, daughter of the King of Kekaya and younger sister of Yudhajit. But she turned out to be barren. Then he married Sumitra, daughter of the King of Kasi. Even after many years none of the three wives of Da.' aratha presented him with a son. One of those days Da'aratha went deep into the forest, hunting. While resting on the banks of river Sarayu he heard a sound like that of an elephant drinking water in the river. Without realising the fact that the voice was that of the son of a muni filling water in a pot for his aged parents, the King released an arrow against him. When Da aratha walked to the spot, he realised his mistake. He had hit unknowingly a brahminboy, a muni's son. The boy lay wounded about to
'
1

Karna. Mahavisnu incarnated himself as Sri Krsna. The meeting of the three in the battle-field is wellknown. RAKTAivIGA. A naga born in Dhrtarattra's dynasty. It was burnt to death at the yajna of Janamejaya. (Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 18). RAMA. A synonym for Mahalaksmi. There is a story in the eighth Skandha of Devi Bhagavata as to how the name Rama came to be attached to Laksml. Revanta, the very handsome son of Surya one day came to Vaikuntha mounted on his horse Uccaissravas to pay his respects to Mahavisnu. Even LaksmidevI

him and all like this and cursed that since Laksmi's eyes enjoyed the sight of some one she would come to be called Rama also and that she would be born as a mare on earth. RAMA (SRI RAMA). The seventh incarnation of
looks between

charm of Revanta changing her his horse. Mahavisnu did not at

stood aghast speechless

for

a

very short time at the

The boy explained to Dasaratha who he was and how he had come to the river to carry water to his
die.

Mahavisnu, a very powerful king of the solar dynasty. Descended from Visnu thus: Brahma 1) Genealogy. Marici - Kasyapa-Vivasvan - Vaivasvata Manu-Mahabahu - Prasandhi - Ksupa-Iksvaku - Vikuksi SasadaKakutstha (Puranjaya) - Anenas-Prthulasva-Prasenajit-

Yuvanasva-Mandnata-Purukutsa-Trasadasyu-AnaranyaHryasva-Vasumanas-Sutanva - Traiyyaruna-Satyavrata (Trisanku)-Hariscandra - Rohita va - Harita - CuncuSudeva - Bharuka - Bahuka - Sagara - AsamanjasaArhsiiman-Bhagiratha-Srutanabha-Sindhudvlpa-Ayutayus-Rtuparna - Sarvakama - Sudas - Mitrasakha (Kalmasapada) - Asmaka - Mulaka - Khatvariga - Dilipa (Dlrghabariu)-Raghu-Aja-Dasaratha-Rama. When Ravana was ruling over 2) Reason for his birth. Lanka as a terror to the world, evils and cruelties like
matricide, patricide, fratricide, killing of cows, hatred for good people, children's death, abduction of women, killing of munis, thefts etc. became rampant. When the

aged parents. After telling the King details about him he breathed his last. Sobbing at his misadventure, Dasaratha went to the aged parents of the dead boy with the pot filled with water. The parents, who were blind thought that it was their son who was approaching them when Dasaratha revealed the sad story to them. After cursing Dasaratha that he too would die of separation from his son, the aged muni
expired; his wife also died in his funeral pyre. The grief-stricken King returned to Ayodhya. Only Vasistha and Sumantra were told about the curse, which, though a cause for great sorrow, implied

grief-stricken Bhumidevi (Goddess of assumed the form of a cow and took refuge with Indra in Svarga. She told him about the atrocities committed by Ravana and the other Raksasas. Then Indra took Bhumidevi (cow) to Brahma, who took them to Siva at Kailasa as killing Ravana was beyond his (Brahma's) power. Siva thought it improper on his part to kill Ravana and so he took Brahma and others to Visnu and submitted their grievance to him. Visnu consoled them by saying as follows: "I have

world became
earth)

that Dasaratha would have sons. Vasistha, therefore, advised Da:' aratha to get the yajna, called putrakamesti performed by Rsyar'rnga. Accordingly the King invited his daughter Santa and his son-in-law, Rsyas'rnga to Ayodhya, and the yajna began. Rsyasriiga made offerings in the sacred tire chanting the putrakama hymn. Then a divine person arose from the fire with a golden vessel full of pudding (nectar of the Devas) and disappeared again in the fire after giving the vessel to Rsyasriiga handed it over to DasaraRsyas'rnga. tha, who as advised by the maharsi divided the pudding between Kausalya and Kaikeyi. They gave a part of their shares of the pudding to Sumitra also. The three queens conceived, and in due course of time Kausalya and Kaikeyi delivered a son each and Sumitra two sons. The son of Kausalya was named Rama, the son of Kaikeyi, Bharata, and sons of Sumitra

to protect Bhumidevi and the good people on the earth." (Kamba Ramayana, PurvaKanda). 3) Birth King Das aratha of the solar dynasty ruled

decided to incarnate myself as the son of Daparatha, king of Ayodhya. You Devas also should take birth on earth to help me to kill Ravana and other evil Raksasas and

Kosala with Ayodhya as his capital. Maharsi Vasistha was his family preceptor. With the cooperation of eight ministers such as Sumantra and others he ruled the country in the path of supreme welfare and prosperity. A daughter, Santa, was born to him of his wife Kausalya. Years passed by, yet he had no son. One
of those days King Lomapada, close friend of Das"aratha
visited

were named Laksmana and Satrughna. (Valmiki Ramayana, Balakanda) 4) Boom granted to Kaikeyi. Before the sons were born to Dasaratha, the mighty asura called Sambara once attacked Devaloka. Dasaratha was at that time known as Nemi, and he was a great friend of Indra, and on his invitation Nemi, along with Kaikeyi, went to Devaloka in a chariot. Nemi killed the asura army within half an hour. Then Sambara assumed the form of ten Sambaras and attacked Nemi from ten
.

points. In this context Nemi turned and twisted chariot in all the ten directions at the same time killed all the trn Sambaras and recaptured Svarga.

his

and
It

childless Ayodhya. Lomapada, who was Das aratha for Santa and she was given as his adopted daughter by Dasaratha. Lomapada gave her in marriage to Rsyasrriga, who had once caused rain-fall in Anga. (For details see under Rsyasriiga).

was from that day onwards that Nemi came

to

be known

requested

as Dasaratha. In the fight with the Sambaras on all points Dasaratha's chariot was so violently shaken that the key of its axle

was

about

to

slip

off

and

threatened danger Kaikeyi

Noticing the her finger to the applied
fall

down.

RAMA
proper place of the axle and thus averted the mishap. When Dasaratha knew about this timely action of Kaikeyl he was so very pleased that he asked her to choose any two boons she desired, and she asked him to keep the boons with him to be granted whenever she requested for them. Dasaratha and Kaikeyl took leave of Indra and returned to Ayodhya. (Kamba

632

RAMA
Rama trod upon the Rama trod on the stone
stone.

Ahalya cast off her form as stone and resumed her old form as Ahalya. Immediately Gautama and Satananda also appeared on the scene. Ahalya ascended to the sky as a devi.
and Laksmana. Janaka's daughter Sita and his younger brothers' daughters Mandavi, Ormila and Srutakirti were living in the palace as sisters and very good friends. One day the princesses who were playing in the garden could not pluck jasmine flowers from a height. Sita then brought the Saivacapa (Siva's bow) from the weapon-room and shot down Jasmine flowers with it. As Janaka watched Sita's action of shooting with the Saivacapa an idea came into his head. He announced that the hero, who succeeded in shooting with Saivacapa, would be given Sita in marriage. Just as Rama and Laksmana were inseparable companions Sita and Ormila were always to be found together and Mandavi and Srutakirti were particular friends. Sri Rama shot an arrow from Siva's bow and he was selected as Sita's husband. Janaka informed Dasaratha of the marriage and he came with his attendants. Bharata married Mandavi, Laksmana, Urmila and Satrughna, Srutakirti. After living in Mithila for sometime Dasaratha and others returned to Ayodhya. Visvamitra went to the Himalayas for rest. 9) Par as urania's threat. Dasaratha and others on their way back to Ayodhya passed the Videha kingdom and reached the suburbs of Bhargavasrama. All of a sudden a shining form of a brahmin with Ksatriya effulgence
with
8)

Accordingly,

as soon as

Marriage.

Rama

VlsVamitra came

to

king Janaka's palace

Ramayana, Balakanda).
5)

In

the

the forest in the company of Visvamitra. too followed his brother. While walking in the forest Visvamitra related many old stories to Rama and Laksmana. They crossed river Sarayu, passed by many asramas of munis and reached the Pala forest. Here Visvamitra imparted to Rama and Laksmana, who felt too weak on account of hunger and thirst the two mantras Bala and Atibala,
to

DaSaratha grew up in Ayodhya. Though they were equally friendly to one another, intimacy between Rama and Laksmana and also between Bharata and Satrughna came to be thicker. Once VisVamitra decided to conduct a yajna for the happiness and contentment of all people. At the very commencement of the yajna, Raksasas, in batches, tried to spoil it, and Marica and Subahu, sons of Tataka were the leaders of the obstructionists. Visvamitra knew that Rama was the most effective weapon against the Raksasas and requested Dasaratha Dasaratha felt sad about it to lend him Rama's help. and Visvamitra was getting excited over the former's attitude when Vasistha advised Dasaratha to send Rama along with Visvamitra. Accordingly DaSaratha sent

company

of

Vtivamitra.

The

four

sons of

Rama

Laksmana

which would ward off hunger and thirst. He also taught them the use of certain rare arrows. Sri Rama was specially taught the use of a divine arrow called

Jrmbhakastra. 6) Tdfakd killed.

While Visvamitra was relating to them the story of Tataka, who dwelt in the forest, they saw the fierce Raksasi coming fast with a long spear in her hand. She threw a big rock at Visvamitra. Rama shattered the rock with an arrow. Next, Tataka dashed forward against Rama roaring furiously, and Rama, with another arrow killed her. The soul of the dead Tataka assumed the form of a Gandharva woman and
ascended to heaven.
.

it was already dawn Gautama went to the river for bath when Indra assumed the form of the muni, entered his bed room and slept with

Raksasas like Subahu lined up 7) Salvation to Ahalyd. to obstruct the yajna, which Visvamitra began after the killing of Tataka. Rama killed Subahu ; Marica ran away in fright and hid himself in the sea. Rama drove away the other Raksasas. Next, Visvamitra, hearing about the Svayarhvara of Sita, daughter of King Janaka started for his palace with Rama and Laksmana, and on the way he told the boys many Puranic stories. They bathed in the river Gaiiga and a short walk took them to the vacant asrama of Gautama. The great muni called Gautama had once lived in this alrama with his dutiful wife Ahalya and their son Satananda, an erudite scholar in all sciences. Indra, who lost his head over the great beauty of Ahalya went to the aSrama one midnight in the form of a
cock and crew. Thinking

crown prince. The people whole-heartedly During the night previous to the coronation, while the wives of DaSaratha were gladly discussing the happy incident, Manthara, the tale-bearing maid of Kaikeyi advised her mistress to prevail upon Dasaratha to exile Rama into the forest and install Bharata as crown prince. Manthara also reminded Kaikeyi about the boons, which had been promised to her by Dasaratha
as

appeared in front of the procession. Vasistha underand stood that it was Paraiurama and Dasaratha others were alarmed. Paras urama approached Sri Rama who was viewing the former with quiet serenity. Paraiurama was very angry that Rama broke the bow of Siva who was his (Paras urama's) preceptor. All Rama's conciliatory talk failed to pacify Paras urama, who spoke thus to Rama "You, impudent fellow you insulted me and my preceptor. All right, let me see your power. Take this my bow, and shoot with it." Sri Rama took hold of the bow and bent it easily and out the fixing an arrow on it asked Parasurama to point target for it. As Parasurama feared that if the arrow was sent, it might crush the whole univese, he asked Rama so choose the result of his (Paras urama's) tapas as target for the arrow. Both the bow and the arrow were of Visnu's power. That power as well as his own Vaisnava power, Parasurama transferred to Sri Rama and having thus fulfilled the object of his incarnation Parasurama went to Punyasrama for permanent tapas. Dasaratha decided to install Sri 10) Ruin of the country.
:

!

Rama

welcomed

it.

Ahalya. When Gautama understood the fraud thus played upon him, he cursed her into a stone. She was to resume her old form when, during Tretayuga, Sri

during the devasura war. Kaikeyi fell into the trap thus set by Manthara. Kaikeyi put on a wrathful face and shut herself up in a room. When Dasaratha enquired of her the reason for her anger she asked him to make her son Bharata, the crown prince and exile Rama for

RAMA

633

RAMA
was performing tapas there to propitiate Siva when he was overcome by the beauty of Sita and to look at her from a hidden spot he had assumed the form of the ebony tree. It was him that Laksmana had cut down. Sri Rama understood the situation and explained to his wife and brother about the trickeries of the Raksasas. Then the parnasala was constructed and they lived there. Hearing about the coming of Rama all the sages

fourteen years' life in forest. The king fainted when he heard the demand. But, Sri Rama, on hearing about start it, put on an anchorite's apparel and got ready to

and Laksmana also got ready to follow Rama into the forest. While the entire population of Ayodhya stood there weeping, Rama, Laksmana and Sita wearing the forest-dwellers' garb started for the
for the forest. Sita
forest.

Sumantra, who had accompanied Rama and others returned to Ayodhya, Dasaratha expired on account of unbearable grief caused by Rama's exile. Messengers brought to Ayodhya Bharata and Satrughna from Kekaya where they were put up with their uncle Yudhajit at the time of their father's death. But, they were kept in the dark of all that had happened in their absence till their arrival at the palace. Bharata, who heard of everything from his mother was greatly upset and got ready to go to Rama in the forest. Satrughna too got ready to accompany him. Arundhati and Vasistha in a chariot in the fore-front, Kausalya and Sumitra in another chariot just behind the first one, Bharata and Satrughna behind them in this manner the great journey into the forest started. Leaving all others behind him, Bharata went forward and prostrated before Rama and Laksmana at Citrakuta. Sri Rama broke into tears on hearing about the death of their father. But in spite of
as

11) Death of Dasaratha and Bharata's decision.

As soon

of the Dandaka forest visited them. They lived in Pancavati for thirteen years. Parames14) Test by Paramesvara (Siva) and Parvati. vara and Parvati, who knew that many tricky changes would occur in the thirteenth year of the life of Rama and Sita there, decided to submit them to a test. The object of the test was to see whether Rama and Sita would recognise each other under all circumstances. When Sita one day entered the river Godavari to fetch water, she saw two swans enjoying themselves in a lotus pool in the middle of a sand-shoal in the river. When Sita went near the pool she saw Rama bathing in it. But on a closer look she recognised that it was not Rama, but Siva, in the guise of Rama, who was

bathing there.
as

To

befool
:

Bharata's pressing

Ayodhya. At and returned
at

Bharata yielded to Rama's injunction to Ayodhya with the latter's sandals. But he did not enter the palace instead he built an asrama
last
;

request

Rama

were quickly. Sita Oh, Deva come to the bath ?
: :

Rama,

told

her
!

Dear one
so late
?

Sita Siva, who Please
!

was disguised

come

to

me

Why

you

salutations.

Why

did

you alone
not come

refused to return to

Nandigrama and worshipping Rama's sandals
to

lived

there.

Viradha and regained Sita. Then a-'rama of sage Sarabhanga in the Kumuda forest. Therefrom they went to the Mrkandu forest where they visited maharsi Agastya, and there Rama took the vow to kill Ravana and other evil Ra.ksasas and thus render the land safe for sages to perform tapas. Agastya presented to Rama a Vaisnava bow, a Brahma arrow and a Saiva quiver. Rama kept them with Agastya himself lo be given to him when required. Then Agastya gave Rama a divine ornament such as was not available in all the three worlds. Rama tied it round Slta's neck. Taking leave of Agastya, Rama and others went to the Dandaka forest. It was on a high peak of Mount Mahakraunca in the forest that Jatayu, brother of Sampati and a very close friend of Rama lived. Rama and Jatayu renewed their old frindship and decided to be of mutual service in future. After that Rama and others rested themselves on the banks of the near-by Godavari. Pancavati was on the southern 13) Stay at Pancavati. bank of the Godavari. Five vajas (peepal trees) of the same size stood there in a circle, and so the place was called Pancavati. (See under Pancavati). Sri Rama decided to build his asrama at the centre of those trees. Laksmana cut down an ebony tree there to put up a parnasala (hut) At once ihe log disappeared and the dead body of a Raksasa youth was found there. It was the corpse of Sambhukumata, son of Surpanakha. He
off Sita.
killed

From Mount Citrakuta Sri Pancavati. Rama and others started towards the forest. When they continued their journey after visiting the Sage Atri's asrama a Raksasa called Viradha ran away carrying
12) Trip

two are unique. Devi might be alone at Kailasa just now. It was not good that you did not bring her also with you. salutations to your divine Siva Oh great Devi greatness. Let me return to Kailasa after saluting Sri Rama. Hail unto thee.
: : !

I had to come alone as Devi did Rama with me at once and was late in coming. Sita Why did not the Devi come ? You

Rama

they visited

the

closely and recognised that it was not Oh Devi my salutations. and replied as follows Did you come alone ? Where is Deva ? How is it that you are separated from him ? Mahadeva and Mahadevi are one and inseparable. Then how this separation ? Salutations. Thou art omniscient and Sita ( Parvati)
Sri

Meanwhile Sri Rama .vas waiting impatiently for Sita to Then Sita approached him looking into a lotus return. flower she held in her hand and also throwing, off and on, amorous glances at him. (She was in fact Parvati in the guise of Sita). And she told Rama Lord ! delay in returning. The delay was you would excuse due to tarrying there to look at the play of two swans.
:

my Rama looked

my

My

Sita

:

!

:

omnipotent. I return to the presence of Siva. Surpanakha was the 15) The incident of Surpanakha. wife of a Raksasa called Vidyujjihva. Once in a war which Ravana, Vidyujjihva and other Raksasas fought
at

therefore, permitted Surpanakha to choose whomsoever she liked as her husband, and she went about the world in search of a suitable husband. She liked some

Devaloka Vidyujjihva was

killed

by mistake. Ravana,

persons, but they did not like her, and vice versa. Thus she was roaming about discontented. She was also on the look-out for an opportunity to take vengeance on

to Pancavati disguised as Lalita. Sri alone was there in the asrama at the time and Sri Rama rejected she told him that she was love-sick. her prayer on the plea that he was already married.

Surpanakha, who heard about the beauty of Rama and

Laksmana

for killing her son,

Sambhukumara.

Laksmana came

Rama

RAMA
Then

634

RAMA
But, he drove her away disfigured. When the brothers continued their search for Sita they were caught in the arms stretched out in semi-circular form. It was a Raksasa called Kabandha, and they cut away one arm each. At once the fierce Kabandha (headless body) form disappeared and aGandharva youth appeared in his place. After offering moksa to Kabandha Rama and Laksmana continued their search for Sita. (See

He

she approached Laksmana with the same request. too refused to oblige her. Then she saw Slta there and decided to shatter her married life and also to make a present of her to Ravana. She also thought that if Slta were got rid of she would have Rama for husband. Maddened by such thoughts she rushed into the agrarna.
out. Laksmana drove her Then, carrying But, Laksmana with her she rose into the sky and he cut away both her ears, breasts and nose. Thus disfigured she resumed her form of Raksasi. She flew away in the sky

roaring loudly. 16) Khar a killed. Having heard about the disfigurement of Surpanakha Khara sent fourteen Raksasas to Rama's asrama. Laksmana killed them very easily. Next, Khara, his brothers Dusana and Trisiras with fourteen thousand Raksasa soldiers came to fight Rama. Rama and Laksmana killed them also. This saddened Surpanakha very much and she reported the entire

Rama and Laksmana reached 19) Salvation to Sabari. Sabaryasrama and were duly received by the female hermit Sabari. She presented them with fruits. Not
only that, she personally tasted each fruit for its quality and then gave the best to the guests. Rama was so very pleased with her pure devotion that he offered her

under Kabandha).

Ravana at Lanka. She told him that Rama and Laksmana were very courageous warriors and he was
affair to

not to enter into direct fighting with them, but was to abduct Slta whose loss would cause Rama's death. She
also assured

salvation. (For details see under Sabari). Rama and Laksmana alliance. 20) Rama-Sugriva bathed in the Pampa river and thus refreshed they travelled upto the height of Mount Rsyamuka where Sugriva lived with Hanuman as his Prime Minister.

Sugriva,
foes.

Ravana
his

that
life.

if

Rama

died,

Laksmana

Hanuman

who saw Rama and Laksmana coming, deputed
to find out whether they were friends or in the guise of a brahmin boy talked related their story from the abduction

would himself end

17) Sitd abducted. Next day a spotted deer was found playing near the asrama. Slta desired to have the deer and Sri Rama, after asking his brother to take care of Slta, followed the deer, which enticed him to a great distance in the forest. At last, finding it difficult to catch the deer alive, Rama shot an arrow at it. Hit by the arrow the deer transformed itself into a gigantic Raksasa and fell down dead crying. "Oh Slta Laksmana, a Raksasa is killing me. Come and save
!

O

!

me.'''

The Raksasa, who

thus fell a prey to Rama's arrow was had Marlca, uncle of Ravana. ^Marica really gone in the form of a deer to Rama's asrama at the instance of his nephew to cheat Rama. Slta heard the false cry of Marlca and asked Laksmana to hurry up

Laksmana to the spot for Rama's protection. did not want to leave Sita there alone and

at

first

up a fight with him to get Slta released. But, Jajayu had to fall down wounded by the sword of Ravana and he lay there awaiting Rama's arrival. Rama and Laksmana returned to the asrama only to find Sita missing. While they advanced some distance lamenting over the loss of Slta they saw Jafayu lying in the forest, his wings cut, but happy in expectation of salvation and repeating the name of Rama. Jajayu gave Rama all details about Sita and then gave up his body and ascended to Vaikuntha. Rama and Laksmana moved 18) Salvation to Kabandha.
towards the south in quest of Sita. An asura woman Ayomukhi, sister of Surapadma tried to entice Laksmana, who went alone to a pool to fetch water. When Laksmana resisted and kept away from her
called

But, when she used hard and cruel words against him Laksmana quitted the aiirama and went When Rama and Laksmana were thus into the forest. absent at the airama an old Sannyasin came for alms at the courtyard. Sita, who came out to offer alms was forcibly carried away by Ravana ( the sannyasin was Ravana in disguise) in his puspaka aerial chariot On the way Ja{ayu saw Ravana and put to Lanka.

Rama.

go

after

undertaking to kill Bali and restore his kingdom to Sugriva and Sugriva undertaking to search for and find out Sita for Rama. Though the above pact was made, Sugriva was doubtful about Rama's capacity to honour his part of the contract, and Rama, knowing this suspicion of Sugriva, wanted to dispel it. The mountain-like body of Dundubhi, the Raksasa killed by Bali, lay there in a big heap of bones and at the instance of Rama, Laksmana threw it into the distant southern sea with the big toe of his left foot. Sugriva was wonder-struck at this feat of Laksmana and praised him. Yet Sugriva was not quite cured of his doubt and Rama wanted to further convince him of their prowess. There were seven big trees there known as Saptasalas. Bali used to wrestle with the trees due to his overflowing Sri Rama vitality and power. (See under Saptasala). went near the trees and suddenly fixed an arrow on his bow-string and shot it by drawing the bow, with the big toe of his right foot pressed against a rock. The arrow cut down the seven trees at one and the same time and then automatically returned to its quiver. Sugriva was taken aback by this marvellous show of

of Sita. Having understood the matters Hanuman resumed his actual form and carried Rama and Laksmana on his shoulders into the presence of Sugriva. Sugriva related to Rama the story of his expulsion from Kiskindha by Bali, his elder brother. Sugriva wanted a powerful ally to recapture the country. Similarly Sri Rama too wanted a powerful ally to regain So both the parties entered into an alliance, Sita.

Hanuman, with them, who

Rama
and

his wife

allurements, she tried to carry

him away

into

the

sky.

ornaments. They came again to and Sugriva placed before Rama a bundle of ornaments and said that it was dropped down by a weeping woman from an aerial chariot, which had, a few days back, passed above the mountain. Rama recognised them as Sita's ornaments, shed tears and sat there motionless for some time. At last Sugriva and Laksmana consoled him and he handed over the bundle of ornaments to Laksmana.

power. 21) Exhibition

of

Rsyamukacala

RAMA

635

RAMA
dressed in ordinary fashion came out in the same dress prepared to follow me saying 'I too...' feigning anger'. the (ii) When, for our life in the forest, we had left city and approached a shrubbery, Slta in her childish ignorance and goodness of heart told me "This place
will

22) Kingdom restored to Sugriva. The very next day Sugriva took Rama to Kiskindha, and the former challenged Bali for a combat. Rama, from a distance, viewed the fierce fight between the brothers, but he could not do anything as it was impossible to distinguish between Bali and Sugriva on account of their very close resemblance. Sugriva, who was defeated in the from fight felt angry towards first round and retired Rama, but was soon satisfied with Rama's explanation
for his inaction.

Sugriva from Bali Sri Rama, the next day, put a garland on the former's neck and wearing the garland Sugriva challenged Bali a second time to a duel. Though Bali's wife, Tara, this time prevented him from accepting the challenge Bali paid no heed to her protests and rushed forth for
distinguish

To

it

the duel. Bali and Sugriva

from

concealment behind a tree shot an arrow at The arrow felled him. Rama and the chest of Bali. Laksmana then came into the open and Bali spoke disparagingly to Rama about shooting the arrow from concealment. Rama answered him saying that if he had seen him (Rama) face to face he would have become his devotee and he had to shoot Bali from his
his

fought

again,

and

this

time

Rama

studded with stones. When I asked her the reason for she answered me as follows This ring studded with stones may prove to be of danger to me. When your feet touched the hard granite rock it turned out into a world beauty (Ahalya) Under the circumstances how much more beautiful would be the woman, who would be created by the touch of your foot on the beautiful stone of the ring ? And, because of that beauty you may... me... and then...". We two I and Slta alone knew about the above incident. Carrying thus Sri Rama's signet ring and words of recognition Hanuman went along with the army, which started for the south. Sugriva gave one month's time to the searching parties to find out Slta and warned them that their throats would be cut if they failed in
: .

do for our forest life." our (iii) While she was one day massaging my leg in bedroom she threw away from her finger the ring

their mission.

hiding place as it was not proper to kill one's devotees. At last, after handing over charge of his wife and son Angada, to Sugriva, Bali breathed his last. Sri

Rama

decided to crown Sugriva as King and install Angada returned to Rsyamukacala for as crown prince and rest after entrusting, under the supervision of Laksmana, Hanuman and Jambavan with the duty of making
preparations for
invited Sri
the
to

coronation.

Rama

Maharaja, Angada as crown prince, Ruma as queen and Tara as queen-mother. Also, Hanuman was appointed as Sugrlva's minister. Those things over, Laksmana returned to Rama at Rsyamukacala. 23) Laksmana' s wrath. The next four months were

coronation were over, the latter declined the invitation gracefully and deputed Laksmana to represent him at Laksmana installed Sugriva as the the ceremony.

Kiskindha when preparations for

Though

Sugnva

25 ) Saw Svayamprabha. Angada, Hanuman, Jambavan and others during their search came to an extensive forest. They were dead tired with hunger and thirst. The leader of the party looked about for something to eat and drink when he saw small birds flying up from a distant pit. From drops of water falling from the wings of the birds it was inferred that the pit contained water. When Hanuman and others entered the pit (cave) and walked a great distance they came to a spacious garden. They were astonished to find a solitary beauty there, and she related to them her autobiography
as follows: I the faithful

am

maid of Rambha. The powerful asura
wanted

him and he

called Caturasya

me

to

procure

Rambha

for

rainy period. Even after that Sugriva did not make necessary arrangements to search for Slta. At Rama's instance Laksmana went to Kiskindha to enquire about the reason for the delay. The monkeys were alarmed by the grave appearance of Laksmana and Tara came out and apologised to him. Arrangements were soon finalised for the quest of Slta. Armies of many lakhs of monkeys were deputed to the eight regions to search Susena was appointed chief of the army for for Slta. the west, Satabali for the north, Vinata for the east and Angada for the south. As the south was the chief place for the search, monkeys like Hanuman, Jambavan, Vivida, Nala, Nila, Kumuda, each of them an expert in various ways, were appointed chiefs of different matters. Every chief and his assistant was given
suitable

got this garden city built by Mayacarya, the architect of the Daityas, for me as reward for my service to him in the matter of Rambha. Various kinds of gems light this place and creepers and trees supply food materials. Catuarsya, I and Rambha alone were living here. But, Indra came to know of it, came here, killed Caturasya and took away Rambha with him. He cursed me to lead a solitary life here as punish-

ment
tion

instructions by Laksmana and Sugriva, and accordingly the army of monkeys began its march under the leadership of Hanuman. 24) Words of recognition. To convince Slta that it was really the emissary of Rama who went to her the latter imparted to Hanuman the following three sentences for

timely use.
(i)

"When

for having helped Caturasya. I prayed for redempfrom the curse and Indra told me, that after thousands of years a company of monkeys would come here in search of Slta and that after entertaining them with food I must see Rama and then return to Svarga. I have thus been awaiting your arrival and now I am leaving the place, which will vanish as soon as I quit it. All of you, please stand there with eyes closed and I shall send you back to the place where you were before coming here. Accordingly the monkeys stood there with eyes closed and when they opened their eyes there was neither the garden city nor Svayamprabha there but they were standing in the old plain. Svayamprabha appeared before Rama, praised him and then went to Svarga. 26) Met Sampdti. The monkeys again went southward, reached Mahendragiri and descending on its southern

forest

took leave of you for life in exile in the you (Slta) who were then in the inner apartment
I

side

came

to the shores of the southern sea.
to the south.

advance no further

They could They were suffering

RAMA

636

RAMA
do so it was Hanuman, who succeeded in crossing the sea. At one jump he reached the heights of Mahendragiri whence he took another jump forward. But, midway Surasa, mother of the nagas, swallowed him, and he came out through her ear and continued his journey towards Lanka. When he had advanced some more distance an evil spirit called ChayagrahinI obstructed his way by a his shadow. mysterious attack on Hanuman quickly understood what had happened and
killed the evil spirit with one kick of his left foot. He again continued his flight. But, he very soon became

from great hunger and thirst and if they returned with no tangible information about Sita, Sugriva would kill them. They preferred death by fasting on the seashore to death by the sword of Sugriva. Having decided thus the monkeys spread darbha grass on the extensive plain of Mahendra mountain and lay on the grass to die. In a large cave in the mountain was living Sampati. The huge bird Sampati was starving without food and was not able to fly as it had lost its wings. But it dragged itself to the mouth of the cave and saw the monkeys lying there awaiting death, and The it thought of eating the monkeys one by one monkeys, who understood this idea of Sampati cursed their fate and sang the praise of Jafayu. Hearing the word 'Jafayu' Sampati approached the monkeys, who related to him the object of their journey. Being told about the death of Jafayu. Sampati shed tears and told the monkeys as follows :Jatayu was my younger brother. Our mother was Mahasveta and father Suryadeva. On account of the boon of our parents I was King of all the birds and Jafayu the crown Prince. As our brotherliness grew thicker our haughtiness due to our power and speed also increased. Once we flew up towards the orbit of the Sun to see him, our father. In his youthful enthusiasm my younger brother, Jatayu, climbed higher up in the sky leaving me behind. Due to the heat of the Sun his wings lost their power and energy. Then, to save him, I flew up above him and shaded him. Therefore he could descend to the earth without his wings being burned and thus killed. But, my wings got burned and I fell down on the Mahendra mountain and got my legs broken. Thus
I lost I

weak and exhausted. Then Mount Mainaka emerged from the ocean and fed Hanuman with fruits and roots. He reached Lanka at dusk. He defeated Lankalaksml,

who

Lankalaksmi was Vijayalaksmi, who had been cursed by Brahma. (For details see under Vijayalaksmi). After defeating her, who was thus absolved from the curse, Hanuman saw Sita seated under the a.'oka tree. But, none saw him as he was perched on a tree. 28) Hanuman 's return. That night Ravana dressed in all splendour visited Sita and tried to secure her favour by soft words and cajolery, all to no purpose. Then he threatened her with punishments, which too proved After instructing the Raksasa to be of no avail. women that Sita should be somehow brought round within a month's time, Ravana returned to his palace. Raksasis surrounded Sita and described to her the greatness and various merits of Ravana. Sita continued to sob. Then came there Trijafa, daughter of Vibhisana, the great devotee of Visnu, and Sarama,
Trijata had boundless devotion togreat love for Sita. She repeated to Sita certain dreams she had had. Left to herself Sita began saying to herself various She referred to her infancy, things regarding her past. beginning of youth, wedding, stay at Ayodhya, forestand wept over her recurring life and life in Pancavati
to console

tried to prevent

his entry

into

the city.

In fact

Sita.

the

stayed here as the attendant of Nisakara Maharsi, could divine the future also. He told me the story about Rama's incarnation. He told me further that monkeys in search of Sita would come here when I should tell them where Sita was and that then I would regain my health." After telling the monkeys the above facts Sampati, with their cooperation, performed the obsequies of Ja{ayu. Then the King of birds (Sampati) raised its head and surveyed the ocean and he saw the following: Mountain Subela in the heart of the southern sea; the plain at the heights of the mountain constituting the base of Lanka; in the centre of Lanka there was Ravana's capital; nearby the ladies' quarters; near the quarters the asoka garden; at the centre of the garden the irii'apa tree and under the tree Sltadevi. As soon as Sampati had finished telling the monkeys the above details he regained his health. Sampati told the monkeys another story also as follows: Ravana once abducted a Yaksa beauty from Alakapuri and carried her away in his Puspaka Vimana. Sampati clashed with Ravana on his way and destroyed his plane. But the plane, which was self-generating

power

either to fly or to walk.

wards

Rama and

who

into existence. Sampati threw away by beak the Candrahasa (Ravana's sword ) and kicked his crown down. At last, at the request of Ravana, he and Sampat signed a non -aggression pact. That was the reason why Sampati could not fight Ravana in
its
:

came again

person. 27) Hanuman saw Sita. Aiigada said that for the search for Sita in Lanka as told by Sampati, some one should jump across the ocean. Though many a monkey tried to

meeting with Sampati, himself (Hanuman) crossing the sea and his finding out Sita. Hearing the words of Hanuman, Sita looked up in astonishment. Immediately Hanuman came down the tree and presented the When she examined the ring signet ring at Sita's feet. her hands shook and tears dimmed her eyes. Hanuman talked to her in detail and told her that he would, if only Sita permitted him, carry her on his shoulders to Rama. He told her further that if she did not welcome the idea of thus returning to Rama, he would return with Sri Rama and others, defeat Ravana in war and take her back. Sita was not convinced about the power and prowess of Hanuman. He then increased his body in size so that his limbs grew into the size of a mountain, hands into that of trees, head into that of a mountain peak, tail into that of a river etc. His breathing became akin to a storm. Then he roared in such a manner that even the very ends of the world shook and the people of Lanka were awakened by it. Sita was now absolutely convinced of Hanuman's bona fides and faithfulness. She handed over to him her Cudamani (ornament worn on the head) to be
Sita,

soliloquy completed Sita's story by relating, from his place on the tree, about Jatayu's salvation, salvation given to Kabandha and Sabari, alliance with Sugriva, killing of Bali, expedition of the monkeys in search of

thoughts about them.

Hanuman, who

heard Sita's

RAMA
given to Rama and also told words of recognition so that more convinced.
(1)

637

RAMA
29) Rdma-Ravana
received
war.
Sri

Rama
to

him

ths

following

might

be

all

three the

Rama and

Hanuman 's

When Rama

first

came

the

palace in Mithila I (Sita) saw his reflection in the blue mirror in the veranda of my palace and the beauty of the reflection attracted me. I looked towards the garden to see the original of the reflection. Then he (Rama) was looking down into the waters of the glass

garden near the

Ravana held a meeting of his war council attended by his brothers and others. He expelled Vibhisana, who opposed war and advised his brother to return Sita to Rama and to apologise to him. Vibhisana quitted Lanka and took refuge with

started for it on the shores of the south sea.

about his with an army of monkeys.
report

visit

Lanka They camped
to

Sugrlva,

who

pond. He also saw my face reflected in the water and suddenly he looked at me. Our eyes met and in all shyness I hurried to and hid myself in the ladies'
quarters.

Rama.

Rama and
decided

others,

to build

a

(2) Before our wedding I sent him through a faithful maid, a love letter to which he gave me a suitable

reply. (3) After our

wedding while we were living in Ayodhya I returned to our bedroom after a long chitchat with my younger sisters, my lord (Rama) was lying on the cot in feigned sleep. Quietly I went up to him and kissed him on the lipi. Because of the pressure on his lips and as my breast then touched his chest he pretended to have suddenly woken up and embraced me. Having received thus from Sita the Cudamani and these words of recognition Hanuman took leave of Sita and with her implied sanction went about to have a look at Lanka. At one place he heard Vibhisana

when one day

vara) Then he prayed to Varunadeva for a passage across the sea. But, Varuna did not present himself and Sri Rama, angry with him, shot the agneya when Varuna (fiery) arrow into the heart of the sea appeared, saluted him and advised him to build a bund across the sea. As a reward for Varuna Sri Rama, as requested by the former, killed with one arrow all the Raksasas, who lived in Gandhara island on the north-western shore of the ocean. Varuna returned to The construction of the bund was begun his abode. under the leadership of Sugrlva with Nala as chief
.

did, for the successful conclusion of the expedition, was to install aSivaliiiga at Ramesvara. (See under Rameg-

who had assembled on the sea-shore bund to Lanka. The first thing Rama

planner and Nila as his co-planner. Jambavan and Hanumin functioned as supervisors and other monkeys as workers. Mountains, hills, rocks etc. were brought from
various

After wishing that this reciting Visnu's names. of the devotee should turn into a royal abode he Vibhisana's house. Then he came to Ravana's and gathered information about the Raksasa

house
passed palace

quarters and the construction of the
sent

bund was
called

begun. Meanwhile, Ravana

a

great

magician
to Sita

"Now

I

must

see

Ravana

in

personally the fact of my visit righteous advice" with this object in view Hanuman began destroying the garden. He drove away the Raksasas, who cams to punish him and some of them were killed. At last Meghanada (Indrajit) attacked Hanuman. Hiding in the sky he shot the Brahmlstra
against

him know person, and I would give him
let

power.

her to the side of Ravana. Ravana then sent his two

Marutta disguised

as

King Janaka

to

convert

Hanumin, who yielded to it. The Raksasas took Hanumin captive to Ravana. He free J himself of the cords that bound him, extended his tail which he shaped into circles, one over the other so that the last one rose more in height than Ravana's throne and seated himself on its top. Ravana and Hanuman then began a conversation. Ravana, who got angry at the disrespect shown to him by Hanuman, ordered the latter to be killed, but Vibhlsana opposed it saying that to kill emissaries and messengers was worse than killing mother. one's own ordered that Finally Ravana Hanumln's tail be set fire to and he be insulted and humiliated. Immediately Raksasas began to cover Hanumin 's tail with clothes. But, ths tail began growing longer and longer with the result that no quantity of clothings sufficed to completely cover the ever-extending tail. At last the Raksasas poured oil over the tail and set
fire to it.

Sarana disguised as monkeys to Rama's camp. Jambavan and Hanuman captured and brought them before Sugriva. Weepingly they both sought refuge in Rama, who set them free. They returned to Lanka and reported matters to Ravana, who felt a desire to have a look at Rama for which purpose he, with his attendants, climbed to the top of the northern tower. Rama, who knew about it by his spies climbed the heights of Subela mountain whence he stared at Ravana. Their eyes met in anger seeing which Sugriva by one leap reached Ravana and kicked off to Rama the crown from the central head of Ravana. After performing something like a destructive dance on Ravana's head Sugriva by another leap returned to Rama. Full of disappointment Ravana returned to his palace. His father-in-law, Mllyavan, tried his best to dissuade Ravana from war, all to no purpose. Rama sent an

But, the attempt failed. expert spies, Suka and

Then Hanumin broke loose from captivity and jumped up into the air causing universal disaster by The fire did not affect the palace of fire in Lanka. Vibhisana and also the platform around the Simsapa After thus burning down Lanka tree where Sita sat. Hanuman extinguished the fire on his tail by dipping it in the ocean. Taking leave once again of Sita, Hanumin crossed the sea and reached Mahendragiri.

emissary to him to ask him to send Sita back. Ravana declined to oblige, and immediately war began. During the first day of the war, the majority of the Raksasas including their great leaders like Mahabahu, Mahaparsva, Mahodara, Mahakaya etc were killed. On the second day the Raksasa army under the command of the northern Atikaya, son of Ravana, set out from tower to fight. Laksmana killed Atikaya with Brahmastra. The other two Raksasa-commanders were Trisiras and Meghanada. Laksmana encountered them. When the latter failed to win by righteous fighting he resorted to cunningness. That too did not bring victory to him, and then he hid himself in the sky and shot the naglstra given to him by Siva against the enemy. That arrow rendered Laksmana, Sugriva and all the

RAMA
monkeys unconscious. At that time Vibhlsana was away
to

638
told

RAMA
latter
his victory, and as suggested by the Raksasa women took Sita to the battlefield in the Puspaka Vimuna, showed her Rama, Laksmana and

Ravana about

others lying in an unconscious condition. Rama was informed about the matter and when he came to the battle-ground and saw Laksmana, Sugrlva, Hanuman and all the others lying there unconscious he lost self-confidence for a short while and remarked that it was all the result of his faith in Vibhlsana, Ravana's brother whom

When
aback

arrange Vibhisana returned with food
to find

for food.

he was taken

Laksmana and

having put he had put in charge of die battlefield. This comment of Rama pained Vibhisana much; but Sri Rama soon

consoled her by saying that the Puspaka Vimana would not carry widows and therefore Rama was not dead. Hanuman returned before dawn the next day. As he could not distinguish mrtasanjivini he had brought with him a mountain peak where the four medicinal
plants,

others lying there in a life-less condition and told her that all of them were dead. Sita wept aloud, but Trijafa

treated him kindly. Even the Devas who witnessed the scene were alarmed. But Rama sat there for sometime immersed in meditation and then a light emerged from his right eye, shot towards the north and disappeared in the horizon. At once Garuda appeared on the scene from the west and removed with his beak the nagastra from Laksmana's body. Laksmana jumped up from his unconscious state; Sugrlva and others also regained

Salyaharani, VisalyakaranI, Sandhanakaranl MrtasanjTvini grew. Jambavan distinguished and carried the four mrtasanjivini from the others herbs into the battlefield. Contact with the air, which carried the smell of mrtasanjivini brought the dead back to life. Visalyakarani removed all the arrows from their bodies and Sandhanakaranl healed the wounds.

and

In the fighting that followed all the consciousness. Raksasa leaders were killed. It was Hanuman, who Kumbhakarna. At the time of his death killed

Kumbhakarna made a last
which the ears
Accordingly

request to Rama, i.e. his head should be cut off and thrown into the sea as otherwise the Raksasas would laugh at him to see the head from

to fight Indrajit. Reluctant with the former, Indrajit resorted to a new magical trick. He created an artificial or illusory Slta and with her seated in a chariot he rose up in the "Ravana has abandoned Sita sky and said as follows: who brings about humiliation to the Raksasas and ruin to Lanka.. So, I cut her to pieces." So saying he cut into two, by one stroke of his sword, Slta, who cried Oh my lord oh! brother." Blood fell on the

Laksmana again went out
to fight

!

!

got Hanuman karna's head into the sea.
Sri

Rama

have

been

bitten
to

off

throw
:

by monkeys.

battlefield

Kumbha-

and Indrajit disappeared. Though Rama and others were alarmed by all these, Vibhlsana explained that it was all the magic of the Raksasas, and in the
fierce fighting that

told Laksmana thus Today I shall fight Indrajit. The war shall not continue yet further. Today Indrajit and tomorrow Ravana should be killed and the next day we will return to Ayodhya. Laksmana

Then

Rama

followed

By now
were
field.

Laksmana

all

the

answered:
that
I

With

again. Indrajit shot Narayanastra which attracted by 'seven-let ter-Mantra' the (Namo Narayanaya) of Laksmana circled him thrice and entered his quiver. The Raksasa minister called Mahodara converted his and himself changed into elephant into Airavata Devendra and encountered Laksmana. Saying that he had no quarrel with Indra and would not fight him

"I shall fight Indrajit. I have told Vibhisana will kill Indrajit within three days." Laksmana began fighting Sri Rama's blessings

Laksmana put down

his bow, and Indrajit, exploiting the situation shot Brahmastra against Laksmana under cover of the clouds. Laksmana, Sugrlva and others Then Sri Rama was in the army-camp, fainted.

worshipping weapons to render them more powerful. Rama returned to the battle-ground to find Laksmana and others in life-less condition and crying like a mere by the side of Laksmana. ignorant fellow he lay VibhTsana, who returned with food prayed for the grace of Devas. Indra appeared, gave to VibhTsana Ganga water in a golden vessel and asked it to be given to Hanuman and Jambavan, who, though unconscious were not dead. VibhTsana did so and both Hanuman and Jarnbavan regained consciousness. Jambavan told Hanuman that if mrtasanjivini (herbal medicine which will put life back into the dead) were brought from the distant Himalayas before dawn the next day all the dead ones like Laksmana and SugrTva could be brought back to life. (See under MrtasanjTvini) Accordingly Hanuman started for the Himalayas. Meanwhile Indrajit had
.

last Ravana himself entered the battleencounter was with Laksmana. Then the fighting turned into one between Rama and Ravana. The former broke the bow of Ravana and did not want to fight with the weaponless Raksasa King. Next day Ravana brought Patala Ravana and Kumbhodara to Lanka. Both of them entered Rama's camp during night, but Patala Ravana, who realised that nothing could be achieved there returned to Patala with Kumbhodara. He built a tunnel from Patala upwards to earth, where in the fort created by Hanuman's tail twisted in a circle lay Sri Rama and others. The tunnel opened into this 'fort', and Patala Ravana and his brother made Rama and Laksmana unconscious by making them inhale sammohana medicine and carried them off into Patala. Rama and Laksmana were laid in the court-yard of a Kali temple to be sacrificed to Mahakali the very same night.

killed.

At

important and prominent Raksasas

killed Indrajit.

His

first

Arrangements for the sacrifice were completed. Hanuman had been frequently looking inside the fort. As soon as the absence of Rama and Laksmana was noticed, Sugriva and others, under the leadership of VibhTsana reached the Kali temple through the tunnel.

heaven.

Mahodara. The only son of Patala Ravana, Sumali, was crowned King of Patala. Ravana entered the field again against Rama. Rama shot the Mahendra arrow against Ravana. The arrow, which represented in itself the effulgence of Mahendra, the hardness of diamonds, the intensity of fire and Visnu's glow cut off the ten heads of Ravana. His physical body fell on earth and his spirit ascended to
killed

Ravana and Arigada

In the fighting that followed

Hanuman

killed

Patala

RAMA
30). Return. Rama and others, who were pleased with the turn of events, crowned Vibhisana King of Lanka. Trijata was put in charge of dressing Sita in new clothes. Apsaras appeared on the scene. Sacidevi presented to Sita a chain, Urvasi an ornament for the head, Menaka, two bangles, Rambha a waist-let, Tilottama a set of chains for the feet, and Anasuya, wife of Atri, a Cudamani. When she wore all these ornaments Sita appeared to be equal to LaksmldevI in

639

RAMA
munis
Valmiki's disciples
the asrama.

saw her and took her to At the asrama she delivered two sons, Kusa

grandeur and charm. She was brought in a palanquin to Sri Rama by Vibhisana and others. Rama was taken aback by the glamorous dress, ornaments etc. of Sita, and immediately a suspicion arose in his mind, and he kept mum after asking Laksmana to do whatever Sita wanted. As soon as she heard those words of Rama, Sita asked Laksmana to light a funeral pyre saying that the woman suspected by her husband should not live and so she (Sita) would quit her life in the very

and Lava. 32) ASvamedha. After abandoning Sita in the forests Rama led a sad life for five years. Yet, he decided to perform an Asvamedha yajfia. As soon as Rama thought of him, Hanuman appeared and he was deputed to invite Vibhisana, Sugriva and others from Lanka and Kiskindha and the feudatory princes and armies from other countries.

look at Rama; but his face exhibited no change of feeling. He granted Slta's request by his silence. Those present there awaited developments with bated breath. Laksmana, with the help of the monkeys got a pyre ready. After going round Rama with folded hands Sita leapt into the glowing fire. Within a very short time three divine forms emerged from the fire, Svahadevi, SitadevI and God Agni. His suspicions having thus vanished Rama welcomed Sita back and the next day they left for Ayodhya in the

Laksmana

presence of

Rama.

cast a pathetic

followed them. After reaching Ayodhya Rama returned the Puspaka to Kubera. Bharata came back from Nandigrama. In the presence of all relations and others concerned the coronation of Rama as king took place. Bharata was appointed crown Prince, Laksmana Commander-in-chief of armies and Satrughna,
others

Puspaka Vimana. Vibhisana, Sugriva,

Hanuman and

Then the yajnic horse, accompanied Laksmana. by the army, was let loose to travel all over the country. Accompanied by cavalry, the elephant division, infantry and the chariot-force the horse went about the various kingdoms. The army, on its way back to Ayodhya with presents collected from many kingdoms, encamped for rest near Valmiki's asrama when Kusa and Lava tied the yajnic horse, which was strolling there unfettered. Consequent upon this action of Kusa and Lava a fight broke out between them and the king's army in which the latter got defeated. Even the arrows of Laksmana failed to have any effect on the boys. The boys having not returned even though it had become very late in the evening, the asramites went in search of them and it was only when they came to the scene of fighting did Laksmana and others know who the boys really were. During this period of time infants' death was very much on the increase in Ayodhya. It was believed that such deaths increased when Sudras did tapas, and to find out if any Sudra was engaged in tapas Rama flew over the Dandaka forest where he found a Sudra called Sambuka performing tapas hanging down from the branch of a tree with his head down. Rama killed him and his
spirit got salvation. of the forest

Sugriva was put in charge of the armies, Vibhisana in charge of finance, and central authority was vested in

Finance minister.

Rama came

Afterwards, appreciating the beauties near Valmiki's asrama where

31) Sita abandoned. Under Rama's rule the country overflowed with milk and honey. Nobody had to fear anything from enemies. He made Sita kill Sahasramukha

Ravana. (For
Sri

details see under Sahasramukharavana) used to go about the country in disguise to enquire about the welfare of his subjects. On a particular dawn he happened to be standing outside the house of a washerman. The washerman scolded his wife, who had gone out of the house that night for something. He suspected that she had gone to meet her paramour. He bluntly told his wife that he was not prepared to act like Rama, who had accepted Sita, though she had lived with another person. Sri Rama, who heard the above talk, returned to his palace very sad. After thinking about for a long time he decided that it was his duty to abandon Sita in the interests of his subjects. Then Sita was in the seventh month of her pregnancy. She had on the previous day, expressed a desire to go to the forest areas once again. Rama considered this as the
.

Rama

to face. Kusa and Lava also came and they noticed with surprise the change in appearance brought about in their mother and Rama on their meeting each other. When they heard from Hanuman the real facts about Rama they withdrew their arrows and prostrated at the feet of Rama. Sri Rama then, with the consent of all and in accordance with his own desire, took back Sita and returned with her to Ayodhya. Laksmana and others followed him. Kausalya and others received Sita most heartily. Sri Rama, who till then was having no wife, had made a golden image of Sita for the purposes of the a' vamedha. Now, since the real Sita was with him the idol was an unnecessary thing. The Asvamedhayajfia went

he and Sita met face
there

off very well.

most suitable opportunity to abandon Sita in the forest and Laksmana was entrusted with the matter. That day at Sun-rise Laksmana took Sita in a chariot to the suburbs of Valmiki's asrama, abandoned her there and
returned to the palace. (According to the Ramayana written by Kamba, a Tamil author, it is said that Sita was left in the suburbs of Gautama's hut. There, Sita who was pregnant was looked after by Ahalya, the wife of Gautama.) Weeping aloud Sita fell down. Young

the Yamuna plain, killed in the great city called Durga in the centre of the Madhu forest. (For details After Lavana's death, a sect of see under Lavana) Gandharvas called Sailusas, who lived on the shores of the eastern sea, proved to be enemies of Ayodhya. Sri Rama annihilated them also. Kaikeyi began getting jealous of the prosperity and happiness of Sita. One day when Rama had gone to hunt in the forest, Kaikeyi closely questioned Sita over particulars in Lanka and

Sri Rama's reign became all the more 33) The end. prosperous. It was during this period that Rama, as

desired

Lavanasura, son of

by the munis

in

Madhu

.

prevailed

upon

her,

overruling

her unwillingness, to

RAMAHRADA
draw a picture of Ravana.
'sitting-plank'

640
Sita

RAMAYANA
particular region in
.

Ravana's

drew on a piece of
heads. pretext of exhithe ten
to

RAMANAClNA. A

ancient

India.

then told that it was Sita, who had drawn the picture and also that she usually praised Larika and Ravana. Rama pronounced the death penalty on Sita for having drawn The inmates of the palace Ravana's picture. shuddered to hear the judgement. When Laksmana seated Sita on the floor to kill her, BhumidevI (earth) rent itself open into two and carried her off through the

Kaikeyl took away the picture on the biting it in the ladies' quarters, and gave it when he returned from hunting, to sit on at of Puja (worship). Rama got angry to find picture drawn on the 'sitting plank'. Kaikeyi

figure

with

Rama,
time

the

Ravana's

him

Sri

was prepared to suffer the consequence, and went to Rama and told him about the arrival of Sanaka and
others.

secluded spot. Rama posted Laksmana at the entrance the strict injunctions that nobody should come into their presence. Within a short time great munis like Sanaka came there and told Laksmana that they wanted to see Rama. They were not prepared to wait even for a short time as requested by Laksmana, but threatened ruin to the royal family. Laksmana then,

Rama grew sadder and sadder following the disappearance of Sita. Ill omens began to appear in Ayodhya in increasing measure. One day a divine Rsi whom the people of Ayodhya had not seen till then, came to Rama's palace. He told Rama that he had to impart certain secrets to the latter and after making Rama vow that no one would enter the room while they were conversing and that if any one did come when they were talking, he should either be killed or forsaken for ever, he began to talk with Rama in a
with

opening.

(Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 66) RAMA'NA (M). (RAMA^.AKAM). An island near Dvaraka where, according to Chapter 38 of the Southern Text of Bharata, there was a forest. It was in this island that Vinata, mother of Garuda and Kadru, mother of the nagas lived. Garuda, after freeing his mother from her slavery evicted the nagas from this island. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 17). Following the eviction, many of the prominent nngas lived in Patala. But, Kaliya, in fear of Garuda, lived in Kalindl. After his suppression by Sri Krsna Kaliya, with his family, as advised by Krsna returned toRamanakam. (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha'j. RAMANAKA. The third son of Yajnabahu, son of Priyavrata. (Bhagavata, 5th Skandha). RAMANlYAKA. The island called Ramanakam where the nagas live. (See under Ramanaka). RAMATHA (S). I. A mleccha tribe who lived in the kingdom of Mandhata. (Santi Parva, Chapter 61, Verse 14). RAMATHA (S). II. People of a low caste (mlecchas) who lived in South India during Puranic times. caste, and from that day Nakula, subjugated this onwards they became devoted to the Pandavas. They were invited to the Rajasuya conducted by Yudhisthira. (Vana Parva, Chapter 51, Verse 25) RAMATlRTHA I. A holy place in the river Gomatl.
.

He who

RAMATlRTHA RAMATlRTHA
RAMAYANA.
1)

anywhere there. When he returned to the inner apartment the Rsi also was not to be seen. In fact they were Kala and his emissaries deputed by Brahma to recall Rama as the object of his incarnation was already
achieved.

Rama, in keeping with his vow, banished Laksmana immediately. But, when Rama came out and looked for Sanaka and others no one was to be found

lived. A bath here brings the benefits of performing the asvamedha yajna. (Vana Parva, Chapter 85> Verse 17). III. A holy place in the plains of river Sarasvati. ( Salya Parva, Chapter 49, Verse 7)

this tlrtha will derive the results of the Asvamedha yajna. (Vana Parva, Chapperforming ter 34, Verse 73) . II. holy spot on the top of the

bathes in

A

Mahendra mountain where Parasurama

.

General. Ramayana is considered to be the first poetic composition in the world or at least in India, It and hence it is called the Adi Kavya (First Epic) to is an epic as it contains descriptions and references
.

Rama and his followers drowned themselves in the waters of the Sarayu, and their spirits attained Vaikunjha. (Valmiki Ramayana, Kamba Ramayana and Tulasidasa Ramayana).

decided to put an end to his life for which purpose he went to the river Sarayu. All the dependants followed him. While the great mass of people who thronged both the banks of the river burst out into weeping Sri

already been suffering mental agony on account of Slta's departure, lost all peace of mind as Laksmana 's banishment followed Slta's departure.

Rama, who had

ancient

themes.
is

Valmiki

is

its

Valmiki
Sri

Rama

known
were

author,

and hence

He

in the forest

Rama

as the 'Adi kavi" also. Valmiki and contemporaries. During his life in exile
visited

Valmlki's asrama.

It

was

in this

asrama

that Sita

by Rama. The Valmiki with the 'Rama

lived after being abandoned connection in many ways of the life of
story'

was an

incentive

for

Ramayana. 2) Composing of Ramayana. Once while returning from the river Tamasa Valmiki witnessed a hunter shooting down one of a Kraunca a kind of bird couple. The
( )

him

to write the

RAMAHRADA. A
28).

holy place on the boundary of Kuruksetra. Amba, daughter of a King of Kas"! once bathed here. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 186, Verse

intense emotion created by follows in verse form.

the

incident

burst

out as

Ma nisada pratistharh

sasVatlh

tvamagamah samah /

RAMAKA. A
tour of the

RAM ANA
22).

mountain. Sahadeva, during his triumphal conquered this mountain. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 31, Verse 68)
south,
.

son born to the Vasu known as Soma of his wife Manoharil. (Adi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse
I.

A

Yat krauncamithunadekamavadhlh kamamohitam. // scene and Immediately Brahma appeared on the advised Valmiki to write the story of Rama in the same pattern as that verse. Brahma taught him about the past and the future of the history of Rama. As Sita, Kusa, and Lava were living in his agrama Valmiki was well in the know about the present. In the above

641

RAMBHA

I

background Valmlki completed writing the Ramayana
kandas (sections) of five sections are the Balakanda, the Ayodhyakanda, the Aranya kanda, the Kiskindha Kanda, the Sundara Kanda, the Yuddha Kanda and the Uttarakanda. Valmiki taught the poem to Lava and Kusa and when with Valmlki to Ayodhya during the they went asvamedhayajfia of Sri Rama, they sang the poem in the open assembly there.
3) Different views about the author. Tradition ascribes the authorship of the Ramayana to Valmiki. But, western scholars hold the view that a part of Balakanda and the whole of Uttarakanda are interpolations of a future date. The following are the reasons for this view. (i) Two different texts are found for cantos one and three of Balakanda. In one of them many of the stories mentioned in the other are missing. It may, therefore, be surmised that the two texts were composed during
(ii)

Story in 24,000 verses.

The

divided into seven epic hundred chapters. The seven
is

is the Bengal text. The third, the Kashmir text, popular in the north-western parts of India. The inference to be made from the existence of these three

5). Different readings of Ramayana. In various parts of India three original texts or readings are found of the original Ramayana. In each of the three texts nearly 1/3 of the portions differ from one another. The Bombay text is popular in northern and southern India. The

second
is

different texts is that the original epic was composed in a Prakrta language, which was most popular at the time and that it was later translated into Sanskrit by differdifferent times. ent persons at This theory will explain the existence of the different texts. For many

month
them

years

it

till it

continued to be handed down from mouth to assumed written form in Sanskrit.

6). Other Ramayanas. The Ramayana story in other forms and garbs, is also prevalent in India. One oi
is

Vasistharamayana or Jfianavasistha.
is

The

authorship of it also
the

ascribed to Valmlki.

Most of

treated (iii) Only in Kandas one and seven is Sri as an incarnation. In the other Kandas he is considered in the capacity of a hero only. (iv) Uttarakanda is not to be found among the early translations of Ramayana into other languages.

vataranam are not to polations of a later period.

different periods. In the early texts of

Gangabe found. So they must be inter-

Ramayana

stories like

Rama

Vasisthottararamayana, Sitavijaya, etc. found in different parts of India are believed to have been written by Valmlki. Adbhutaramayana is composd of

Ramayanas

like

Adbhutaramayana, Adbhutottararamayana

was
It

twentyseven cantos. According to this Ramayana, it Sita, who killed Ravana of ten heads. There is anis

other Ramayana in Sanskrit called Adhyatma-Ramayana.
written in
(Parvati)

a poem separated from Brahmandapurana. It is the form of a conversation between Uma
Siva. Ananda-Ramayana and Mulaextol the greatness of Hanuman. An asura. (For details see under Karambha).

that they recited the whole poem before Sri Rama at Many of the things mentioned in this Kanda are repeated in Uttarakanda, which, therefore, must

(v) In the Balakanda it is stated that Valmiki composed the Ramayana, taught it to KuSa and Lava, and

and

RAMBHA.

Ramayana
1 )

Ayodhya.

RAMBHA

I.

General.

One

its close in 8,67,100 B.C. As per Ramayana Sri Rama ruled the country for 1 1 ,000 years. He was forty years old when he ascended the throne. Valmlki began writing the Ramayana after Lavakusas were born. In the light of the above facts, certain scholars opine that the Ramayana was written near about 878000 B.C. But, western critics and some eastern critics do not accept this view. Professor Jacobi holds the view the that of Mahabharata is anterior to original Ramayana. Most scholars do not agree with this view. A great majority of critics are of opinion that Ramayana is anterior to Mahabharata. They argue as follows
:

have been written by someone else. 4) The period of Ramayana. According to Indian belief Sri Rama lived at the end of Tretayuga, which came to

women. Urvasi, Tilottama

of the most beautiful of the apsara and Rambha are really

(i)

The

was
(ii)

traditional belief in India ia that Ramayana written much earlier than Mahabharata.

characters of Mahabharata.
(iii)

Ramayana makes no
The
Sri

reference
is

to
to

any of the
in

Rama

story

referred

Jataka story of the Buddhists. has made no mention about the city of (iv) Valmlki Pataliputra established near about 380 B.C. It is an irrefutable fact that Sri Rama had passed by the city. (v) During the reign of emperor As oka the Prakrta language was spoken in the areas where the incidents mentioned in Ramayana took place. But, Ramayana was written much anterior to the emergence of Prakrta
language.

many

a

According 300 B.C.

to Professor

Keith

Ramayana was

Pradha i.e. Alambusa, MiSrakesI, Vidyutparna,Tilottama, Aruna, Raksita, Rambha, Manorama, Subahu, KesinI, Surata and Suraja. (Adi Parva, Chapter 65). 3 ) Ravana cursed. Ravana raped Rambha and Nalakiibara cursed him. (See under Nalakubara) 4) Pururavas and Rambha. Indra once killed an asura chief named Mayadhara and held a festival in honour of the victory. At the festival Rambha danced before her preceptor Tumburu. Pururavas too was present on the occasion and he ridiculed Rambha for her mistakes in dancing. Moreover he claimed that he was a greater master of dance than Tumburu preceptor of Rambha. Enraged by this claim Tumburu cursed that Pururavas would be separated from his wife Urvasi. (Kathasaritsagara, Lavanakalambaka, Taranga 3). 5) Rambha and Susena. There was a King called Susena on mount Citrakuta. This handsome bachelor prince used to sit alone in the lotus pond near his palace. When once Rambha passed through the sky above the pond her eyes met those of Susena and she alighted on the spot and the long talk between the two ended in their marriage. Susena enjoyed life there for a long time with Rambha without knowing that she was an apsara woman. He had attempted many a time to know the real facts about her, to no purpose. Rambha did
.

reputed for their beauty. 2) Birth. All the famous Celestial women were daughters of Kasyapaprajapati by his wife Pradha. Devarsi (Kasyapa) begot the following daughters of his wife

written in

not even think about her native Svarga. Her companion, a Yaksl, showered gold all over Susena's

RAMBHA

II

642

RANTIDEVA
made without the idol and the made at the appointed time.
Sri

kingdom. In due course Rambha delivered a beautiful female child and then she told the King that she was Rambha and that she had continued as his wife till then as she felt love towards him. She further told him that now she had begot a daughter, she was leaving him and that she had a curse upon her which had been redeemed now. She also assured him that they would meet in Svarga in case the daughter was duly wedded. Rambha departed to Svarga. Susena named the child Sulocana and when she came of age he married her to Vatsamaharsi and then went to Devaloka where he lived happily with Rambha for a long time. (Kathasaritsagara,

installation installation

had

to

be

Rama

A

It

was the exact time for the installation of the idol. divine effulgence was seen to emerge from Rama and

stood ready near

the

platform.

immediately a Sivalinga automatically appeared at the where rituals were conducted for installation. Everyone was wonder-struck by this mysterious hapspot

Madanamancukalambaka, Taranga

2).

6) Other information.

The powerful asura called Caturasya once felt a ( 1 ) great yearning for Rambha and her maid Svayamprabha managed things for him. He built a garden-city and presented it to Svayamprabha in return for her service stated above. (Kamba Ramayana, Kiskindha
seminal emission on seeing
(

Hanuman by now, returned with the linga and he felt sorry that the installation of the idol had already been made. Sri Rama told him: "Please remove the idol already installed, we shall install a new one." Happy at the words of Rama, Hanuman entwined the
idol with his
his tail
tail

pening.

was

Kanda ) Sage Gautama (ii) The
.

alias

turbed his meditation. The muni cursed her as follows and turned her into a rock. "Oh! evil woman Rambha, you have cheated me, who have mastered desire and anger and so you be turned into a rock for a thousand years. The great brahmin ascetic, Bhuritejas will absolve you from my curse and you will then resume your ownform." (Valmiki Ramayana. Balakanda, Canto 64). iv ) Rambha gave a dance performance on the occa(
sion of the birthday celebrations of Arjuna. (Adi Parva, Chapter 122, Verse 62) . (v) She had lived for sometime in the court of Kubera

semen was born KrpI whom Kathasaritsagara, MadanamanDronacarya married. cukalambaka, Taranga 6) iii Indra once deputed Rambha to break the vigorous ( ) tapas Visvamitra was observing. She approached him in the guise of a nightingale and with her song dis.

Rambha and

Saradvan experienced from the in due course of time

RAMOPAKHYANAPARVA.

RAMYAGRAMA.

Sivalinga in front of the eastern tower of the temple. Sri Rama laid down the following rule also. Only after worshipping the idol at the tower, should the God inside the temple be worshipped. The rule was also recorded there. A sub-parva of Mahabharata comprising chapters 273 to 292 of Vana Parva. Sahadeva, Capital of a State.

was broken and Hanuman fell down unconscious. Sri Rama held him up and patted him on the head and Hanuman was more pleased than ever. Afterwards, to fulfil Hanuman 's desire and for the prosperity of the temple Hanuman was made to install the new

cut,

and jumped directly upwards. But, head clashed against the roof which

RAMYAKA
Ramyaka

during his triumphal tour, conquered Ramyagrama. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 31, Verse 14). I. A son of Agnidhra, who had nine sons by 5th Purvacitti. his wife Skandha). (Bhagavata,
ruled
the

RAMYAKA

serving him.
(

Indra's guest vi) When Arjuna lived in Svarga as Rambha danced in honour of the former. (Anusasana

(Sabha Parva, Chapter

10,

Verse 10).

Verse 44) Chapter Wife of Mayasura. The couple had the RAMBHA seven children i.e. Mayavl, Dundubhi, Mahisa following Mandodarl. Kalaka, Ajakarna, and (Brahmanda Purana, 3.6. 28-29). RAMESVARA. There is in South India a very famous holy place called Rame;vara and a Siva temple there.
19, II.
.

Parva, Chapter 43, Verse 29). occasion' she danced in Kubera's court (vii) On another in honour of Astavakra muni. (Anusasana Parva,

there exist three mountains called Nllagiri, Svetagiri and Srngavan. These mountains jut into the sea, and are separated from one another by a distance of two thousand miles each and are the source of many rivers. In between the three mountains are three regions of land
called

near Nllagiri. Arjuna, during his triumphal tour conquered Ramyaka and levied taxes from the people there (Sabha Parva, Chapter 28) A particular region in Ilavrta, one II. of the seven Continents. On the eastern part of Ilavrta
.

Kingdom

called

Ramyaka Varsa

Ramyaka, Hiranmaya and Kuru. (Devi Bhaga-

RANA. A

vata, 8th Skandha).

RANAYANL A
RAftGADASA.
a
disciples of

Raksasa. He was killed by Vayu deva in the war between Hiranyaksa and the Devas. (Padma Purana, Srsti Khanda).

Vyasa.

Rama and

others

over to Lanka to release Slta from Ravana's custody. This temple, according to Kamba, was built by Rama at that time. The following story is from the Yuddha Kanda of Kamba Ramayana. To make the passage over to Lanka easy, Rama decided to build a great temple at Ramesvara and install aSivaliiiga in the temple. Under the expert supervision of the great

encamped on the

sea

shore to cross

number

of temples on

Preceptor in the line of the Sama (Veda) (Jaiminiya Grhyasutra 1, 14). A great Sudra devotee of God. He built

mount Venkatacala (Skanda
Gandharva.
(See

RA&GAVIDYADHARA. A

Purana).

under

RANOTKATA. A

Sudeva

III.

warrior of Subrahmanya. (Salya Parva Chapter 45, verse 68). RANTIDEVA. The Kindest and the most liberal of the

Nala and Nlla, all the monkeys cooperated to build the temple. As ordered by Rama, Hanuman went to
architects,

Kailasa to fetch Sivalinga. Hanuman did not return with the linga though the auspicious time for the installation was very near. How could the installation be

Kings in ancient India. thus: Atri-Candra 1). Genealogy. Descended from Visnu Budha - Pururavas - Ayus - Nahusa - Yayati-PuruJanamejaya-Pracinvan Pravlra Namasyu-Vltabhaya Sundu - Bahuvidha - Samyati - RahovadI - RaudrasvaMatinara- Santurodha - Dusyanta - Bharata - Suhotra-

RAI^TU
Suhota-Gala-Garda-Suketu-Brhatksatra-Nara
.

643
-

RASMIKETU
14.

Sarikrti
is

After the great war was over, Narada once narrated the stories of sixteen kings to Dharmaputra. There are a number of stories relating
in
history.

Rantideva. His importance. Rantideva's unique kindness 2)

(Pravrtti

famous

very

15.
16.

Dharmadvayam (Duties 1). Action aud renunciation. and Nivrtti). Nisddvayam. Turmeric and Amonum Xanthorrhizon Nisthddvayam. Sadhya (knowledge) and Sadhana
.

(action)
17.
1

enemies by Dharma (righteousness). The very blood that flowed from the skin of cattle killed to entertain his guests formed itself into a river called Carmanvati. (Santi Parva, Chapter 29. 21, 000 cows were daily killed for the guest. (Drona Parva, Chapter 67).
learned Vedas and subdued
3.
(i)

the palace everyday. He was very vigilant about treating guests day and night alike. He gifted away all wealth which had been righteously earned, to brahmins.

Rantideva's kindness, hospitality etc. ged 20,000 people to cook food for guests
to

He had engawho came to

Paksadvayam. Krsnapaksa Suklapaksa moon-lit fortnight.
8.

(dark fortnight)
.

and

Padyakdvyadvayam
(epic)
.

(

Poetry 2)
.

Lyric and

Maha-

kavyam
19.

He

(Janmapapa and Karmapapa)
20.
21.

Pdpadvayam (Sins

2)

Original sin and acquired.
.
.

Moksakdranadvayam. and death in war.
Togadvayam.

Causes for salvation, 2)
(action)

Yoga

Karma

and Jnana (know(unmixed)

ledge) . 22. Rdgadvayam

(colour).
.

Puniam

and

Rantideva entered Svarga by giving Vasistha warm water. (Santi Parva, Chapter 234, Verse 17). (ii) He once worshipped maharsis with fruits and vegetables and achieved his desire. (Santi Parva, Chapter 292, Verse 7).

Other information.

Janyam (mixed).
23.
(
.

once by making oblations to (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 137, Verse 6). (v) He is recognised as one of the Maharajas who are to be remembered both at dawn and at dusk. (Anugasana Parva, Chapter 150, Verse 51). RA1VTU (The Malayalam word for 'two').
Vasistha.
1. Ayanas two. A. Uttarayana, from July-August to December-January (Dhanu). B. Daksinayana, from January-February (Makaram) to June-July (Mithunam). For the Devas Uttarayana is day and Daksinayana night. Religiousminded Hindus believe that Uttarayana is an auspicious period for death 2. Arthadusanas 2. (Misuse of wealth) (i ) Spending money for bad purposes and not spending
.

He never ate flesh. 115, Verse 67). (iv) He entered heaven
(iii)

(Anusasana Parva, Chapter

Rogadvayam (Diseases 2) (a) Physical and mental Kayika and Manasika) (b) Congenital and acquired. (Sahaja and Agantuka). 24. Viryadvayam. Heat and cold. 25. Srngdradvayam. Love or the erotic sentiment 2) Love in union and that in separation. (Sambhoga and Vipralambha) 26. Srutidharmadvayam (Musical cadence 2). High pitch and low pitch (Ucca and nica) 27. Sarnddhdnakdranadvayam (Two causes for peace) Patience or forbearance and generosity. (Ksama and
. .

.

.

money
(ii)

Sabdalankara. 4. Aufadhas 2.
oils
,

for good purposes. Stealing money or wealth and not giving money to poor deserving people. 3. Alankdras 2. Arthalankara and (Figures of speech)
.

and ghees, honey recanam (enema)
.

(Medicines). Curatives like medicated etc. and purgatives like vasti and vamanam ( purgation)

(vomiting) 5. Aids for health 2. Cleanliness and sexual continence. 6. Gurus 2. Actual preceptor or precep(Preceptors) tor in effect and casual preceptor)
.
.

Kaludvayam. Pippali (long pepper) and Marica Pepper) 8. Kalahakdranam 2. (Causes for quarrel) Gold and
7.
(

born in Taksaka's dynasty. It death at the serpent yajna of Janamejaya. (Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 8). RASATALA. A particular part of Patala where, accordthe Nivatakavacas live. The ing to the Farinas, Mahabharata contains the following information regarding Rasatala. called Sarhvarta rent ( 1 ) During the deluge the Agni the earth and reached up to RaSatala. (Vana Parva, Chapter 188, Verse 69) (2) The Raksasi called Krtya created by the asuras once carried away Duryodhana to Patala. (Vana Parva, Chapter 251, Verse 29). (3) Rasatala is the seventh stratum of the earth. Surabhi the mother of cows born from nectar lives there. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 102, Verse 1). comfortable and happy to live in (4) It is more Rasatala than to live either in Nagaloka or Svarga. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 102, Verse 14). (5) It was in Rasatala that Mahavisnu incarnated as Boar and killed the asuras with his tusk. (Sand Parva, Chapter 206, Verse 26) (6) Mahavisnu, who assumed the form of Hayagriva went to Rasatala, killed Madhu and Kaitabha and resurrected the Vedas. (Santi Parva, Chapter 347, Verse

RAPHEI^AKA. A naga
was burnt
to

danasila)

.

.

.

54).
to Rasatala because he uttered (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 6, Verse 34). (8) Rasatala is Ananta's abode. Balabhadrarama who was an incarnation of Ananta, gave up his material body at Prabhasa tlrtha and attained Rasatala. (Svargarohana Parva, Chapter 5, Verse 28) RASMIKETU. A Raksasa who fought on the side of Ravana against Rama. (Valmiki Ramayana, Sundara Kanda; Sarga 9).
(7)

9.

woman (Kanaka and Kamim).

.

Kdyadvayam (Two bodies). Mind and body. 10. Kdranadvayam (Two causes). Upadanam (ultimate cause) and Nimittam (immediate cause). 11. Kfdradvayam (Two salts). Alkaline salt (Saltpetre), Sodium Carbonate.
12.
.

one

King Vasu went
lie.

.

Women and fools. Capaladvayam (Fickle ones 2) 13. Jndnadvayam (Knowledges.2). Superficial knowledge and deep knowledge. ( Mandajnana and Drdhajnana)
.

RASMIVAN
RASMIVAN. An
eternal, universal Deva (Visvadeva). (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 91, Verse 36). RASTRAVARDHANA. A minister of DaSaratha. (Agni Purana, Chapter 6). RATA. A daughter of Daksaprajapati. Dharma married her and the Vasu called Ahar was born to the couple. (Adi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 17). RATHACITRA. A river famous in the Puranas. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 26). RATHADHVAJA. Father of king Kusadhvaja of Videha. Vedavati was his grand-daughter. (See under Veda-

644
his

RATI
daughter to Syiivasva at the Taranta. (Rgveda, Sayanabhasya)
.

I

request

of

King

RATHlTARA. A

RATHADHVANA.
RATHAGRAl^I.
Sarhyu.

vati)

.

Another name of Viragni, son of Parva, Chapter 219, Verse 9) (Vana
.

king of the solar dynasty. He was the son of Prsatasva. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha). RATI 1. Wife of Kamadeva and some Puranas hold the view that Kama was the son of Dharma whose father was Brahma. But, the story of Kama and Rati is described in the as follows. Kalikapurana Brahma created ten prajapatis. A beautiful lady called Sandhya was his next creation. As soon as she was born, seeing her exquisite beauty Brahma and the prajapatis jumped to their feet. All of them thought in the same way. While the court of Brahma was in such a

RATHAKRTA. A Yaksa who
RATHAKSA. A
form, worships

rotates in the month of Caitra along with the Aditya called Dhata. (Bhagavata

Satrughna who led (Padma Purana, Patalakhanda)

A

warrior. He had accompanied the Asvamedhic horse of Rama.
.

12thSkandha).
warrior of Subrahmanya. (Salya Parva,
I.

RATHANTARA

Chapter 45, Verse 63).

Saman, which, having assumed in his court. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 30). This Rathantara saman possesses the power to cure fainting fits. Once Vasisdia restored Indra to consciousness with this Saman. (Santi

A

Brahma

RATHANTARA
He
was
222, Verse 7).

Parva, Chapter 281
II.

,

also called

Son of the Agni called Pancajanya. Tarasahara. (Vana Parva, Chapter
.

Verse 21)

.

RATHANTARYA (RATHANTARl)
Dusyanta.

RATHAPRABHU. A synonym
RATHASENA. A
Panda va
very Verse 62).
side against the magnificent ones.

Mother of King She was the daughter of King Ilina and had five sons, i.e. Dusyanta, Sura, Bhlma, Pravasu and Vasu. (Adi Parva, Chapter 94)
.

of Viragni, son of Sarhyu.
9).

(Vana Parva, Chapter 219, Verse
valiant warrior

who

Kauravas.

(Drona

fought on the His horses were Parva, Chapter 23,

RATHASTHA. A

confusion, an extremly handsome person emerged from his mind. Fish was the symbol on his and he aked Brahma thus: "Oh father, what flag should I do? Give me a suitable name and you should also decide upon a place and position and also a wife "You be moving for me." Brahma told him as follows: about everywhere in this world (full of men andwomen) engaged in the eternal function of creation with the five arrows of flower in your hands and thus multiply the population. Your arrows will go everywhere and no one, not even the Devas will dare to obstruct your arrows. Everyone will yield to your behests. Visnu, Siva and I also will yield before your arrows. You will enter the hearts of living beings in invisible form and giving them happiness engage yourself in eternal creation. The chief aim and object of your arrows of flower will be the hearts of living beings. You will be given a suitable name just now." The prajapatis, who understood the wish of Brahma, after mutual consultation said: "You emerged churning our minds. Therefore, you will become famous under the name Manmatha ( he who churns the mind) You best will lay low Siva's haughtiness and conceit. Oh among men, Daksa, chief among the prajapatis, will give you a wife." Happily pleased at the above words of Brahma Kama held up in his hands the bow and arrows of flowers and decided to shoot five arrows, i.e. harsanam (pleas-

perplexed
,

.

!

Yaksa who rotates in the month of Jyestha in the company of the Aditya called Mitra. (Bhagavata, 12th Skandha). RATHASTHA. One of the seven tributaries of the
Ganga. According to the ancients, bathing in the river will wash off all sins. (Adi Parva, Chapter 169, Verse

RATH ATI RATHASA&KHYANAPARVA. A sub-Parva
RATHAVAHANA.
of

20).

Brother of the Virata King. He fought against the Pandavas. (Drona Parva, Chapter 158, Verse 42). RATHAVARTA. A holy place considered to be on the He who visits this place right side of Sakambharidevi.

Sand Parva, Chapters

165-172.

due to the grace of Siva, attain salvation. (Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 23). RATHAVlTI. A maharsi. He lived in a hilly region very far away from the Himalayas. Once the maharsi called Syavasva invited Rathaviti to perform a homa
will,

at the yajfta conducted by King Taranta, and when he came for the homa with his daughter the father of Syavaiva asked him to marry his daughter to Syava:'va. Rathaviti not only refused, but also dismissed Syava;'va

from the yajnic platform.

At

last

Rathaviti married

sweat that oozed from his body. With great difficulty he controlled his passion and gave up Sandhya. From

others alighted there. He ridiculed Brahma for his display of passion towards his own daughter Sandhya and spoke further like this: "This Kama too is a fool. He tested his arrows here itself, he has no sense of propriety and discretion." Brahma was thoroughly ashamed at the words of Siva. He perspired and swept with his hands the drops of

ing or gladdening), Rocanam (attracting or tempting), mohanam (deluding or infatuating) sosanam (weakening) and maranam (killing). He decided to use the arrows first against Brahma and then against the prajapatis. Accordingly the arrows shot forth and Brahma and all the prajapatis overwhelmed by sexual passion stared at Sandhyadevi. Sandhya also got excited and from her body sprouted up 49 parts; 64 kalas (arts) also were born from her. She used incessantly against the leaders of the world (Brahma and others) who were downed by the arrows of sexual passion, arrows dear to Manmatha. The expressions of Brahma made Sandhya sick with love. Siva, who was just then travelling along the sky, seeing the boisterous exhibitions of passion by Brahma and
,

RATI

II

645

RAVANA
Once Raudrasva
Misrakesi.
fell

he would be born again. From the drops of perspiration that fell on the ground from Daksa's body arose a beautiful woman, and Daksa told Kama that the woman, his daughter would become famous as Rati devl. Daksa gave Rati Devi to Kama to be his wife. Thus did Rati become Kama's wife. (For the second birth of Rati see under Pradyumna and for other details see- under Kama.) RATI II. An apsara woman of Alakapuri. She danced on the occasion of Kubera welcoming Astavakramuni. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 19, Verse 45). RATI III. Wife of Vibhu born in the dynasty of King Rsabhadeva of Ajanabhavarsa. Prthusena was her daughter. (Bhagavata, 5th Skandha)
.

the drops of sweat falling on the ground from the body of Brahma were born the pi trs called Agnisvattas and the Barhisadas, the former 64,000 in number and the latter 4,80,000. Drops of sweat from the bodies of the prajapatis also fell on the ground and from them were born the Devas. The pi trs called Sornapas are the sons of Kratu; those called Svakalikas are the sons of Vasistha; sons of Pulastya are called Ajyapas and Havirbhuks are the sons of Aiigiras. Brahma, who was angry that Kama shot his arrows against him in the presence of Siva cursed the former that he would be burnt to ashes in the fire of Siva's eyes, and Kama trembling with fear at the curse prostrated at the feet of Brahma and wept Then Brahma said that though he would die in the fire of Siva's eyes,

in love
is

with the
in

Mention

made

RAUDRASVA

Parva, Chapter 94, that as a result of the married life of these two, ten archers beginning with Anvagbhanu, were born. II. A hermit who was the disciple of the hermit Katyayana. Once Mahisiisura came in the guise of a beautiful woman to the hermitage of Raudrasva to hinder his penance. The hermit cursed Mahisasura, "You will die because of a woman". (Kalika Purana,

maid Mahabharata, Adi
celestial

(S). A group of ganas (warriors of Siva). It mentioned in Mahabharata, Sand Parva, Chapter 284, that these Raumyas were born from the hairpores of Virabhadra, the chief of the guards of Siva. RAUPYA. A Puranically famous river of Ancient India. The holy bath Prasarpana of the hermit Jamadagni is situated on the banks of this river. (M.B. Vana Parva, * Chapter 129, Stanza 7). RAURAVA. One of the twentyeight hells. For details see the part Naraka under the word Kala. RAVA^A. The Raksasa King of Lanka who had ten
is

RAUMYA

Chapter 62).

heads.
1)

RAT1GUWA. A

Devagandharva whose father was Ka-'yapaprajapati and mother Pradha. (Adi Parva,
Chapter 65, Verse 47).

RATIVIDAGDHA. A
Kriyakhanda)
.

courtesan of Hastinapura. As she performed the pious deed of feeding brahmins she attained Vaikuntha after her death. ( Padma Purana,

Birth. Visravas, grandson of Brahma and son of Pulastya married KaikasT, daughter of Sumall. While Visravas and Kaikasi were living in the forest SlesmaShe delivered four taka, Kaikasi became pregnant. children in four Yamas, with an interval of one yama between them. The elder three were the famous Raksasas, Ravana, Kumbhakarna and Vibhlsana; the fourth one, a girl, was named Surpanakha. (Kamba

Pulastya

Descended from Genealogy. Vif'ravas Ravana.

Visnu thus

:

Brahma

2)

Ramayana, Balakanda). Kubera was another son of Visravas born of another
wife called DevavarnI alias llabila. As soon as he came of age Kubera captured the Puspaka chariot and began ruling the kingdom with Lanka as capital.

RATNAGRlVA. A

RATNAKARA. A
khanda)
.

He performed tapas and great devotee of Visnu. attained Vaikuntha. (Padma Purana, Patala Khanda).
Vaigya.

king of Kancarianagarl

who was

a

(Uttara Ramayana).
3)

He was

killed

he attained Vaikuntha as a brahmin called Dharmasva sprinkled Ganga water on him. ( Padma Purana, Kriya-

by an ox, but

Previous lives of Ravana.

4)

Ravana secured

boons.

RATNAKUTA. One

of

the

wives
.

of

Atrimaharsi.

(Padma Purana, Patala Khanda) RATRIDEVl. The presiding deity of

once worshipped Ratridevi for the fulfilment of her desires. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 13, Verse 25). RAUBHYA. A hermit. It is seen in Uttara Ramayana that this hermit called on Sri Rama on his return from Lanka.
class of giants who lived on Kailasa and Mandara mountains. The hermit Lomas'a gave warning to the Pandavas, when they went to the north dur-

night.

Indranl

RAUDRA. A

Vana

RAUDRAKARMA.
RAUDRASVA
Is"vara.

ing their forest life, to be careful of the Raudras, (M.B. Parva, Chapter 139, 'Stanza 10). One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Drona Parva, Chapter 127, Stanza, 62, that Raudrakarma was killed in the battle of Bharata by Bhimasena.
I.

his wife Pausti.

A son born to the emperor Puru of Raudrasva had two brothers Pravlra and

envious of the pomp and prowess of Kubera advised her son to secure boons from Brahma by tapas and become equal to Kubera. Accordingly he went to Gokarna with his brothers and began tapas. Kumbhakarna did tapas for 10,000 years; Vibhlsana also did tapas for 10,000 years standing on one foot. Ravana, standing in the middle of the five fires, meditated upon Brahma. Though 10,000 years passed thus, Brahma did not appear yet. Ravana then cut one of his ten heads and made an offering of it to Brahma in the fire. Thus, within 9000 years he cut nine of his heads and offered them to Brahma in the fire. Lastly when he was about to cut off his tenth head, Brahma appeared and asked him to choose whatever boon he wanted. Ravana chose the boon that from none but men should he meet with his death. Kumbhakarna desired to secure the boon of 'nirdevatva' (Absence of the devas ) but secured by a slip of the tongue 'nidravatvam' (sleep). Vibhlsana chose devotion to Visnu. On his return after securing the boons, Ravana occupied Lanka, drove away Kubera and took his puspaka chariot. Ravana further declared Mahavisnu to be his eternal

who became

See under Jaya XI. Kaikasi (Ravana's mother)

enemy. Hearing about Ravana's victory the Raksasas from Patala came to live in Lanka.

RAVANA
5) Family
life
.

646

Ravana married Mandodari,

foster-

daughter of Mayasura and three sons, Meghanada, Atikaya and Aksakumara were born to the couple. He then conquered the whole world with the cooperation of his sons and other Raksasas. The Astadikpalakas (protectors of the eight regions) were subjugated. He attacked Devaloka, but was defeated and imprisoned. Meghanada by magical trickery captured Indra and released Ravana from custody. Meghanada came to be called Indrajit from that day onwards. See under Kartavlry6) Kdrtavlrydrjuna and Ravana. arjuna, Para 6. As a result of ruling the 7) Curses heaped on Ravana. land, as a terror to the whole world, for many years
his

meaning of 'Om'
to cut

(xi)

Ndradasdpa.

the that all the

man.
(xii)

to explain the Narada refused Ravana and the latter threatened tongue of Narada. Narada then cursed ten heads of Ravana would be cut by a to

maiijari, wife of Rtuvarman, who lived as an anchorite in the the latter cursed that rnarutta forest, and

RtuvarmaSdpa.

Ravana

once

raped

Madana-

Ravana would be
(xiii)

killed

Maudgalyaidpa.
svastika
(a short

Once maharsi Maudgalya was

by a man.

sitting in the

yogadanda
handle)
into

stick-like

Ravana once insulted Rambha, Nalakubara during her tour at a place near Alaka. On hearing about the insult Nalakubara cursed that Ravana should die with his ten
(i)

and of his triumphal journey Ravana had invited on head eighteen sapas (curses) as follows.
Nalakubara Sapa.
the betrothed wife of

Ravana happened to come there and he cut two the yogadanda with his Candrahasa (sword) with the result that the maharsi fell down with face upwards and broke his back-bone. The maharsi then cursed that Ravana's Candrahasa would prove ineffective in future.

pose resting his neck on the piece of wood with a

1

heads broken.

While VedavatI, the only daughter Vedavatisapa. (ii) of sage Kusadhvaja, was doing tapas to secure Sri Madhava as her husband. Ravana committed rape on "You and your family her and she cursed him thus will be ruined by Lord Narayana on account of me."
:

Certain young brahmin Brdhmanajananisdpa. for sea-bath were humiliated by Ravana in the presence of their mothers when they cursed that the wife of Ravana would be insulted in
(xiv)
girls

who had gone

For calling him 'monkey' at (iv) Nandikesvarasdpa. Kailasa, Nandikesvara cursed that Ravana and his kingdom would be destroyed by monkeys, As Vasistha refused Ravana 's invi(v) Vasifthasdpa. took the former tation to teach the Vedas etc. he captive. When he was released from captivity by the solar King Kuvalayasva, Vasistha cursed that Ravana and his family would be destroyed by those born in the
solar dynasty. Ravana once saw sage Asfavakra (vi) Astdvakrasdpa. him a kick saying, 'Oh at Slesmataka and gave handsome fellow I shall cure your eight hunches", For kicking and the sage cursed Ravana as follows me, a poor innocent sage, you will be kicked from head to foot and foot to head by monkeys." Ravana once poured on his own (vii) Dattdtreyasdpa.
! ! :

Brdhmanasdpa. He invited a Vedic brahmin to the idol of Tripurasundarl given to him by Siva. As the brahmin happened to be a bit late to come, Ravana imprisoned him for seven days, and the old brahmin cursed that Ravana would be imprisoned seven months by a man.
(iii)

very presence by monkeys. humiliated Svahadevi, Agnisapa. Ravana once wife of Agni in his very presence and Agni cursed that Ravana's wife would be humiliated by monkeys in his
(xv)

his

install

When Ravana was about to (xvii) Brhaspati sdpa. return after conquering Devaloka and taking the devas captives, Sulekhadevi, daughter of Brhaspati tried to take shelter somewhere when Ravana attempted to catch her by force. Then Brhaspati cursed that Ravana would die hit by the arrows of Rama. Ravana tried to humiliate (xviii) Brahmadevasdpa. Pufijikadevi, daughter of Brahma, and the latter cursed that Ravana would die with all his ten heads broken
if

presence. Ravana killed by one blow on (xvi) AnaranyaSdpa. his chest King Anaranya of the solar dynasty who sought refuge with him, and the King cursed that Ravana would die with all his ten heads cut by the arrows of a prince of the solar dynasty,

head water kept purified by mantras by Dattatreya to bathe the head of his Guru, and the latter cursed that Ravana's head would be polluted by the feet of monkeys, When Ravana molested and (viii) Dvaipdyanasdpa.

wounded

mutilated by a

the lips of Dvaipayana's sister in his own presence he cursed that Ravana's sister would be

man and

he would be humiliated by
trip

monkeys.
(ix)

See under Candrahasa. 8) Ravana got Candrahasa. 9 ) He threatened Devas. Ravana. during his triumphal march with the armies, once came to the Usiravlra mountain. Then the King called Marutta was performing Mahesvara yajna on the plains of the mountain. Indra and the other devas came to receive their portion of the offerings. But they ran away in fear on the arrival of Ravana. Indra assumed the form of a Kubera that of a peacock, Yama that of a crow, chameleon and Varuna that of a swan, and the devas, thus assuming various forms went away in different directions. Marutta got angry and got ready to fight Ravana. But, as the maharsis prevented him from it no took Rivana returned with the place. fighting
glories of victory. 10) He defeated Kala.

he touched unwilling women.

Mandodari Ravana cruelly manhandled Mandavyatoo maharsi, when the latter cursed that Ravana would be roughly handled by a monkey, Ravana once dragged by hair the wife (x) Atrisdpa. of Atri in his very presence, and Atri cursed that Ravana will have to witness his wife being denuded of her dress and dragged by the hair by monkeys.

Mdndavyasdpa.

During a pleasure

of his

with

witness a quarrel.
tales

He went

about Kala, that

Ravana, that Kala would soon be causing Ravana's death etc. These stories awakened the anger in Ravana a strong army against Kala, and the former, with Kala, and war between the two started. challenged

Once Narada felt the urge to to Lanka and told Ravana Kala was more powerful than

RAVI
the

I

647

RClKA (AJIGARTA)
Rbhus. They made a cow and covered it with the skin of the dead cow and placed it in front of the calf. Because of its likeness to its mother, the calf believed it to be its mother. restored their parents who had become old, (ii) Rbhus to youth. (Rgveda, 1st Mandala, 16th Anuvaka. llth
says that it was the Rbhus who made Indra's horses, the chariot of the Asvinls and Brhaspati's
(iii)

ended. Afterwards Ravana march11) Ravana attacked Pdtala. ed with his army to Patala where he defeated Taksaka, the naga King and exacted tributes from him. Then he attacked Nivatakavacas. When the fighting became very fierce Brahma intervened and brought about a compromise between the two. Next, Ravana attacked Surabhi in Varuna's palace, but the' Raksasas who emerged from the pores on Surabhi's body drove away

in a fix, for he had given Ravana boon that the latter would be killed only by a man. At the same time he had given the boon to Kala that anybody thrashed with his (Kala's) club would die. Brahma, therefore, decided to end the fighting between Kala and Ravana somehow, and he approached Kala and requested him to withdraw from fighting. Accordingly Kala acknowledged defeat and thus the fighting

Brahma was

Sukta)

.

Rgveda

RCEYU. A

cow.

king of the Puru Dynasty. 1) Genealogy. From Visnu were descended in the following order :-Brahma-Atri-Candra-Budha-Pururavas.AyusNahusa. Yayati-Puru-Janamejaya - Pracinvan - Pravfra-

Namasyu-Vltabhaya-Sundu-Bahuvidha-Samyati vadl-Raudragva and Rceyu.
(2 Other
details.

-

Raho-

Ravana.
12)

Raped Rambha. See under Nalakiibara. Ravana's sister, Surpanakha met Sri Rama and Laksmana at Pancava^I and wanted first Rama and then Laksmana to marry her. But, Laksmana cut away her nose, breasts etc. Enraged by this Ravana abducted Slta. Sri Rama, with the help of the monkey-army, killed Ravana in war. ( See under
13) His death.

RCIKAI (AJIGARTA). A
1
)

His mother, Mi:',rakesl was a goddess. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 10). ii He had two other names; Anvagbhanu and Ana( ) vrsti. Matinara was the son of Rceyu. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verses 11-13).
(i)

Rama.
14)

Rcika ing order-Brahma-Bhrgu-Cyavana-Orva-RcIka. was the father of Jamadagni and grandfather of ParaSurama.
2) Rcika's marriage.

Genealogy.

From Visnu were descended

famous sage.

in the

follow-

Synonyms of Ravana. Dasakandhara, Dasanana, Dasasya, Paulastya, Raksahpati, Pulastyatanaya, Raksasadhipa, Raksasamahe-.'vara. (Valmiki Ramayana

RAVI

who had come to carry away Draupadl. He was killed by Arjuna. (Vana Parva, Chapter 221, Verse 27) RAVI II. A son of Dhrtarastra. He was killed by Bhlma in the great war. (Salya Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 14) RAYA. A King of the lunar dynasty and son of Pururavas. Urvasi, who had many sons like Ayus, Srutayus, Satyayus, Raya, Vijaya and Jaya. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha). RAYANA. Brother of Yagoda, mother of Sri Krsna. (Brahmavaivarta Purana, 2.39, 37-39) RBHU I. An ancient sage. He was the son of Brahma. He was an extraordinary scholar who became the preceptor of Nidagha who was the son of Pulastya and the grandson of Brahma. Rbhu conveyed all knowledge to Nidagha. But he saw that although he taught Nidagha all branches of knowledge, the latter did not take any interest in "Advaita". So he left him
. .
.

A prince of Sauvlra. It was this prince who I. stood with the flag behind the chariot of Jayadratha,

and

Kamba Ramayana).

marriage to the sage if he gave 1,000 horses with black ears. Rcika offered worship to Varuna to help him in the matter. Varuna was pleased and a thousand
in

Gadhi, a king of the Lunar dynasty had a daughter, SatyavatL Rcika wished to marry this beautiful princess. Gadhi agreed to give his daughter

horses rose

up from

the

river

Ganga. Rcika married
Afterwards
both of

SatyavatI after giving the horses.

them went and

settled

RBHUS.
1
)

in disappointment but later got him interested Advaita. (Visnu Purana, Arh^a 2. Chapters 15-16).

in

a request 3) Birth of Jamadagni. to Rcika that she should have a son. Besides, she requested him that her mother should be blessed with a son, so that she might have a brother. Rcika performed a "homa" and after that he made two balls of rice and gave them to SatyavatI. He advised her to eat one of them and to give the other to her mother. Rcika had put "Brahmatejas" (brilliance of Brahmins) in the first riceball and "Ksatratejas" (brilliance of Ksatriyas) in the other. When SatyavatI and her mother ate the riceballs, it so happened that the rice-ball intended for her mother was eaten by SatyavatI and the one intended for Satyavati was eaten by the mother. Later Rcika came to know of this mistake. In due course, Satyavati and her mother gave birth to sons, Satyavatl's son was named

down in the forest. One day SatyavatI made

Anuvaka, lllth Sukta. 3) Rbhus and Miracles. (i) Long ago, a cow belonging to a began to cry. The Rsi took pity on

General information. Rbhus are a group of divine bewho attained divinity by performing tapas. Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva, Chapter 137, Verse 25 says that even other gods worship the Rbhus. 2) Who were Rbhus? Aiigiras, the son of Brahma had a son named Sudhanva. Sudhanva had three children, Rbhuksan, Vibhvan and Vaja. These three persons form the Rbhus as mentioned in Rgveda, 1st Mandala, 16th
ings

Visvamitra. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 57). 4) Other sons of Rc'ka. After this three more sons were born to Rcika. The eldest of them was named Sunahpuccha, the second was named Sunasgepha and the third,

it

Rsi died. Its calf and prayed to the

Sunolangula. 5)Thesale of SunasSepha. Once king Ambarisa started a yaga. Indra who was jealous of him, stole the sacrificial cow. Since it was an evil omen, the priest advised Ambarisa that either the lost cow or a human being in its place must be obtained to complete the yaga. In spite of searches made in many places, the cow could not be traced. At last Ambarlsa's men met Rcika who was doing tapas on Bhrgutuiiga. Rcika sold his second son, Sunasiepha to Ambarisa in exchange for the price of 100,000 cows.

RClKA
tirtha.

II
to

648
Puskara

REVATl

II

There they happened to meet VHvamitra. Sunassepha complained to Visvamitra and lamented over his ill-fate. Visvamitra wished to save him and to send one of his own sons in his place with Ambaiisa. But none of his sons was willing to oblige. Visvamitra cursed them and turned them into eaters of human flesh. Then he turned to Suna.'sepha and said "When you stand ready to be sacrificed near the altar, offer your prayers to Agni. If you do so, you will attain siddhi." (salvation or moksa). He also taught him two
:

The king took SunaSsepha with him and came

great serpent. In Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 160, Verse 15, there is a reference to the killing of this serpent by Garuda. RE^. U I. A teacher-priest, who was the son of hermit Visvamitra and the author of a Sukta in Rgveda.
:

RDDHIMAN. A

REI^U

rewarded Ambarlsa for his yaga. ( Valmiki Ramayana, Balakanda, 62nd Sarga) 6) Rcika and the Vaifnava iow. Once ViSvakarma made two mighty bows. One of them was taken by Siva to burn
.

songs of praise to Agni. While standing at the altar ready to be sacrificed SunaS epha recited the two songs of praise. Indra and the other gods appeared and after saving Sunassepha

(M.B. Anuiasana Parva, Chapter 116; Verse 2). I. The wife of the hermit Jamadagni. (For further details see under the word Jamadagni) REyUKA II. A holy place frequented by Sages. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 82. Stanza 82 that those who bathe in this holy bath would

of Iksvaku. Renuka the wife of the hermit Jamadagni, and the mother of Parasurama was the daughter of this King. Renu had other names such as Prasenajit, Prasena and Suvenu.
II.

(Aitareya-Brahmana

7. 17. 7;

King of

Rgveda

9.

70).

the dynasty

REI^UKA

.

it to Jamadagni. Jamadagni Parasurama. It was with this Vaisnavacapa that Parasurama confronted Sri Rama who was returning after Sita's Svayamvara. (Ramayana, Balakanda, 75th Sarga)

Rcika who,
it

was this bow which was broken by Sri Rama at the time of Slta's Svayarhvara. After the battle with Siva, Visnu gave his bow to
It

the Tripuras. That bow is known as "Saivacapa". The other bow was given to Visnu. It is called "Vaisnavacapa". The Devas wished to see a trial of strength between Siva and Visnu. They prompted Brahma to bring about such a conflict. Brahma succeeded in causing a quarrel between Siva and Visnu. A fight began between Siva and Visnu. Both the Saivacapa and Vaisnavacapa went into action. But Siva was defeated. After that, Siva gave his bow toDevarata, king of Videha.By inheritance it came into the hands of king Janaka, the father of Sita.

RENUKA. A

become as pure as Candra (Moon). It is stated in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 82, that this holy place lies within the boundary of Kuruksetra.
was a dweller of
powerful

them questions pertaining to duty and righteousness. (M.B. Anusasana Parva. Chapter 132, Stanza 2) REPHA. A hermit of the period of Rgveda. Once the asuras threw this hermit into water. This was the punishment for the sins committed by him in his previous life. (Rgveda, Mandala 1, Anuvaka 17, Sukta 116).

(serpent). This serpent who (nether world) once went to the Diggajas (Eight elephants supporting the globe), in accordance with the instruction of the gods, and asked

Naga

Patiila,

REVANTA. A
1) Birth.

son of the sun.
the daughter of

The sun married

ViSvakarma

in

turn gave

presented

to his son

.

7) Other

details.

(i) Rcika was given 1,000 white horses with black ears which could run fast, by Gadhi as dowry. Varuna presented these horses on the bank of the river Ganga. The place in Gahga where the horses rose up, came to be called "ASvatirtha". Gadhi gave Satyavati to Rcika at the place called 'Kanyakubja'. (M.B. Aranya Parva, Chapter 115). Parva, Chapter 29, (ii) Mahabharata, Asvamedhika Verse 23 says that Rcika once tried to stop Parasurama

Samjna went to the forest During this period Chaya the maid of Sariijfia attended on the sun. Three children, Sanaiscara, Manu and Tapati were born to the Sun of Chaya. Once Ch;"ya cursed Yama. Then only did the Sun remember about Samjna. At that time Sarhjna had been doing penance in the forest in the form of a mare. The Sun took the form of a horse and lived with her in the forest. From this union ASvinikumaras and also the last son Revanta were born. (VimuPurana, Ams'a3, Chapter
the radiance of her husband,
to

named Samjna. She gave birth to three children named Manu, Yama andYami. Once, being unable to bear
do penance.

2).
2)

Laksmi astounded

of

how Laksmi was astounded at the sight of Revanta's handsome figure and how Mahavisnu cursed Laksmi

at the sight of Revanta. I or

the story

from killing Ksatriyas.
(iii) Once Dyutiman, King of Salva, presented a tract of land to Rcika. (M.B. Anu^asana Parva, Chapter 137, Verse 28).' (iv) Rcika attained Vaikuntha and his wife Satyavati accompanied him in her earthly body. It is said that after it, Satyavati transformed herself into a river under the name "KauSiki" and began to flow in north India. (Valmiki Ramayana, Balakanda, 34 ih Sarga).

RCIKA RClKA

II.
1,

One

III. A King who was the grandson of emperor Bharata and son of Dyumanyu. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 24). RDDHI. Varuna's wife. ( M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter '117. Verse 9).

Chapter

Verse 42).

of the twelve Adityas. (M.B. Adi Parva,

consequently, see under EkavTra. The father of Revati, the wife of Balabhadraritma. Revata was the son of Anartta and the grandson of king Saryati. It is mentioned in Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 7, that Revata was the first king who erected his capital in the Island Kusasthali and began to rule over it. REVATl I. Wife of Balabhadrarama. Revata the son of Anartta and the grandson of King Saryati was ruling over the island Kusasthali. Hundred sons beginning with Kukudmi were born to him. As the youngest of all a daughter named Revati was born. At the instruction of Brahma the beautful Revati was given in marriage to

REV ATA.

REVATI

Balabhadrarama. (Bhagavata, Bhagavata, Skandha 7)
.

Skandha

10;

Devi

II.

Stanza 29, the
Aditi Devi.

In Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 230, name 'Revati' is used as a synonym of

REVATI

III

649
Ancient Belief about

RKSADEVA
Yajurveda, Samaveda and Atharvaveda emerged from the four faces of Brahma. In Krtayuga, Brahma gave these Vedas to his sons. In Dvaparayuga, the Rsis got these Vedas. Mahavisnu incarnated on earth for the
Rgveda.

REVATI

III. One of the twentyseven stars. The following statements occur in the Mahabharata about the importance of this star. (i) Sri Krsna started on his journey at the auspicious moment of Maitra on the star Revati in the month of Karttika. (M.B. Udyoga Parva. Chapter 83, Stanza 6). the day of this star (ii) If a cow is given as alms on

The

four Vedas

Rgveda,

on Revati day would become wealthy. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 89, Stanza 14). REVATI IV. The mother of Raivata, the lord of the fifth Manvantara (age of a Manu). There is a story in the Markandeya Purana about the birth of Revati. A son was born to the hermit Rtavak on Revati day. By and by he became wicked. Having learned from the hermit Garga that his son became wicked because he was born under the star Revati, Rtavak cursed the star Revati and kicked it down from its place. The spot on which the star fell became a lake. After a time a beautiful damsel was born from the lake. The hermit Pramuca took the girl home and brought her up. She was called Revati. When she came of age, she was given in marriage to Durgama, the son of king Vikramasila. At the request of Revati her marriage was conducted at an auspicious moment on the day of the star Revati. The hermit blessed the couple "Let a son, who would become the Lord of the Manvantara, be born to you." As a result of this blessing the bright and valiant son Raivata was born to them. This Raivata was the Lord of the fifth Manvantara. RGVEDA. The Rgveda is the oldest recorded work of the human race. The Egyptians claim that another book entitled "Book of the Dead" was also written during the period of the Rgveda. The Babylonians have an ancient work called 'Gilgamish', which according to scholars, is not as old as the Rgveda. Rgveda is the work that forms the basis of Hindu religion. Of the four Vedas, Yajurveda, Samaveda and Atharvaveda were composed after Rgveda." The Rgveda suktas were interpreted for the first time in Yaska's "Nirukta" and Sayana's "Vedarthaprakasa". The most important of the four Vedas is Rgveda. It is divided into ten "Mandalas". There are 1017 suktas and 10472 Rks in it. Although there are 11 more
(iii)

Anusasana Parva, Chapter

that cow will go to heaven and make preparations for the comforts and convenience of the giver. (M.B.

He who

64, Stanza 33). gives offerings to the manes

preservation of Dharma, in the person of Veda Vyasa. Vyasa distributed the Vedas among his son Sakalya and his disciples. Sakalya received Rgveda. He communicated it to his disciples. (Bhagavata, 12th Skandha. See under the word Veda). RIPU. Grandson of Dhruva. Two sons called Sis^i and Bhavya were born to Dhruva by his wife Sambhu. deliverd five sons, i.e. Ripu, Sisti's wife Succhaya

Ripunjaya, Vipra, Vrkala and Vrkatejas. Caksusa Manu was born as the son of Ripu by his wife Brhatl. (Visnu Purana, Part 1, Chapter 13). RIPUNJAYA. I Son ofSuratha, lord of Kundala city.
'

When

Suratha captured Sri Rama's yajnic horse there ensued a fierce war between him and Satrughna.

Ripunjaya too was present at the fighting. (Padma Purana). RIPUNJAYA. II A brahmin, who was born as Divodasa, kingofKasi in his rebirth. When once fire ceased to be in Kasi, he took upon himself the function of fire. (Skanda purana, 4.2, 39-48). RIPUNJAYA III. See under Ripu.

RISTA.

A

king.

He

worships

Yama

in

his

assembly.

(Sabha Parva, Chapter 8). RJlSVA. A king mentioned
helpoflndra. 53rd Sukta).
(Rgveda,

in the besieged the city of another King,
1st

Rgveda. Once he Vamgrda, with the Mandala, 10th Anuvaka,

RJRASVA. A muni
Some
details. (
1 )

blind by his father (Rgveda, 1st Mandala, 16th Anuvaka, 112th Sukta) Vrsaglr. (2) Rjrasva was the son of the royal sage, Once the donkey which is the vehicle of the AsVinldevas assumed the shape of a she-wolf and went to Rjrasva. Rjrasva gave it 100 sheep belonging to the people of the country and cut them to pieces and offered the same as food to the she- wolf. This plunder of the people's wealth enraged Vrsaglr. He cursed RjraSva and made

RjraSva was

(sage) celebrated in the

made

Rgveda.

him

Suktas called "khilas,"
the Rgveda.

they are not usually included in

Rjrasva who thus became blind offered prayers to Agni, who restored his eyesight. (Rgveda, 1st Mandala, 17th Anuvaka, 116th Sukta). RK. A small section of the Veda. The Veda which issued from the face of God at the time of creation, consisted of 1,00,000 books in four sections, beginning with Rk.

lose his eye-sight.

Mandalas two
different

to seven of the

Rsikulas.

The

Rgveda were composed in second Mandala was of

means "to

(Visnu Purana, Part

1 1 1,

Chapter 4)

praise". It

got the

The root "RC" name "RK" meaning,
.

Bhargava Kula, the third of Visvamitrakula, the fourth of Vamadeva, the fifth of Atri, the sixth of Bharadvaja and the seventh of Vasistha. The eighth Mandala and the first 50 Suktas of the first Mandala were composed by Kanvakula. The general view is that the tenth Mandala was written by someone at a later period. Most of the Rgveda suktas are praises. But some of the
Suktas

RKS A

"to praise gods". A king of the Puru dynasty. He was the father I. of Sarhvarana. For genealogy see under the word Sarhvarana (M. B. Adi Parva, Chapter 94). RKSA II. King Hariha had a son named Rksa born to him by his wife Sudeva. Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 95 says that this Rksa had a son named Matinara, by his wife Jvala. Wife of Ajamidha,

can see in many suktas the joy and wonder experienced by the Aryas when they entered the beautiful

We

in the

tenth

Mandala

are of a different type.

land of India for the
the
2, '500

that

between

Rgveda and 2,000

Most scholars believe was composed during the period
first

time.

who was a king of the lunar Adi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 37) dynasty. (M.B. RKSADEVA. Son of Sikhandi. Mahabharata, Drona Parva, Chapter 23 refers to his horse with white and.

RKSA.
'

.

B. C.

red colour,

RKSAMBIKA
RKSAMBIKA. A woman
follower of

650

ROHINI IV
(vi)

Lord
.

Skanda.
of

Rocamana was

(M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 12) RKSARAJAS. monkey who was the foster-father

He Bali and Sugrlva. He was the king of Kiskindha. had no issue for a long time. Bali and Sugrlva were brought up by Ahalya at Gautama's aSrama. Rksarajas, with the permission of Indra, went to the asrama and took Bali and Sugrlva with him to Kiskindha. From that time, Bali and Sugrlva remained with him as his
foster-sons. (Uttara

A

ROCAMANA

(M.B.

Kama

killed

Parva, Chapter 56, Stanza 49)
II.

by

Karna

in

a combat.
.

ROCAMANA
mana

ter 27, Stanza 19, been defeated by Arjuna in

Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapmentions another Rocamana who had
his

regional

conquest.

Mention is made in the Mahabharata, Karna Parva, Chapter 6, Stanza 20, that teacher Drona had killed two brothers with the name RocaIII.

There is a story about the origin of

Ramayana). inValmiki Ramayana, Praksipta Sarga,
this

in the Bharata-battle.
I.

ROCANA ROCANA
9).

Once when Brahma was in a state of meditation on the Meru mountain, tears rolled down from his eyes and he gathered the tears in his own hands. From those tears, a monkey came into being. Rksarajas was that
monkey.

monkey.

The daughter of the King Devaka. married Rocana. Two sons Hema and Hemangada were born to her. (Bhagavata, Skandha
Vasudeva

One
it

day, Rksarajas went to a lake to quench his thirst. Seeing his own image reflected in the water, he thought

fascinating beauty, Indra and Surya were filled with lustful passion. Both of them had involuntary emission of semen. Bali was born from Indra's semen which fell on the head and Sugrlva was born from Surya's semen which fell on the neck of Rksarajas. Towards the end of the night, Rksarajas lost his female form and regained his former shape as a male. At once he took the two children with him to Brahma and told him the whole story. Brahma sent a messenger with Rksarajas and had him anointed king of Kiskindha. After the time of Rksarajas, Bali became king of Kiskindha.

was some enemy and jumped into the lake, to attack him. But he soon realized his mistake and returned to the shore. As soon as he came out of the water, he felt that he had become a woman. Seeing her

II. Grand-daughter of Rukml, the King of Vidarbha. Aniruddha the grandson of Sri Krsna married her at Bhojakata, (Bhagavata, Skandha 10). ROCANAMUKHA. An asura. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 105, Stanza 12

RODHA. A
ROHINl
is

thatGaruda

killed this Asura.

hell.

See the part Naraka under

the

word

Kala.

I. The mother of all the cows. The following a story about the origin of Rohini, given in VaJmiki

RKSARjyj;GA.

part of Kasi. Since he was killed by Citrasena, all But Dirghatapas who was others committed suicide. left behind collected their bones, and deposited them in the sacred Sulabhedatirtha. Skanda Purana says that consequently .they attained Heaven. RKSAVAN. One of the seven mountains in India.
'

The younger son of DIrghatapas who was performing tapas in Mandaravana on the northern

ROHINI
1 )
(

were born to Surabhi. In later years cows and oxen were born in the world from Rohini and horses from Sabha Parva, In the Mahabharata, Gandharvi. Chapter 66, it is mentioned that two daughters Vimala and Anala were born to Rohini and that from these two, in later years cattle were born.
II.

Ramayana, Aranya Kanda, Sarga 14. KaSyapa married Surabhi the seventh daughter of Daksa. Two daughters Rohini and Gandharvi,
Prajapati

of the wives of Candra stars are the wives of Candra. Of these twentyseven wives, Rohini was loved most by Candra. (See under Candra) (See under Dasaratha, Para 2) Rohini and DaSaratha.
General information.
.

One

Moon)

The twentyseven

.

ROHINl
1)

10).

III.

The mother

of Balabhadrarama.

ROCAMANA. An

ROCAMANA

attendant of Skandadeva. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 28). I. A Ksatriya King. The following information is available from Mahabharata about him.
(i) Rocamana was born from a named A<vagrlva. (M.B. Adi

(M.B. Bhlsma Parva, Chapter

9,

Verse 11)

.

Vasudeva had two wives Devaki General information. and Rohini. Sri Krsna was born from Devaki and

portion of an asura Parva, Chapter 67,

Balabhadrarama from Rohini. 2) Previous Birth of Rohini. Vasudeva was the rebirth of Prajapati Kasyapa. When Kasyapa took birth as Vasudeva, his two wives Adi ti and Surasa took birth as Devaki and Rohini respectively. (They took birth thus, because of the curse of Varuna. For details of the curse see under Kasyapa, para 6).

Stanza 18).

was present at the Svayarhvara (ii) (marriage) ofDraupadi. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter
also 185, Stanza 10).
(iii)

Rocamana

Rocamana was

medha.
quest,

"

Pandavas sent an invitation to this King to join the battle. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 4, Stanza 12). (v) Rocamana was a mighty warrior on the side of the Pandavas in the battle of Kuruksetra. (M.B. Drona
Parva, Chapter 70, Stanza 47)
.

Parva, Chapter ?9, Stanza 8) (iv) At the beginning of the battle of Kuruksetra,
.

the King of the country AsvaBhimasena, at the time of his regional condefeated this King. (Mahabharata, Sabha the

ROHINI

Rohini. Because she had done some misdeeds, she became the wife of Hiranyakasipu. (M.B. Vana Parva,

their bodies." (Bhagavata, Skandha 11). IV. Nisathe third wife of the Agni (fire) called Manu or Bhanu gave birth to a daughter named

The seventh child of 3) The birth of Balabhadra. Devaki was placed in the womb of Rohini and Balabhadrarama was born. (For this story see under Krsna, para 6, Karhsa, para 6 and Sadarbhaka) Daruka 4) Death. As soon as a messenger named brought the news that the entire race of the Yadavas had perished in Dvaraka, "because of grief, Vasudeva, Devaki and Rohini forsook
.

Chapter 221).

ROHII^I

V

651

RSi
bha went
to the grief-stricken

ROHINl

V. The mother of Utatthya, a famous hermit. (For details see under Satyatapas). ROHITA (ROHITASVA). The son of Hariscandra. This son, who was born by the blessing of Varuna, was wanted to be sacrificed by Varuna himself. In connection with this Hariscandra had to bear much sorrow

Sumati and comforted her.

ROHITAKA (ROHITAKARANYA).
famous
tain also

and misery. (For

details see

under Haris'candra't. A mountain
this

ROMAKA. A

were known by the name Rohitaka. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 32, Stanza 4, that during the regional conquest of Nakula, he passed through this country. The present name of this country is Rohtak (Haryana). ROMAHARSA TA. A famous disciple of Vyasa. The great Vyasa gave the collection of Puranas to Romaharsana. Sumati, Agnivarcas, Mitrayus, Sarhsapayana, Akrtavrana and Savarni were the six disciples of Romaharsana. (See under Guruparampara ).
country in ancient India. The inhabitants of this country were called the Romakas. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 51, Stanza 17, that the Romakas came with presents to the horse-sacrifice performed by Yudhisthira.

in the Puranas. Places surrounding

moun-

(Visnu Purana, Chapter 1, Section ] ). In the course of his wanderings in the forest a wild fire broke out in which his body was burnt up. Siva Purana says that the soul of Rsabha who died in the wild fire, attained Siva Loka. RSABHA III. A Naga born in the Dhrtarastra family. In Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 11, we read that this naga was burnt to ashes at Janame-

by Sastras. .On account of his austerity he so lean and thin that all the veins in the body could be seen. Putting a pebble in his mouth, he went about in the forest, dettrmined to renounce his body.
as ordained

(Siva Purana). 4) Rsabha 's End. Rsabha performed tapas according to the rules of Vanaprastha asrama and conducted yagas

became

RSABHA IV.
'

jaya's Sarpasatra. (Snake sacrifice). AnAsura. (M.B. Santi

Parva,

RSABHADVlPA. A
river Sarasvati.

ROMAPADA. ROMASA. A
RSABHA
I.

holy place on the banks of the Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 84 says that by bathing in this place, one would obtain Devavimana. RSABHAKUTA. See under Rsabha II and Rsabha-

227, Verse 51).

Chapter

See under Lomapada. daughter of Brhaspati. The reply given by Romas a to her husband when he teased her, is given in Rgveda, Mandala 1, Anuvaka 19, Sukta 126.

RSABHAPARVATA.
the four sides of

A King

of the

great grandson of Uparicaravasu. Mahabharata, Drona Parva, Chapter 20, Verse 12 says that he fought within the Garudavyuha formed

Lunar dynasty. He

was the

RSABHA
1 )

by Drona.

A muni II. King Agnldhra.

(sage)

who was

the

grandson of

the son of King Nabhi by his wife Meruhundred sons were born to Rsabha by his wife Jayantl. After entrusting his kingdom to Bharata, the eldest of his sons, Rsabha went to the forest and
devl. One.

Rsabha was

General information.

did tapas in Pulaha's asrama. 2) Pisabha andR.sabha.kuta Rsabha did tapas in
forest for

the

he performed

many

years.

his

sage who wished to observe strict silence did not like the presence of strangers and visitors in the vicinity. So he pronounced a curse that the mountain should drop boulders on any one who ventured to come there. Once he ordered the wind to blow without noise as it passed by the side of the mountain. He declared that anyone who made noise in Rsabhakuta would be struck with thunder. A place of holy waters came into
3)

The

The mountain peak on which tapas got the name "Rsabhakuta".

going out in search of Sita. Sugriva speaks about the as situated in the middle of the ocean of milk. (Valmiki Ramayana, Kiskindha Kanda, 4th Sarga, Verse 44). RSABHATlRTHA. An ancient place of holy waters in Ayodhya. Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 84 says that an observance of fast at this tirtha is equivalent to the gift of 1,000 cows and a Viijapeyayajna. RSI. Agni Purana, Chapter 348 states that the letter "R" means "sound". The word "Rsi" is derived from this root.' During the period when the art of writing was not known, Vedas, Sastras and other sacred lore were communicated through the mouth of the Rsis. The voice of Arsa Bharata itself is the voice of the

There are twenty mountains on Mahameru. Rsabha is one of them. (Devi Bhagavata, Astama Skandha) There is a reference to Rsabha Parvata when Sugriva gave instructions about the way to the army of monkeys
.

parvata.

Rsabha mountain

'

'

Rsis. Hindus believe that the Vedas are the outcome of the inspiration, introspection and spiritual vision of the Rsis. There is a Sarhskrta stanza defining a Rsi,

which

is

existence there. (M.B. Aranya Parva, Chapter 11). The power of faabha's Rsabha became Tdga. devotee of Siva by worshipping him.

a

Once a Brahmana

named Mandara had an

illicit

King Vajrabahu (Arhsuman) Sumati became pregnant. Her co-wives who were jealous of her poisoned her. As a result of it, she and the child born to her fell victims to diseases. Dasarna abandoned them in the
.

alliance with Piiigala, a prostitute. Both of them died Mandara was re-born as Bhadrayu, the together. grandson of Nala and Pingala as Sumati, the wife of

forest.

child.

Sumati lived in the house of a Vaisya with her While living there, the child died of disease. Rsa-

India has given birth to numerous Rsis. The word "Rsi" may be found throughout the Vedas. Rsis born in all classes of people had lived in India. The general belief is that the number of Rsis may come to about 48,000. It is not possible to know the names of all of them. In the Ramayana we find that when Sri Rama returned to Ayodhya after his life in the forest and took up the reign, many Rsis came to Ayodhya from all parts of the country. Among them, Visvamitra, Yavakrlta, Raibhya, Kanva and Garga came with their party of disciples from the east Dattatreya, Namuci, Pramuci, Valmlki, Soma, Kundu and Agastya came with their disciples from the south; Vrsangu, Kavisa, Kaumya,
;

given below Urdhvaretastapasyagah Niyataslca sarhyami / Sapanugrahayoh Saktah Satyasandho bhavedrsih//
:

RSIGIRI
Raudreya, Narada,

652

RSYASR&GA
As impossible. One of them, however, agreed to try. desired by her, the King sent her with several other
damsels.

to Uttara Brahmarsi, Brahmarsi, Viwamitra, a Rajarsi and Kas"y^ipa, a Devarsi. RSIGIRI. A mountain situated near Girivraja, the also capital of Magadha kingdom. This mountain is

Vamadeva, Saubhari, Asfavakra, Suka, Bhrgu, Lomasa, Maudgalya and others with their disciples came from the west and Ka^yapa, Vasisdia, Atri, Gautama, Jamadagni, Bharadvaja, Sanaka and Vibhandaka, party, Sarabhariga, Durvasas Matanga, Tumburu, the Saptarsis and others with their party of

The young women went

Ramayana. There are three classes of Rsis Rajarsi and Devarsi. Vasistha was a

disciples arrived

from the north, according

known

as

RSIK.A

RSIKA

I. Rajarsi. Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verses 32 and 33 state that he was the rebirth of Arka, the Asura leader. terrible battle town in North India. II. took place here between Arjuna and Rsika, the Rajarsi.

Verses 2 and 3)

"Matanga" (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter
.

to the forest and made a floating asrama in a boat in which they sailed in the river by the side of Vibhandaka's asrama. They stopped the boat close to the asrama and one of the girls entered the asrama when Vibhandaka was not there. She had a talk with RsyaSrnga in the course of which she used all the amorous enchantments of her sex to captivate the young Muni. She told him that she was the daughter of a Muni, living in an asrama, three yojanas

21,

A

A

A

that depressed and gloomy state of mind when Vibhandaka returned to the asrama. Finding him unusually restless and dejected, the father asked him whether anyone

away. Rsyasrnga felt a peculiar fascination for her and tried to please her by offering fruits etc. When she left him, he felt deeply distressed and unhappy. He was in

RSIKULYA. A
(salvation).

sacred river in ancient India. Mahabharata, Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 47 mentions that those who bathe in this river will attain Moksa

(M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 27, Verse 25)

.

RSYAMCKA. A

mountain. Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 9 states that Rama and Laksmana visited the sage Markandeya on the top of this mounhere that Rama and Laksmana met tain. It was Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 279, Sugriva. Verse 44 states that the river Pampa runs round the Rsyamuka mountain. RSYASR&GA. Son of the sage Vibhandaka. Vibhandaka, son of Ka^yapa was the father 1) Birth. of Rsyasrnga. There is a strange story about him in the Mahabharata. Once sage Vibhandaka happened to see Urvasl at

Rsyasrhga who was an entire stranger world told his father that a handsome youth of irresistible charm had visited him during Vibhandaka's absence. But fromRsyasrnga's description of the "youth" Vibhandaka understood that the visitor must have been a woman. But he could not guess who

had come

there.

to the feminine

it

was.

On
the

Rsyagrriga was enraptured and before his father's return, they left the asrama. They entered the floating asrama in the boat and the woman set the boat sailing in the river. It glided slowly down the river and at last reached near the palace of Lomapada. They landed there and the King married his daughter Santa to

another occasion, the same woman came again to asrama in the absence of Vibhandaka. At her sight

Rsyasrnga.

To

sight of her, the sage had an involuntary emission of semen. The semen fell in the water and just then a female deer came there to drink water. It swallowed the semen with water and in due course became pregnant and gave birth to a human child. But the child had the horns of a deer. Conse-

Mahahrada. At the very

quently Vibhandaka named the boy "RsyaSrnga". lived Vibhandaka and Rsyasrnga together in the aSrama. Rsyasrnga grew up into a youth, but he had never seen anyone except his father Vibhandaka. 2) Rainfall in the kingdom of Anga. At that time, the kingdom of Anga was ruled by Lomapada, a friend of Dasaratha. Once he cheated a Brahmana. Consequently all the Brahmanas in that country left the place and emigrated to other lands. From that time there was no rain in the land of Anga. A severe drought and famine followed. Lomapada invited devout Brahmanas and consulted them how they could bring rain to the land. They told him that if he could get a Muni (sage) who had never seen women to perform a yaga, there would be rainfall in the land. The King sent his men far and wide to find a Muni who had never set eyes on a woman At last he got news that Rsyasrnga, son of Vibhandaka was the sage who had never seen women. He then began to plan how RsyasVnga could be brought over to Anga. Lomapada called together some prostitutes and asked them whether they could bring Rsyasrnga to his country. All except one of them said it was quite

appease Vidhandaka, Lomapada sent him rich presents and much wealth. When Vibhandaka returned to his as'rama he was met by the King's servants who had brought the presents and wealth. Ignoring them and their rich presents, the furious Maharsi set out to the city of Campa, the capital of the Anga Kingdom. At the royal command, Vibhandaka was welcomed by the people with honour. When the sage found that the whole kingdom belonged to his son, his anger was allayed. After ordering his son to return to his asrama after the birth of a son, Vibhandaka left the palace. As a result of Rsyasrhga's yaga there was rainfall in Anga and famine ended. After the birth of his child he returned to the forest as ordered by his father. (M.B.

a yaga for the purpose. Lomapada sent Rsya'rnga to Ayodhya at the invitation of Dasaratha. He arrived at Ayodhya and performed a yaga called Putrakamesti. From the sacrificial fire there arose a dark monstrous
figure,

Aranya Parva, Chapters 110-112). King Dasaratha of Ayodhya 3) RsyaSrnga in Ayodhya. had no children for a long time. His Minister Sumantra advised him to invite Rsyasrnga to perform

with a pot of pudding in his hand. Dasaratha it from him and gave one half of it to Kausalya and the other half to Kaikeyi. Both of them gave half of their shares to Sumitra. Thus Sumitra got two shares while the other two wives of Dasaratha got only one share each. As a result Kausalya and Kaikeyi gave birth to a son each, while Sumitra had two sons. Kausalya's son was named Rama, Kaikeyl's son was
received

RTAI
Bharata and Sumitra's
14-16).

653

RTUPARNA
yojanas in a day." The sage received that horse and presented it to Rtadhvaja, King of the lunar dynasty. Rtadhvaja mounted the horse and killed Patalaketu. It was Visvavasu who dropped this horse from Heaven. Patalaketu had once fallen in love with Vixvavasu's
daughter, Madalasa.
It

Laksmana and sons were Ramayana, Bala Kanda, Chapters Satrughna. (Valmiki

RTAI. One

RTA

of the 11 Rudras. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 150, Verse 12). RTA II. See under the word Pramrta.

was

RTADHVAJA
A
1

"truth". This word has a general meaning Besides in Agni Purana, Chapter 152, we see that it also means "Something obtained by begging". RTADHAMA. Another name of Sri Krsna. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 342, Verse 62).
III.
;

had done

in revenge that

Visvavasu

like this.
II.

RTADHVAJA
his son.

A

I.

a storm. Uttanka, a sage who lived in the Ujjalaka was the person who neighbourhood of suffered most from Dhundhu's misdeeds. Brhadasva, of Iksvaku dynasty and father of Kuvalasva to his in his old age entrusted the rule of the country son and prepared to go to the forest. At that time, sage Uttanka came there and advised the King to go Brhadasva to the forest only after killing Dhundhu. called his son Kuvalasva and after giving him the task of killing Dhundhu, proceeded to the forest. Kuvalasva had 21,000 sons. Leading them, he went to the desert Ujjalaka to kill Dhundhu. Uttanka declared that anyone who killed Dhundhu would get part of Mahavisnu's strength. Kuvalasva 's sons surrounded Dhundhu. The Asura awoke with anger. In the fire from his eyes, all the 21,000 sons of Kuvalasva were burnt to ashes. Next Kuvalasva came into conflict with Dhundhu. In that fight Dhundhu was killed. The gods gave Kuvala'va many boons. From that day, Kuvala'va "Dhundhumara" (one who killed got the name, Dhundhu) (M.B. Vana Parva, 4 Chapters from 201 ). Kuvalasva had three more sons named 3) His sons. Drdhasva, Kapilasva and Candrasva, or Bhadrasva besides the 21,000 sons. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 204, Verse 40). 4) Vamana Purana, Chapter 59 gives the following account of how Kuvalasva won the favour of sage Galava. Long ago while sage Galava was performing tapas in his aSrama, an Asura called Patalaketu used to disturb
like
.

famous King of the Iksvaku dynasty. From Visnu were descended in the Genealogy. ) following order Brahma Marici Kas yapa Vivasvan Vikuksi Iksvaku Sasada Vaivasvata Manu Adri Kakutstha Anenas Prthula.' va Vi svaga:' va Kuvalasva (Dhundhumara). The most name Dhundhumdra. got the 2) How he heroic exploit of Kuvalasva or Kuvalayasva was his killing of the Asura Dhundhu. Madhu and Kaitabha were two Asuras born from the ears of Mahavisnu. The Asura Dhundhu was their son. After his birth, Mahavisnu killed Madhu and Kaitabha. Dhundhu was furious over the death of his He worshipped Brahma who granted him fathers. unconquerable strength. After defeating the gods he went to the desert called Ujjalaka and lay beneath the sands. Whenever he heaved a sigh clouds of dust rose up to the sky and the earth shook for seven days. It caused great damage to life and property in the world,

(KUVALA$VA DHUNDHUMARA).

RTAMBHARA. An

word Visvakarma).

(For further details, see Para

Maharsi (sage). The sage Jabali was under the 2

Kamadhenu and obtained a Visnu. The son's name was

RTASTUBH A Muni

with Sri Rama's Asvamedhayaga, Satrughna who was leading the horse, arrived in Satyavan's city during his tour of the eastern lands. (Padma Purana, Patala Khanda, Chapter 30).
(sage) celebrated
in

He worshipped ancient King. son who was a devotee of Satyavan. In connection

(Rgveda. 1st Mandala. 16th Anuvaka, 112th Sukta). RTAYU. See under Kalihga. RTEYU I. A king of the Lunar dynasty. RTEYU II. A Maharsi (sage) of the western country. He was a rtvik (priest officiating at a yaga) of Varuna. (M.B. AnuSasana Parva, Chapter 150, Verse 36). RTUKALA. The time that is most auspicious for sexual intercourse for a woman with her husband. In ancient India certain days were prescribed as the best period for women to become pregnant. This period is called Rtukala. (Rtu Menstruation. Kala time, period.) The sixteen days following menstruation are supposed to be good; but the first three days are not very good and it is advisable not to have sexual intercourse during those days. The next even days beginning with the
fourth day (4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, 12th, 14th and 16th) are the best days for coitus if a male issue (a son) is desired. The odd days (5th, 7th, 9th, llth 13th, 15th) are to be preferred if a female issue (daughter) is desired.

the Rgveda.

RTUPARNA. A

ing order-Brahma-Kasyapa-Vivasvan-Vaivasvata ManuIksvaku-Vikuksi-Sas'ada-Puranjaya-Kakutstha Anenas-

(Agni Purana, Chapter 151). king of the Iksvaku dynasty. 1. From Visnu were descended in the followGenealogy.

Prthula$va-Prasenajit-Yuvanava-Mandhata-PurukutsaTrasadasyu-Anaranya-Aryasva Vasumanas SutanvaHariscandraSatyavrata (Trisanku) Trayyaruna Rohitasva-Harita - Cuncu - Sudeva - Bharuka- Sagara-

Asamanjasa-Arhsuman -Bhaglratha-Srutanabha-Sindhudvipa-Ayutayus-Rtuparna.
2
i)
)

Other Details.

Nala's incognito life. While Nala was wandering in the dense forest after leaving Damayanti, he was bitten by the serpent, Karkotaka. His complexion turned blue owing to the effect of the poison. Karkotaka gave him a garment by wearing which Nala could regain his form. As advised by Karkotaka, Nala went to the palace of assuming the 'name Rtuparna, king of Ayodhya, Bahuka. He lived there as the chief charioteer of the king. He had mastered the art "Asvahrdaya" by which he could drive the chariot-horses with astonishing speed. Rtuparna appointed him as his chief charioteer and gave

down from
saying

his meditations regularly. One day, the sage looked up to Heaven and heaved a sigh. At once a horse dropped

him two assistants, Varsneya Aranya Parva, Chapter 67).
Damayanti came
parna's
palace,
(ii)

and

Jivala.

(M.B.,

mysterious voice was heard "This mighty horse will travel thousands of
the
sky.

A

Rtuparna

and

second marriage of Damayanti. that Nala was living in Rtuthrough the messenger Parnada. She
the

to

know

RTUSTHALA
sent a secret

654

RUDRA
Rudhirasana
of Sri
etc. All

"Aksahrdaya" and he taught it to Nala. In return for Nala taught the king the art of Asvahrdaya. At last they reached the city of Vidarbha. Damayanti managed to recognize Nala even in his disguise. Rtuparna who was happy over the reunion of Nala and Damayanti returned to Ayodhya on the next day. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 77). RTUSTHALA. A Celestial damsel. In Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 122, we find that she attended the birth
it,

to Ayodhya through a Brahmana that her second marriage was fixed for the next day and that Rtuparna should attend the ceremony. Rtuparna started at once with Bahuka as his On the way, Rtuparna's cloak happened to charioteer. fall down from the chariot. At once he asked Nala to stop the chariot. But he told him that within a moment, the chariot had covered a distance of one yojana from the place where the cloak fell. They saw a tree in the forest which was heavily laden with fruit. Rtuparna was able to tell at a glance, the exact number of leaves and fruits on that tree. He told Nala that he was able to do so with the help of the art

named Sudeva

mesage

Rama.

of them were killed by

the

arrow

(Valmlki
of Siva.

Ramayana,

Aranya,

Kanda

RUDRA. A form
1 )

Sarga 26).

The birth of Rudra is from Brahma. Even before the creation of the Prajapatis, Brahma had created Sanandana, Sanaka, Sanatana and Sanatkumara. These four were not desirous of mundane pleasures and were not prepared to beget children. They were great sages and scholars, of abstinence and without any discord and animosity. When these four showed no interest at all in the creation of the world, Brahma became angry to such an extent that he was prepared to destroy the three worlds. At that time the whole of the three worlds shone in the radiance that emanated from the fire of the fury of Brahma. Then from his shining eyebrows which were curved with fury, a figure of unbearable radiance like the mid-day sun came out. That figure was Rudra. Half of the fierce body of that Rudra who was very furious, was a woman and the other half was a man. Brahma, saying, "Divide
General
information.

RTVA. A Deva Gandharva. Mahabharata, Adi
Chapter 122
states that

festival of

body", disappeared. Instantly Rudra
the figure of a

Arjuna.

he had taken part in Arjuna's
a yaga.

Parva,

RTVIK. A

birth-festival.

Priest

who

officiates at

split himself into the figure of a woman. He again divided the body of the man into eleven parts. These eleven figures are the eleven Rudras. The names of the eleven Rudras are given differently in different Puranas. In a text it is said that the eleven

man and

Those who perform yagas like Agnisandhana, Agnistoma, Pakayana etc. are called Rtviks. v Manusmrti, Chapter 2,
(The mountain Rucaka) A mountain standing near the mountain Mahameru. It is mentioned in Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 8, that there are twenty mountains including Rucaka on the four sides of

Rudras
vrata.

are,

Manyu, Manu, Mahmasa, Mahan, Siva, Rtu-

RUCAKAPARVATA.

Verse 143).

dhvaja, Ugraretas, Bhava,

RUCI

Mahameru.
I.

A

celestial

maid

maid danced
of the
visit

of Alakapurl.

This

According to some other Puranas, the eleven Rudras are Aja, Ekapada (Ekapat) ,Ahirbudhnya, Tvasta, Rudra, Hara, Sambhu, Tryambaka, Aparajita, Isana and Tribhuvana. Brahma apportioned to the eleven Rudras the eleven positions of the heart, the five organs and the organs of action and to Rudra of senses
the eight positions of life, ether, air, fire, water, earth, the sun and the moon. It was said before that Rudra was divided into man and woman. From the womanportion eleven Rudranis came into being. They were Dhi, Vrtti, Us"ana, Urna, Niyuta, Sarpis, Ila, Ambika, Iravatl, Sudha and Diksa. The eleven Rudranis became the wives of the eleven Rudras. (Visnu Purana, Arhsa 1.

Kama, Vamadevaand Dhrta-

celestial

in the Palace of

of Astavakra. Stanza 44). RUCI II. A son of Brahma and a Prajapati. This prajapati married Akuti the daughter of Manu Svayambhuva. A son and a daughter were born to Ruci of Akuti. The son was the incarnation of Visnu. He was named Yajna. The daughter who was incarnation of Mahalaksmi was named Daksina. Yajna was brought up in the hermitage of Svayambhuva and Daksina grew up in the hermitage of Ruci. When they grew up Yajna married Daksina. Twelve sons, named Tosa, Santosa, Pratosa, Bhadra, Sand, Idaspati, Idhma, Kavi, Vibhu, Vahni, Sudeva and Rocana, were born to the couple. In the time of Manu Svayambhuva these twelve were called the Tusitas, a group of devas (gods). RUCI III. The wife of the hermit named Devasarma. (For detailed story see under Vipula) RUCI PARVA. Son of the king Akrti. In the Bharata battle, to save Bhimasena, Ruciparva confronted the elephant of Bhagadatta and was killed by Bhagadatta. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 26, Stanza 51) RUC1RASVA. A king of the Lunar dynasty. (Bhagavata,

Kubera on the occasion (M.B. Anusasana Parva,

Chapter

19,

Chapter

.

.

RUDHIRAMBHAS. A
RUDHIRASANA. A
Sri

Skandha 9)
Kala).

2) Other information regarding Rudra. Details about the orgin, life, character etc. of Rudra which occur in other Puranas are given below. (i) Thirtythree children were born to Prajapati Ka<yapa, by his wife Aditi, as Adityas, Vasus, Rudras and ASvins. (Valmlki Ramayana, Aranya Kanda, Sarga 14) (ii) From the fury of Brahma, Rudra was born; from the lap of Brahma, Narada was born from the right thumb, Daksa; from the mind, Sanaka and the others; and from the left thumb, a daughter named Virani was born. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 7). In the beginning of Kalpa (Age of Brahma) (iii) Brahma meditated upon getting a child like himself and a child of blue complexion appeared on his lap. He ran here and there crying aloud. Brahma asked him "Why are you crying?" He replied: "I must be named."
. ;

7).

.

Because

hell.

(See

under

the

word

giant-chief who came to fight with the leadership of the giant Khara. In that fight the captains of the army of the giants were

Rama, under

he was crying (doing rodana) Brahma named him Rudra (He who cries). He cried seven times more. Brahma gave him seven more names. They were Bhava, Sarva, Isana, Pasupati, Bhima, Ugra and Mahadeva. Thus there were eight Rudras. To each of them, Brahma gave a position and wives and children.

KUDRAKETU
The Sun,
water, earth, has taken vow and the
their positions

655
air,
fire,

RUDRAMARGA
sins incurred

moon were

ether, Brahmin who allotted to them as

RUDRAKETU. An

Two sons named Devantaka and Narantaka were born to this asura by his wife Sarada The hermit Narada was greatly pleased at the valour of these two sons, and taught them "Pancaksarimahavidya." Devantaka and Narantaka, who became haughty and arrogant by their prowess were killed by Ganapati. (Canes a Purana, Kriya Kanda 2) RUDRAKOTI. A holy place in North India. Once a large
asura.
.

and figures. Their wives were Suvarcala, Usa, Vikesi Siva, Svaha, Dlsa, DIksa and Rohini. This world is filled by the sons and grandsons and so on of these wives. Their sons respectively were Sanaiscara Sukra, Lohitanga, Manojava, Skanda, Sarga, Santana This Rudra who is described above, and Budha. married SatI the daughter of Prajapati Daksa. (Visnu Purana, Arhsa 1, Chapter 8). (For further information see under SlVA also)
.

by eating food which ought not to have been eaten and enjoying woman who ought not to have been enjoyed, could be obtained. All sorts of sins would be absolved by five-faced rudraksa. With six faces; Six-faced rudraksa is the six-faced god Karttikeya. By wearing it on the right hand, remission from all sins, beginning with Brahmahatya could be
obtained.

With seven faces: Rudraksa with seven faces is the If this is worn, sins such figure of Kamadeva (Cupid). as theft of gold etc. could be removed. Eight faces; Rudraksa with eight faces is the figure of Vinayaka, the general of the great army. By wearing of low this, sins incurred by deceit such as selling rice
quality

.

number of hermits gathered

Parva, Chapter 82, Stanza 118). RUDRAKSA. (Elaco Carpus seeds) Beads for rosaries. A holy thing worn by devotees. 1) General information. InthePuranas much importance is attached to Rudraksa. In Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 11, there is a story stating how Rudraksa came to be honoured in this way. Once there lived an asura chief who was mighty and valiant. His name wds Tripura. He defeated Devas and deva chiefs and became emperor of the asuras. The Devas were much grieved because of him. They went to Siva and represented their grievances. Siva thought for a while, how to kill Tripura, and sat with open epes. This sitting continued for a thousand divine years. After this prolonged time Siva winked his eyes and tears fell down from them. The Rudraksa tree originated from these From the Sun-eye of Siva twelve types of tears.

in this place to worship Siva. Greatly pleased at this Siva appeared before them in the form of many phalluses. From that day onwards the place Rudrakoti became a holy place. (M.B. Vana

as good quality, keeping false weights and measures, giving gold of lower carat as good carat gold, by enjoying woman of wicked families, touching the wife of teacher, and so many other kinds of sins would be absolved, and impediments would be avoided and finally one can attain supernal bliss. With nine faces :-This rudraksa is the figure of Bhairava. This should be worn on the left hand. By doing so

one would become as mighty as god and would become devoted to god and would attain salvation. The sins incurred by killing the child in the womb a thousand times and killing Brahmins a hundred times would be
:

got rid of by wearing this rudraksa. This is the figure of the real Janardana. With ten faces If one wears this, the devils, wicked planets, Ghosts, goblins, spirits haunting funeral places, Brahmaraksasas (a kind of demon) etc. will not come near him. Moreover, snake-bite would not affect him. Rudraksa with eleven faces is the With eleven faces figure of the Eleven Rudras. This should be worn on the head. By doing so one could obtain the fruits of performing a thousand horse-sacrifices and a hundred Vajapeyayagas (A kind of sacrifice).
:

Rudraksas came into being; from the moon-eye sixteen kinds of Rudraksas and from the fire-eye ten kinds of Rudraksas originated. Those which originated from the Sun-eye are bloodcoloured, those from the moon-eye white Rudraksas and from the fire-eye black rudraksas. Boiled Rudraksa is considered a Brahmin caste, red rudraksa a Ksatriya caste, white one a Vaisya caste and the black rudraksa a Sudra caste.
Division of rudraksa based on quality. The division of rudraksa according to the number effaces, and qualities thereof are given below: With one face: Rudraksa with only one face is the figure of Siva. By wearing this remission from the sin of Brahmahatya could be procured. With two faces: Rudraksa with two faces is the figure of Devldeva. This is known by the name "Gaurisankara". By wearing this remission from all sins committed knowingly and unknowingly, would be obtained. With three faces: This is the figure of Agni (fire). By wearing this the sin incurred by Strihatya (killing a woman ) would be washed away. With four faces: Rudraksa with four faces is the figure of Brahma. By wearing this, the sin incurred by Narahatya (killing a man) could be got rid of. With five faces: This is the figure of Kalagni (Fire of Kala the God of death). By wearing this, remission of
2)

Rudraksa with twelve faces is the With twelve faces dwelling place of the twelve Adityas. This should be worn on the ear. If it is done so, the sun-god will be pleased. The wearer will obtain the fruits of performing horse-sacrifice, cow-sacrifice etc. He will not be wounded by animals with horns, or quills or teeth. He need not fear disease or worry. He need not fear to go anywhere. Wherever he goes he will be honoured as God. All the sins incurred by slaughter of elephant, man, snake, rat, frog etc. will instantly be absolved.
:
:

He who wears rudraksa with With thirteen faces thirteen faces will be equal to Karttikeya. All his wishes rasa (mercury) and will be realized. He will get medicine) and all the pleasures and rasayana (sweetened
luxuries of the world. The great sins of killing parents, brothers etc. will be removed.
:

He who wears rudraksa with With fourteen faces fourteen faces will be exactly like the real Paramasiva. He who wears thirty3) The mode of wearing Rudraksa. two rudraksas on the neck, forty on the head, six on each ear, twelve on each hand, sixteen on each of the upper arms, one on each eye, one on the lock of hair, and one hundred and eight on the chest is really Sri Nllakantha Paramasiva Himself.

RUDRAMARGA. A
fast is

taken in

Indra. (M.B.

Vana

this place,

holy place. If a day and a night's one will attain the world of Parva, Chapter 83, Stanza 181).

RUDRAlVl
RUDRAtfl.
details see

656

RUKMl
1 General information. ) King of the Province Bhojakata in the country of Vidarbha. It is stated in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Stanza 62, that this Rukml was born from a portion of the Asura named

RUDRA^lRUDRA. A

Another name of Parvatl. (For further under Parvati)
.

RUKMl.

holy place in India. It is mentioned in Mahabhiirata, Anusasana Parva, Chapter 19, Stanza 31, that the great hermit Asjavakra visited this holy place, on his journey to the northern countries.

Krodhavasa.
Birth.

RUDRATA. A
century A.D.

mentioned in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 82, Stanza 100, that if Siva is worshipped in this holy place, one will obtain the fruits of performing the horse sacrifice. RUDRAROMA. An attendant of Subrahmanya. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 7). RUDRASAVAR^I. A Manu. (See under Manvantara) RUDRASENA. A King who was the helper of Yudhisthira. Mention is made about this King in Mahabharata, Drona Parva, Chapter 158, Stanza 39).
holy place in India. It
is
.

RUDRAPADA. A

Two
62).

2)

and Rukmini. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter

Father of Rukmi was the king Bhismaka. children were born to Bhismaka, named Rukmi
31, Stanza

Sanskrit critic who lived in the 9th The famous Book of criticism known as "Kavyalankara", was written by this scholar who

this and so he confronted Sri Krsna. In the contest Sri Krsna reviled him. Rukmi got angry at this and went to Kailasa and did penance before Siva. Siva appeared before him after three years, and gave him a bow for destroying the enemies. Siva told him that it would be broken, only if it was used against Mahavisnu. After getting this bow he returned to Bhojakata and lived

Rukmim by

3) Getting a bow.

force

Krsna Sri and married

took
her.

Rukml 's sister Rukmi did not like

there.

RUDRAVARTTA. A

holy place. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Stanza 37, that by taking a bath in this holy place, one could attain heaven. RUHA. Daughter of Surasa, the mother of Nagas. She

belonged to Kashmir.

4) The
i

( ) accepted the suzerainty of Sahadeva at the time of his regional conquest. (M.B. Sabha Parva, 21, Stanza 62). Chapter at the time of his (ii) Rukmi paid tribute to

Rukmi

details regarding

Rukml, given

in the

Mahabharata.

Kama

had two

RUKMAKESX'. The

Anala and Vlrudha. Parva, Daksinatya Patha, Chapter 66)
sisters called
.

(M.B.

Adi

regional conquest.

Stanza 14).
(iii)

(M.B. Vana

Parva, Chapter 254,

The Panda vas had
the

sent invitation to

Rukml

for the
11,

RUKMA&GADA

youngest of the five sons of Bhismaka, King of Vidarbha. (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha) A son of Salya the King of Madra. I. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Stanza 14, that this Rukmangada, the brother of Rukmaratha, attended the Svayamvara (marriage) of
.

Bharata-battle.

RUKMA5IGADA
Dharmangada.

Draupadi.

Father of a Vaisnavite named II. This Rukmangada was the son of Rtadhvaja, the King of the city of Vidisa. (See under
.

Rukmi, was known 'Hiranyaroma' also. Rukmi became He accepted famous throughout all the countries. Druma, a famous Kimpurusa (Kinnara) as his teacher in archery. Druma presented him with a bow called This Vijaya was on a par with the Gandlva. Vijaya. Rukmi fought with Sri Krsna and was defeated. The place at which he was defeated by Sri Krsna is known
father

Stanza 16). (iv) Bhismaka,
the

(M.B. Udyoga Parva,
of

Chapter

by

name

RUKMARATHA

Dharmangada )

RUKMARATHA

Chapter 185, Verse 14). (ii) In the great war he fell unconscious shot by the arrows of Sveta. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 47, Verse 48) in the great war. (iii) He was killed by Abhimanyu ( Drona Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 9 ) RUKMARATHA II. A synonym of Dronacarya. As he rode in a golden chariot Drona came to be known by this name. (Virata Parva, Chapter 58, Verse 2).
. .

Son of Salya, King of Madra. attended the wedding of Draupadi in the (i) He company of his father and brothers. (Adi Parva,
I.

III. A particular sect of Trigartta Kings, who fought on the side of the Kauravas in the great war. (Drona Parva, Chapter 112, Verse 19). This sect of Kings attacked Arjuna. RUKMAREKHA. The wife of King Raibhya. She was the mother of Ekavali. (See under Ekavali). RUKMASUKRA. N son of Priyavrata the brother of

Rukmi went to Duryodhana and promised to help him. But Duryodhana also rejected his help. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 158). 5 ) Death of Rukmi. Discontented with everybody, Rukmi lived in Bhojakata, having no contact with any body. During this period the king of Kalinga once approached Rukmi and advised him The for a game of dice.

After having been defeated by Sri Krsna, a thought arose in the mind of Rukmi to keep amity and concord with Sri Krsna. Knowing this, the Pandavas invited Rukmi to their palace. He promised his help if ever Arjuna feared to do battle. At this Arjuna laughed and said that he was not in need of any help. After this

as Bhojakata.

Uttanapada. Prajapati ViSvakarma gave in marriage to Priyavrata, his two daughters Surupa and Barhismati, who were exceedingly beautiful and good-natured. By the first wife, ten sons were born to him. Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 8). RUKMAVATl. The daughter of Rukml. Pradyumna married this lady. Aniruddha was the son born to

to challenge Balabhadrarama challenge was made knowing that Balabhadra was not a good player. Knowing that to reject a challenge was not honourable, Balabhadra went to play the game. Rukmi won the first round of game. Staking everything, the second round of the

Pradyumna of Rukmavati (Bhagavata, Skandha

10).

with Rukmi. Instantly an ethereal voice said "BalabhaThe friends of Rukmi drarama has won the game." did not accept the ethereal voice. They began to create a tumult in the hall. Balabhadrarama who became furious at this ridicule took a pestle of iron and killed

But game began and Balabhadra won the game. Rukmi and the king of Kalinga did not accept the All the kings who witnessed the game sided victory.

RUKMINI
Rukmi with one
blow.

657

RURUI
vati
fire." (M.B. Mausala Parva, Chapter There is a statement in the 7) The Palace of Rukmini. Mahabharata, Daksinatya Patha, Sabha Parva, Chapter "Vis"vakarma built 28, about the palace of Rukmini.

The

rest

RUKMINI. The
1 )

chief queen of Sri Krsna. the following Puranic statements, it could be understood that Rukmini was the incarnation of goddess Laksmi. her portions, took birth in (i) "Sri Devi (Laksmi) by the earth as Rukmini in the family of Bhlsmaka".
Birth.

the place.

(Bhagavata, Skandha

of the kings fled from
10).

jumped
7,

into

the

Stanza 73).

From

(M.B, Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Stanza 156). birth as the daughter (ii) Formerly Laksmi Devi took of Bhrgu by his wife Khyati. Next she took birth from the sea of Milk at the time of the churning of it by the combined efforts of the devas and the asuras, to take Amrta (ambrosia). When Visnu took birth as Aditya, Laksmi took birth from lotus. When Visnu incarnated as Paras urama Laksmi Devi became the earth-goddess. In the incarnation of Sri Rama she became Sita and in that of Sri Krsna she was Rukmini. (Visnu Purana, Arnsa 1, Chapter 9). It was in the kingdom of Vidarbha that Laksmi Devi took birth as Rukmini during the incarnation of Sri Krsna. To Bhlsmaka, the King of Vidarbha, five sons beginning with Rukmi, were born. The sixth was a daughter who was named Rukmini. She grew up into a beautiful damsel. (Bhagavata, Skandha 10). Rukmini fell in love with Sri Krsna. Her 2) Marriage. parents agreed to her choice. But her brother Rukmi was an enemy of Sri Krsna. Rukmi desired to give his sister to Sisupala. The date of the marriage was fixed and the heart was burning within Rukmini. She sent a Brahmin as messenger to Krsna. The time of marriage drew near. The kings of Ahga, Kalinga, Malava, Kekaya, Vanga, Magadha, Kosala, Salva, Cola, Pandya, Kerala and so on took their seats Sri Krsna and Balabhadra came in the nuptial hall. with their army. The army under the leadership of Balabhadra remained behind and Sri Krsna went alone While preparations were being to the nuptial hall. made to give Rukmini to Sisupala, Sri Krsna took her All the other in his chariot and quickly left the place. kings who ran after Sri Krsna to fight had to confront
with the mighty army of Balabhadra, who defeated the kings and returned to Dvaraka. (Bhagavata, Skandha
10). It is mentioned in Bhagavata, 3) Sons. that ten sons were born to Sri Krsna Suca.ru,

a palace for Sri Krsna at the instance of Indra. The dome of it is covered with gold. So this dome dazzled as the peak of Mahameru. It was this dome that was set apart for his beloved wife Rukmini by Sri
highest

RUMA

Krsna".
I.

A

noble

woman

obtained from the sea of Milk

at the time of its churning by the devas and the asuras to get Amrta (Celestial honey of immortality). At the

were obtained from the sea of Milk. Jyestha, Airavata, Uccaibsravas,Kalpa tree, Cintamani, Kaustubha, Candra (Moon), Celestial maids, nymphs of heaven, Mahalaksmi, Tara, Ruma and so on were some of them.

time of the churning,

many

beautiful

and noble things

RUMA

of the famous

(Kamba Ramayana, Yuddha Kanda) II. The wife of Sugrlva. She was
.

the

(Brahmanda Purana, 3:7:221). After driving Sugrlva away from Kiskindha, Bali took Ruma by force. After the death
of Bali,

monkey

called

Panasa.

daughter

Ruma

returned to

RUM WAN

Purana 4:' 112:161). There was Ruma also, among the women who came to see Sri Rama on his return to Kiskindha after visiting Vibhlsana. (Padma Purana, Srsti Khanda). RUMANVAN. Son of Supratlpa, a captain of the army ofUdayana. (See under Udayana) A II. The eldest of the five sons born to Jamadagni by his wife Renuka. The sons of Jamadagni and were, Rumanvan, Susena, Vasu, Visvavasu ParaSurama. It was Rumanvan that Jamadagni ordered to kill Renuka who was late in fetching water from the river. But Rumanvan did not obey his father. The angry hermit cursed Rumanvan. According to the curse Rumanvan became dull-witted like birds and beasts. ( M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 116, Stanza 10). RUPAKA. See under Pattu (Ten) RUPAVAHIKA. A country in ancient India. Mention is made about this country in Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 50, Stanza 43.
.

yana,

Kiskindha

Kanda,

Sugrlva. (Valmlki Chapter 20, 21

;

RamaPadma

They were Pradyumna, Carudesna, Sudesna, Carudeha,
the description

Skandha 10, by Rukmini.

RUPAVATl. A

harlot

who

lived

in

Carugupta, Bhadracaru, Carucandra, Carubhadra and Caru. But a slight difference is observed in
of
the

RUPAVIDYA. The
shown
as

mentioned in Padma Purana, Patala Khanda, that Rupavatl and her lover Devadasa attained salvation by adopting the life of a house-holder in the forest.
figure of Devi.
sitting

Tretayuga.

It

is

sons

of

33 and 34.

Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva, Chapter
to the chariot

Rukmini given
14,

in

Stanzas

4) Yoked

by Durvdsas.

See under Durvasas,

The figure of Devi, with twelve hands, is called Rupavidya. (Agni Purana, Chapter 50) RUPINA. A son born to the emperor Ajamidha by his
.

wife Kesini.

He had

Para
5)

3.

Consoled Arjuna.

After

Arjuna

visited Dvaraka. without rulers and the women without husbands, he Rukmini Devi ran to him and consoled cried aloud. him and seated him on a golden chair. (M.B. Mausala Parva, Chapter 5, Stanza 12).

the death of Sri Krsna, Seeing the dilapidated city

RURU
1

Vraja. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Stanza 32) I. A hermit famous in the Puranas.
)

two brothers named Jahnu and
.

order:

Genealogy. Descended from Visnu in the following Brahma-Bhrgu -Cyavana - Pramati - Ruru.

2) Birth.

Bhrgu

6) Death. After the death of Sri Krsna, Rukmini, with the other wives of Sri Krsna jumped into a burning pyre and died.

beautiful Puloma was the wife of Bhrgu. the son Cyavana by Puloma. Cyavana married Sukanya the daughter of Saryati. son named

The

got

"Saibya, Rukmini, Gandhari, HaimavatI and Jamba-

Pramati was born to them. The hermit Pramati married the beautiful damsel Pratapl. Ruru is their son. He grew up to be a famous hermit. (Devi Bhagavata,

A

Skandha

2)

.

RURU

II

658

SABALASVA
Once Indra and Rumania
world. Both
got

II

3) Marriage.
beautiful

Ruru happened to see the exceedingly Pramadvara the daughter of Visvavasu by Menaka. The moment he saw her he fell in love with her. The father of Pramadvara came to know of this and he decided to give her in marriage to Ruru. made. One Preparations for the marriage were being that time Pramadvara who had been runday during ning here and there joyfully, was bitten by a snake and she fell down dead. Ruru instantly reached the Ruru who was
to the

greatly sad and disappointed, got down Ganges and bathed. Then rinsing his mouth he took some water in his hand and said "By the favour of God I have acquired by my devotion and worship of gods, devotion and service to my teacher,

spot.

kept the conditions. The question arose as to who won the bet. The devas gave the decision, "Kuruksetra is the dais of Brahma, and so Kuruksetra contains the entire world. Therefore both Indra and Rusama were declared to have won the bet." RUSAixtGU. An ancient hermit. Once the great hermit Arstisena came to the hermitage of Rusangu and did severe penance. ViSvamitra obtained Brahmanatva

bet on going round the ready and started. But RuSama walked round Kuruksetra and returned, while Indra travelled the whole of the way round the world and

If she does not come to life, I will die in this Ganges water." Making this prayer, making the gods witnesses he poured the water down. Immediately a messenger from heaven appeared in the sky and said that she would come to life again provided Ruru was prepared to give half of his life to her. Ruru
(
.

my worship with Gayatrl, my and meditation, my penance, my offerings to prayer, the holy fire, and my oblations, let her come to life.
by

my

scripture-study,

Prthudakatlrtha and sang laudatory songs about Prthudakatlrtha. Rusangu said that those who did penance and died in this holy bath would not have to Salya Parva, undergo miseries after death. (M.B. Chapter 39, Stanza 24). RUSARDDHIKA. A wicked King of the Saurastra

(Brahminhood ) by doing penance in wards the end of his life Rusangu and

this

place.

Toto

his sons

came

RUYYAKA

killed his wife. He wandered about destroying every serpent he came across. Finally when he confronted Dundubna he was given exhortations and good advices regarding righteousness by Dundubhla. (M.B. Adi Parva Chapter 9, Stanza 19 ). Moreover it is mentioned in

agreed to it. Thus Pramadvara came to life again and Ruru married her. Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 2 ) 4) Hatred towards Serpents. A relentless hatred grew up in the heart of Ruru against serpents, because a serpent

had

dynasty. Mention is made about this King in Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 74, Stanza 14. (RUCIKA). A Sanskrit playwright who He has another name lived in the 12th century. 'Rucika' also. The book of criticism called "Alankarasarvasva" is written by him. He was the teacher of Mankha, the author of Srlkanthacarita'. Some are of opinion that Ruyyaka had written only the Sutras in the book 'Alankarasarvasva' and that the gloss or commentary was given by Mankha. Some of the other works of Rucika are Sahrdayallla, Alankaranusarani
etc.

Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter
taken a

RURU

A mighty and valiant Asura. After procuring a boon from Brahma, Ruru became arrogant and attacked the realm of gods. The Devas who were defeated by Ruru ran to the Blue mountain and prostratII.

meant

for the extermination of serpents.

12, that Ruru had lively interest in the sacrifice of Janamejaya

ed before the goddess Sakti, who had been doing penance there. This goddess Sakti had been born from the matted hair of Siva. Ruru followed the Devas and reached the Blue mountain. When Devi saw Ruru and his mighty army a loud laugh burst out from her. From that laugh thou-

sands of devilish figures came into existence. They completely annihilated the army of Ruru. After this Devi killed Ruru with the nail of her toe. ( Padma
'

S Sa means to lie down and also Samkara. 'Sam' means comfort or happiness. (Agni Purana, Chapter 348). SA (T). Sa means noble, sublime. (Agni Purana, Chapter '348). SA (?T). The sound 'Sa' means indirect; 'Sa, Laksml (Goddess of wealth and prosperity) and 'sam' means hair. (Agni Purana, Chapter 348). CABALA. A naga born to Kasyapaprajapati of his wife Kadru. (Adi Parva, Chapter 85, Verse 7). SABALAKSA. A divine maharsi. He once visited Bhisma. ( Anus"asana Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 7) SABALASVA I. The thousand sons born to Daksa of

A

(ST).

The

letter

.

his wife Virarri, are

known
first

ate
his

man-kind Daksa
wife

Asikni

and

as Sabalasvas. To procrecreated five hundred sons by

named

them
as

Purana, Srstf Khanda). RURUKA. A King of the Iksvaku dynasty. This King was a scholar in economics and administration. (Harivarhsa, 1 ; 13; 29). RUSABHANU. WifeofHiranyaksa, an asura. (Bhaga-

Daksa had

to create the SabalasVas

RUSADRATHA. A
RUSADRU. A
277).

vata,

Skandha

7).

King of the Aiiga family. the son of Titiksu and the father of Paila, a of the line of Vyasa's disciples. (Agni Purana,

He was
member
Chapter

RUAMA. A
A
*his priest.

King in ancient India. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, Stanza 13, that this King stays in the palace of Yama. Priest who had studied the Vedas well. about story occurs in the 'Pancavims'abrahmana',

to measure the extent of the earth and they have not Brahma, cursed that yet returned. Because of this Narada, instead of living at one place, should always be on the move. (Visnu Purana, Part 1, Chapter 15). SABALASVA II. King born in the dynasty of King Kuru. His father, Aviksit or Asvavan was the grandson of King Kuru. Aviksit had, besides Sabalasva, seven sons calied Parlksit, Adiraja Viraja, Salmali, UccaisY ravas, Bharhgakara and Jitari. (Adi Parva,

told the Sabalasvas also that it was not correct on their part to procreate children before they had studied the interior, exterior, bottom and top of the earth. Believing Narada's advice the Sabala^vas also set out

were misled by Narada. But, Narada approached and

Harya.'vas. the Harya.'vas

A

Chapter 94, Verse 52).

SAHARA
SABARA.

659

SABARIMALA
visit Sabarl had gathered a lot of fruits. Now, Rama and Laksmana came and Sabari received them most

A

mleccha

low

caste.

The

Mahabharata

Verse 16).

has the following about Sabaras. i Sabaras were born from the dung and urine of ( ) NandinI, the cow of Vasistha. (Adi Parva,' Chapter 174,

(Drona Parva, Chapter 119, Verse 46). In early days the Sabaras lived in the kingdom of Mandhata, their profession being murder and looting. (Santi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 13). the form of forest-dwellers (iv) Siva had once taken and Sabaras. (Anusasana Parva. Chapter 65, Verse
battle-field.
(iii)

the dead (ii) When Satyaki annihilated the Kauravas bodies of thousands of Sabaras were heaped on the

Ksatriyas lived for many years hidden in of Paras urama, and as they had no association with the period, they ksatriyas during became Sabaras. (AsVamedhika Parva, Chapter 29,
caves for

17). (v)

Many

fear

SABARl. A woman of the tribe of forest-dwellers. Sri Rama, during his life in the forest, gave her salvation.
1 )

Verse 15).

thus: "When you go a short distance southis the beautiful stream called Pampa. You cross Pampa and advance a little further and you will the top of that mountain reach mount Rsyamuka. lives Sugrlva, son of Sun, and if you enter into alliance with him you will succeed in finding out and getting Lord back Sita after annihilating the enemies. my salutations." After speaking thus, Sabari the great anchorite and chaste woman closed her eyes. Immediately she was transformed into Malini, the Gandharva damsel, and all at once a handsome Gandharva prince appeared there It was Vitihotra, the husband of in a divine plane. Malini. After saluting Sri Rama he took away his wife in a chariot to the Gandharva city. (Kamba Ramatold

respectfully. After herself biting each fruit to test its taste she gave the fruits for them to eat. The left-overs of Sabarl appeared as nectar to Rama. Then Sabarl

Rama

wards there

On

Oh

!

!

Sabarl, in her former life, was the only daughter Malini of the Gandharva King, Citrakavaca. An erudite scholar, Vitihotra, married her. As he was ever immersed in contemplation of Brahman his wife

Former

life.

SABARIMALA

yana, Aranyakanda)

.

Malini, (later Sabarl) kept one hunter, Kalmasa, as her paramour, and her husband cursed her thus "As you have become a lover of the hunter, you turn out to be a hunter-woman." 2) At the Suburbs of Matanga's hermitage. Malini in tears sought redemption from the curse from her husband, and he told her that she would get absolution from her infamy and the curse from Sri Rama. Immediately she was transformed into a hunter-woman and she came to the suburbs of Matangasrama.She took a special liking for the place, the reason being that the flowers in the agrama possessed a special fragrance. Once while the disciples were carrying a load of flowers for the muni (Matanga) a few drops of sweat from their bodies fell on the ground, and the muni blessed that the trees and creepers, which grew up from the sweat and their flowers would never fade. This is described as follows in Canto 73, Aranyakanda of Valmiki Ramayana. "Oh Rama nobody plucks and wears those flowers. They neither fade nor fall down. While the disciples of Matanga were carrying a load of flowers for him, they sweated on account of exhaustion and some drops of sweat fell on earth which developed themselves into flowers due to the prowess of the guru's tapas. Even today may be seen there Sabari, who has taken to sannyasa and who tends the flowers. She will attain
:

proof positive of the great sanctity attached to the ancient temple that every year lakhs of devotees from all parts of India visit it braving dense forests, mountains and wild beasts on their way. Historical evidence about the origin of the temple or its philosophical importance is sparse, but there is a legend, more illuminating than facts of history, about Sasta (Ayyappan) The legend is as the deity installed in the temple.
follows

had given salvation. At Sri to Sabarl, to any rate a very ancient temple with Sasta as the presidIt is ing deity therein is found at Sabarimala today.

MOUNTAIN). A sacred place in South India in the eastern region of Kerala on It is not quite certain a mountain called Sabarimala. whether the name of this mountain is in any way related
(SABARI

whom

Rama

!

!

after seeing you." Sabari lived for long there serving Matanga's disciples, and learning knowledge about performing tapas Brahman. At the time of the munis giving up their physical bodies they blessed Sabarl that without further

heaven only

Commander-in- Chief. The other officers, who were jealous due to the rise of the youth Ayyappan began The queen became a conspiring to drive him out. weapon in the hands of the conspirators, and at their instance she pretended herself to be very ill and lay in a fainting fit. All the physicians acknowledged defeat in curing her. Then a physician, an agent of the conspirators, came forward and assured the king that he would cure the queen of her illness within one and a half hours
if

In olden days the royal family of the Pandyas divided two branches, one of them settling down at When the king of Velliyur and the other at Madura. Madura one day went ahunting in the forest he met a handsome and very powerful and courageous Malayali youth. The king immediately took a liking for him and The youth appointed him as an officer in his army. gradually rose up in military service to become the
itself into

and get redemption from the curse. They also blessed that she would possess divine eyes to see hidden things and also the past and the future. After that she was spending her days awaiting the arrival of Rama. was the period of the life in the forest of Laksmana. After visiting various agramas
It
last

delay she would meet

Rama

Ayyappan about it. Ayyappan went into

a leopard's milk was

made

available.

The king

told

Rama and Rama at

came

to

Matangasrama.

Hearing about Rama's

that God was his father and the whole world his home. As he did not like to live any further with tale-bearers and conspirators he returned to Kerala.

the forest and returned to the palace with many she-leopards. He rode a tiger leading the leopards. People in the royal court were frightened by the sight of the leopards. The King realised that Ayyappan was not an ordinary person. Being questioned about him by the King, Ayyappan replied

SABHAKA
restless in

660

SADACARA
(3) She worships Brahma also in his court. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 42). (4) It was Sacldevl, queen of Indra, who took Sri Krsna

Ayyappan's departure made the King sad and very mind. After giving all his immovable property on rent the King followed Ayyappan to Kerala taking all his ornaments, jars and other utensils, and came at last to Pantalam. This region of Kerala was then in the control of a petty Chieftain called Kaippuzha Tampan. The King of Madura purchased some land from the Tampan, put up a palace there and lived
therein with the members of his Ayyappasvami on his way back
family.
to

and Satyabhama, during their visit to Devaloka to the Devamata. (mother of Devas). (Sabha Parva, Daksinatyapatha, Chapter 38).
(5)

When

Kerala met Paras urama, who told the former that he had already, for the protection of Kerala, installed on mountains and the sea-coast idols of his (Ayyappasvami) and that he would install another idol of Ayyappan at Sabai imala where they had now met each other. From that day onwards Ayyappasvami took his abode there. One of those days the Pandyan king living at Pantalam had a dream, and in that dream Ayyappasvami appeared and told him that he (Ayyappan) was living at Sabarimala and the King might meet the Svami if he went there. The next day morning the King with his retinue started for Sabarimala. At Sabarimala the King got the forest cleared and made a search of the ground where he found an idol installed by Paras' urama. The King built a temple there and installed the idol of
therein. He also got necessary purificatory ceremonies conducted in the temple by the famous tantri (high-priest) Tazhaman. routine programme for the conduct of affairs in the temple was fixed. As it was difficult for men to live in the forest infested by wild beasts and conduct puja etc. daily, it was fixed that

away from Devaloka Sacldevl was kept under the protection of Brhaspati. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 11,
.

Indra, afflicted by Brahmahatya, hid himself

Ayyappasvami

A

pujas need be conducted only for five days in every that Makarasarhkranti should be the annual festival day. From the first of Makaram (January) for five days it was to be utsava with the deity led in procession. On the fifth of Makaram every year a 'Kalabham' and on the seventh day a 'guruti' also were ordained. On the annual festival day the temple priest, the senior pilgrim, marars and other employees go to Sabarimala carrying with them rice etc. for food and calling aloud 'Svamiye Saranam Ayyappa'(Oh! lord Ayyappa! you are our refuge) , devotees climb the mountain to-

month and

son of Anudruhyu, and the father of Kalanara. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9). SABHAPARVA. An important section in the Mahabharata. The main theme mentioned in this section is the building of the palace of the Pandavas. ( Sabha = palace ) SABHAPATI. A prince who took the side of theKauravas and fought against the Pandavas. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Karna Parva, Chapter 89, Stanza 64, that
.

SABHAKA (SALAKA). See under Dhananjaya V. SABHANARA. A King of the Bharata Dynasty. He

day

also repeating this slogan. (See

under Sasta).

was

SacI was present at the birth of Subrahmanya. (Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 13) SADACARA ( Good conduct) General information. Each country has good custom1) ary practices of its own. A man with good habits or behaviour is considered as having conquered the two The sound 'Sat' denotes 'Sadhus'. Sadhus are worlds. those who are without any bad conduct or behaviour. The habits and practices of the Sadhus are called Sadacara. The Saptarsis, (the seven hermits) the Prajapatis (Lords of all creatures) and Manus (the fathers of men), were persons who were careful to keep up the good practices. Once the hermit Aurva advised Sagara, what the good usages of the people of Bharata ought to be. The laws of good conduct according to hermit Aurva are given below 2) The passing of excrement and urine. Every one should wake up in the Brahmamuhurta (Two hours before dawn). After having risen, he should go to the southwest corner of the village or house at a distance of an arrow-shot for stooling and passing urine; should not pour the water used for washing the face and the legs, in the courtyard; should not pass urine in one's own shadow, or in the shade of a tree, or facing cow, the Sun, fire, wind, teacher and Brahmin. Ploughed fields, fields where grains are ready for harvest, cattleshed, crowd, path, lakes or rivers and their banks, are places, forbidden for stooling or passing urine. When there is no danger, a wise man should pass urine, facing the north in the day and facing south at night. When passing excrement the ground should be covered with grass and his head should be covered with cloth. Should not sit long or talk much when stooling.
(7)
.

Verse 20) (6) While he was made Indra, Nahusa wanted to take SacI for wife and she tried hard not to fall into his clutches. (See under Nahusa).

.

,

:

SAC I.

was killed by Arjuna. Daughter of Puloma and wife of Indra. The following information about SacI is gathered from the Mahabharata. (1) It was from an aspect of Sad that Pancali, daughter of King Drupada was born. (Adi Parva, Chapter 67,
this prince

Verse 157).

Devas

Verse 4).

(2) SacI is seated on the best throne in the assembly of in the court of Indra. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 7,

of a mirror, tie the hair, anoint the eyes with collyrium, and wear flower garlands etc. carefully. Bathing should

from white ant-hill, ground thrown up by moles or rats, soil at the bottom of water, remainder of soil used by another, soil taken from the wall, soil gathered by worms and flies, ploughed soil etc. should not be used for ablution. By using soil, do the cleansing of the urethra once, the anus thrice, the left hand ten times, and both the hands together, seven times. After this use pure water ( in which there is no mud or foam and which has no foul smell) and rinse the mouth. Take soil again and wash the legs with it. Rinse the mouth thrice and wipe the face twice. Then holding water in the hand, touch the apertures in the head such as eye, etc. the crest of the head, both upper arms, navel and heart. With this rinsing take bath. After bath, with the help

3) The conduct of ablution after answering the calls of nature and rinsing the mouth after meals. Soil such as taken

be done in

river, rivulet, lake, jungle-stream,

mountain

SADAjIT

661
the
desire

SADHYA
etc.

(S)

or holy bath (tlrtha), or draw water from the well and bathe there or carry well-water home and bathe there. After the bath put on clean dress. Then take some water in the hand, offer it as oblation to gods, sages, and the manes with care. Throw water thrice for the blessing of the gods and hermits and to Prajapati once, as ordained. In the same way, to the manes and the great ancestors also give oblation of water thrice. After so much is done do the customary sacrificial offerings, prayer etc. to Devi. Then invite guests to the

to capture kingdom, woman, position obstruction to haughtiness and imperiousness, duties and rights, the interest of friends and allies, destruction to one's allies, both parties getting interested

in one

house and welcome

them. (Visnu

Purana, Arhsa

3,

SADAJIT. A
Skandha

king of the dynasty of Bharata. He was the son of Kunti and the father of Mahisman. (Bhagavata,
9).

Chapter 11).

SADAK.ANTA. A

SADANlRA. A
Mention
is

Mention is Parva, Chapter

river in India, Puranically very famous. made of this river in Maha.bha.rata, Bhisma

Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 204. Some scholars are of opinion that this river is the same as the Karatoya of

9, Stanza 25. river in India very famous in thePuranas. made of this river in Mahabharata, Bhisma

SADARBHAKA
resumed
curse they
details see

Modern

at present as also in future. If one's own army is strong and enthusiastic and when the army of the adversary is not so, one may go in for war. Also, when all circumstances are in one's favour and against the antagonist

with him, who has powerful allies, though of temporary advantage but which will not be so in future; though of advantage in future but useless at present. The king should always do what will be of advantage

and the same thing etc. Enmity is engendered due to the following causes: -rivalry of co- wives, disputes about property and women, verbal controversies and wrongs committed. The following kinds of wars should not be fought:- Wars the benefit of which is meagre or futile; war which would cause harm in the present as also in future; with the enemy whose strength is not correctly known; incited by others, for others, on account of women, which would continue for long; with time and fate are not in favour; brahmins, where
chiefly

India.

one

had

(S). Six sons of Marlci. Subjected to a to live many lives and ultimately they

3) Tana.
start for

may

their old

forms as children of Devakl.
2)
.

SADASVA. A

under Kamsa, Para

(For

king of ancient India. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, Stanza 12, that this king remains in the palace of Yama, glorifying him. SADASYORMI. A king. He is a worshipper of Yama. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, Stanza 11) SADGUMA I. The six qualities or attributes of Bha.

4) Asana. To remain quiet or also of four kinds as yana.

making

for war. One may after declaring it, after making peace, after alliances; and incidentally also.

fight.

war

Yana means marching

doing

nothing which

is

gavan
(

SADGUNA
160)

(God). Aisvaryam Vlryam (prosperity), prowess ) Vairagyam (non-attachment or renunciation) , Vijnanam (super -knowledge), Sri (welfare and prosperity) andYasas (fame, reputation) are the six attributes of Bhagavan.
,

Six kingly or political policies. Sandhi, II. Vigraha, Yana, Asana, Dvaidha and Asraya are the six policies of state-craft. (Manusmrti, Chapter 8, Verse
1) Sandhi.
is

To enter into peace and concord with the Sandhi. One may make peace for one's own benefit with the enemy, who is powerful and is fighting. There are sixteen kinds of sandhi called Kapalasandhi, etc. No kind of peace or treaty should be made with twenty kinds of kings, i.e. infants old men; one suffering from chronic disease; cast out by one's own people;
enemy
;

coward; one whose supporters are cowards; miser; one whose people are misers; who is very much addicted to women and such other material things; one, who has not a mind of one's own and is ruled by more than one adviser; he, who does not respect Devas and brahmins; one hated or forsaken by God; blasphemer one subject to scarcity and sorrow; one not with satisfactory army; local person; one with many enemies; one whose days are numbered and one devoid of truth and righteousness.
;

on meeting both the parties, serve the stronger But if he finds that both the parties are making peace, and not in need of his aid, he should approach their enemy, who is more powerful than they, or he should fight by himself. 6) Asraya. When one is attacked by a stronger enemy and if one finds no means to retaliate, one should depend upon another person, who is noble, truthful and powerful. To put on a supplicant's look, to understand the moods of that person whose help is sought and to be humble to him these are the characteristics and traits of the dependent. (Agni Purana, Chapter 240. SADHU. An incarnation of Siva. The Brahmanda Purana contains the following story about it. When the Himalaya and Mainaka mountains once began a very intense tap^s, the Devas and Rsis fearing great ruin to the world in case the mountains got salvation, sought Siva's protection and prayed for a solution for the problem So Siva, in the guise of a brahmin named Sadhu, went to the mountains, spoke to them condemning Siva and thus made them retract from their
should,
side.
.

5) Dvaidha. To get in between the contending parties to support with words only and to remain without joinHe who takes up the stand ing either side is dvaidha.

SADHYA. Mother

devotion to Siva.
(S). General.

SADHYA
.

of the Sadhyas. (See under Sadhyas).

One

time war.

2. Vigraha, Fighting, i.e. war is vigraha. is the result of mutual evil-doings. The king, who desires prosperity who is troubled by others and in whose favour

above types of people.

shall only fight

and not enter

into peace with

the

War

A Ganadevata. These Devatas often used to 1 play an important role in Puranic movements and incidents. The Sadhyas were born from the seed Viral Purusa. (Adi Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 35). But according to Visnu Purana (Part 1, Chapter 35) the Sadhyas were the grand-children of Daksa-prajapati. Of the sixty daughters of the Prajapati by his wife Asikni, ten were

and

The

should go in circumstances for are, main causes of war are the following
:

married by Dharmadeva; The Visvadevas were the sons of Dharmadeva by his wife Visva and the Sadhyas were his sons by Sadhya.

SADYASKA
2. Other information.
(i
)

662
wife Yadavl.

SAGARA
there due to old age and Yadavl got ready to follow him in his pyre. The Muni preven ted her from doing so by pointing out to her that the child in her womb was a very fortunate one and would become emp.ror of the seven islands when he grew up to manhood. Yadavl delivered shortly. As the poison (gara) given to her by the co-wife had immobilised her pregnancy for so long Aurva named her child Sagara. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapters 16

The Sadhyas fought with Garuda, who went to Devaloka for Amrta and got defeated. (Adi Parva, Chapter
32, Verse 16).

Aurva.

They took Subahu expired

shelter in the

asrama of sage

Verse 22). They go to the court of Brahma also and worship him. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 44). (ix) In the battle between Subrahmanya and Tarakasura they fought on the side of the former. (Vana Parva, Chapter 231, Verse 71). Once they made a prayer to Dattatreya muni. ( x) (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 36, Verse 3)' (xi) On the occasion of the battle between Karna and Arjuna at Kuruksetra the Sadhyas wished success for the flatter. (Salya Parva, Chapter 41, Verse 29). (xii) They served as store-keepers at the yajna performed by king Marutta. ( San ti Parva, Chapter 29, Verse
7,

(ii) The Sadhyas feared Vis vamitra. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 71, Verse 39) (iii) Sadhyaganas participated in the birthday celebrations of Arjuna. (Adi Parva, Chapter 122, Verse 70). (iv) Sadhyas took their place in planes above the palace of Drupada to witness Draupadi's wedding. (Adi Parva Chapter 186, Verse 6). (v) They were present at the Devayajna conducted at Naimisa forest. (Adi Parva, Chapter 195, Verse 3). (vi) They were present with various Kinds of arrows at the battle between Sri Krsna and Arjuna on the occasion of the burning of the Khandava forest. ( Adi Parva, Chapter 226 Verse 38). (vii) They live in Indra's court. (Sabha Parva, Chapter
.

and

17).

3)

(viii)

To Ayodhya. Sage Aurva conducted the Upanayana ceremony of the boy and taught him the Vedas etc. Once Yadavl wept to hear the boy address the muni 'father', and when the son asked her the reason for it she told him that the muni was not his father, who was really greater than the muni. She also told him their previous history, and Sagara decided to return to Ayodhya somehow.

The people

of Ayodhya lived scattered here and there in fear of Talajangha, and disgusted with such an existence, they came together and took refuge with Vasistha, who told them that king Subahu had expired in Aurvabrama, but that his son Sagara was there in
the asrama.

He further advised them to bring Sagara back and reconquer Ayodhya. Yadavl wept at the sight of the people from Ayodhya and they insisted
waited in the asrama for five days for Sagara. Then Sagara and his mother, with the blessings of the Sage, returned to Ayodhya along with the people. Sagara

upon Sagara's return

to the state as their

king.

They

22).
(xiii
)

Siva.

They remain on Mount Munjavan worshipping
(Asvamedhika Parva, Chapter
8,

Verse

SADYASKA. A
.

1).

SAGARA. A
Ayodhya.

It could be yajfta ordained for Rajarsis. performed in one day. (Vana Parva, Chapter 204, Verse 16)

fought Talajangha, reconquered Ayodhya and crowned himself as king. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapters 20 to 23). 4) Family life. Sagara had two wives called Sumati alias Vaidarbhi and KesinI alias Saibya. Sumati was the daughter of Garuda.

king of the solar dynasty,

Sagara ruled

1) Genealogy. Descended from Brahma thus: BrahmaKas yapa-Vivasvan-Vaivasvata Manu-Iksvaku - Vikuksi-

jit

Sasada-Puranjaya-Kakutstha-Anenas-Prthulasva-Prasena- Yuvanasva - Mandhata Purukutsa - TrasadasyuAnaranya-Aryasva-Vasumanas- Sudhanva - TraiyarunaSatyavrata (Trisanku )-Hariscandra-Rohitas va-Harita-

As he had no issues for long, Sagara, with his wives, went to Himalayas and began doing tapas at Bhrguprasravana mountain. After hundred years Bhrgu appeared and blessed Sagara that one of his wives would give birth to 60,000 sons and the other to one, who would add to the glory of the dynasty. Sumati chose 60,000 sons and KesinI the one son.
king and the queens returned to Ayodhyfi and in due course Sumati delivered the son called Asamanjasa who was to bring prosperity to the dynasty. Sumati gave birth to a lump of flesh, which developed into 60,000 children. They were put in pots of ghee and they grew up to become young persons. (Valmiki Ramayana, Balakanda, Canto 33)
.

The

Cuncu-Sudeva-Bharuka-Bahuka-Sagara. 2) Birth. Bahuka, father of Sagara, was known as Subahu also. Sagara was Bahuka's son by his wife. Yadavl. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 16). Though Sagara was a prince he was born at the asrama of Aurva, and there was a reason for it. Subahu and Yadavl did not have a child for long. But, as a result of many yajftas conducted for the gift of a While she was in the seventh child, Yadavl conceived. month of her pregnancy her co-wife administered poison to her with the result that she did not further advance in pregnancy and deliver in due time. Thus she continued as a pregnant woman for seven years. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 16). The King became an old man. During this period Talajangha, king of Hehaya, attacked Ayodhya with his army, and Subahu, despite his old age, fought back. But the fighting grew fiercer. Subahu found that he would not be able to defeat Talajangha and so he escaped into the forest with his

contain stories somewhat different from the birth of the 60,000 children, e.g. in the 9th Skandha of Devi Bhagavata, the story is related as follows "Ke>'inl delivered the son Asamanjasa and Sumati did not deliver at all. So she did tapas for Siva for children and because of his blessSumati delivered only hundred ing she conceived. years after continuing to be pregnant, and even that was only a piece of flesh, and she began weeping addressing Siva, who appeared before her and cut the mass of flesh into 60,000 parts. Each piece of flesh transformed itself into a very powerful and effulgent
the

Some Puranas

above about

;

man.

SAGARA
5) Loss

663

SAHADEVA
Only
1)

I

91). His son, was a tormentor of his subjects. In the Asamanjasa evening of his life, Sagara transmitted the throne to The his grandson Amsuman (son of Asamanjasa). rest of his life he spent in Aurvasrama with his wife
years.

of children. Kapila turned into ashes the 60,000 sons of Sagara. Bhagiratha revived them. (For details see under Bhagiratha). Sagara ruled the kingdom well and 6) Triumphal tour. while living happily thus with his sons, he set out on a triumphal tour. After conquering the northern regions he moved towards the south, his object being MahisHe destroyed the mati, Kingdom of the Hehayas. in battle. (Brahmanda Purana, Hehayas completely Chapters 89 and 90). 7 ) Evening of life. Sagara ruled the kingdom for 300

those facts,

which have not been

so

related

are

given hereunder.)

Along with Yudhisthira, Bhlma and Arjuna, sons of Kunti, Nakula and Sahadeva spent their childhood in

Sahadeva was the son of brief biographical sketch. his wife Madri. sons, Nakula and Sahadeva were born to Madri by the Asvinldevas.

A

Pandu by

Two

(Brahmanda Purana, Chapter

engaged in meditation.
Sagara worships Yama in his court, (Sabha Parva, Chapters, Verse 19). ousted Asamanjasa from the palace, because (ii) Sagara he led an immoral life. (Vana Parva, Chapter 107, Verse
(i)

8)

Other information.

89).
(iii)

Sagara went
.

to

heaven

after

throne to

Amsuman.

handing over the
107,

Pandu the company of Sages at Satasrriga mountain. died and Madri followed him in the funeral pyre. After that the Pandavas lived at Hastinapura under the care of Kunti. When the 'lac-palace' was burnt down, they took themselves to the forest and ruled the kingdom The Pandavas, who with Indraprastha as capital. were defeated in the game of dice went again into the forest. Their going into the forest has been described as follows by Vidura. Yudhisthira, covering his face with cloth and Bhlma stretching out his powerful hands moved into the forest. Arjuna followed them throwing up sand parSahadeva went rubbing his face with earth, ticles. Nakula, the most handsome of men, followed them, his body smeared with dust. Pancali, her face concealed in hair and weeping went behind the king. Sage Dhaumya with Kusa grass in his hands, accompanied
them chanting Vedic hymns.
(Sabha Parva, Chapter
the

Verse 64) gone, in the plane of Indra to (iv) Sagara had Viratanagara to witness the fight between Arjuna and Krpa. (Virata Parva, Chapter 56, .Verse 10). (v) Sri Krsna once described the yajna and dana of Sagara. (Sand Parva, Chapter 29 Verse 130) (vi) Sagara never ate flesh in his life. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 115, Verse 66). (vii) He is considered to be one of the kings to be remembered both at dawn and dusk. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 165, Verse 49) SAGARA. Ocean. Samudra (ocean) got the name Sagara as it was formed later at the place where the 60,000 sons of King Sagara dug the earth in the course of their quest for the missing yajnic horse. (See under
.

(Vana Parva, Chapter

Dhrtarastra asked Vidura
:

80).

.

SAGARAKA. A
called

Ksatriya king who lived at the place He participated in Yudhisthira's Sagara. Rajasuya. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 52, Verse 18). SAGARODAKA. Holy water of the sea. He who bathes
in
it

Sagara)

.

SAGNI

(S). Pitrs, who are sons of Brahma. Agfiisvattas, Barhisadas, Anagnis and Sagnis are the Pitrs born from Brahma. (Agni Purana, Chapter 20) SAHA I. One of the hundred sons of Dhrtaras{ra. He was killed in the great war by Bhimasena. (Karna
.

Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 9).

will go to

heaven in an

aerial chariot.

(Anusasana

these different poses and attitudes and Vidura answered him thus Yudhisthira covered his face to show that he would not retaliate in anger though he had lost the kingdom due to cheating. Bhlma stretched out his hands to show that he was unrivalled in manual power. Arjuna threw out sand to say that he would shoot his arrows into the enemy camp like particles of sand. Sahadeva rubbed earth on his face as he did not want anybody to distinguish his face. Nakula, the most handsome of men, smeared his face with dust so that, on the way, women should not desire him. When the Pandavas returned after twelve years' stay in exile in the forest and one year's stay incognito Duryodhana refused to allot them even a single house, and war for eighteen days between the Kauravas and the Pandavas was fought in the field of Kuruksetra. The Kauravas were wiped out. Yudhisthira became king and performed the Rajasuyayajna after which the Pandavas went out on the great journey and gave up their lives. 2) Other information about Sahadeva.
(
1 )

why

Pandavas

assumed

He was

Parva, Chapter

dedicated to the service of elders. 1, Verse 114).

(Adi

SAHA

Parva, Chapter 51, Verse 8)
II.

(2) He was exceptionally Chapter 67, Verse 111).
(

handsome.

(Adi

Parva,

.

A

very powerful Agni. (Vana Parva, Chapter

SAHA. A Celestial woman. She also was with the apsara women who were present at Indraloka to receive Arjuna. (Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 43,
Verse 30).

222).

In the fight that followed Arjuna's endeavour to capture king Drupada to be presented as Gurudaksina
3)

use of arms) Nakula of Arjuna's chariot.

(tuition fee to

Drona, who trained the Pandavas in the and Sahadeva protected the wheels (Adi Parva, Chapter 137, Verse
Srutasena
(

27).
(4)

SAHABHOJA.

A

A

son calld

bird in
fifth

the

line of the

SAHADEVA
Facts

Garuda. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter
I.

offsprings of 101, Verse 12).

to

him of

Panca.ll.

(Adi Parva,

isrutakarman ) was born Chapter 220, Verse

80).
(5)

The

about Sahadeva Dharmaputra, Bhlma, Arjuna, Nakula and

the Pandavas. are related under the headings,

among

Pandavas.

married the daughter of King Dyutiman Vijaya and the couple had a son called Suhotra. (Adi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 80)
also

He had
Madra

of

called

.

SAHADEVA

I

664
(30)

SAHADEVA V
When
He
he
Satyaki was about to
kill

(6) He defeated Virata, the Matsya king in battle. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 31, Verse 2). southern kingdoms on the (7) He conquered the orders of Yudhisthira. (Sabhii Parva, Chapter 30) (8) He defeated Dantavaktra in battle. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 31, Verse 59). (9) He defeated Nlla, king of Mahismatl, in a fierce battle and collected taxes from him. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 31, Verse 59). (10) He deputed Ghatotkaca to collect taxes from Vibhlsana, king of Lanka. Vibhlsana sent Ghatotkaca back with a lot of gold and gems. Vibhlsana also deputed 88,000 Raksasas to carry the gold etc. (Sabha Parva, Southern text, Chapter 31). He was Yudhisthira's minister during the (11) (Sabha Parva, Chapter 33, Verse Rajasuya yajna.
.

pacified the former by a tactful speech. Parva, Chapter 198, Verse 53).

Dhrstadyumna, (Drona

(31)

22, Verse 14). (32) He defeated

defeated Paundraraja. (Karna Parva, Chapter

Duss"asana again.

(Karna Parva,

Chapter 23).
(33)

Verse 43). (35) He killed Salya's son. (Salya Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 43) (36) He killed Uluka, son of Sakuni. (Salya Parva, Chapter 28, Verse 32). (37) He killed Sakuni. (Salya Parva, Chapter 28, Verse
.

He got wounded in the fighting with Duryodhana. (Karna Parva, Chapter 56, Verse 7) (34) He defeated Uluka. (Karna Parva, Chapter 61,
.

he would kill Sakuni. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 77, Verse 9). In the battle that followed the abduction of ( 14) Draupadi by Jayadratha, the chariot of Yudhisthira went out of action and he, therefore, rode in the chariot of Sahadeva. (Vana Parva, Chapter 271, Verse 15). (15) During his life-incognito he thought of assuming the name Tantripala. (Virata Parva, Chapter 3, Verse 9). (16) He went to king Virata disguised as Vaisya called Aristanemi and got himself appointed as head of the king's dairy. (Virata Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 5). (17) He, in the guise of a dairy-man, used to give milk, butter-milk etc. to the Pandavas. (Virata Parva, Chapter 13, Verse 9) (18) Sanjaya emphasized the fact that Sahadeva was a heroic warrior to Dhrtarastra. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 50, Verse 31).
(13)

and Asvatthama back Chapter 45, Verse 48)

40). (12)

46).

After the yajna was
.

over, he conducted Drona to their palaces. (Sabha Parva,

(38) After the war, Yudhisthira allotted Durmukha's palace to Sahadeva. (Santi Parva, Chapter 44, Verse 12). (39) In the matter ofdharmarthakamas (righteousness, material wealth and enjoyment of love life) he attached more importance to artha (material resources). (Santi

He

took the

vow

that

During the Rajasuya the duty of managing domeswas entrusted to him by Vyasa and Yudhisthira. (Asvamedha Parva, Chapter 72, Verse 20). (41) After the great war he visited and saluted Kunti, who lived in the forest then. ( Asramavasika Parva, Chapter 24, Verse 8). (42) In the great journey (Mahaprasthana) he walked in front of Pa.nca.li and behind Nakula. ( Mahaprasthanika Parva, Chapter 1 Verse 31). (43) Synonyms used in Mahabharata for Sahadeva:
(40)
stic affairs
,

Parva, Chapter 167, Verse 22).

.

Asvineya, Asvinisuta, Bharatasardula, Bharatasattama,

Kauravya, Kurunandana, Madriputra. Madreya, Nakulanuja, Pandava, Pandunandana, Tantripala,

(19) during the great war, divested himself of his armour and started towards the Kaurava army, Sahadeva questioned the action. (Bhlsma Parva,

When Yudhisthira,

SAHADEVA
Indra.

Yama, Yamaputra.
II.

A

maharsi,

who
7,

lived in the court of

SAHADEVA

(Sabha Parva, Chapter

Chapter 43, Verse 19). On the first day of the battle he fought a duel ( 20) with Durmukha. (Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 45. Verse
25).

(21) battle.

He

defeated Vikarna, Salya

and others
71,

in

the

Verse 83). He annihilated the cavalry of the Kauravas. (22) (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 89, Verse 32). (23) He ran away from the battle-field. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 105, Verse 16).

(Bhisma Parva, Chapter

(24)

He

Chapter 110, Verse 12).
(25)
14,

fought a duel with Krpacarya. (Bhisma Parva,

worshipping the latter. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 3, Verse 17). SAHADEVA IV. A son of Jarasandha about whom the following facts are collected from the Mahabharata. (1) Asti and Prapti, two wives, of Karhsa were the sisters of this Sahadeva. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 31). (2) He was present at the wedding of Draupadi. (Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Verse 8) (3) After the death of Jarasandha he took refuge with Sri Krsna, who crowned him King of MathuraSouthern text, Sabha Parva, Chapter puri. (M.B.
.

III. in the court of

Yama

A

Verse 16).

King

in

ancient India.

He

lived

24).

He

fought with Sakuni.

Verse 22). (26) He fought again with Durmukha. Chapter 106, Verse 13).
(27)

(Drona Parva, Chapter
(

(4) In the great war he came to the sthira with one aksauhini (division of

help

of Yudhi-

Drona Parva,
(Drona

killed Nirmitra, the Trigarta prince. Parva, Chapter 107, Verse 25).

He

Parva, Chapter 19J Verse 8). (5) He was one of the seven Maharathins

army).

(Udyoga
of the

Pandava army. (Udyoga
11).
(

Parva,

Chapter 187, Verse

(28) In the fight with Karna he got defeated. (Drona Parva, Chapter 167, Verse 15). (29) He defeated DuSsasana in battle. (Drona Parva, Chapter 188, Verse 2).

6 ) He was killed in the great war by Drona. ( Drona Parva, Chapter 225, Verse 45). SAHADEVA V. A Raksasa, son of Dhumraksa and father of KrsasVa. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9).

SAHADEVA VI
SAHADEVA VI. A
Dharmandhana
(or

665

SAHASRANlKA
Sahasramukha, who returned to his country with the boons became emperor of all Daityas and then conquered heaven, Patala, Kailasa, Vaikuntha and the
then defeated Patalaravana and wedded his only daughter Indumukhi. He got as a present a weapon He propagated in the world called Kafchorakuthara. the customs and practices of heaven with the result that all the customs of theDevas were derogated. Good people felt harassed. In the rise of unrighteousness
righteousness
3) Curse.

King of the Solar dynasty, son of Dharmanandana) and father of (Bhagavata, Skandha9). Jayatsena. SAHADEVA VII. A King of the Solar dynasty, son of Sudasa and father of Somaka. (Bhagavata, Skandha
9).

He

eight regions of the world.

SAHAJA.

A

Cedi King. (Udyoga Parva,

Chapter

74.

Verse 16).

SAHAJANYA.

(4) Sahajanya was among the celestial women who danced when Arjuna came to Devaloka. (Vana Parva, Chapter 43, Verse 30) SAHAJIT. A King of the Bharata dynasty. He was one of the sons of Mahabhoja. (Bhagavata, Skandha
.

An apsara woman. The following information about her occurs in the Maha.bha.rata. (1) She is one of the six noble celestial girls, the other five being Urvasi, Purvacitti, Menaka, GhrtacI and VisVaci. (Adi Parva, Chapter 74, Verse 69) at the Birthday Celebrations (2) She was present of Arjuna. (Adi Parva, Chapter 122, Verse 64). (3) She is an actress in Kubera's court. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 11).
.

became

Once on

a Sahasramukharavana raped Vidyadhara woman, CancalaksT, who was performing tapas of Laksmidevi and Cancalaksl cursed him that Laksmidevi would kill him. 4) Son. Vajrabahu was Sahasramukha's son. He secured from Siva PaSupatastra and an armour impenetrable by anyone. Vajrabahu captured Indra and

house

helpless. his way

to

his

father-in-law's

SAHASRABAHU. A
Parva,

warrior of Subrahmanya. ( Salya Chapter 45, Verse 59). SAHASRACITYA. Grandfather of King Satayupa. Sahasracitya was King of Kekaya. A very righteous person, he abdicated the throne in favour of his elder brother's son and performed tapas in the forest. He gave up his body for a brahmin and attained heaven. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 127, Verse 20; AsVamavasika Parva, Chapter 20, Verse 6) SAHASRAJIT. A King of the Bharata dynasty, SahasraSkandha 9) jit was a son of Mahabhoja. (Bhagavata, He gave up his life for brahmins and attained heaven. (Santi Parva, Chapter 234, Verse 31).
.

9).

Subrahmanya killed the former. Sahasramukha had an army-chief named Bana and both of them together did incalculable harm to the three worlds. Sri Rama was King of Ayodhya at the time, and Devas and sages complained to him about Sahasramukha and as soon as the complainants left Ayodhya, Sugrlva and Vibhisana came there. They
5) Death.

told Rama about the abduction by Sahasramukha's second son, Candragupta of Sugrlva's daughter and Vibhisana's daughter-in-law. At once Sri Rama, along with Laksmana, Sugrlva, Vibhisana, Hanuman and a great army of monkeys reached Sahasramukha's

.

SAHASRAJYOTI. One of the three sons of King Samrat. He had a million sons. (Adi Parva, Chapter 1,

Sri Rama sent word to him through that Sugrlva's daughter and Vibhisana's daughter-in-law should be returned, Indra should be released and that pardon should be begged for, for his errors. Angered at this message Sahasramukha

capital

Hanuman

city.

SAHASRAKA. A
is

Verse 46).

SAHASRAMUKHARAVAI5JA.
1)

This place mentioned in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 158, that those who bathe in this place will get the merits of giving thousand cows as gifts.
holy place of pilgrimage.
is

situated in Kuruksetra. It

deputed Bana to fight Sri Rama. Bana was killed in battle. (See under Bana IV) Then ensued a fierce battle between Rama and Sahasramukha, the latter aided by Candragupta. Angada was about to be overpowered by Candragupta, and then the following celestial voice was heard "Candragupta will not die as long as his wife Padmavati is reciting Brahmamantra imparted by Brahma." Then Vibhisana sent Hanuman
. :

ruled Trilokapuri, a country thousands of miles away from India. Trilokapuri was an island at the centre of the seas. He was a terror to the whole world and possessed a thousand heads and two thousand hands.
General.

A Daitya

King,

who

as a result of the latter and 'Kutatantrayantra' great confusion broke out among the and women-folk, utilising the opportunity Angada killed Candragupta. Sahasramukha fought Sri Rama single-handed. All tactics of Rama proved to be of no use. Then he
to the

women's quarters and

using a quarrels

This Ravana once went to Satyaloka Secured boon. and performed the most intense tapas for many years. Yet, Brahma did not appear and then he began cutting his heads one after the other and offering them in the of his heads were fire. Nine hundred and ninetynine cut thus. When he was about to cut the last head also, Brahma, fearing the end of the world, appeared and granted him the following three boons. die at the hands of anyone, but (i) You will not
2)

SAHASRANAMA
name)
.

remembered Brahma's boon to Sahasramukha and Cancalaksl's curse upon him. Immediately Sri Rama brought down Sita from Ayodhya and the latter shot the Saktika arrow at the throat of Sahasramukha and he was killed. (Kamba Ramayana, Uttarakanda),
(N). (Sahasra

=

thousand

;

nama =

Hymns

a woman.

which would annihilate, will be at (ii) Brahmastra, your disposal. You will also possess an aerial chariot for travels
(iii)

containing the thousand names of Visnu, Siva and Devi are generally known as Sahasranama. The recitation of these names is considered to be annihilative of all sins. Sahasranama of Visnu is more
popular.

SAHASRANlKA. A King
details see

as

you

please.

under Udayana)

of the lunar dynasty.
.

(For

SAHASRAPADA

666
.

SAINDHAVA
vata,

I

SAHASRAPADA (SAHASRAPAT) A maharsi, who was 1) General.
Ruru

transformed into a the curse of Khagama, another maharsi. serpent by But a talk with King Ruru restored him to his former self. (For details see under Ruru, para 4).
2)

SAIBYA

information about serpent yajiia from Sahasrapat, who answered the former that he would hear the story of and then disappeared. (Adi Astika from brahmins Parva, Chapter 12, Verse 3). SAHASRAVAK (SADAHSUVAK). One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra. (Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse

Other

information.

desired

to

get

some

Akrura. (Matsya Purana, Chapter 45, Verse 28). I. One of the wives of King Sagara. Sagara had two wives named Sumati and Kesini. In Devi Bhagavata, 9th Skandha we see that Sumati had another name, "Vaidarbhi" and Kesini had another name, "Saibya". Prince Asamanjasa was the son of
Saibya.
II.

the defence of the western gate of that city. 10th Skandha). His daughter Ratnii

(Bhagamarried

SAIBYA

This Saibya was the mother of Satyavan.

Queen

of Dyumatsena, the

King of
(See

Salva.

under
her

SAHISNIU.

of the three sons of Pulaha Prajapati his wife Ksama, the other two being Kardama and by Urvariyan. (Visnu Purana, Part 1, Chapter 10). SAHODHA. A child conceived by a girl while she is unmarried but delivered after she is married. (See

100).

SAIBYA

Satyavan )

.

III.

One

of the wives of Sri Krsna.

When

One

Krsna renounced his body, this Saibya jumped into the fire and was burnt to death. (M.B. Mausala Parva, Chapter 7, Verse 73). SAIKHAVATYA. An ancient sage. Amba who was forsaken by the King of Salva went and mourned over
husband
Sri

SAHYA.

under Putra) A mountain on the plain of Lavanasamudra Monkeys, in the course of their search for (salt sea). Slta crossed this mountain, which is one of the saptakulaparvatas
seven (
great

her misfortune in Saikhavatya's asrama. This sage consoled her. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 175,

Nahusa once picnicked on this mountain along with apsara women. (Udyoga Parva, Chapters 11 and 12; Vana Parva, Chapter 282; Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 9). SAIBYA I. An ancient King of India. He was the father of Srnjaya and a close friend of Sage Narada and Sage Parvata. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 55,

mountains)

in India.

A Sanatana Visvadeva. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 91, Verse 32). SAILAKAMPI. A warrior of Subrahmanya. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 63 ) SAILALAYA. A King of ancient time. He was the grandfather of Bhagadatta. After performing tapas in Indraloka. the tapovana at Kuruksetra he attained (M.B. A-: ramavasika Parva, Chapter 20, Verse 10)
SAILABHA.
.

Verse 38).

.

SAIBYA
)

Verse 7).

Yudhistfiira.

SAIBYA
SAIBYA

(M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 76). adorned Yudhisfhira's assembly. (M.B. (ii) Saibya Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 25). and the King of Kasi had come to Upa(iii) Saibya the army) plavya city with an "Aksauhirri" (division of to attend the marriage of Abhimanyu. ( M.B. Virata Parva, Chapter 72, Verse 16). admitted that Saibya was the greatest (iv) Duryodhana archer in the army of the Pandavas. (M.B. Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 20, Verse 5). and the King (v) During the Bharata Yuddha, Saibya of Ka^I were standing to protect Dhrstadyumna's "Krauficavyuha". (M.B. Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 50, Verse 56) of Usinara. (M.B. (vi) This Saibya was the grandson Drona Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 64).
.

II. King of the Sibi land. Mahabharata gives the following pieces of information about him i Govasa, King of Sibi land was the father-in-law of (
:

SAILODA. A river flowing between the two mountains, Meru and Mandara. Arjuna conquered and subdued
river.

had brought presents of gold for Yudhisthira's Rajasuya. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 52. Verse 2). SAILUSA. A Gandharva. A class of Gandharvas is
also
:

the low class people who inhabited the valley of this low-class people known as "Khasas" used to live on the banks of this river under the shade of the dense growth of bamboo trees. These low class people

A

known as "Sailusas". Some references found in the Puranas concerning Sailusas are given below (i) Sri Rama sent Bharata and completely destroyed the class of Gandharvas called Sailusas who were
trouble

causing

on the shore of the eastern ocean.
.

Bharata killed with his shower

(Kamba Ramayana, Uttara Kanda) (ii) During the reign of Sri Rama, as ordered by him,

Gandharva named
sons

who

of arrows, the wicked Sailusa and his three crores of lived on the banks of the river Sindhu. (Agni

III.

IV. A In Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 34, we read that he learnt Dhanurveda (science of archery ) from Arjuna and shone in Yudhisthira's assembly. SAIBYA V. A Ksatriya King who was defeated by Sri Krsna. There is a reference to this Saibya in Mahabharata, Daksinatya Patha, Sabha Parva, Chapter 38 SAIBYA VI. A warrior who fought against the Pandavas of Kauravas. He on the side fought from the "Sarvatobhadravyuha" formed by Bhlsma. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 99, Verse 2). SAIBYA VII. King of Sauvlra land. When Jarasandha jnvaded Gomanta city, Saibya was put in charge of

chariot.

(M.B. Vana

Name

of a horse

tied

to

Sri

Krsna's

Parva, Chapters 20, 22, and 283). Ksatnya hero born in the Vrsni family.

Purana, Chapter 11), Ravana's brother, Vibhlsana had married Sarama (iii) of a Gandharva. (Uttara the daughter Sailusa remains in Kubera's assembly. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 26). SAIMHIKEYA (S). The Asuras (Demons) who were

Ramayana ) (iv) The Gandharva named
.

Sailusa serves

Kubera and

the sons of Simhika.. Two sons named Hiranyaksa and Hiranyakas ipu and a daughter named Simhika were born to Prajapati Kasyapa by his wife Dili. Simhika was given in marriage to Vipracitti. The sons of this couple were known by the name Sairhhikeyas. Rahu was the first of the Saimhikeyas. (Agni Purana. Chapter 19). For further details see under Rahu. SAINDHAVA I. A disciple of the hermit Saunaka. (See under Guruparampara).

SAINDHAVA SAINDHAVA
Vana

II
II.

667

SAKATAYANA
(vi)
19,

Mention

is

made

in

Mahabharata,

Parva, Chapter 51, Verse 25, that the inhabitants of the kingdom of Sindhu were called Saindhavas. SAINDHAVARAIVYA. An ancient holy place of pilgrimage in Bharata. This holy place is mentioned

service in
(vii)

They did along with Sudaksina, king of Kamboja, Duryodhana's army. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter

SAINDHAVAYANA. One

in

SAINYANIRYAlVTA PARVA.

of Visvamitra's sons, who were expounders of Vedas. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 51 ).

Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter

89, Verse 15).

A

sub-section of

Parva in Mahabharata. This subsection comprises Chapters 151 to 159 of Udyoga Parva. SAIRANDHRl. The pseudonym assumed by Pancali, when the Pandavas lived incognito in the palace of King Virata. (See under Pancali).

Udyoga

SAIRlSAKA.

A region in India, celebrated in the Puranas. Nakula, in the course of his triumphal march in the western regions, conquered this land also. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 32, Verse 6)
.

Sri Krsna once conquered them. (Drona Parva, Chapter 119^ Verse 45). and conquered their (viii) Karna once defeated them country. (Karna Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 18). (ix) Sakas who were originally Ksatriyas were demoted as Sudras as they incurred the displeasure and anger of brahmins. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 33, Verse 21 ). (x) As the Sakas and the Yavanas had helped the Haihaya kings Paras urama, Sagara and Bharata defeated them in war and drove them off from the country. (Bhagavata, Navama Skandha) SAKA. A tree in the Saka island. The island got the name from this tree. (Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 11,
.

Verse 21).

SAKADVlPA.
Sanjaya

SAlSAVA.
52, Verse

A

land

famous

in

the

Puranas.

The

Ksatriya Kings of this country brought presents for Yudhisthira's Rajasuya. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter

A Maharsi. The famous Kalayavana was his son, born to him by his wife Gopa.ll. SaiSirayana was the priest of King Trigarta. Once the king ordered the sage to have sexual union with his wife Vrkadevi to test his virility. (HarivarMa, \; 35; 12). SAlSlREYA. An acarya who was the disciple of Sakalya. "Saisiriya Samhita", a work produced by him is considered to be an authoritative treatise on the Sakalya branch of knowledge. SAlSlRINDHRA. A country in ancient India. Mention is made about this country in Mahabharata, Bhlsma
SAiSlRAYAlMA.

18).

One of the Saptadvipas (seven islands). once gave Dhrtarastra a description of this island. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 1 1 ) Jambudvipa, Plaksadvlpa, Salmalidvipa, Kusadvipa, Krauncadvipa, Sakadvlpa and Puskaradvipa are the Saptadvipas. (Devi Bhagavata, 8th Skandha). SAKALA. A city made famous in the Puranas. Once it was the capital of the Madra kingdom. (Sabha Parva Modern scholars opine that Chapter 32, Verse 14),
.

Verse 23).

the

SAKALADVlPA. An
Puranas. defeated by Arjuna.
14).

modern

Siyalkot was the old Sakala. ancient kingdom referred to in the Prativindhya, king of this kingdom was

(Sabha Parva, Chapter 32, Verse

SAKALYA.
tors).

SAIVACAPA. Siva's bow. It was made by Visvakarma. He made a Vaisnavacapa and a Saivacapa for the pur-

Parva, Chapter

9,

Verse 57.

pose of a battle which was fought once between Visnu and Siva. (See the 7th sub para, 7th para under the word Visnu). Long ago when Siva set out to break up Daksayaga, he After defeating the enemy was armed with this bow. and breaking up the yaga, Siva cooled down and presented the bow to his devotee, the king of Videha. The king took the bow to his palace, kept it in his armoury and used to offer due worship to it. His descendants also continued to worship it. (Kamba Ramayana, Bala Kanda)
.

A maharsi in the lineage of gurus (precep(See under Guruparampara). He systematised It was the Vedasamhitas. Badarayanakrsna, who became later famous as Vedavyasa, who first arranged in systematic order the Prominent Vedasamhitas. scholars hold the view that Vyasa lived between 13001500 B.C. The samhita text now popular systematised
by Sakalya
Sakalya
is
.

SAlVALA.
in

SAKA. A

town in India. There is a reference to it Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 52, Verse 18.

A

particular sect of people or caste. The following information about the Sakas is gathered from the

Mahabharata. (i) Sakas were born from the breast of Nandim, Vasistha's cow. (Adi Parva, Chapter 147, Verse 36).

saving the king's life and non-cooperated with him in every way. In this contingency Kasyapa sought the help of Sakalya, who advised the former to bathe in the sacred tirthas in the rivers Godavarl and Sarasvati. Kasyapa did so and regained his old reputation. SAKAMBHARI. A sacred place dear to Devi. He, who fasts for three nights here, will derive the same benefits as of eating lettuce (saka) for twelve years. (Vana

is called Sakalya sakha (Sakalya branch) reported to have saved Kasyapa maharsi once. When king Parlksit was cursed that he would die by Taksaka's poison Kas yapa started for his court to save the king from the calamity. But, Taksaka met him on the way and sent him back laden with presents of gems, ornaments etc. People derided Kasyapa, who on account of covetousness, retreated from the duty of

SAKATA. An

(ii) Bhimasena, during his triumphal tour of the eastern (Sabha Parva. Chapter regions subjugated the Sakas. 32, Verse 14). (iii) Nakula conquered them. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 32, Verse 14). (iv) King of the Sakas participated in Yudhisthira's Rajasuya. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 51, Verse 32) (v) The Pandavas invited them to take part in the great war. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 15).
.

SAKATALA. An

Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 13) asura. (See under Krsna, Para Para' 2).
.

9,

Sub

intelligent minister.
.

(For details see

SAKATAYANA.
fore

under Vararuci )

A famous grammarian. He lived beYaska and Panini. He is considered to be the author of the well-known text on gramtnar called
'Unadisutrapatha'.

among

He is referred to as the foremost the grammarians in the astadhyayl of Panini. (Paninisutra, 1, 4, 86 and 87).

SAKAVAKTRA
SAKAVAKTRA. A
SAKHA.
warrior of Subrahmanya. (Mahabharata, Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 78). SAKAYANYA. A maharsi. (For details see under Brhadratha).

668
belong to the line of disciples of Sakti. Purana, Chapter 6)
.

SAKUNA
(Vamana
is

SAKTI

II.

The
it

the According to one view Sakha was younger brother of Subrahmanya while there are others who maintain that he was Subrahmanya 's son. In verse 37, Chapter 44 of Salya Parva it is stated that Sakha was the son of the Vasu Anala and the younger brother of Subrahmanya and that he had two brothers called Vaisakha and Naigameya. It is stated in Chapter 15, part 1 of Visnu Purana as follows:- "Apa, Dhruva, Soma, Dharma, Anila, Agni, Pratyusa and Prabhasa are the asfavasus. Vaitanda, Srama, Santa, and Dhvani were sons of Apa/ Kaia, who annihilates the entire world is the son of Dhruva and Varccas is Soma's son. Varccas gives people the vital glow. Dravina, Hutahavyavaha, Sisvara, Prana and Varuna were the sons of Dharma by Manohara. Anila's wife was Siva, and two sons, Manojava and Avijiiatagati were born to the couple. Kumara, son of Agni was born in Sarastamba and he had three brothers called Sakha, Visakha and Naigameya." The following story about the birth of Sakha is from

was made by VisVakarman. Vis"vakarman once grilled Surya (sun) on his machine and reduced his glow. The glow thus released by Visvakarman fell on the earth and Visvakarman made with that glow
Sakti,

and

weapon

of

Subrahmanya

called

the cakra (disc) of Visnu, the trisula (trident) of Siva the Puspaka, aerial chariot of Kubera and the Sakti of

SAKTI HI.

Subrahmanya. CVisnu Purana, Part 3, Chapter 2). The sound 'S' means welfare or prosperity and 'kti' prowess. Therefore Sakti means she, who is the embodiment of prosperity and prowess or she, who grants prosperity and of prowess. The definition
'Bhagavati' is, she who combines in herself knowledge wealth, reputation, power and the female organ. Therefore the word 'Sakti' may be taken to mean Bhagavati and ParvatI, and what are termed as Bhagavati, Sakti, Devi, Ambika, ParvatI etc. are the manifestations of Sakti, Siva's spouse. This Sakti exists fractionally in all Devas. When, once upon a time the devasura war broke out the Saktis of Devas like
affluence,

them protection. Indra and fought with Subrahmanya feeling that the latter had captured his kingdom. Two sons, Sakha and ViSakha were born from the face of Subrahmanya wounded by the Vajrayudha of Indra. SAKRA. A synonym of Indra. (See under Indra.) SAKRADEVA. A prince of Kalinga, who fought on the Kaurava side in the great war and got killed by Bhima. (Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 54, Verse 24). SAKRAKUMARIKA. A sacred place from very olden days. Those who bathe there will attain heaven. (Vana Parva, Chapter 82, Verse 81 ). SAKRAVAPI. A naga, which lived in a forest near Girivraja. The forest was near the as"rama of Gautama. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 21, Verse 9).
Subrahmanya,

Taraiiga 6, Lavanakalambaka of Kathasaritsagara: Defeated in battle by Tarakasura, Indra decided to have no more fight with him and retired to Mount Mahameru. Devas and maharsis sought asylum with

who
of

came

to

know

gave

it

SAKRAVARTTA. A

SAKRDGRAHA. A

who worships holy place. He Devatas and the souls of his ancestors here will attain the holy world. (Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 29)
.

rural

SAKTI
( 1 )

(Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 9, SAKTA. Son of Manasvl, the great-grandson of emperor Puru. Sauviri was his mother. He had two brothers called Sarhhanana and Vagmi, both of them great in warfare. (Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 7)
i.

area in ancient Verse 66).

India.

SAKTIBHADRA. A
Saiikaracarya.

Saktis came to the help This sight pleased not only the Devas, but the mother of the universe also. Along with them incarnated on earth Sarhkara, who gives 's am' (happiness) to the world and blessed Candika on the battle-field (Devi Bhagavata, 5th and 9th Skandhas).
all

Brahma emerged to help Candika. The vehicle, ornaments, weapon etc. of eachDeva, his Devi also possessed. The Saktis (Devis) of the Devas appeared in the following manner. Brahmani, wife of Brahma, rode on the swan wearing beads around her neck and holding the water-vessel in her hands. She Was followed by Vaisnavi Visnu's Sakti on Garuda wearing yellow clothes and with the conch, disc, lotus etc. in her hands. Sankarl Siva's Sakti rode on the ox with the crescent moon and serpents as ornaments and holding in her hands the Sula. 'Kaumari', Sakti rode on Subrahmanya's Airavata with sula in hands. The Sakti called 'Varahi in the form of a great boar rode carrying a corpse, Narasirhhi' Sakti took the form ofnarasirhha (half man and half lion). Yamya, Yama's s"akti, rode on buffalo holding in her hands a Saktis long stick. called Kauberi and Varuni took their respective forms
and
in this

manner

the

of Devi.

dramatist

in

in the seventh century annur in the Kerala

Son of Vasisfha by Arundhatl. He was among the hundred sons of Vasisfha. Kalmasapada, the Raksasa captured and ate Sakti and his pregnant wife Adrgyanti her in
General.

the first-born

great grief

Vyasa,
2) Other
(i) It

spent days Parasaramuni, father of was Adrsyantl's son. (For details see under

cudamani' is his work. Saktibhadra, after writing his drama, once read it out to Sankaracarya. As the acarya was observing silence that day, he made no comments about the drama. Disappointed at this silence of his Guru, the dramatist burnt his work to ashes in fire. When his observance of silence was over, the Guru asked his
for the

A.D. He belonged to ChengState. He was a disciple of The Dramatic composition 'Ascarya-

Sanskrit,

who

lived

with

Vasistha.

drama.

drama
drama.

the acarya repeated

(Adiiyanti).

Kerala.

about the burning of the from memory the whole The above legend is widely prevalent in

When

told

disciple

was

information

Siva,

who

incarnated himself as the son

Vasisfha.
(ii)

of

SAKUNA( OMENS).
Today
also

Gopayana, Bharadvaja, Apastamba and Arnodara

1 ) General. In ancient times people in all countries to consider Sakunas to be harbingers of good or evi
1

used
.

many

people believe in

omens.

things

In

India

SAKUNA
Sakuna had developed

669

SAKUNA
bird is sighted on the right side at the start of the journey, it is a good omen. If the peacock makes different sounds, threats from thieves will result. If a deer is seen in front of the king going out on a journey, death will happen to him. To see the monkey-bear, rat, tiger,
lion, cat also will

as a science even in olden days. general description about omens, good and bad, according to the Indian concept, is given below. Mixed medicines, black grains, cotton, grass, dried cowdung, charcoal, molasses, one whose head is shaven clean or whose body is smeared with oil or who is naked; flesheater; iron, dirt, skin, hair of the head, insane person, eunuch, prison, guard; women, who are either carrying or are widows; oil cake, paddy husk, ashes, skull, bone, broken vessel etc. are evil omens. Broken, fierce or murmuring instrumental music also is a bad omen. It is a good omen to hear the voice of beckoning (come) in front of the traveller, but it is not good if the voice is heard from behind. It is good if the voice of farewell (go) is heard from behind, but is bad to be heard in the front. Disapproving or prohibitive words like "Where are you going, stop, don't go", "what is to be done by going there?" etc. will cause death. It is a bad omen to see carnivorous birds perched on the top of flag-staff etc.

A

notes

is

get

to bump, weapons to break and head to wounded by dashing against doors etc. as also for umbrella or clothes to fall down are ill omens. Praising or worshipping Visnu will do away with the inauspicious results of ill omens. But, if evil omens are seen conti-

For vehicles

gems, Orris root, mustard, medicinal herbs rooted soil, Bengal gram, weapon, sword, stool, royal symbols, dead body being carried without lamentation, fruits, ghee, curdled milk, milk, aksata, mirror, honey, conch, sugarcane, auspicious words, music by devotees, loud thunder and lightning are auspicious omens. 2) Two kinds of omens. Omens are divided into two varieties, dipta (glowing) and Santa (quiescent, mild) Glowing omens bring about auspicious results and the other insilver,

nuously the traveller should return home. White flowers are good omens. Full pots are the best of omens. Flesh, fish, sound from afar, old man, solitary man, cow, goat, ox, horse, elephant, devas, burning fire, Durva grass, fresh cow-dung, prostitute, gold,
out of

an excellent omen; on the right side also it is But, behind the person, it is a bad omen. Tittiri bird also on the rear is not good. It is always a good omen if the deer, boar and spotted deer cross the path from the left to the right side; the opposite of it is bad omen. It is a favourable omen if the ox, horse, jackal, tiger, lion, cat and donkey pass from the right to the left side. It is auspicious to see the females of the jackal etc. on the right side and the males on the left. To hear the serpent, hare, boar and wild lizard named is good, but to see them is not so. Contrary to this is the effect to see the monkey, ox etc. The result of the important and powerful omens witnessed at the start of the journey will be experienced the very same day. The omen of the intoxicated, those craving for food, children, people quarrelling and those who stand away from the limits of the road is effectless. To hear the jackal howl once, twice, thrice or four times is a good omen, but to hear it five or six times is bad, The seventh time is good. If heard for more than the seventh time it will have no effect. Dipta omen facing the Sun will horripilate men, cause fear in the case of vehicles and is to be greatly feared. Ifsaranga (lotus, deer, elephant, peacock, cuckoo, lion, horse etc.) is met as the first
left side is

and donkey coming in the opposite direction bring about death. Donkey braying in awkward also inauspicious. To see kapinjala bird on the

not bad.

one year, and
at

.

make omens dip tarn, i.e. vela place), Karana (action), ruta

auspicious results. There are six ways or elements, which (time),dik (region), desa ( ( cry )and jati (kind). The power or effect of dipta increases in ascending order. To see creatures, which move about during day time as moving about during night and vice- versa is veladipta. In the case of stars, lagnas (the dominant zodiac) and those which are virulent are considered to planets, be diptas. With regard to stars and lagnas, those which the Sun enters into are dhumita, those wherein the Sun is already present are jvalita and those from which the sun has left are Am'arim. These three are diptas and the rest santas. (This is called veladipta). When dik (region) is dipta it is called digdlpta.

To

forest

is de?adlpta. To see some one doing work not ordained to his caste is karanadlpta. To hear different horrible voices is rutadlpta. To see purely fleshIf all the characteristics of eating animals is jatidipta. dipta do not synchronise but differ from one another it is called santa and if the characteristics of dipta and santa are mixed up it is called misra. 3) Birds, animals etc. If the casa bird (wild crow) makes sound when the king gets out of the palace,he will meet with dishonour. If the sound is heard on the left side, there will be quarrel, but food will be served. If the

cious places

see forest animals in village and village-animals in is digdlpta. To see good brahmins at inauspi-

against one starting on a journey, it will be hindered. see the crow on the left side is a good omen. If it is seen on the right side, the journey will not end in success. It is very good if the crow flies in the same

some auspicious place every dawn. If the crow is found crowing in fear on the left side of camps put up for the army of the King, the head of the army will have to face great threats. If the crow, psrches on and pecks on the shadow, vehicle, slippers, umbrella, clothes etc. the owner of those things will die. If they are respected by the crow, honour will accrue to their owner. If the crow flies about the entrance of the house it means that he, who had left the house will return. If the crows bring and scatter red coloured and baked things in the courtyard, the owner of the house will meet with imprisonment. If the crow carries to a house something yellow in colour, gold or silver, the owner of the house will get such things. Whatever thing the crow carries away from the house, such things therein will be destroyed. If the crow vomits raw flesh in the rear of the house, the owner of it will come into possession of wealth; if soil is land will be acquired. If gem is deposited thus, deposited, extensive lands will come to the owner of the house. If the crow flies in the same direction as the one chosen by the traveller, prosperity and success will result to him and if it flies in the opposite direction not only will the traveller not achieve his object but, he will also meet with danger. If the crows come crowing

thing in an auspicious place its good effect will last for if these are met at the inauspicious place, the result will be bad. Everybody should see sarariga

To

SAKUNI

i

670

SAKUNI vi

direction as the traveller on his left side, if on the right side the result will be of medium nature. If it flies in the opposite direction on the left side the traIf the crow flies into the veller will face hindrance. house when one is about to start on the journey, it

SAKUNI

the journey -may be begun. The crow which looks at the sun with one eye and perched on one leg traveller. If it is in is surely indicative of fear for the the hollow of a tree great calamities will happen. To dream of crow with its mouth full of excretion is indi-

means

VI. The notorious uncle of Duryodhana. Son of King Subala of Gandhara and brother of Gandharl. Sakuni, staying at Hastinapura, pulled the strings for all the evil actions of Duryodhana It was Sakuni's hands, which worked in the background in driving the Pandavas out of the kingdom and in denuding Pancali of her clothes. It was also his evil tactics, which tore asunder all chances of conciliation with the Pandavas on their return from the forest and thus led to the great

ing him with a piece of bone in its mouth, he will fail to achieve the object of his travel; if it comes biting a cord, the same will be the result. It is auspicious to see dog, which carries a slipper in its mouth or the mouth of which is filled with flesh. Fear will overtake him in But if front of whom the dog urinates and goes away. not a bitch and if, after urination, it goes to an auspicious place, to the shade of an auspicious tree or towards an auspicious thing, then it is a good omen. The same considerations are valid in the case of the jackal
etc.

cative of all-round success. If the dog enters and barks in the house the result will be sure death of the owner of the house. But, if the dog smells on the left side of the man it is good, and if it If the dogs come smells on the right side, it is bad. against the person about to start on a journey, it will cause hindrance to him. If the dog stands blocking his path there will be threat from thieves. If it comes fac-

war that lasted for eighteen days. At last he was killed by Sahadeva during the war. (Salya Parva, Chapter A resume of the part played by Sakuni 28, Verse 61)
.

in the Bharata story is given below : (1) It was with his help that Duryodhana defeated Dharmaputra in the foul game of dice. (Adi Parva,

Chapter 61, Verse 50) (2) He was born, due

.

to

destroy righteousness. 111).
(3)

the anger of the Devas, to (Adi Parva, Chapter 63, Verse

Verse 78).

He was Dvapara

re-born. (Adi Parva, Chapter 67,

Verse 15).

(4) It was he who took the initiative in marrying Gandharl to Dhrtarastra. (Adi Parva, Chapter 109

He was present at the wedding of Draupadl. ( Adi ( 5) Parva, Chapter 185, Verse 2) (6) He once advised Duryodhana to annihilate the Pandavas, root and branch. (Adi Parva, Chapter
199). (7) He was present at the Rajasuya yajna performed (Sabha Parva, Chapter 45, Verse by Yudhisthira.

If cows cry without cause or reason, it indicates ruin to the master. If the cry is in an awkward tone, death will result. If the ox murmurs during night, it is good for the master. Ox tied to a cord also is good omen. If cows are found to treat their calves without love, it spells ruin for pregnant women. It is a good omen to see cows which have got wet and whose horns are smeared with earth. These considerations apply to buffaloes as
well. If elephants indulge in the sexual act in villages, it augurs ill to the villages. If the she-elephant delivers or gets mad in the country, i.e. not in the forest, it spells ruin to king. Ruin to the King will be the result if the elephant objects to his mounting it or runs back

66). (8) Even after the yajna was over and everyone had departed, he remained there for some time more with Duryodhana. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 68) (9) It was he who first discussed with Dhrtarastra the question of inviting Dharmaputra for a game of dice so that the wealth of the Pandavas might be extracted from them. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 49). (10) By foul play he defeated Dharmaputra in the game of dice. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 60, Verse 61 ).
.

(11)
bets

invite

home
It
is

or if the

foot

an auspicious omen if the elephant places on the left foot of it and also if it holds
its

mad

elephant

is

found without madness.
its

It was he who cooperated with Duryodhana to Dharmaputra again for a game of dice fixing the and in defeating him in the game. (Sabha Parva,
1

its

right tusk

Chapter
(12)
7,

He

76,

Verse 9). once prophesied that the Pandavas would not
life

with

trunk.
I.

return after their

in

forest.

SAKUNI
SAKUNI

serpent born in the Dhrtarastra dynasty. It was burnt to death at the serpeat yajfta conducted by Janamejaya. (Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 16)
.

A

Verse

(Vana Parva, Chapter

7)

.

An asura who was the son of Hiranyaksa II. and brother of Sambara, Trimurdha, Sanku and Arya.

SAKUNI

(Agni Purana, Chapter 19). A king born in the dynasty of Bharata, III. son of Dusyanta. Sakuni was Bhimaratha's son and father of Urudbhi. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha) SAKUNI IV. A son of Iksvaku. (For details see under ViSvakarma, Para 2). SAKUNI V. A maharsi to whom were born nine sons called Dhruva, Sali, Budha, Tara, Jyotisman, Nirmoha, Jitakama, Dhyanakastha, and Gunadhika. The first five of them led householder's life while the last four took to Sannyasa even as children. (Padma Purana Adikhanda, Chapter 31)
. .

Verse 17). 1 ( 5) Afterwards he once advised Duryodhana to restore the kingdom to the Pandavas. (Vana Parva, Chapter 251, Verse 1).
(16)
first

(13) While the Pandavas were living in the Dvaita Sakuni suggested the forest need for leading a procession to them. (Vana Parva, Chapter 238, Verse 21). Sakuni and Duryodhana led the procession. In the ( 14) forest he got wounded in fighting with the Gandharvas and he returned home. (Vana Parva, Chapter 241,

(17) In the battle that followed, Iravan killed five brothers of Sakuni. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 90, Verse 25).

He too participated in the great war and on the day of the war he fought a duel with Prativindhya. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 63).

SAKUNI
Sahadeva and got defeated.
(

671
then

SAKUNTALA
his tapas

(18)

He

Verse 22). (20) Then Sakuni resorted to certain magical tricks. Arjuna successfully faced the tricks and Sakuni ran away from the battlefield. (Drona Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 15).
14,

105, Verse 8). 19) He fought with Sahadeva.

fought with Yudhisthira, Nakula and (Bhlsma Parva, Chapter

and got pregnant by him. But she forsook the child on the banks of Malini and returned to

(Drona Parva, Chapter

fought with Abhimanyu. (Drona Parva, Verse 5) (22) He fought with Nakula and Sahadeva. (Drona Parva, Chapter 96, Verse 21). (23) He fought with Satyaki. (Drona Parva, Chapter 120, Verse 11). (24) Bhimasena killed the seven maharathis and five brothers of Sakuni. (Drona Parva, Chapter 1 57, Verse 22 ) (25) Nakula defeated Sakuni. (Drona Parva, Chapter 269, Verse 16). He attacked the Pandava army at the instance of ( 26) Duryodhana. (Drona Parva, Chapter 170, Verse 66) (27) Arjuna defeated Sakuni. (Drona Parva, Chapter 161, Verse 25). (28) On the death of Dronacarya Sakuni ran away from the battlefield in great fear. (Drona Parva, Chapter 193, Verse 9). (29) In the fight that followed he defeated Srutasena. Karna Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 40) ( (30) Sakuni was defeated in the fighting with Satyaki. (Karna Parva, Chapter 61, Verse 48) (31) In the fight with Bhima he fell down. (Karna Parva, Chapter 77, Verse 66) (32) In the next fight he killed the Kalinda prince. (Karna Parva, Chapter 85, Verse 7). (33 ) Cavalry of the Pandavas attacked Sakuni and he got wounded. (Salya Parva, Chapter 23, Verse 41). followed Sahadeva killed (34) In the battle that Sakuni. (Salya Parva, Chapter 28, Verse 61 ). (35) After the war was over Vyasa summoned the souls of those killed in the war to the surface of Gaiiga and Sakuni 's soul was present among them. (Alramavasika Parva, Chapter 32, Verse 9). (36) After his death he joined Dvapara.(Svargarohana Parva, Chapter 5, Verse 21 ). used in Mahabharata: (37) Synonyms of Sakuni
(21)

He

Chapter

37,

.

.

Birds gathered round the forsaken orphan-child. While Sakuntas i.e. birds were petting the child Kanva came that way, saw the child and took it with him to the asrama. As sakuntas had petted it, the child was named Sakuntala. 3) As queen. King Dusyanta of the lunar dynasty married Sakuntala and to the couple was born the famous Bharata. This is the original story about Sakuntala's married life. All the Indian languages contain two different versions of Sakuntala's life. One version is that related in Vyasa's Bharata and the second is that contained in Kalidasa's Sakuntala. Many scholars opine that in the matter of the Sakuntala episode Kalidasa has gone a step further and for the better, and therefore both the versions of the story are to be carefully studied by us. Sakuntala, now grown up as a (i) Vyasa's Sakuntala. maiden, was alone in the asrama when King Dusyanta, .out in the forest on a hunting expedition, came there. In the absence of her foster-father Kanva, Sakuntala welcomed the King. They fell in love with each other and the King married Sakuntala according to the Gandharva way of marriage and lived with her for a

Devaloka. 2) Childhood.

.

.

.

The King did not recognise them, but yanta's palace. a celestial voice convinced him that the child was his

up,

was named Sarvadamana. When the child was grown Kanva sent his mother along with him to Dusson.

few days. Sakuntala became pregnant. The King returned to his palace. Kanva returned to the asrama and he was pleased that what had been destined to take place had happened. In due course of time Sakuntala delivered a boy, who

own
wife.

son and Sakuntala lived in the palace as his honoured

The King

heartily

welcomed

his

wife

and

Gandharapati, Gandhararaja, Gandhararajaputra, Gandhararajasuta, Kitava, Parvatlya, Saubala, Saubalaka, Saubaleya, Subalaja and Subalaputra. SAKUNI. A maharsi, who lived in Madhu forest. Of the nine sons of Sakuni, Dhruva, Sila, Budha and Tara were house-holders and agnihotris ( those who sacrificed offerings in fire). (Padma Purana, Svarga Khanda 81) SAKUNIGRAHA. Vinata, in 'her fierce attitude or aspect is Sakunigraha. Brahmins call it Skandapasmara also. (Vana Parva, Chapter 280, Verse 26) SAKUNIKA. A female attendant of Subrahmanya. (Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 15) SAKUNTA. A son of Visvamitra. He was a Vedantin. (M.B. AnuSasana Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 50) SAKUNTALA. Foster-daughter of sage Kanva. Sakuntala was a daughter born to ViSva1) Birth. mitra of the Apsara woman called Menaka. Visvamitra was engaged in intense tapas on the banks of river Malini in the Himalayas. Indra deputed Menaka to break the maharsi's tapas. She enticed him away from
. .
.

.

Kanva brought up Sakuntala (ii) Kalidasa's Sakuntala. born to Visvamitra of Menaka in his asrama and she had two companions called Anasuya and Priyarhvada. All the three grew up and became maidens. King Dusyanta, who went out hunting in the forest followed a deer to Kanva's agrama where he saw Sakuntala watering the garden with her companions. Kanva was then away at Cakratirtha. Dusyanta, who fell in love with Sakuntala, married her according to the Gandharva rules and lived with her at the asrama Meanwhile Sakuntala became pregfor a few days. nant, and emissaries from the palace came and the King returned with them. He left the asrama after promising Sakuntala that he would soon return to her. He gave her his signet ring. Sad over the separation from Dusyanta and immersed in thought about him, Sakuntala was sitting there in the asrama when Durvasas came there. She did not see the maharsi nor welcome him respectfully. He got angry at this and cursed her that she be forgotten by him about whom she was so intensely thinking. Sakuntala did not hear the curse either, but her companions who heard it begged pardon of the muni on behalf of Sakuntala and prayed for absolution from the curse. Then he said that if Sakuntala showed the King any sign about their relationship the King would remember her. Her companions did not tell Sakuntala about the

SALA

i

672
the surface of the

SALAGRAMA
Ganga by Vyasa
(

above incidents. Kanva gladly welcomed Sakuntala's wedding with Dusyanta. Days and months passed by, yet Dusyanta did not
return and

Asramavasika

Kanva

sent

Sakuntala,

pregnancy had become prominent,

of the signet ring. On their way to the palace Sakuntala and others bathed in the Somavaratirtha, and nobody noticed Sakuntala losing from her finger the ring in the tirtha. They reached the King's palace. None noticed them. Dusyanta did not remember missing. having even seen her. The signet ring was After leaving Sakuntala at the palace her companions returned to the agrama. Menaka, whose heart melted at the pathetic wailings of Sakuntala led her to Kasyapa's agrama, left her there and returned to Devaloka. The signet ring lost by Sakuntala was swallowed by a fish, which was netted by a fisherman, who went about the streets to sell the ring extracted from inside the fish. Servants of the King took the fisherman captive. At the sight of the ring thoughts about the past dawned on the King and he remembered all about Sakuntala. His days became sad pondering over separation from Sakuntala. Sakuntala delivered a boy at the asrama of Kasyapa.

King in the company of Gautami and Sarrigarava. Anasuya reminded Sakuntala to take particular care

in signs of to the palace of the

whom

Parva, Chapter 32, Verse 10). (8) After death he became one with the Visvadevas. (Svargarohana Parva, Chapters, Verse 16). SALA V. Son of King Parlksit of the Iksvaku dynasty. SuSobhana, daughter of the Manduka King was his mother. He had two brothers called Dala and Bala. Sala did not return some horses, which he had taken as loan from Vamadeva maharsi. Angered at this the maharsi created some Raksasas, who killed Sala. (Vana

SALABHA
his

Kauravas on the Pandava side. He was killed by Karna. ( Kama Parva, Chapter 56, Verse 49) SALABHA. Wife of Atrimaharsi. (Brahmanda Purana,
.

SALABHA

of Kasyapaprajapati by born in his next life as Prahlada, the Balhlka King. (Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 30)
I.

Parva, Chapter 192).

An

asura,

son

wife

Danu.

He was

.

II.

A

warrior,

who

fought

against

the

A female attendant of Subrahmanya. (Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 26). SALAGRAMA. A stone emblem of Visnu.
SALABHI.
1)

3,8; 74-78).

Origin

Mahavisnu
This

ammonite,

The

child

his return from the devasura war, Dusyanta entered Kagyapa's airama where he saw Sarvadamana counting the teeth of a lion he had captured. Having heard details about him from the boy the King went inside the arama and saw Kasyapa and Sakuntala. He returned with Sakuntala and the boy to the palace with Kasyapa's blessings. It was this boy Sarvadamana, who afterwards became Bharata, the famous emperor of India. SALA I. One of the three pugilists deputed by Karhsa to attack Krsna at Mathura, the other two being Canura and Mustfka. Krsna kicked Sala to death. (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha). SALA II. A serpent born in Vasuki's dynasty and burnt to death at the serpent yajna of Janamejaya. (Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 5 ) SALA III. One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarasfra. He was killed in the great war by Bhima. (Karna Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 3). SALA IV. Son of Somadatta, a King born in the Kuru

On

as a courageous boy.

was named Sarvadamana and he grew up

name
is

which

Vana

Parva, Chapter 84, Stanzas 123 to 125). The importance of Salagrama. The place Salagrama 2) are various is at the origin of river Gandaki. There kinds of stone figures which are called Salagramas. These Salagramas themselves have orginated from portions of Visnu. That is why those stones are used for making images of Visnu. There is a story in the Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 9, stating that the derivation of these stones is from a portion of Visnu.

Gandaki, which flows through Nepal, starts. This Salagrama is considered to be a holy place. Mahavisnu and other gods always dwell in this place. Salagrama is the name of Visnu who dwells in Salagrama. (M.B.

known by the name Salagrama also. originated from the name Salagrama, the name of the place from where the river
is

of the name. Salagrama is the kind of used for making the image of Visnu.
'

(Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Verse 15). (2) He was present at Yudhisthira's Rajasuya yajna. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 34, Verse 8 ) (3) He was a fierce warrior in Duryodhana's army. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 55, Verse 68). (4) He fought from the southern wing of the great vyuha set up by Bhlsma. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 51, Verse 57). (5) He fought with Abhimanyu in the great war. (Drona Parva, Chapter 37) (6) He was killed by Srutavarman in the battlefield of Kuruksetra. (Drona Parva, Chapter 108, Verse 10). (7) He was one among the valiant souls brought to
.

dynasty. He had a brother called Bhurisravas. ( 1 ) Sala was present at the wedding of Draupadl.

depart as Tulasi, Mahavisnu blessed her thus. "Look Laksmi you will live in the world as a holy basil and when the curse has been completed you will come back to me. On that day, a river named Gandaki, will start from your body which will be in the shape of the holy
!

During the early days, Sarasvati, Laksmi and Ganga were wives of Mahavisnu. One day there arose a family As a result quarrel among them. (See under Tulasi) of this quarrel, the Devls cursed each other. Sarasvati cursed Laksmi and changed her to holy basil plant When Laksmi was about to (Tulasi) on the earth.
.
!

remain as a stone image. There will be so many worms with strong tusks and teeth, which will pierce
river, I will

has taken birth from the sweat of Siva and Visnu. On the bank of that Refer to the word Gandaki)
.

basil plant.

(It

is

also

said

that

the river

Gandaki

the stone into the shape of Sudarsanacakra(the weapon of Visnu) and will create numberless Salagramas. The Salagramas thus made, will be of various sizes and

.

Mention is made in Different classes of Salagramas. the Puranas about nineteen classes of Salagramas. They are given below
3)
;

shapes."

SALAGRAMA
(i)

673
in reality.

SALIHOTRA
Those who worship this stone with mark of He who cakra, need not have to take another birth. Salagrama, should avoid arrohabitually worships gance and should be charitable. He who worships Salagrama with the mark of wheel should not covet
others' wealth and women. The cakra from Dvaraka and the stone from' Gandaki will bring atonement in a moment for sins incurred in a hundred births. Even if one has incurred thousands of sins, one will get remis-

Vanamala.
(iii)

With one hole, four cakras Laksminarayana. (wheels) and Vanamala (a line like the garland) and, of the colour of clouds. This is the same as LaksmlnaraLakfmljandrdana. (ii) that there will be no yana, with the difference

mark

Raghundtha. of the hoof of a

With two
calf.

holes

and four wheels and This also will have no

Vanamala.
(iv) Vamana. the colour of

With
the

two

cloud.
is

very small wheels and This too will have no

Vanamala.
(v)

the same as Vamana with the be having Vanamala. The house in which this is placed will have a prosperity and well being of its own. Will be large and round with two Damodara. (vi) cakras (wheels) and with no Vanamala. Neither too large nor too small, but of (vii) Ranardma. medium size and round, with two wheels and the
Sridhara.

This

exception that

it

will

ignorance, a woman, whether she is good-natured or of a higher status, happens to touch Salagrama, all her merits earned by good deeds will be lost and she will

them by drinking the water of Salagrama. Brahmana, Ksatriya, Vaisya and Sudra will attain heaven if they become house-holders according to Vedic convention and worship Salagrama. On no account should women worship Salagrama. If by
sion for all of

go

marks of child's

(viii) Rdjardjesvara.

seven cakras, This will earn for the possessor kingly umbrella. wealth. Somewhat thick with fourteen wheels, (ix) Ananta. and as black as a cloud. This Salagrama will give men the four Purusarthas (objects of life) 'Dharmartha-

bow and quiver. Of the size of Ranarama with (wheels), ornamented with the mark of
kick,

diamond, and meals presented to god before being eaten by the servants in the temple, will be like Kalakuta ( thj poison of Vasuki), to Bhagavan Visnu. If a woman touches Salagrama, she will have to remain
duration of fourteen Indras. Even the Brahmahatya (killing a brahmin) will be remitted by drinking the water of Salagrama and he will attain heaven. Basil ( tulasi) sandalwood, water, conch tinkling bell, wheel, stone, copper pot, and name of Visnu comprise 'Padamrta' (the celestial nectar of words) which is said to have the power of remitThe merits obtained by bathing in all ting sins. the tirthas and the performing of all the yagas (sacriin hell for the
sin of
fices)

to hell. Brahmin sages say that women throwing flowers as oblation on Salagrama, commit the greatest sin. If a woman touches a Salagrama, the offering of Sandal-wood will be like poisoned rice, flowers like

kamamoksa' (Duty, wealth,

(x) Madhusudana. A salagrama in the shape of a wheel with two wheels, and impression of cow's hoof, having the shade of cloud, of ordinary size. This will be very bright. Sudarsana will have only one cakra (xi) Sudarsana.

desire

and

salvation)

.

This also will be having only one wheel which will not be bright. (xiii) Hayagriva. This will have two wheels and the face
(xii)

(wheel). Gadddhara.

dwell in each drop of

SALAKA.
to

(Padma Purana, Patala Khanda, Chapter

water of Salagrama.
20).

of a horse. (xiv) Ndrasimha. and awful shape.
self-renunciation.

Wife ofmaharsiDhananjaya, who belonged Vasistha gotra. (For details see under Dhananjaya

With a very wide mouth, two wheels,

&ALAKARA. A

V).

This Salagrama will cause instant

This also will be having a wide mouth and two wheels. Besides these, there will be the This will make house-holders cosy Vanamala also.
(xv) Laksminarasimha.

SALAKATAftKATA (SALAKATAKlK A
for
ter

naga born in Taksaka's dynasty. It was burnt to death at the serpent yajna of Janamejaya. (Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 9)
.

)

I

A

and comfortable.

SALAKATASIKATA

Alambusa. (See under Alambusa).
II.

synonym

(xvi) Vdsudeva. The Salagrama with two wheels at the region of the hole and with round shape having vividness and brightness, is Vasudeva. This will grant
all desires.

(xvii) Pradyumna. This will have only a minute wheel. The colour will be that of clouds. But on the outer side, there will be a hole in the inside of which there will be a number of cuts or dents. This will give house-

SALA5IK.AYANA. A son of Visvamitra. He was an expounder of the Vedas. Mention is made in Mahabharata,
SALI.
See under Guruparampara. SALIHOTRA. A muni of ancient days. Vyasa had once lived in his aSrama. There was a tree near the asrama which had outlived time. A drink of the water in the pond here quenches hunger and thirst. The tree and the pond were created by the power of Salihotra's tapas. The Pandavas, during their life in exile in the forest, visited this place in the company of HidimbI and quenched their hunger and thirst by drinking water from this pond. (M.B., Southern text, Chapter 154).
Amis' asana Parva, Chapter 4, about this Salankayana. maharsi in the lineage of Gurus (preceptors).

of Sandhya. The giant Vidyutkela married this giantess Salakatarikata. A son named Sukesa was born to them. (See under Vidyutkes'a). SALAKATA5IKATI. Another name of the giantess Hidimba. ( See under Hidimba)
.

A giantess who

was the daugh-

holders comfort always. Sankarsana. In (xtfiii)

A

the

Sarikarsana two wheels

will be joined face to face. The fore-part will be thinner than the hind-part. This also will do good to house-holders. The colour of this is yellow. This (xix) Aniruddha. will be quite round and bright. This also will give comfort to the house-holder. (Devi Bhagavata,
;
.

Skandha 9 Agni PuriLna, Chapter 46) 4). The greatness oj Salagrama. Of these, the stones with cakras (the weapon Discus), are Bhagavan Visnu

SALIKA
Salihotra was an adept in asVa.<;astra (science To bathe in the tirtha called Salisurya horses) ed by the muni is to derive the same result as making a gift of a thousand cows. (Vana Parva,
.

674
about
creatthat of
(v)

SALYA
Salva had several
,

,

Verse 27 and Chapter 83, Verse 107). SALIKA. A divine maharsi. He met Krsna once on his (Krsna's) way to Hastinapura and had a talk ,vith the lord. (M.B. Udyoga Pava, Southern Text, Chapter
ter 71,

Chap-

friends such as Damaghosa, Kalinga, Malava, Kekaya, Vaiiga, Magadha, Kosala, Korikana, Hehaya, Cola, Pandya, Kerala and others. (Bhagavata, Skandha 10). SALVA II. There is a story in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, stating that three Salvas and four Madras were born to Bhadra from the dead body of her husband Vyusi-

Anga

tas"va.

SALMALlDVlPA. One
1)

to Kasyapapiajapati of his (Adi Parva, Chapter 35, Verse 14). A Devagandharva, son of Kasyapaprajapati by his wife Muni. He participated in the birthday celebrations of Arjuria. (Adi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 4) SALISURYA. A holy spot in Kuruksetra. It is said to have been the place where muni Salihotra lived. To bathe at this place is to derive the same result as that of making a gift of a thousand cows. (Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 10). SALMALI. A King of the lunar dynasty. He was the grandson of Kuru and son of Aviksit. He had seven brothers. (Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 52).

SALIPiyDA. A naga born
Kadru SALlSlRAS.
wife

83).

.

of the seven islands. Salmali island, which is double in extent of Plaksa island is surrounded by Iksurasa (sugar-cane There are seven juice) ocean on all four sides of it. mountains there which produce gems and they are seven boundaries which separate the regions. Just like this, there are also seven rivers there. The seven rivers are Yoni, Toya, Vitrna, Candra, Mukta, VimocanI and Nirvrti. Mere remembrance of the seven rivers is sufficient to annihilate all sins. Here people divided into the four classes live. Brahmins, Ksatriyas Vais"yas and Sudras here are called Kapilas, Arunas, Pitas and Krsnas. These devout people worship Visnu in the form of Vayu by sublime yajnas. Devas are ever present on this most beautiful island. A tree named Salmali which gives mental comfort grows in this island. The island is surrounded on all four sides by an ocean of Sura (liquor). (Visnu Purana, Part II,
General.

Chapter 4).

SALUKINl. A
as

2).

dlmali

island and ndgdstra. sacred place in

See under Nagastra. Kuruksetra. To bathe

SALVA

83, Verse 13).
I.

in the Dasai'vatirtha there, is to derive the same benefit performing ten asVamedhas. (Vana Parva, Chapter

is mentioned in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Stanza 16 that this Ksatriya King Salva was born from a portion of Ajaka the younger brother of Vrsaparva.

1) General information. The lover of daughter of the King of Kas"I. It

Amba

SALYA. A
(q.v)

wealth and prosperity. Sita was born from that sacrificial fire. (Uttara Ramayana) SALVA V. A story occurs in Brahmanda Purana, describing how Renuka, the wife of Jamadagni, was infatuated at the sight of a handsome Salva, and how this event subsequently led to her death. (See under (Renuka) SALVASENI. An ancient place in South India. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 61). SALVAYANA. A king in anc ent India. He ran away to South India with his brothers and attendants in fear of Jarasandha. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 27).
. .

Satyaki killed this king Salva; and Dhrstadyumna killed his elephant in the battle of Bharata. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 20, Verse 4). SALVA IV. In Uttara Ramayana a Salva, who was a contemporary of Kusadhvaja, is mentioned. Kusadhvaja once approached this king Salva and requested for some financial help. But the covetous Salva did not give any help. So Kusadhvaja performed a sacrifice to obtain
(4)

Here, 'Salvas' means the rulers of Salva. It is stated in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 14, Stanza 26 that the people of Salva fled to the south in fear of Jarasandha. Satyavan, the husband of Savitrl, was a native of Salva. It is also mentioned that the soldiers of Salva who joined the army of the Kauravas fought against the Pandavas. There were Salvas on the side of the Pandavas also. Mention is made in Drona Parva, Chapter 154, that the Salvas on the side of the Pandavas, attacked Drona, the teacher. SALVA III. A king of the low castes. The details given below about this king are from Mahabharata. (1) This king attacked the vast army of the Pandavas in the battle-field of Kuruksetra. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 20, Verse 1). (2) The elephant of this Salva was as big as a mountain and belonged to the family of elephants called Mahabhadra. ( Salya Parva; Chapter 20, Verse 2 ) (3) Duryodhana had honoured this low caste King Salva. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 2, Verse 2)
.
.

(See under Bhadra II)

.

:

the

2) Other details. (i) Salva was the ruler of the city named Saubha. Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 102, Verse 61). He was present at the Svayarhvara marriage of ( ii) Draupadl. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 186 Verse 15).
present at the sacrifice of Royal consecration (Rajasuya) of Yudhisfhira. (M.B. Sabha Parva,
(iii)

king who gave advice and leadership to the Kauravas. He ruled over theMadraor Balhlka kingdom. Madrl, wife of Pandu was Salya's sister. Yet, in the great war he stood firmly on the Kaurava side and died at Kuruksetra. The following role he played in the Bharata story. Bhisma he gave his sister Madri ( 1 ) At the instance of in marriage to Pandu. (Adi Parva, Chapter 112).
(2) He was present at the wedding of Draupadl i% the company of his sons Rukmangada and Rukmaratha.

He was

(iv) At the death of Sis"upala, King Salva became angry and besieged Dvaraka. In the battle which

Chapter 34, Verse 9).

followed Sri

Krsna

(Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Verse 18). (3) At the Svayarhvara of Draupadl he withdrew from stringing the bow, owning defeat. (Adi Parva, Chapter 186, Verse 28), (4) Bhlma defeated him at the wedding of Draupadl.

killed

Salva.

(

M.B. Vana Parva,

(Adi Parva, Chapter 189, Verse 23)
(5)

.

Chapters 15 to 22).

During

his

triumphal tour of the west, Nakula

be-

SALYA
friended his uncle Salya, and entertained him. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 32, Verse 14) (6) He participated in Yudhisthira's Rajasuya yajna.
.

675
(34)

SAMA
When Drona was
killed

the battlefield. (Drona Parva, Chapter 193, Verse 11). (35 ) Srutakirti attacked Salya. (Kama Parva, Chapter
13,

Salya ran away

from

34, Verse 7). once opined that Salya was nobler than (7) Sri Krsna. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 37, Verse 14). a good sword and a golden jar to (8) He presented Yudhisthira on the occasion of his coronation. (Sabha Parva, 'Chapter 53, Verse 9). (9) When Dharmaputra went to Hastinapura to play the game of dice, Salya was found to have arrived there earlier. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 58, Verse 24) Before the great war began he visited the Pandavas ( 10) and blessed them. Moreover he agreed to act as Kama's charioteer and render him impotent so that the Pandavas could become victorious. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 8). with (11) Salya joined the Kauravas in the great war an aksauhini (a particular division of soldiers) (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 19, Verse 16). (12) Salya wished that Yudhisthira won the war.

(Sabha Parva, Chapter
Sis upala

Verse 10).

upon Salya acting as (36) Duryodhana insisted charioteer of Karna. At first Salya got angry about the suggestion, but finally he took up the charioteership.

Verse 33).
(38)
(39)

(Karna Parva, Chapter 32). As the charioteer of Kama Salya cried down the former and praised Arjuna. (Kama Parva, Chapter 37,
(37)

.

Karna threatened
Salya cried

to

kill

Salya.

(Karna Parva,

Chapter 40).
story of the 41).

down Karna by relating to him the swan and the crow. (Karna Parva, Chapter

.

(Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 43,Verse'79). On the first day of the war he fought a duel with 13) Yudhisthira. (Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 28). (Bhlsma (14) Salya killed Uttara, the Virata prince. Parva, Chapter 47, Verse 35). He defeated Sankha, another Virata prince. (Bhlsma ( 15) Parva, Chapter 49, Verse 35) He fought with Dhrstadyumna. (Bhlsma Parva, ( 16) Chapter 62). Bhimasena defeated Salya. (Bhlsma Parva, Chapter ( 17)
(
.

(40) When Bhlma wanted to cut off Kama's tongue Salya reminded him of Arjuna's vow and thus made Bhlma retract from his plan. (Kama Parva, Chapter 50; Mahabharata, Daksinatyapatha). (41 ) When Kama attempted to kill Nakula, Sahadeva and Yudhisthira, Salya prevented him from doing so. (Karna Parva, Chapter 63, Verse 21 ). (42) He consoled Karna, who got alarmed by the prowess of Bhlma. (Kama Parva, Chapter 84, Verse
8).

the death of Karna.
10).

(43) Salya comforted Duryodhana, who grieved over (Kama Parva, Chapter 92, Verse

64, Verse 27). (18) He fought with Yudhisthira again. (Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 71, Verse 20)
. .

(19) Nakula and Sahadeva attacked Salya. (Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 81, Verse 26) (20) Sahadeva defeated Salya. (Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 88, Verse 51). (21) Salya attacked Sikhandl. (Bhlsma Parva, Chapter
85, Verse 27). In the battle that followed he attacked the ( 22)

Pandavas and wounded Yudhisthira. Parva, Chapter 105, Verse 30). (23) Bhlma and Arjuna fought with Salya. Parva, Chapters 113 and 114).
lot of

whole (Bhlsma

(Salya Parva, Chapter 6, Verse 28). (45) He fought a fierce battle withBhima and Dharmaputra. (Salya Parva, Chapters 11 and 12). defeated Salya. (Salya Parva, (46) Dharmaputra Chapter 16, Verse 63). (47) In the battle that followed, Salya was killed by Yudhisthira. (Salya Parva, Chapter 17, Verse 52). (48) Among the souls of those killed in battle beckoned to the surface of the Ganga, Salya's soul also was

(44) As desired by Duryodhana, he assumed over the army as its commander-in-chief.

charge

(Bhlsma

(24) Salya fought a duel with Yudhisthira for the third time. (Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 116, Verse 40). (25)
14,

present. (Asramavasika Parva, Chapter 32, Verse 10). and son of (49) Sarhhlada, brother of Prahlada was another birth of Salya. (Adi Hiranyakasipu Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 6). (50) Synonyms used in the Mahabharata for Salya :

He

Abhimanyu and Salya fought with each other. (Drona Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 78). (27) Afterwards in a club-fight with Bhlma, Salya got defeated. (Drona Parva, Chapter 15). (28) He fought again with Yudhisthira. (Drona Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 15). (29) In the fight with Abhimanyu he fell down unconscious. (Drona Parva, Chapter 37, Verse 38). (30) Abhimanyu defeated him again. (Drona Parva, Chapter 48, Verse 14).
(26)
(31
)

Verse 31).

fought with Nakula. (Drona

Parva,

Chapter

Madraja, Artayani, Balhikapungava, Madradhipa, Madrajanadhipa, Madraka, Madrarat, Sauvira etc. SALYAHARANI. See under Mrtasanjlvani. SALYAPARVA. An important Parva of the Maha-

SAMA I.
SAMA
wife

bharata.
besides

Son of the Vasu Sama, three sons Muni. (Adi Parva, Chapter was

SAMA. A dog which

He

fought for the

fifth

time

with Yudhisthira.
.

(Drona Parva, Chapter

26, Verse 99)

(32) Afterwards he clashed with Arjuna as the protector of Jayadratha. (Drona Parva, Chapter 145, Verse 9). (33) He killed Satanika, brother of Virata. (Drona Parva, Chapter 137, Verse 30).

Chapter 66, Verse 32). Yama. It was one of the two offsprings of Sarama. (Brahmanda Purana 3.7. 312). SAMA. One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra. He was killed in the Bharata-battle, by Bhimasena. (M.B. Karna Parva. Chapter 51, Verse 7). SAMA. A populous centre in front of the Puskara island (Puskaradvlpa). In Puranic days there were Devas such as thirtythree regions in this centre. and so on dwell Vamana, Airavata, Supratika, Anjana
Prapti. (Adi Parva,

Aah. Aah had, called called Jyoti, Santa and 66, Verse 28) . II. One of the three sons of Dharmadeva, the and Harsa. Sama's other two being called

Kama

followed

SAMA
here.

676

SAMANTAPANCAKA
been trying to murder you. Why do you feel so miserable about such a wife and children ?" When the King had finished saying thus much, Sumedhas came there. To remove the darkness of illusion from their minds, the hermit taught them the Nine-lettered Mantra (spell) with prayer and meditation. Thus giving them the mantra, the teacher hermit advised them to go to the bank of the river and select a suitable place and worship Devi with devotion and concentration of mind. Accordingly they went to the bank of the river and selected a pure and solitary
place, and concentrating their to meditate and worship her

The people of this place live by inhaling the breath coming from the noses of these' gods. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 12, Verse 32). SAMA. One of the Caturupayas (four tactics). (See

SAMADHI. The
mind become

under Caturupaya)

.

state

one.

When

when

the soul (atma) and the the soul and the mind

SAMADHICHETTI. A

mingle with each other as salt and water, it is Samadhi (contemplation). (For more details see under Yoga.

Vaisya who became learned and abstemious by the grace of Devi. The story of this VaiSya, who ran away from the cruel and wicked treatment that he had suffered from his wife and children, and took to spiritual knowledge by the force of circumstances was told to Janamejaya by Vyasa.

minds on Devi, began
taking only very

little

food.

After telling several stories about the kind regard of Devi towards those who worship her with devotion, Vyasa continued as follows
:

During the time of Svarocisa Manu, there lived a King named Suratha. Because of his liberality and truthfulness he had very few enemies. While he was ruling over the kingdom known as Kolapura, once the low caste people of the mountains fought a battle with the King. Though the army of the low castes was small it was the King who sustained defeat. He returned to the palace thoughtful. He had no peace of mind. So he went to the forest to get peace. After travelling for a long time on horse-back, he reached the hermitage of the sage Sumedhas. Forgetting himself

deep meditation they spent two years. One day in a dream Devi appeared to them. She was clad in red clothes, and wore beautiful ornaments. They were full of joy on seeing the goddess. The third year of the penance was over. But Devi did not appear directly before them. In the third year
in

Thus engaged

they took only water. They finished the fourth year without seeing the goddess. They decided to do severe penance. Their intention was to offer their bodies to Devi. So they made a triangular cavity, with three and made parts each having an extension of li ft. the walls of the cavity firm and kindled a large fire in
the Vaisya began to cut pieces of from their bodies and offered to Devi in the fire, and with the blood coming from the body they performed sacrifice to Devi. Instantly Devi appeared before them and asked them what boon they wanted. The King wanted to get his kingdom back. Devi said. "You return home. Your enemies shall leave the kingdom. Your ministers will fall at your feet and beg your pardon. You can rule over your country for ten thousand years. After that you will take rebirth as Savarni Manu, the son of the Sun." What Samadhi Cetti wished was a life of self-renunciation. Devi gave him the wisdom and knowledge to renounce everything he had and to live a life of complete abstinence. Then Devi disappeared. The King returned to his kingdom and resumed his rule. Cetti about renounced everything and wandered immersed in meditation on Devi. (Devi Bhagavata,
it.

The King and

flesh

Sumedhas came there and talked with the King. The King told his story to the hermit, who invited the King to live with him. Thus the King lived in the
hermitage eating
fruits, roots etc.
it

in the peaceful stillness of the hermitage, the King got down from the horse and sat under a tree. The hermit

The King found
the purity

difficult

to

reconcile

himself with

and simplicity of the hermit's surroundings. He always thought of his wife and children. He was troubled in mind by thinking that the money kept in the treasury would be wasted by others. Thus thinking about many things, with a troubled mind, the King was sitting under a tree near the hermitage once when he saw another man coming towards him, with a
troubled
other.

my wealth and to waste it. But I was against it. I did not favour unnecessary expenditure. They resolved to remove the obstacle from their path, and began to make preparation for it secretly. I understood it and fearing death I ran away from the house." As soon as the king heard this story he said his own story to the Vaisya. The Vaiiya continued. "Oh I am worried about my Still, my mind is troubled. wife and children. They will be put to much difficulty if I am not there to look after them. Who is there to support them without me ? All the children are lean. My wife also is likewise, lean. They are all always ill. What will they do without me ? While I think of all these things I have no peace of mind at all." Suratha "What a fool are you You yourself have said that all your children are wicked and cruel.
! :

mind like himself. They talked with each The new-comer said to the King "I am a Vai^ya. My name is Samadhicetti. My wife and children love wealth. They want to take possession of

SAMAGA

Skandha5).
(S).
I.

A

SAMA&GA

(See under Guruparampara).

particular line of disciples

of Vyasa.

A

SAMA&GA

the cattle of Duryodhana. 289, Verse 2).

cowherd who had been looking after (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter

SAMA5IGA
this

II. An ancient hermit. Once this hermit talked to Narada, about his comfortable life. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 285, Verse 5)
.

III.

river,
.

Because Asfavakra bathed in his bents were straightened. (See under
river.

A

SAMA&GA

Astavakra)

IV.

A
this
9,

made about
about

SAMANTARA. A
this
9,

Parva, Chapter

country in South India. Mention is country in Mahabharata, Bhisma Verse 60.

!

SAMANTAPANCAKA. A
by Para'urama.
1)

Chapter

country in India. Mention is made country in Mahabhirata, Bhisma Parva, Verse 50.
holy
tlrtha

(bath)

founded
7.

Moreover

they and their mother joining together had

General information.

See under Paras urama, Para

SAMARA
2)

677

SAMBA

I

Other details.

(i) Para^'urama made here five rivers through which blood flowed. There, with hands dipped in blood, he offered oblations to the manes. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 2, Verse 4). (ii) By the blessings of the ancestors of Paras urama this place became a holy bath. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 2, Verse 8) of the (iii) At the ending and the beginning periods two yugas Dvapara and Kali, the Kauravas and the Pandavas fought the great battle at this place. Because of that this place got the name Samantapancaka. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 2, Verse 13) (iv) It was according to the advice of Balabhadrarama
.

.

that this place was selected as Parva, Chapter 55, Verse 5)
.

the
at

battlefield.

(

Salya

(v)

SAMARA

(Salya Parva, Chapter 89, Verse 40) One of the hundred sons of Prthusena, a of the Bharata dynasty. ( Bhagavata, Skandha 9) King SAMARATHA. A brother of King Virata. He was a prominent helper of the Pandavas in the Bharata
. .

Duryodhana

was

killed

Samantapancaka.

SAMASAURABHA. A
in the

battle.

(M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 158, Verse 42)

.

Brahmin

who was

well-versed

Vedas and the Vedangas. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 53, Stanza 9, that he was a guest at the snake-sacrifice of Janamejaya. SAMATHA. A learned brahmin. He once gave Yudhisthira a description of the yajna performed by King Gaya, son of Amurtarayas. (Vana Parva, Chapter 95,

SAMAVEDA. See under Veda. SAMAVEGAVASA. A country

Verse 17).

Narada. Sri Krsna and Balabhadrarama went to Hastinapura and rescued Samba and took the bride and the bridegroom to Dvaraka. Ten sons beginning with Sumitra were born to Samba by his wife Laksana. (Bhagavata, Skandha 10). Prabhavati was the daughter 3) Prabhdvati abducted. of Vrajanabha, the King of Supuranagarl. Samba, with his brother Pradyumna entered the city Supura in the guise of drama-actors with a view to kidnap the beautiful daughter of Vrajanabha. They produced four performances such as 'Rambhabhisara' and three other dramas and earned the praise of everybody in Supura. In this way they got access to the palace of the King, and when the time suited, they took away Prabhayati to Dvaraka. ( Harivarhsa, 2 93). The delivery of an iron rod. Once some Yadavas 4) with Samba at their head abused Kasyapa and some other hermits who came to Dvaraka. They cursed the Yadavas, in consequence of which Samba gave birth to an iron pestle, which caused the extermination of the Yadavas. (See under Krsna, Para 39, Sub Para 2) 5) The curse of Sri Krsna. Samba was extremely handsome, and even the wives of Sri Krsna fell in love with him. Under the circumstances Samba tended to become wicked. Sri Krsna came to know of the unnatural attachment between his wives and Samba, from Narada and cursed Samba that he would become a leper, and cursed his own wives, that they would be carried away by thieves and plunderers. Accordingly Samba became a leper and the wives of Sri Krsna were
:
. .

of South India.

SAMAYAPALANAPARVA. A

Bhisma Parva. Chapter
consisting

9,

Verse 16).

(M.B.

SAMBA I.
vati.
1 )

Parva,

The

sub-section of Virata of Virata Parva. 13 son born to Sri Krsna by his wife Jarhba-

of Chapter

A story about the birth of Samba, occurs in Birth. Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 4, as follows Children were born to Rukminl and the other wives of Sri Krsna. But Jambavati alone did not give birth to children. Jambavati was filled with sadness when she saw the children of her co-wives. One day she went to the presence of Krsna and requested him to give her a son like Pradyumna. Hearing this, Sri Krsna went to the mountain where the hermit Upamanyu did penance and making the hermit his teacher, according to his advice, did penance before Paramasiva. He did penance for the period of a month holding a skull and a hermit's rod. He did penance in the second month, standing only on one leg and drinking water alone. In the third month Krsna did penance standing on the toes using only air as food. When the penance was continued for six months in this state, Paranjas' iva appeared as Samba ( Ardhanari&vara) and asked what boon he wanted. Sri Krsna expressed his wish. Siva said that Jambavati would get a son. Soon Jambavati gave birth to a son. The child was named Samba. Samba married Laksana the beautiful 2) Marriage. daughter of Duryodhana. Hearing about the Svayarhvara marriage of Laksana, Samba went to Hastinapura and took her by force from among the various Kings who were present there. Duryodhana and the others captured him. This news reached Dvaraka through
:

carried away by the Abhlras, after the submerging of Dvaraka. After a few years, according to the advice of Narada, Samba began to worship the Sun, at a place called Sambapura in the basin of the river Candrabhaga, to get recovery from leprosy. A brahmin also was brought from Suka (KuSa) island to perform the fast and vow correctly. (Samba 3; Bhavisya Purana, Brahma Parva, 66. 72; 73. 126; Skanda Purana 4. 2. 48; 6. 213).

6) Other
( i)

details.

present at the Svayamvara marriage of Draupadi. (M.B. Chapter 185, Verse 17). who brought the dowry, (ii) Among the Yadavas, when Arjuna married Subhadra there was Samba
also.
(iii)

Samba was

Samba learned archery from Arjuna. After this he was a member of the court of Yudhisthira. (M.B.
.

(M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 220, Verse 31).

Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 34) (iv) Samba was one of the seven great chariot-fighters of Dvaraka. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 14, Verse
(v) Samba was present at the Rajasuya (royal conSabha of Yudhisthira. secration-sacrifice) (M.B. Parva, Chapter 34, Verse 16). (vi) Samba was defeated in the battle he fought with

57).

Ksemavrddhi the

minister of Salva. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 16, Verse 80.) (vii) Samba killed the asura Vegavan in a battle.

participated in the marriage of Abhimanyu conducted at the city Upaplavya. (M.B. Virata Parva, Chapter 72, Verse 22)
(viii)
.

(M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter

Samba

16,

Verse 17)

.

took

Hastinapura and Rajasuya of Yudhisthira. (M.B. Asvamedhika Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 3)
(ix)

Samba came with
part
in

Sri

Krsna

to

the

.

SAMBA

II

678

SAMBUKA

SAMBARA
1

one another (x) When the Yadavas died by hitting with the iron pestle, Samba also was killed. (M.B. Mausala Parva, Chapter 3, Verse 44) entered the group of (xi) After his death, Samba VLsvadevas. (M.B. Svargarohana Parva, Chapter 5, Verse 16). SAMBA II. A Brahmin scholar. When Dhrtarastra started for the forest towards the close of his life, the people bade him farewell. This Brahmin stood among words of consolation. (M.B. the people and spoke A:' ramavasika Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 13).
.

i.

An

asura.

Various Puranas refer to this leader of the asuras as having played a prominent part in the devasura war. After many such wars he was killed by
)

General.

and he roamed about

freely without any fear and burnt the palaces of the protectors of the world. The Devas left their homes and disappeared in disguise.

marvellous Sambara's magic power. He possessed Once while fighting with him, the magic powers. Devas were non-plussed by his magical powers, and they hid themselves in a forest. Sambara was pleased
2)

Siva.

Sub-Parva of Adi Parva Chapters 65- 139). SAMBHU I. Dhruva's wife. The couple had two sons called Sisti and Bhavya. (Visnu Purana, Part 1, Chapter 13). SAMBHU II. Grandson of Tvasja, son of Ka^yapa by Surabhi. Tvasfa had a son called VisVarupa who begot fourteen sons of whom Hara, Bahurupa, Tryambaka, Aparajita, Vrsakapi, Sambhu, Kapardi, Raivata, Mrgavyadha, Sarpa and Kapali these eleven sons of Visvarupa form the Ekada^'arudras. (Agni Purana, Chapter 18). SAMBHU III. One of the three sons of Ambarisa, the other two being Virupa and Ketuman. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha) Sambhu never tasted meat in his life. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 115, Verse 66). SAMBHU IV. A Raksasa, the son of Vidyujjihva by Surpanakha. Sambhu, who was engaged in tapas in
.

SAMBHAVAPARVA. A

forest when Sri Rama visited the forest was attracted by the beauty of Slta and transformed himself into a tree to enjoy her beauty with his eyes. Laksmana, who was felling down trees to build an asrama felled

Dandaka

this

Vyala and Ghaja began killing the warriors of the Devas, and the Devas told Brahma at Satyaloka about
the

appointed as army-chieftains. To counter this attack by the Devas, he created three powerful asuras by his powers of magic. The three asuras called Dama,

The Devas began

killing

those

whom Sambara had

tree also, which disappeared immediately leaving behind the dead body of a Raksasa. It was the corpse of the Raksasa and Rama comforted Slta and Laksmana by revealing the .fact to them. (Kamba Ramayana.

them
(

depredations

for further fighting,

killed

and

of the asura. Brahma encouraged and the three asuras were Sambara ran away and hid himself.
.

He was King of the Rgveda. Dasyus. He had mastery over hundred cities. The forts and trenches in those cities were very strong. -The
to

Jnanavasi stha Sthi ti prakaranam ) There are various 3) Sambara in Pigveda.

contains a story of how Devavatl daughter of Kusadhvaja once cursed Sambhu. Devavatl was born from the mouth of Kusadhvaja (son ofBrhaspati) while he was learning the Vedas. Sambhu wanted to marry the child when she was grown up, but KuSadhvaja did not consent to

Aranyakanda)
Uttara
(or Vedavati)

.

Ramayana

references

Sambara

in

the

Asvamayi, Ayasi, Satabhuji etc. in the Rgveda. The chief enemies of the Aryans were the race of people called Panis in the city. There is a
hint about the killing of Sambara in Sukta 17, 8, Mandala 1 of the Rgveda.

forts are referred to as

SAMBHU
that

Anuvaka

4) Other information. (i) Sambara was Kasyapaprajapati's son by his wife

SAMBHU

An agni, which occupies a status equal to brahmin well-versed in the Vedas. (Vana Parva, Chapter 221, Verse 5). SAMBHU VI. A son born to Sri Krsna by Rukminidevi. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 33).
V.
of a
.

Her curse was a contributory Sambhu by Laksmana.

killed Kusadhvaja in it, and Sambhu, in retaliation, his sleep. Next morning Devavatl awoke from sleep to see the dead body of her father. She cursed Sambhu.

cause for

the

death of

Danu.
(ii)

SAMBARA
He was

a war fought in Devaloka. (See under Dasaratha, Para 5) another occasion, defeated Sambara. (iii) Indra, on (Adi Parva, Chapter 137, Verse 43).
feated

Dasaratha had,

Sambara

at the request of the
.

Devas

de-

in

VII. A King of the Bharata dynasty. He was one of the eighty sons of Ugrasena. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha) SAMBHUTA. A King, son of Trasadasyu and father of Anaranya. (Vayu Purana, Chapter 88, Verses 74-

SAMBHUTI

n.

An

asura.

I. Wife of Marici, son of Brahma. The couple had a son called Paurnamasa. (Agni Purana,

75).

famed in the Puranas. According to Mahabharata Mahavisnu will incarnate as Kalki in this village. (For details see under Kalki) SAMBHAVA. A King of the Puru dynasty, son of Urja and father of Jarasandha. (Agni Purana, Chapter
.

SAMBHALA (SABHALA, SAMBHALA). A

Dvimurdha, Sahku and Arya. (Agni Purana, Chapter Sambara, who was a great adepf in magic, was 17). in the company killed of his wife Mayavati, by See under ( Pradyumna, the son of Sri Krsna. Pradyumna)
.

the son of Hiranyaksa and

brother of Sakuni,

SAMBHUTI

Chapter 20).
II.

SAMBUKA. A Rama a great number

son called Vijaya.

Wife of Jayadratha. The couple had a (Bhagavata, Skandha 9). Sudra muni. During the reign of Sri
of children died in
the

village

278).

proper to his station in life. Sri Rama surveyed the country from the air in a Vimana, and during the survey he found Sambuka, the sudra muni hanging with his head down and inhaling smoke from a fire lit under him. Thus, having found out that the tapas by that sudra was the reason for the children's death, Rama

and many parents wept before the king about the loss of their offsprings. According to Vasistha's advice Rama enquired whether anybody indulged in actions not

country

SAMEDI
killed

679

SAMICI
ing works like

Sambuka immediately.
.

(Kamba

Ramayana,

SAMEDl.

SAMGATA

SAMGAVA (SA&GAVA).

An attendant of Subrahmanya. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 13). (SA&GATA). A King of the Maurya dynasty. He was the son of King Suyasas and the father of King Salisuraka. (Bhagavata, Skandha 12)
.

Uttarakanda)

Tirumurukattuppatai, etc. Tirukkural, Nalatiyar etc. are among the eighteen works under Patinenklzhkkanakku. the group Cilappadikaram,

Manimekhalai,
Valaiyapati

are the five

Kundalakesi and Jlvakacintamani, great kavyas and Nilakesi,

The supervisor of the cattle-shed of Duryodhana. It is stated in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 228 that this Sarigava helped Duryodhana in the fight which ensued at the time of the great procession conducted by the Kauravas, to the Pandavas in the forest.

Cudamani, Yasodakavyam, Nagakumara-Kavyam and Udayakumarakavyam (Udayanankatai) are the five short ( laghu) above kavyas kavyas. Amongst the Manimekhalai and Kundalakesi are Buddhist kavyas and Cintamani and the five short kavyas are Jain works. The last seven books might have been written
after the

SAMGHAM

An organisation formed in the cultivation of Sentamil (classic Tamil) literature, which took its origin in south Dravida land in the 4th century B.C. The Pandyas set up three Sarighams for the promotion of this literature, the first one in southern Madura. When the city was swept by erosion of the sea they set up the second Sangham at Kapatapura. When Kapatapura also was destroyed by the sea, the third Sangham was founded
(

olden days for

SAKIGHAM)

.

Dravida Madura. The first Sangham was called Mutarcaiikam, the second Itaiccankam and the third one Kataiccaiikam. Reliable information about the first two Sarighams is not available. But, there are
in

Kataiccankam from 2nd century B.C. to the close of the 4th century A.D. (History of Kerala Literature by Ullur, Part 1, Page
reasons to believe that a
flourished
for

about

Sangham

called

six

hundred

years

47).

SAMHITA.

A.D. Some of the songs in Purananuru are the oldest among the works of the Sangham period. References to Cera Kings are found in many of these works. SAMGRAHA. One of the two attendants given to Subrahmanya by the sea, the other being Vikrama. (Salya Parva, Chapter 45; Verse 37) SAMGRAMAJIT. One of the ten sons of Sri Krsna by his wife Bhadra. (Virata Parva, Chapter 54, Verse 18). SAMHANA. A King of the Puru dynasty, grandson of Puru and son of Manasyu. Sarhhana was the son of Manasyu by his wife called Sauviri. (Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 5). SAMHATA. Second wife of Dhrtarastra. She was the niece of Gandhari. SAMHATAPA. A naga born in the Airavata dynasty. It was burnt to ashes at the serpent yajna of Janamejaya (Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 11).
Cintamani, lived in eighth century
.

Sangham

period.

Tiruttakkatevar,

author of

Collection

of

The Pandyan
(mandapa)
for
this

King had built at Madura a hall the poets and scholars of the third
day
there
their works. a temple called south-western corner of the
to

Sangham
Even
to

to

assemble together

produce

exists

Devatas in nature. These songs are in the form of mantras. (See under Veda). SAMHITAKALPA. A section of sarhhitas of Atharva Veda. The five sections of Atharva Veda composed by
Sarhhitakalpa, Angirasakalpa and Santikalpa are held in great respect. (See under Veda). SAMHITASVA. A king of the Bhrgu dynasty, grandson of Haryasva and son of Nikumbha. Renuka, granddaughter of Sarhhitas va and daughter of Prasenajit was

hymns addressed

to

various

Sarighattarkovil at the outer sector of the Sundaresvara temple. There the idols of Sarasvati and of the fortynine poets of the Sangham are being worshipped even today. The growth and influence of the Buddhist and the Jain religions and also that of the Pallava royal dynasty, contributed to the downfall of the Sangham. The Sangham poets have written many excellent books. According to legends, Agastyam is a text on grammar of the first Sangham and Tolkapyam of the second Sangham. There were authoritative text books on music written by the last poets of the Sangham. But, none of these books has been unearthed yet. Again, references are found to dramas like Muruval, Jayantam, etc. They too

Munjikesa

and

called

Naksatrakalpa,

Vedakalpa

SAMHLADA (SAMHRADA)
Two

married by maharsi Jamadagni. Chapter 1 ).

(Brahmanda Purana,

have not yet been found out. Five mahakavyas (Epic poems) and five short Kavyas also belong to Sangham works. Purananuru. Akananuru, Patittuppattu, Aim kurunuru, Kalittokai, Kuruntokai, Paripatal and Nattinai are included in the Sangham work called Ettuttokai. Most of them are collections of many compositions. The authorship of the four hundred songs in Purananuru is distributed among nearly 160 poets. Aim Kurunuru contains five hundred songs by five poets. These five hundred songs were collected by the scholar, Kutalur kizhar, on the orders of the Cera King, Ceralirumpozhai. Patittippattu is a collection of songs composed by ten poets in praise of the Cera Kings. But, only eight of these from two to nine are
available yet.

SAMHLADA
Prahasta,
ksa,

I. son of HiranyakaSipu. sons called Hiranyaksa and HiranyakaSipu and a daughter called Simhika were born to Kasyapaprajapati by his wife called Diti, and Hiranyakasipu had four sons and Samhrada. called Anuhrada, Hrada, Prahlada Sarhhrada had three sons named Ayusman. Sibi, and Baskala. (Agni Purana, Chapter 19). According to verse 17, Chapter 65 of Adi Parva, Prahlada, Sarhhlada, Anuhlada, Sibi and Baskala were the sons of Hiranyakasipu. This Sarhhlada, in his next life, was born as Salya, the Balhika king.

A

A Raksasa, son of Sumali by Ketumati, II. both of them Raksasas. Sumali had ten sons called
(Uttara Ramayana).

Akampana, Vikata, Kalakamukha, DhumraDanda, Suparsva, Sarhhlada, Prakvata and Bhasa-

karna.

SAMl. A king, son of Us'inara. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha). SAMlCl. A celestial maid. She was the companion of the
celestial

maid Varga. (For

further

details see

under

Pattuppattu

comprised of the

follow-

Varga).

SAM IK A
SAMlKA

i

680
1

SAMSARA
Ekam 10 Das am 100 Satam 1000 Sahasram 10000 Ayutam 100000 Laksam 1000000 Prayutam 10000000 Arbudam 100000000 IfcOOOOOOOO Koti Abjam 10000000000 Kharvam 10000000000000 Trikharvam

I.

with herds of cattle 1) and performed tapas feeding himself on the foam from the mouth of calves drinking their mother's milk. He was the father of Srngl, who cursed king Parlksit, who once threw a dead snake on the neck of Samika. The curse was that he would die within seven days of the incident
General.

A

muni.

He remained

by snake-bite. For
2
i)
)

details

see

under

Parlksit,

Para 3).

of the seven great heroes, who in chariot, in the clan of the Yadavas. (M.B. fought Sabha Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 58). SAMITRA. A particular rite performed during a yajfia. (Adi Parva, Chapter 196, Verse 1). SAMlVRKSA (SAMlTREE). (For the connection bet-

Samika worships Indra in his court. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 7, Verse 16). Samika too was present on the occasion when Vyasa 5i) called up and showed Janamejaya the souls of dead kings. (Asvamedhika Parva, Chapter 35, Verse 8) SAMIKA II. (SAMlKA). A great warrior of the Vrsni in Dvaraka. dynasty and one of the seven maharathis He was present at the wedding of Draupadi. (Adi Parva. Chapter 14, Verse 58).
.

Other information.

1000000000000 Mahapadmam 1000000000000 Saiiku 1000000000 100000000000000 Jaladhi Antyam 1000000000000000 100000000000000000 Madhyam Parardham 1000000000000000000 Dasaparardham. SAMKHAYA. An acarya, who worked in the Rgveda branch of the Vedas.

SAMKRAMA
ing Cakra

(SA5IKRAMA) One
(Salya

ants given to
.

and Vikrama.
II.

Subrahmanya by Visnu,

of the three attendthe other two be-

SAMKRAMA

Verse 37)

Parva, Chapter 45,

One

SAMKRTI. A

SAMITINJAYA. One

SAMMARDANA.

SAMMITEYU. A king

and fire see under Agni, Para 12) Wife of Sun (Surya). SAMJNA. Sarhjna was the daughter of Visvakarman 1) Birth. according to the Visnu Purana (Part 3, Chapter 2) and to of Tvasta according Mahabharata, Adi Parva Verse 35) Most of the Puranas refer to ( Chapter 66,

ween

this tree

.

(Bhagavata, Skandha 9). of the Puru dynasty, being one of ten sons of Bhadrasva (Agni Purana, Chapter 28). SAMPAKA. A very pious brahmin, whose slogan in life was that renunciation was the greatest asset in life. (Santi Parva, Chapter 1 76, Verse 4) SAMPATI I. A bird. The elder brother of Jatayu.
.

king of the Bharata dynasty. He was the son of king Naraka and father of Rantideva. (Bhagavata 9th Skandha). One of the sons ofVasudevaby Devaki.

by Mahavisnu. 44, Verse 23).

(Mahabharata, Sand Parva,

of the followers given to

Skanda
Chapter

.

Sarhjna as the daughter of VKvakarman. 2 ) Separation from husband. Sarhjna lacked the power to put up with the heat of Surya. She once went into the forest to perform Tapas after deputing her companion, Chaya, to serve her husband. Sarhjna left her three sons Manu, Yama, and Yarn! also in the charge of Chaya, who in the guise of Sarhjna served Surya. He took her to be his wife and begot three children, Sanai:'.Chaya once cara, (another) Manu and Tapati of her. angry and cursed Yama, son of Sarhjna. Then it got was that Surya realised that she was not his wife. Surya felt very sad at this separation from his wife and went to the forest in search of her. He knew, by the power of his meditation, that Sarhjna was doing tapas Then he assumed the form of a in the guise of a mare. horse and begot of the mare the ASvinikumaras and Revanta. The A^vinikumaras named Nasatya andDasra, were born through the mare's (Samjna) nose. (Anus"asana Parva, Chapter 150, Verse 17). Surya brought Sarhjna back with him. She 3) Reunion. to her father Visvakarman, that life with complained Surya was impossible on account of his excessive heat,

under Jafayu, para 1). Sampati in the Rdmayana. Once Sampati and his younger brother Jatayu flew to the Sun. To protect his younger brother Jatayu whohadneared the Sun, Sampati opened his wings which were burnt and he fell on the shore of the salt sea. At this time an army of the monkeys, with Hanuman at their head came there, in search of Sita. Sampati gave them directions of the path
details see

Aruna and Garuda were the sons born to Prajapati Kasyapa by his wife Vinata. Two sons named Sampati and Jatayu were born to Aruna. (For further
1) Birth.

2)

SAMPATI
nadi the
vas

Rama and

they were to follow.

Mali II. A Rakrasa

(Detailed
.

story

is

given

under

SAMPATI

sister

on the Kaurava side. He took his place at the 'hrdaya' (centre) of the Garudavyuha set up by Drona. (Drona Parva, Chapter 20, Verse 12). SAMPRIYA. A princess of the Madhu dynasty. King Vidura married her, and a son called Anasva was

The son of Kumbhi(giant) of Kaikasi. (See under Kaikasi). III. A warrior who fought against the Panda-

SAMRAj.

and so Visvakarman ground Siirya on his drilling machine and reduced his heat. But, only 1/8 of the heat (effulgence) could be so reduced, and it was with that
fraction of effulgence that Visnu's disc

SAMRAT.

Chapter 95, Verse 40) Son of Citraratha by Crna. He married Utkala and the couple had a son called Marici, who became very famous in after years. (Bhagavata, Skandha 5)
to the couple. (Adi Parva,
. .

born

Kubera's puspakavimana and Subrahmanya's weapon called Sakti were made. (Visnu Purana Part 3, Chapter 2; Harivarh:'a Chapter 41 and Bhavisya Purana For details see under Tapati. SAMKHYA. In ancient India digits up to 19 were in vogue. Bhaskaracarya the great mathematician, has in his work,
trisula (trident),
;

(cakra),

Siva's

and the daughter of Priyavrata, who had married the daughter of Kardama. Ten sons and two daughters named Samrat and Kuksi were born to Priyavrata. (Visnu Purana, ArhSa 2, Chapter 1). SAMRDDHA. A naga (serpent) born in the family of Dhrtarastra. This serpent was burnt to death in the
sacrificial
fire

The grand-daughter

of

Manu Svayambhuva

of the
in

"Lilavati", given the following
digits.

names

to

the

nineteen

SAMSARA. One

(M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter
the

serpent sacrifice of Janamejaya.
57, Verse 18).
line

of Gurus.

(See under

Gurupararhpara).

SAMSAPTAKAVADHAPARVA
SAMSAPTAKAVADHAPARVA. A

681
(iv)

SAMYAMA
got back the kingdom by Vasistha's help and performed a Yajna with the latter as high priest. (Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 45) (v) A son called Kuru was born to him by Tapati daughter of Surya. (Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 48). (vi) He was a devotee of Surya. (Adi Parva, Chapter

sub-Parva of Drona Parva comprising Chapters 17-32. SAMSATl. Wife of the Agni called Pavamana. The couple had two sons called Sabhya and Avasathya. (Matsya Purana, Chapter 51, Verse 12) SAMSRUTYA. One of the Vedantist sons of Visvamitra. (Anu'asana Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 55). SAMSTHANA. A region in India mentioned in the Puranas. Armies from this region protected Bhlsma (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 51) during the great war. SAMUDRAKATlRTHA. A holy place near Arundhativata. He who bathes here and fasts for three days will derive the same benefits as those of performing the a'vamedha yajna and gifting away of thousand cows. (Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 81). SAMUDRANISKUTA. An urban area in India famous in the Puranas. (Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 49) SAMUDRASENA. A Ksatriya king. He was a wise man, well-versed in Economics. He was the rebirth of Kaleya, an asura. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse Bhlmasena defeated this Samudrasena, during 54). his regional conquest of the east. Samudrasena was killed by the Pandavas in the Bharata battle. (M. B. Sabha. Parva, Chapter 30; Karna Parva, Chapter 67). SAMUDRAVEGA A warrior of Subrahmanya. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 63) SAMUDRONMADA. A warrior of Subrahmanya. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 68). SAMUHA. An eternal Vi'vadeva (god concerned with
.

He

then he

.

170, Verse 12).
(vii)
(viii)

No

other

been born.
his

.

.

SAMVARTA.
1)

Once there was no rainfall for twelve years in kingdom. (Adi Parva, Chapter 172, Verse 38). (ix) He is one of the kings to be remembered at dawn and at dusk. (Anugasana Parva, Chapter 165, Verse 54) Paura(x) Words like Ajamldha, Arksa, Paurava, vanandana and Rksaputra have been used in Mahabharata as synonyms of Samvarana.
.

king more handsome than he had yet (Adi Parva, Chapter 170, Verse 15).

Angiras had eight sons called Brhaspati, Utathya, Samvarta, Payasya, Sand, Ghora, Virupa and Sudhanva. (Anugasana Parva, Chapter 85, Verse 30) Samvarta was the third among the sons and he lived on inimical terms with his eldest brother Brhaspati. When once Brhaspati forsook king Marutta it was Samvarta, who managed for the king his yajna. ( Sand Parva, Chapter 29, Verse 20)
General.
.
.

Son of Angiras.

.

2

)

Other information.

(i)

Samvarta

is

a
7,

member

of Indra's court.

Parva, Chapter
(ii)

SAMVAHA. A

offerings to the 91, Verse 30).

manes).

(AnuSasana Parva, Chapter

He lives in Brahma's court and worships him. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 12).
(iii)

Verse 19).

(Sabha

He

SAMVARANA. A

wind which moves the aerial chariots of the Devas. According to Vyasa there are seven winds. While once he was teaching his son Suka Vedas, a storm blew and the teaching had to be stopped for some time. Then Suka asked his father about winds, and Vyasa answered as follows There are seven vayus (winds). The first one called Pravaha moves the clouds. The second one, Avaha, causes thunder while the third vayu, Udvaha, converts sea-water into vapour and causes rain. The fourth one Sarhvaha moves clouds in the sky. The clouds are the aeroplanes of the Devas. The fifth is Vivaha, which The sixth Vayu, gives form and shape to the clouds. Parivaha, keeps Akagagariga motionless while due to the action of the seventh Vayu, Paravaha, the souls travel. (Sand Parva, Chapter 329)
:

for

.

1 Descended from Visnu thus Brahma ) Genealogy. Atri-Candra - Budha - Pururavas - Ayus - Nahusa Yayati - Puru - Janamejaya - Pracinvan - Manasyu Vitabhaya - Sundu - Bahuvidha - Samyati - Rahovadi BhadraSva - Matinara - Santurodha - Dusyanta Bharata - Brhatksatra - Hasti - Ajamldha - Rksa Sarhvarana. 2) Marriage. Samvarana married Tapati, daughter of Surya. (For details see under Tapati).
:

king of the lunar dynasty.

Samvarta and Bghaspad disliked each other. (Drona Parva, Chapter 55, Verse 38; Sand Parva, Chapter 29, Verse 29). (v) He was one of those who visited Bhlsma on his bed Sand Parva, Chapter 47, Verse 9) of arrows. ( (vi) It was he, who recited the praises of Siva to king Marutta so that the latter got gold. (M.B. Southern text, Asvamedha Parva, Chapter 8). Once he paralysed Indra's Vajrayudha. (Agva(vii) medha Parva, Chapter 0, Verse 17). downlndra to the (viii) It was he, who invited and got conducted by Marutta. (A-'vamedha Parva, yajna Chapter 10, Verse 25). SAMVARTAKA I. A naga born to Kasyapaprajapati of his wife Kadru. (Adi Parva, Chapter 35, Verse 10). SAMVARTAKA II. An agni, which is burning always on mount Malyavan. (Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 7, Verse
(iv)
.

Verse 13).

King Marutta a

once got conducted at Plaksavatarana tirtha yajna. (Vana Parva, Chapter 129,

1

SAMVARTAVAPl. A
bathe
there
will

27).

become handsome

holy place (tank).

(Vana

Those, who Parva,

SAMVEDYA. A

Chapter 85, Verse 31).
master learning.

3) Other information.
( i)

SAMVRTTA. A
SAMVRTTI. A

holy place. He who bathes here will (Vana Parva, Chapter 85, Verse 1).

naga born

King Pancala once attacked and subjugated him. (Adi Parva, Chapter 93, Verse 37). (ii) He gave up the throne in fear of the enemy and went and lived on the banks of the river Sindhu. (Adi Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 39). (iii) To regain his kingdom he appointed Vasistha as his priest. (Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 42)
.

(Udyoga Parva, Chapter

Devi, who Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 43). (Sabha SAMYAMA. A son of the Raksasa called Satas'rnga. He was killed by Sudeva, chief of the army of Ambarisa. Southern Text, Sand Parva, Chapter ( Mahabharata,
98).

in the Kasyapa dynasty. 103, Verse 13). worships Brahma in his court.

SAMYAMANA SAMYAMANA
SANIYAMANA

I

682

S ANDHYAKAR ANAND I
sub -section of Udyoga
to 46.

king of Kasi. By nature non-attached to worldly things and very righteous, he studied Sankhya and Yoga from Paficasikha and went into the forest
II.

I. Another name of King Somadatta. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 61, Verse 33)
.

SANATSUJATA PARVA. A
SANCARAKA. A

A

Parva in Mahabharata, Chapters 42

SAMYAMANI.

SAMYAMANI. The name
under AmaravatI)
.

renouncing everything. ( Sand Parva, Chapter 1 ) Another name of Sala, son of Somadatta. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 61, Verse 11)
.

SANDHAMARKA.
Marka,

warrior of Subrahmanya. Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 74). SANDAMSA. A hell. (See under Kala).

(Salya

of Yama's Capital city. (See

measure of distance. If a strong man throws a thing the distance between the man and the spot where the thing thrown by him falls is called Samyanipata. (Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 9) SAMYAPRASA. A sacred place on the banks of river Sarasvati. Here Vyasa once built an asrama and lived there. (Devi Bhagavata, 6th Skandha). SAMYATI I. Third son of Nahusa, his other sons being Yati, Yayati, Ayati and Dhruva. (Adi Parva, Chapter 75, Verse 30). SAMYATI II. A king, who was the great-grandson of emperor Puru and son of Pracinvan. ASmaki, born of the Yadu dynasty was his mother. He married Varaiigi daughter of Drsadvan and a son called Ahamyati was born to the couple. (Adi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 14). SAMYODHAKAJVTAKA. A Yaksa, an attendant of Kubera. (Valmlki Ramayana, Uttara Kanda, Chapter
,

SAMYANIPATA. A particular

thus rendered the asuras powerless. When the Devas some time, began a yajna, Sandha and Marka approached them for the promised Soma, but the Devas did not keep their word, and the disillusioned Sandhamarkas were driven out of the yajftic hall. (Taittiriyasarhafter

The two rsis called Sandha and who were priests of the asuras and whose presence made them invincible. The Devas enticed the two priests to their side by offering them Soma and

SANDHANAKARANl. See under Mrtasanjivani) SANDHYA I. The previous birth of Arundhati, wife
(
.

hita,

6,4, 10).

of
1,

Vasistha. (For

more

details see

under Vasisfha Para

SANDHYA

Sub-Section
II.

1).

Mother of

the

It is stated in

Uttara

the daughter of Sandhya was Vidyutkesa. SANDHYA III. Time of union or conjunction. There are three Sandhyas in a day. These are morning sandhya

Ramayana

giantess Salakatahka. that this Salakatarika. married by the giant

SAMYU
is

I. The eldest son of Brhaspati. This agni(Samyu) worshipped in Caturmasya and asVamedha yajnas. Satya, daughter of Dharmadeva was Sarhyu's wife, and to the couple were born a son and three daughters. (Vana Parva, Chapter 219, Verse 2). SAMYU II. An acarya. He is believed to have a special method of performing yajnas. ( Satapathabrahmana) SANAKADI ( S) Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanatana and Sanatkumara, the four Sages. The Sanakadis are the mental sons of Brahma. When they stood in the form of infants they were asked to create subjects. But they were the incarnation of 'Sattva', (the attribute of purity), and so were not prepared to undertake creation. Even at the age of four or five the four of them learned the Vedas, and travelled together. They were celibates for ever. While the Sanakadis were travelling thus one day they reached Vaikuntha, and cursed Jaya and Vijaya who showed disrespect towards them. (See under Jayavijayas). It is mentioned in some places that the Sanakadis were the incarnations of portions of Mahavisnu. Once Brahma praised the incarnations of Visnu.
. .

14,

Verse 21).

(Pratahsandhya), noon sandhya (Madhyahna sandhya) and evening sandhya (Sayarh Sandhya). The meeting time of night and day, is morning Sandhya, the joining time of the first half and the second half of the day, and the joining time of is noon (Madhyahna Sandhya) day and night, is evening Sandhya (Sayarh sandhya). Brahmins should keep the three Sandhyas properly. The morning sandhya is of three kinds. Good, Medium and Bad. When the morning stars are seen and the sunrise is approaching it is good morning; when the stars are not seen and the sun is not risen it is medium sandhya and the morning time after the sunrise is bad
,

Sandhya. In sayarhsandhya also there is this difference of time, as good, medium and bad. The time till the sunset is good the time after the sunset and before the medium and the evening after the rising of the stars is of the stars is bad. In the Vedas it is metaphoricrising Brahmins are trees, and the three ally mentioned that are their roots, the Vedas, their branches and sandhyas the rites and rituals ordained in the Vedas their leaves. From this it is clear that Brahmins should on no
;

account
sandhyas.

leave

The Brahmin who does

sandhyas Sudra and

It is clear

that

SANANDANA
details see

SANATANA II. One of the Sanakadis. SANATKUMARA. One of the Sanakadis.
SANATSUjATA.
is

II. A disciple of Saiikaracarya. (For further under Sankaracarya, Para 6). SANATANA I. A hermit. Itis mentioned in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Stanza 16, that this hermit shone in the court of Yudhisthira.

(Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 1 Skandha 7 ; Bhagavata, Skandha 7, Bhavisya Purana). SANANDANA I. A hermit who was one of the Sanakadis.
;

incarnation of creation.

the Kumaras ( Sanakadis) had taken before the present Brahma began the work

holy river who worships Varuna in (Sabha Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 23). SANDHYA V. The presiding Devata of dusk. She is called Praticyadevi as well. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter

SANDHYA

Moreover will have no right to ing, morning and noon worships, conduct any other Vedic rites. After the sun-rise and sun-set, within three nazhikas and evening wor(a nazhika-24 minutes) the morning There is atonement ordered should be finished. ship for morning and evening prayers conducted after the Skandha 11). stipulated time. (Devi Bhagavata,
IV.

unobserved, worships at these three not observe these three carefully will, in his life time, become a after the death, will be born again as a dog. the Brahmin who does not do the three even-

A

his assembly.

Another name of Sanatkumara, who one of the four Sanakadis. (See under Sanatkumara)
.

117, Verse 16). S ANDHYAKAR ANAND I. A Sanskrit poet the 12th century A. D. A poetic work of

who
this

lived in

author

SANDHYARAGA
is "Ramapalacarita". This book Ramapala, who ruled over Bengal is

683
about the king end of llth

SANJAYA
Rama
from

1

SANDlPANI.

at the

SANDHYARAGA. The

century A. D.

this opinion Ragini got angry and Brahma cursed her and changed her into Sandhyaraga. (See under Parvati). SANDHYAVALI. Sandhyavall was the wife of King _Rukmangada. (See under Dharmarigada). SAyDlLl I. A daughter of Daksa. She was married by Dharmadeva and a Vasu called Anala was born to the couple. (Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 17). SANDILl II. A yogini famed in the Puranas. She once cursed Garuda as a result of which he lost his feathers. (For details see under Garuda) SANDILl III. A very chaste Devi living in Devaloka. She once taught Sumanas, the Kekaya princess the duties of a chaste woman. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter
.

red colour seen in the sky in the evening is Sandhyaraga. Ragini the daughter of Himavan did penance to obtain Paramasiva as husband. The Devas took her before Brahma, who said that she was not able to bear the radiance of Siva. Hearing

Preceptor of Sri Krsna and Balabhadra they learned all the Vedas, art of astronomy, gandharva Veda, medicine, drawing, and horses and archery. (For training elephants

whom

details see
1

SANI (SANAlSCARA-SATURN).
)

under Krsna, Para

12)

.

maid-servant
2)

Sani is the son of Surya by Chaya, the of Sarhjna. Surya had three sons by Chaya, Manu, TapatI and Sani. (See under Chaya) .
General.

Sani worships Brahma in Brahmasabha. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 29). Sani is very effulgent and intense in his form and (ii) character. When Sani threatens the star RohinI, great
(i)

Other information.

123, Verse 8).
I.

SAiypILYA
no
issues

wife VisnumatI, who had approached the maharsi in great sorrow. As a result of eating rice given by the maharsi VisnumatI became the mother of a son, who became in later years famous as emperor Sahasranika. (Kathasaritsagara,

him are given hereunder. (1) King Satamka and his

A

great

maharsi.

Some

details

about

Kathamukhalambaka, Taranga
(2) (3) 54,

A member of Yudhisthira's
He had an
.

1).

court.

Chapter

4,

Verse 17).

(Sabha Parva,

ascetic daughter. (Salya Parva, Chapter Verse 5) (4) He once opined that the gift of a mere ox-cart was equal to the gift of water in a golden pot. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 19). (5) He visited Bhlsma on his bed of arrows. (Santi Parva Chapter 47, Verse 6). (6) King Sumanyu once gave the maharsi plenty of food materials. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 173, Verse
;

occur on earth. ( Udyoga Parva, Chapter 143, Verse 8) (iii) Sani will incarnate as Manu in the coming Yuga. (Sand Parva, Chapter 349, Verse 55). (iv) Sani is one of the planets to be daily worshipped. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 165, Verse 17). Siva and Tripura, Sani (v) In the battle between mounted in a chariot clashed with Narakasura. (Bhagavata, 6th Skandha) SANlYA. A country in south India famous in the Puranas. Mention is made about this country in Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 63. SANJAYA I. Minister of Dhrtarastra. 1) Birth. Sanjaya, who was equal to a hermit, was born as the son of Suta from a portion of Gavalgana. (Adi Parva, Chapter 68, Verse 93) 2) The boon of Sanjaya. Sanjaya who was born within the circle of the friends of the Kauravas, became the minister of Dhrtarastra. The great work that Sanjaya did in Mahabharata was, telling Dhrtarastra every thing that was taking place in the battle-field without leaving even the smallest events in the order of their occurrence. Sanjaya was able to do this because of the boon granted by Vyasa. When the armies of the Kauravas and the Pandavas pitched their camps on either side of the battlefield,
disasters
.
.

.

22).

Vedavyasa came

SAlVOpILYA

maharsi born in the dynasty of Kasyapa, son of Marlci. As Agni was born in the family of the maharsi it came to be called 'SandilyaII.

A

(born in the family of Sandilya) King Sumanyu once gave him food and other edible things. (Anu'asana Parva, Chapter 137, Verse 22). SAl^DILYA III. A King, a great devotee of Siva. As a youth he became a philanderer with the result that
gotrlya'
.

the honour of

a devotee of Siva even
last,

when Siva came

women was in jeopardy. The King being Yama could not punish him. At
to

Vyasa. Then Vyasa called Sanjaya to him and said "Sanjaya shall see all the events of the battle directly. He shall have such a divine inward eye." Vyasa continued. "O king Sanjaya has inward eyes. He will tell you everything about the battle. He will be knowing all. Whenever he thinks of it he will see everything that
!

to Hastinapura and saw Dhrtarasjra. Dhrtarastra heard about the preparations on either side for the battle. He did not like to go to the battle-field and see for himself the events of the battle. He said so to

know

devotee
tortoise

he cursed the King for thousand years.
IV.

of the immorality of his to be turned into a

takes place in the day and in the night in open, and in secret. No weapon will cut him and no weariness

will affect

him.

He

is

come away unhurt from

the son of Gavalgana the battle."

and

will

SAiyDILYA

worship Visnu not in the Vedic method for which purpose he even wrote a book to propagate non-vedic principles. For the above sinful action he had to live in hell and at last he was born as Jamadagni of the Bhrgu
dynasty.
(

A

maharsi,

who

desired

to

SAl^DILYA V. A maharsi whose
on devotion ) are
as

Vrddhaharltasmrti, 180. 193).

famous

as

Bhaktisutras (Aphorisms those of Narada. He

taught bhakti in a scientific

way

(by Sandilya science)

.

Because of this blessing Sanjaya used to inform Dhrtarastra of all the events in the battle at the time of the occurrence. Sanjaya informed Dhrtarastra of the news of Duryodhana. When death up to the Duryodhana was killed the cry of ASvatthama grew louder. this cry early in the Sanjaya who heard morning, ran to the battlefield with a broken heart. With the death of Duryodhana the boon of inward eye given to Sanjaya by Vyasa was lost. (M.B. Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 2; Sauptika Parva, Chapter 9).

SANJAYA

I

684

SANJIVA
(xix) Sanjaya told Dhrtarastra about those who were Karna Parva, alive on the side of the Kauravas. (

3) Other details. sacrifice (i) Saiijaya stood as the host in the Rajasuya of Yudhisthira, and received the guests and showed

Chapter
(xx)

7).
(

them

Verse

in the game (ii) When the Pandavas were defeated of dice and were sent to the forest Sanjaya came to Dhrtarastra and reviled him. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 81, Verse 5). (iii) Vidura got angry because the Pandavas were sent to live in the forest, and leaving the Kauravas he

hospitality. 6).

(M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 35,

also

went

to the forest.
forest,

Knowing

the

brought Vidura back. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter Verse 5).

Kamyaka

Dhrtarastra

that Vidura was in sent Sanjaya and
6,

vana

Krsna and the others vowed at the KamyakaDhrtarastra kill Duryodhana. Sanjaya gave a detailed description of that Vow. ( M.B. Vana Parva,
(iv) Sri
to

Chapter 51, Verse 15). (v) Dhrtarastra sent Sanjaya to leain about the welfare of the Pandavas who had returned after completing the forest life and Pseudonymity. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 23, Verse 1). (vi) Sanjaya went to the court of the Pandavas and gave the message of Dhrtarastra to them. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 25) (vii) Sanjaya who had returned from the court of the Dhrtarastra of the news and Pandavas, informed reproached him much. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 32, Verse 11). (viii) Sanjaya repeated the message of Arjuna in the court of the Kauravas. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter
.

(xxi ) Due to the blessings of Vyasa Sanjaya escaped from the captivity of Satyaki. (Salya Parva, Chapter 27, Verse 39) (xxii) Sanjaya consoled Dhrtarastra. (M.B. Strl Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 23). (xxiii) Yudhisthira entrusted Safy'aya with the duty of post-war-reconstructions. (M.B. Sand Parva, Chapter 41, Verse 11). (xxiv) Towards the close of his life Saiijaya went with Dhrtarastra and Gandhari to the forest. (Asramavasika Parva, Chapter 15, Verse 8) (xxv) On the first day of this journey to the forest, they reached the basin of the river Ganges. On that day Sanjaya made the bed for Dhrtarastra. (Asramavasika Parva, Chapter 18, Verse 19)'. (xxvi) Sanjaya introduced the wives of the Pandavas to the hermits. (Asramavasika Parva, Chapter 25). observed the forest Sanjaya (xxvii) On reaching days. (Asramavasika Parva, complete fast for two Chapter 37, Verse 13). (xxviii) Sanjaya always walked close behind Dhrtarastra and in places of ups and downs he led the King by the hand. (Asramavasika Parva, Chapter 37, Verse
.
.

Chapter 25, Verse 57).

Satyaki took Sanjaya as a captive.

Salya

Parva,

who the prominent Dhrtarastra, (ix) Saiijaya told helpers of Yudhisthira, were. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 50). (x) Sanjaya advised Dhrtarastra to put Duryodhana

48).

under control. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 54). (xi) Sanjaya gave Duryodhana a description of the horses and the chariots of the Pandavas. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 56, Verse 7) of Arjuna to the message (xii) Sanjaya repeated Dhrtaras{ra. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 66). (xiii) Sanjaya described to Dhrtarastra the greatness of Sri Krsna. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapters 68-70) that the told Dhrtarastra the fact (xiv) Sanjaya Pandavas and the Kauravas had pitched their tents in the battlefield of Kuruksetra. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 159, Verse 8). came there and gave (xv) At this time Vyasa Sanjaya the boon that he would see directly every thing that took place in the battlefield and would inform Dhrtarastra. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 2, Verse 10).'
.
.

While Dhrtarastra and the others were walking along the forest a jungle-fire was seen. Instantly it encircled them. Dhrtarastra cried out to Sanjaya to run for his life. But Sanjaya did not like to forsake them in that danger. Dhrtarastra said that since they had left home and country there was no wrong in dying by jungle fire. At last yielding to the compulsion of Dhrtarastra, Sanjaya ran away from the jungle-fire. Dhrtarastra, Gandhari and Kunti died in the wild-fire. Sanjaya reached the basin of the Ganges and informed the hermits of the death of Dhrtarastra and the others, and then went to the Himalayas. (M.B. Asramavasika, Chapter 37, Verse 19). SANJAYA II. A prince of the country called Sauvlra. It is stated in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 265, Verse 10, that it was this prince Sanjaya who carried the flag and walked in front of Jayadratha, on his journey to carry away Pancali. In the fight which ensued Arjuna killed this Sanjaya. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 271, Verse 27). SANJAYA III. Another prince of the country of Sauvlra. Vidula was the mother of this prince. This prince once ran away from the battle-field and by the instigation of his mother went to the battlefield again. This story

16). The End. 4).

Dhrtarastra of the good the island of Sudarsana, the death of Bhisma, and so on. (M.B. Bhisma Parva; Drona Parva) was (xvii) Sanjaya gave the names of every one who killed on the side of the Kauravas. (M.B. Kama Parva,
(xvi) Sanjaya qualities of the
.

informed
earth,

SANJAYANTl.
sent his

occurs in Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 1 6. An ancient city of South India. Sahadeva, during his regional conquest of the south

Mention is made easily. Parva, Chapter 31, Verse 70,

messengers to

this

country and conquered

it

in Mahabharata, Sabha that Sahadeva got tribute

.

,

Chapter 5) (xviii) Sanjaya reported to Dhrtarastra about those who died on the side of the Pandavas also. (Karna, t Parva, Chapter 6)
.

SANJ AY AY ANA PARVA.
32 of

from

this

country.

A

sub-section

of

Parva in Mahabharata. This comprises Chapters 30

Udyoga
to

Udyoga Parva.

SANJIVA.

A

character in the Pancatantra. (See

under

.

Pancatantra )

.

SANJIVANAMANI
SANJIVANAMAyi. The jewel
There
is

685

SA5IKARACARYA
pectedly attacked him, disappeared equally unexpectedly. the river absolutely unhurt. The decision to take to sannyasa was taken once for all. Sankara assured his mother, before he started on a tour of the country, that he would be present at her bedside during her last days and also that he would duly perform her obsequies.

stating how Babhruvahana brought Arjuna to life by Sanjfvanamani. (For details see under Babhruvahana) SA&KALPA. One of the sons born to Dharmadeva by his wife Sahkalpa. (Bhagavata, Skandha 6). SA&KALPA. A daughter of Daksa. Dharmadeva married the following ten daughters of Daksa, i.e. Arundhati, Vasu, YamI, Lamba, Bhanu, Marutvati,
.

in the head of serpents. a tradition among the poets that this jewel is the basis of the serpent's life. There is a story in Maha bharata, As"vamedhika Parva, Chapter 30 , Verse 42,

The boy came out of

4)

In

the

presence

Saiikalpa,

SA5IKARA
wife.

ANKARA

Muhurta, Sadhya and Visva.

I.

II.

This brahmin had a very mean wife called Kalipriya. After killing her husband she left the place with her paramour. But, wild animals killed him on their way in the forest. In all repentance Kalipriya returned home and after worshipping the corpse of her husband she observed Karttika vrata at the instance of certain women. Thereby she got absolution from sin and attained heaven. (Padma Parana, Brahmakhanda,

A synonym of Siva. A simpleton, who

was

killed

by

his

was not even seven years old, started for the north in quest of a preceptor, and on the banks of the Narmada he saw Govinda - bhagavatpada, the disciple of Sri Gaudapada. The Bhagavatpada was sitting in a cave surrounded by many wise people. Sankara approached and requested him to admit him as a disciple and grant him sannyasa. Sankara's prayer was granted.
5) Controlled flood. A wonderful thing happened while Sarikara was living at the asrama. The Narmada was in spate and the huts on its banks were about to be submerged in water. People got alarmed. Then Sankara

of

the preceptor.

Sankara,

who

then

put his

them

SA&KARACARYA.

Chapter 10).

The spiritual and philosophical preceptor 1) General. of India. Sri Sarikara was born in the village of Kalati on the banks of the holy river Periyar. also called Curna and Purna. According to certain scholars he was born in 509 B.C. while certain others contend that he saw the light of day in 84 A.D. Yet others place his date of birth in various periods between 509 B.C. and 84 A. D. Whatever that may be, the great acarya is believed to have lived only for 32 years. 2) Birth. The name of Saiikara's father was Sivaguru and that of his mother Aryamba. This nambudiri couple had no issues for a long time. So they went to Tiisivaperur (Trichur) to worship Siva in the famous Siva
temple there. The idol in that temple is known as Vrsacalegvara and Vatakkunnatha also. Ere long Lord Siva blessed them with a son. The belief is still held that, pleased with the prayer of Sivaguru and Aryamba Siva himself was born as their son. The child began

the banks flowed back into the river. People and their huts were saved. Afterwards his Guru asked Saiikara to go to and live in Ka<5 and write Bhasyas ( commentaries) on the Prasthanatrayam, i.e. the Brahmasutras, the Upanisads and the Gita.

kamandalu (vessel which sannyasins keep with water) and chanted the Jalakarsana Mantra, At once the water which had (hymn to attract water)
for
.

flooded

exhibiting extraordinary intellectual powers. At the age of five the boy Sankara was invested with the sacred thread. By the time he was eight years old he had earned deep erudition in the Vedas, Sastras, Puranas, His father was no more by then epics (itihasas) etc. and on the mother devolved the duty of bringing the child up. The boy showed no taste for or 3) Crocodile-attack. interest in childish plays, but evinced a tendency towards a life of renunciation. This attitude of the son pained the mother much and she wanted her son to get married. But, the boy did not like the idea. As fate would have it, an incident which proved to be a turning point in the boy's life occurred soon. One day the mother and her son were bathing in the Periyar, when a crocodile caught hold of the boy. He cried aloud, and the mother got greatly alarmed. There was a custom for one to take tosannyasa, irrespective of circumstances, when danger or death threatened one, and that Saiikara prayed to his mother is called apatsannyasa. for permission to take to sannyasa at that moment when his end was near, and willynilly the mother granted permission. All at once the crocodile, which had so unex-

Padmapdda. Accordingly Saiikara went to Kasi. It was there that he took as his first disciple Visnusarman, a young man from the Cola region of the country. Sankara called him Sanandana. Afterwards other disciBut, gradually jealousies cropped ples also came in. up in the ranks of the disciples. The other disciples of Sankara thought that the latter was partial towards Sanandana and showed special affection and regards to him. Sankara then decided to prove to the others that Sanandana was a disciple of exceptional talents and merits. One day Sankara was bathing with his other disciples in the Gariga, and he called Sanandana who was on the other side of the river to go to him. Sanandana walked on the surface of the water to his Guru, and as he took each step a lotus flower appeared beneath and held him up from sinking into the water. From that day onwards he came to be called Padmapada, and his colleagues also realised his greatness.
6)

Hastamalaka was one of the best disciThere is a story about his becoming Sankara's disciple. He was born dumb. His father, Divakara took Hastamalaka to Sa:')kara believing that due to the blessing of the great Guru his son would gain powers of speech. Saiikara asked the dumb boy, 'who are you?' and the boy answered, 'I am the soul, which has no relationship with the parts and attributes of body and mind and which is also entirely different from them'. There were certain verses, which the boy recited as answer to Sa/ikara's question and each verse ended with 'nityopalabdhisvarupohamruma' (I am the atman and
7)

Hastamalaka.

ples of Sankara.

eternal

The

boy's answer pleased Sankara, who took him as a The boy was given sannyasa under disciple of his. the name Hastamalaka the meaning of which word is he who is in possession of knowledge like the gooseberry in one's palm.

knowledge,

consciousess,

is its

characteristic).

SA&KARACARYA
Tofakacarya was a disciple, who came Tofakacarya. soon after Hastamalaka. The name Totakacarya has a This disciple approached Sankara with story behind it.
8)

686

SA&KARACARYA
incarnation of Visnu quarrelled with each other?" As soon as his identity was revealed thus, Vyasa admitted that Sarikara's Bhasya on the Brahmasutras was correct and blessed him to live for thirtytwo, instead of
sixteen years.
13)
Controversy

The verses were composed in the difficult tofaka metre. The verses attracted Sarikara very much and he took the but applicant as disciple. His real name was Kalanatha, the Guru named h m Totakacarya in view of his verses
:

his request for discipleship in verse

praising

the

latter.

between

Sankara
the

in that metre.
9) The Candalaguru. to Saiikara at Kasi

There
in the

is

One morning Sankara, after Sarikara receiving him. bathing in the Ganga, was returning to the Visvanatha temple. A Candala with his hunting dogs and a pot of of liquor was advancing from the opposite direction Sankara, who asked the former to move away from his Immediately the Candala asked, which, the path. or soul, is to remove itself from the path? The body body of everybody is composed of blood, flesh, bones But, the etc; the constitution of it also is the same. Atman is universal and omnipresent. Whom-which of the two-are you asking to move away from your path? Sarikara realised from the above answer that the Candala was an extraordinary person. In fact, it was Siva, who had disguised himself as a Candala. Sarikara prostrated before him. Sankara thought about God saying that
he who had attained Brahman and the consciousness of oneness with all, was his Guru, whether he be a Brahmin or a Candala.
10) Derisive of the grammarian.

a story about Siva going guise of a Candala and

Sarikara has
in

ridicules a grammarian. One day walking along a street in Kasi Sarikara saw a grammarian learning by rote rules of

a

hymn named Mohamudgara,

which he

composed

grammar, and then he composed the very sweet and beautiful

grammarian repeating the useless rules of grammar. By the very first verse of the poem Sankara revealed "Oh fool worship Govinda the following truth (Bhaja Govindam) meditate upon Him. You meditate upon Govinda realising the truth that when death approaches, the grammatical sutra "Dukrn Karane" will not come to your aid." 11) Saw Vyasa. Siva, when he appeared in the guise of a Candala to Sankara, had asked him to visit Badarikusratna, and accordingly he went there and visited Vyasa. It was there that Sankara met his supreme preceptor, Govindapada. He returned to KaI with the blessings of Vyasa and Govindapada and engaged himof the
:
!

poem

Bhaja Govindam

to reveal

the

foolishness

!

between Sankara and Mandanamisraas the most important event in Sarikara's life. Three incidents, Saiikara's meeting Kumarilabhat^a, his defeating Mandanamisra and his entering the dead body of another person may be found in connection with the above controversy. A: Meeting with Kumdrilabhatta. Sankara's object was to expose the defects and draw-backs in Purvamimamsa (the ritual part of the Vedas). Kumarilabhatta was the most competent person for a discussion on the subject. Sankara, for this purpose, went to Prayaga from Kasi. But, Kumarilabhatta was not in a condition fit for disHe was slowly burning himself to death in a cussion. heap of paddy husk set on fire. He courted this punishment voluntarily to atone for a wrong he had committed. Years back he had put on Buddhistic attire and studied the secrets of Buddhistic religion from its precepKumators with the object of refuting that religion. rilabhatta had great faith in Karmakanda, and he therefore, decided that it was his duty to make atonement for the wrong he had purposely done according Sankara was to injunctions laid down in Karmakanda. very sorry to find Kumarilabhatta in this condition in which discussion could not be held with him on the of Purvamimamsa. Kumarilabhatta directed defects Sankara to the great scholar, Mandanamisra at Mahismati for a discussion on Purvamimamsa. Sankara reached B. Mandanamisra defeated. When Mandanamisra's house a ceremony connected with obsequies was being conducted there. The door for entry to the house was closed. Sankara, by his yogic power entered the home and revealed the object of his visit to Mandanamis'ra, who agreed to the proposal of Sankara. Accordingly a debate began between the two. BharatidevI, wife of Mandanamisra and an erudite
scholar in her own title acted as the arbiter in the discusBefore the debate started she put a garland of sion. flowers on the neck of both the contenders and announced that he would be considered as defeated in the debate the garland on whose neck began fading first. The debate continued for a number of days and the

Pandits (scholars) view

and Mandanamtira. controversy or discussion

self in the writing of books.

12) Sankara's age.
life.

There

is

a

Brahma had

Before Sankara

allotted to him only eight years' life. left his house at Kalati, a batch of

legend about Sahkara's

garland on Mandanamisra's neck began showing signs of fading. According to the terms and conditions of the debate Mandanamisra acknowledged defeat. He accepted Sahkara's discipleship.
ParakdyapraveSa (Entering the dead body of another But, BharatidevI argued that it was not enough that Sankara had defeated her husband in debate. She challenged him to defeat her as well, and Sankara the challenge. Many topics dealt with in
C.
.

sannyasins including Agastya and Narada came to the house. The sannyasins, who were pleased with the reception accorded to them blessed Sankara to live for sixteen years instead of the eight Brahma had permitted

person)

him.

While Sankara was writing books at Muktimandapa at Manikarnika Ghat in Kasi Vyasa came there one day in the guise of an old man, and there ensued a lengthy
discussion

Vyasa

between the two. Padmapada recognised man and told him and Sankara thus: "How would there be peace and happiness in the world, if Sankara, the incarnation of Siva and Vedavyasa, the
in the old

the various Sastras were debated upon and Sankara all those debates. Ultimately BharatidevI raised certain points connected with the science of sexual love in the course of her arguments. Sankara admitted that he did not possess sufficient mastery over the subject as he had taken himself to sannyasa even from infancy. But, he told her that if he was allowed necessary time for it he would debate on that topic also.

accepted

won

SA&KARACARYA
BharatldevI granted him time for it and the debate was adjourned. Sarikara prepared himself for the study of the science of sexual love. Just at that time a King called Amaruka died. After asking his disciples to take especial care of his body Sankara entered by yogic power the dead body of Amaruka. The dead King came back to

687
Yogalihga in KancI are the

SA&KHA in
five liiigas installed by The 'five-in-one' method of worship was Sar.kara. also propounded by him. According to this system

life and his people felt very happy about the mysterious happening. Sankara, who had thus entered the body of King Amaruka, lived in the palace enjoying all royal pleasures. He gained practical experience in the matter of sexual love from the queens in the

Aditya, Ambika, Visnu, Gananatha and Mahesvara are conjointly worshipped, special importance being given by the worshipper to his special deity. Sarikara appointed one disciple of his each in each of the mathas
as its head and these mathas play the most important role in the maintenance and propagation of the Advaita philosophy. The heads of these mathas during various periods

palace. People found the resurrected King Amaruka to be better and more intelligent. The ministers suspected that the soul which dwelt in the body of the king Under the was of some one else. impression ministers that it might be that of some yogin the deputed agents to various parts of the country to find out if there was anywhere the dead body of a yogi, and

they found out Sankara 's body. It was about to be burnt on the pyre when the disciples of Sankara met King Amaruka at the palace and informed him about these Immediately Sarikara quitted developments.
his royal

have been reputed Vedantists and noble souls. Jyotirmatha in Badarikas rama, Govardhana pitha in Jagannathapurl, Sarada pitha in Srrigeri and Kamakotipitha in KancI are the most important of the Sri San kara pithas. Having thus completed his philsophic mission or object in life Sankara entered mahasamadhi at the age of thirtytwo. Some scholars believe that he disappeared in a cave at Kedara while certain others hold the view that he ascended the Sarvajftapltha (the omniscient state) at KancI and spent his closing days there. 16) His works. The literary compositions of Sankara may be classified into four divisions, viz, Bhasyas (commentaries), original works,

lying on the funeral pyre. He prayed to Srllaksmlnarasirhha and came out from the burning pyre. to Mandanamisra's Sarikara returned immediately house and the debate was started again. BharatldevI realised that Sarikara could not be defeated in topics related to the science of sex. Thus Sarikara gained

body and entered

his

own body now

hymns

to

various

deities,

and

mantras.

SAJNtKARASVAMl.

Father of Upavarsa.

(See under

SA&KARl.
Varatanu

Upavarsa).

for

children in their next

Wife of Varatanu, the brahmin. (See under the reason why the couple had no
Balabhadra Rama.
of
the
life)
.

SAJSIKARSAIVA.
the derivation

absolute victory in his debate with Mandanamisra, who then requested the former to grant him sannyasa and accept him as a disciple. Sarikara did so. BharatldevI too followed her husband in accepting sannyasa. 14) Mother's death. Sarikara now knew that it was time for his mother's death. According to his promise to her that he would be by her side at the time of her death Sarikara returned to Kalati. His mother expired, and he made arrangments for cremation. But his relations did not cooperate with him and argued that it was against the injunctions in the Sastrasfor a son, who had taken to sannyasa, to perform the cremation etc. of his mother. At last, Sarikara had to cremate his mother by himself without others' help. He made a pyre with plantain stems in the compound of his house, and cut his mother's corpse into pieces, carried the pieces to the funeral pyre and thus cremated the body. 15) Triumphal tour. After the cremation of his mother Sarikara set out on his triumphal tour of the country. He is believed to have travelled throughout India three
times.

name

see

(To know about under Balabhadra
in

SAJNIKASYAPURA.

SAisIKASYA. A King of ancient days, who lived Yama's court. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 10)
.

Rama)

.

King of this country Sudhanva once attacked the kingdom of Mithila. (Valmlki Ramayana, Balakanda, Canto 75). SAJSlKHA I. Considered to be a great, sublime treasure, found in Kubera's court. Brahmadatta, King of Pancala attained heaven as he used to give Sankha to good brahmins. (Sand Parva, Chapter 234 and Anusasana Parva, Chapter 137). Sankha appeared on
earth,

A Kingdom

in ancient

India.

The

enemies. It was during these tours that he established the four mathas (centres) in the four regions of the country. Srrigeri in the south, Jaganatha in the east, Dvaraka in the west and Badarinatha in the north were the four chief mathas established by Sarikara and they continue to function even to this day. The Siva, Visnu and Devi temples and other Hindu in India today very religious institutions to be found eloquently proclaim the achievements and unique reputation of Sarikara. It is traditionally believed that Sarikara brought five liugas from Kailasa and installed

made

Wherever he went he gained

friends

and

also

according to one belief, from the bones of Sankhacuda. (For details see under Tulasi, Para 2). SAJSlKHA II. A naga born to Kasyapaprajapati of Kadru. The following information about it is from the Mahabharata. Sankha to Matali, once introduced (i) Narada charioteer of Indra (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 103, Verse 12), Sankha was one of the chief nagas which came to (ii ) lead the soul of Balabhadra to Patala at the time of his death. (Mausala Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 7). Son of the Virata King S Alvl KH A 1 1 1 the (i) He was present at the wedding of Draupadi in company of his brother Uttara and sister Uttara. (Adi Parva, Chapter 31, Verse 16).
.
.

them in the five great temples. Muktiliriga in Kedara, Paraliiiga in the Nilakantha temple in Nepal, Moksa Bhogalinga in Srrigeri and linga at Cidambaram,

cows of the Virata King. (Virata they Parva, Chapter 31, Verse 16). On the first day of the great war he clashed with (iii) Bhurisravas. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 49, Verse 26). (iv) He was killed in fighting with Drona at Kuruksetra. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 5, Verse 17).
lifted the

when

(ii)

He

also

came out

to fight

Duryodhana and

others

SA&KHA iv SA&KHA
Verse 17). ( Svargarohaiia Parva, Chapter 5, IV. A maharsi, who was the elder brother of Likhitamaharsi. Likhita once punished Saiikha for his permission. plucking fruits from his garden without For details see under Likhita) (
.

688
got

SANNATEYU
were once emperors they had to give room to the next generation. Bhisma, on his bed of arrows, was thus describing the transience of life. (Santi Parva, Chapter

(v) After death he

absorbed in the

ViSvadevas.

SAJNlKHA V.

A

brothers were maharathas on the side of the

Kekaya

prince.

He

and

his

four

A King, who lives in the court of Yama I. worshipping him. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 10). SA&KRTI II. A muni born in the Atri dynasty. After
SAisIKRTI
giving his disciples lessons on impersonal (attributeless)

277).

Pandavas.

SA&KHACODA
Gopi

(Udyoga Parva, Chapter 171, Verse 15). SAlvIKHAVI. The asura called Hayagrlva. (See under Hayagriva) SA&KHACUDA I. An Asura. Sudama became this asura as the result of a curse. (For details see under Tulasi, Para 5)
.

God he went and

lived

in

Devaloka.

SA&KU

.

II.

A slave

of Kubera.

While

Krsna

Santi Parva, Chapter 234, Verse 22). I. A son of Hiranyaksa. Sambara, Sakuni, Dvimurdha, Saiiku and Arya were the sons of Hiranyaksa (Agni Purana, Chapter 19). SAivIKU II. A Yadava King who was present at the wedding of Draupadl. (Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Verse
19).

(Mahabharata,

pleasures with naked Gopastris at Vrndavana Sarikhacuda, attracted by the women, went there. He abducted the women and

and Balabhadra were enjoying

He was

(Sankhacuda's) head. (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha) SA&KHALlkA. A female attendant of Subrahmanya. (Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 15). SAisIKHAMEKHALA. A maharsi. Once he went to the agrama of sage Sthulakeia to see Pramadvara who was lying there, bitten by a snake. (M.B.Adi Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 24). SA&KHANAKHA. A naga that lives in the court of
.

in the fight that ensued was killed by Krsna, who gave taken from his stone to Balabhadra the precious

SA&KUKARNA

Varuna worshipping
text,

the latter. (Sabha. Parva, Southern

&ASIKHAPADA.

Son of Svarocisa Manu, who once him Satvatadharma and Sarhkhapada imparttaught ed the dharma to his son Suvarnabha. (Santi Parva,
Chapter 348, Verse 37)
near
.

Chapter 9).

A mountain under Kurahga Parvata). (See SA&KHAPIiypA. A naga born to Kasyapaprajapati of Kadru. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 35, Verse 23). SAlsIKHASlRAS (SA&KHASIRSA). A naga born to Kasyapaprajapati of Kadru. (Adi Parva, Chapter 35, Verse 12). SA&KHASRAVAS. A female attendant of Subrahmanya. (Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 26). SA&KHATlRTHA. A sacred place on the banks of the X river Sarasvati. (Salya Parva, Chapter 37 SANKHYAYANA. An acarya (preceptor) who was a prominent disciple of Sanatkumara, Brhaspati being another equally disciple. prominent (Bhagavata,

SA&KHAPARVATA (MOUNTAIN).
Mount Meru.

brahmin. To the brahmin's question the ghost replied "In my previous life I was a rich brahmin. I thus but did not worship looked after my family well, Devas, guests or cows. Nor did I do any pious deed. But, one day I happened to worship Lord Visvanatha and touch his idol. Within a short period after that I died. You will please tell me the means, if any, for me to attain heaven." "There Sankukarna answered the ghost as follows lives no man on earth, who is more fortunate than your good self, who could touch and prostrate before Lord Visvanatha. That good fortune has led you to me. You bathe in this holy tlrtha and you will lose your ghosthood. The ghost, accordingly dived in the water and immediately rose up to heaven. ( Padma Purana, Adi
;
:

and Adi Parva, Chapter 220). A muni, who lived at the sacred I. tlrtha in Varanasi. There lived a brahmin Kapardisvara in the temple there performing tapas. One day a lean and bony ghost, hungry and panting came to the

a member of the company of Yadavas, who carried Subhadra's dowry at her wedding with Arjuna. He was a maharathi also. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 14

SAlsIKUKARNA

Khanda, Chapter
II.

34).

A

dynasty. It was burnt to death

naga born
at

in the Dhrtarastra the serpent yajna

.

SA&KUKARNA
SAlsIKUKARNA
34).

conducted by Janamejaya. Verse 15).
III.

(Adi Parva, Chapter 57,

An

attendant of Siva.

He

lives

in

the court of Kubera.

(Sabha Parva, Chapter

10,

Verse

SA&KHYAYOGASASTRA. See SA&KHINl I. A sacred spot at
SA5IKHINI
ruled
the

Skandha

8).

under Kapila.
Kuruksetra.

A

bath

Wife of Maha^ankha, a crocodile. II. (For details see under Mahasankha). SAJNlKOCA. One of the Rakpasas, who, in ancient days

in the Devltlrtha there will add to one's beauty. Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 51 ).

attendants IV. One of the two presented by Parvati to Subrahmanya, the other being Puspadanta. (Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 51 ). SAlvIKUKARlVA V. A warrior of Subrahmanya.

(Vana

SAJSIKUKARIVESVARA.
Verse 70)
the
sons

(Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 56) A murti (aspect) of Siva whose worship is ten times more productive of good than the asVamedha Yajna. (Vana Parva, Chapter 82,
.
.

Sankoca was

earth and ultimately died.
told

The

Yudhis^hira to prove the truth that even the greatest and most powerful has, one day or other, to quit life and die. Among such great ones are included Prthu, Aila, Maya, Bhauma,

by Bhlsma

story

of

to

Naraka, Sambara,

Hayagrlva, Puloma, Svarbhanu, Prahlada, Namuci, Daksa, Vipracitti, Virocana, Suhotra, Vrsa, Vrsabha, Kapilasva, Virupa, Bana, Kartasvara, and Vis"vadamstra. Though all of them

A naga with thousand heads, one of of Kasyapa by Kadru. (Matsya Purana Chapter 6, Verse 4). SANNATEYU. A son born to Raudrasva, the third son of emperor Puru,by Misrake'i, the apsara woman. He, a great archer, had nine sons called Rceyu, Vaneyu,
SAlsIKUROMA.
Jaleyu,
8).

Pakseyu, Krpaneyu, Sthandileyu, Tejeyu, Satyeyu and Dharmeyu. (Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse

SANNATI
SANNATI

I

689

SANTIKALPA
(Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 62; Chapter 95, Verse 45). (iv) It was he, who brought to the palace and brought up Krpa and KrpJ, who were found in the forest as orphans. (Adi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 46) Yama in his court. (Sabha (v) Santanu worships Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 25). on Mount (vi) He attained heaven by doing tapas Arcika. (Vana Parva, Chapter 125, Verse 19). both (vii) He is one of the Kings to be remembered
forest.
.

I.

The

wife of

SANNIHATlTIRTHA. An
devas such as

Hermit Pulaha. To Pulaha the sons Kardama, Sahisnu and others were born. The extremely bright Balakhilyas were born to Kratu by his wife Sannati. (Agni Purana, Chapter 20) SANNATI II. The wife of King Brahmadatta. She was the a hermitess. Both husband and the wife did penance at Manasasaras. (Padma Purana, Srsti Khanda, Chapter 10).
.

Kratu,

the

grandson

o!

Brahma and others visit monthly. Those who bathe in this place, at

ancient holy place.
this

The

place the time of

at

dawn and
.

dusk.

(Anusasana Parva, Chapter

165,

the solar eclipse will obtain the fruits of conducting six horse-sacrifices. It is believed that giving offerings to the manes at this place is of great importance. ( M.B. Vana Parva. Chapter 83, Verse 190)
.

to truth and he absolutely wedded great prowess. (Adi Parva, Chapter 96, Verse possessed
(viii)

Verse 58)

He was

')
(ix)

He

SANNIHITA.

An Agni (fire). This agni creates the power of activity inside the living things. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 221, Stanza 19, that this fire was the third son of Manu. SANNIVESA. One of the sons born to Tvasta by his wife Racana. Bhagavata, Skandha 6) SANTA. Son of Satya who was born of the family of King Vltahavya. He had a son called Sravas. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 62) SANTA I. Son of Apa, one of the eight Vasus. He had four sons called Vaitanda, Srama, Santa and Dhvani. In Verse 18, Chapter 66 of Adi Parva, it is stated that that this Santa was the son of Ahar, the Astavasu, and he had three brothers called Sama, Jyotis and Muni.
(
. .

rajasuyas. (Adi Parva, (x) Synonyms used of

conducted thousand asvamedhas and hundred Chapter 96, Verse 2).

him

in

the

Mahabharata

:

Bharatagopta, Bharatasattama, Kauravya, Kurusattama, Pratipa etc. SANTARAJAS. A King of Kasl. He was the son of King Trikakalpava and father of King Raji. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha). SANTARDANA. The son of Dhrstaketu who was the King of Kekaya. He was present at the Rajasuya sacrifice of Yudhisthira. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9) SANTARJANA. A warrior of Subrahmanya. (Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 58) SANTI I. Daughter of Daksa by his wife Prasuti.
Bharata,
.
.

Prasuti delivered including

Santi

twentyfour children.

King, the son of Priyavrata. (Bhagavata, 5th_Skandha). SANTA. Daughter of Dasaratha. She was brought up by King Lomapada of Anga and was married by muni Rsyafirnga. (For details see Para 9, under Dasaratha)
II.
.

SANTA

A

(Visnu Purana, Part 1, Chapter 7) SANTI II. A king born in the dynasty of Bharata, son of He was the son of Nila, grandson of Dusyanta. Ajamldha and father of Susanti. (Bhagavata, 9th
.

SANTANAGOPALA. The
save a Brahmin's son

dead. (For the detailed see under Arjuna Para 17, sub-sectiond). story SANTAMAYA. A King of ancient India. (Adi Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 236).

who was

story of

how Arjuna

SANTI

tried

to

III. Name of the Indra of the fourth Manvantara (Adi Parva, Chapter 196, Verse ?9) SANTI IV. A maharsi. Son of Angiras, he was called
.

Skandha).

Atmeyu

also.

He had

participated in the

Yajna con-

SANTANAVA. A

has written a book called 'Phitsutra' about the svaras (Accents) in the Vedas. This book of 87 sutras is divided into four Chapters called antodattam, adyudattam, dvitiyodattam and Paryayodattam. SANTANIKA. A female attendant of Subrahmanya. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 9). SANTANU (SANTANU) King Santanu, on a par with the Devas, was a great physician (Mahabhisak). SANTANU (SANTANU). Son of King Pratipa of the lunar dynasty.
.

grammarian, anterior

to

Panini.

He

ducted by Uparicaravasu. (Santi Parva, Chapter 336, Verse 8; Adi Parva, Chapter 196, Verse 20; Anusasana Parva, Chapter 85, Verse 130). SANTI V. A maharsi who was a disciple of the Rsi called Bhuti, who did once go to participate in a yajna conducted by his brother Suvarccas, leaving matters connected with his asrama with Santi, who discharged his duties quite well in the absence of his master. One day when agni became very scarce in the asrama he praised

For previous life and birth as Santanu see under (i ) Bhisma, Para II. Married life. (See under Bhisma, Paras 2, 3) (ii)
.

3)
(

Other information.

He was the second son of Pratipa. His elder brother was called Devapi, younger one Balhika and his mother Sunanda. (Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 61; Chapter
i)

95, Verse 45) He was called
.

1(ii)

his

Santanu as things touched by both hands used to become youthful. became King as his elder brother Devapi (iii) Santanu as an infant, renounced the throne and left for the had,

was pleased Agnideva, and noticing that the Deva Santi requested him to bestow a son on the maharsi. Accordingly a son was born to Bhuti, who later on became famous as 'Bhautyamanu.' Bhuti, who was pleased with the devout life of his disciple (Santi) taught him (Markandeya Purana). Sangaveda. SANTIDEVA (SANTIDEVI). Daughter of King Devaka. She was married by Vasudeva. ( Vayu Purana, Chapter 96, Verse 130). SANTIKALPA. One of the five samhita sections of the Atharvaveda composed by muni Munjikes"a, the other four sections being naksatrakalpam, vedakalpam, sarhhitakalpam and angirasakalpam. Naksatrakalpam contains rules for the worship of the stars; Vedakalpam contains the rites regarding Brahman, the Rtvik; sarhhitakalpam contains the rules about mantras, and the Angirsakalpam deals with black magic and Santikalpam

SANTI PARVA
i

690

SAPTADVIPAS

contains rules about propitiating deities by offerings of horse, elephant etc. SANTPARVA. An important Parva of the Mahabharata

SAPTACARU. A

SANTURODHA. A

SANYASA (SANNYASA; One
Brahminical
life.

(See under Mahabharata). king of the Puru dynasty. He was the son of Matinara. (Agni Purana, Chapter 278). SA]yU. A country of ancient India. (Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva Chapter 9, Verse 43).

The

four

Garhasthya (householder), Vana(Religious student) prastha ( Forest-dweller )and Sannyasa (hermit or sage). (For further details see under Asrama) Manu has ordained that one should Duties of a hermit. (renunciation) at the fourth stage of perform sannyasa life renouncing every tie with the world. After becoming a hermit he should travel daily alone. He should enter He should have renounced villages only for food. wealth. He should not acquire any wealth. He should be a sage filled with knowledge. He should have a He should sleep under skull as the pot for taking alms. trees. He should wear poor cloth and should be solitary. He should consider everybody as equal. Having become a hermit he should not delight in death or life.
,
.

of the four stages of stages are Brahmacarya

A

coal,

where pestle is placed and where there is no charand after all have taken food and the pot for preparing food is placed upside down.
out,
It is said that the

hermit should put every step looking straight down to the earth. He should drink water filtered by cloth. Words and deeds should be pure and true. The shells of water-gourd (pumpkin), wooden pots and earthen pots are the Vaisnava sign ofhermits. A hermit should beg for food daily from houses where no smoke comes

five

types.

They

food got by hermits by begging is of are Madhukara (collected alms),

sand years and performed a sacrifice each exalting Visnu by singing seven verses from Rgveda. Kesava was much pleased at the caru and gave them Astaisvaryasiddhi (the eight miraculous attainments) and everything they wished. Thus giving them all kinds of prosperities, the god Mukunda disappeared in this place as lightning in the clouds. Therefore thus place became famous everywhere by the name Saptacaru." SAPTADVIJA (S) 1 he seven Brahmins who killed and ate on the way the cow brought for the teacher. These seven Brahmins were the disciples of a teacher in Kundinapura. Once owing to a severe famine people were in a very difficult situation. The teacher sent these seven disciples to beg for a cow from his son-in-law who had a very large number of cows. They did accordingly. The son in-law gave them a cow for his father-in-law. The disciples began the return journey with the cow. When they reached half-way they became so weary and tired of hunger and walking that they
.

holy place. The reason for giving this place the name Saptacaru is given in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 82 as follows: The word 'Caru' means sacrifice. Once devas (gods) and men together put the fat parts of sacrificial animals, as burnt offerings in the sacrificial fire, each singing seven verses from the Rgveda. By this sacrifice they obtained more prosperity than the fruits of giving one lakh of cows as alms or performing hundred Rajasuya sacrifices or thousand horse-sacrifices. "The wise said that it was an endless gift to the manes. The gods, the manes, the Gandharvas, the celestial maids, the ganas, the yaksas, Kinnaras, the siddhas, the Vidyadharas, the people of the earth, the Raksasas, the daityas, the Rudras, Brahma, all these joined together with vow and fast taken for a thou-

asamklpta (unlimited), Prakpranita (prepared
earlier),
(for the

much

In whichever stage of life he time being) may be, he should be staunch in that stage and should perform the duties with honesty.
.

Ayacitam (got by not begging)

and

tatkalika

-

If by ignorance a animals by day or purity, he should (restraints of the

breath) daily. The hermit should discard his body made of five elements. The signs of duty are, resolution, forbearance, selfrestraint, not robbing, cleansing, control of sense-organs, modesty, knowledge, truth, not resorting to anger, and soon. Hermits are of four grades, such as Kuticaka, Bahudaka, Harhsa and Paramaharhsa, the last-mentioned being the noblest grade. The hermit who wears one or three dandas (rod) will be freed from ties of birth and death.
or restraints are not killing (Ahirhsa), The celibacy and not _ receiving. five Niyamas or religious duties are cleansing, joy or contentedness, penance, self-study and meditation on God. The sitting postures suitable for hermits are
five

remove the impurity and get bathe and perform six pranayamas
night, to

hermit engaged

himself in killing

could not proceed a step further. When they reached the cow the stage of death, those celibates killed according to the Vedic rites, and ate the flesh. Carrying the remaining flesh they reached the house of the teacher and told him all the truth. As they had tried to be righteous as far as possible, the teacher only felt proud of his disciples. (Kathasaritsagara, Madanaman-

cukalambaka, Tarariga
1)

1

).

SAPTADVIPAS (SEVEN ISLANDS).
General information.

The seven

islands

are

Jambu-

The

Yamas

Kusadvipa, Plaksadvlpa, Salmalidvlpa, dvipa, Krauftcadvipa, Sakadvipa and Puskaradvipa. Each of these islands is surrounded by sea. The sea that surrounds Jambudvlpa is the Lavana sea (salt sea) the Plaksa dvipa is surrounded by the sea of Sugarcane-juice, Salmalidvlpa by the sea of liquor, KuSadvIpa by the sea of ghee, Krauncadvipa by the sea of curd Sakadvipa by the sea of milk and the Puskaradvipa by the sea of pure water. In the centre of all, lies the Jambudvlpa and in the centre of this island, stands the golden
,

truth, not stealing,

,

".

SANYASTAPADA. A

(Agni Purana, Chapter 161). famous Puranic region in India. The king of this kingdom, fearing Jarasandha, ran away to the south with his son. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 28).

Padmasana

etc.

mountain meru. (Visnu Purana, Arhs'a 2, Chapter 2) There is a story about the origin of these 2) Origin. seven islands and the surrounding seas, in Devi Bhagavata Skandha 8. Two famous sons named Priyavrata and Uttanapada were born to Svayambhuva Manu. Priyavrata and his
.

das, that is a hundred million years. aged so much the power of his mind

children ruled the country for a period

of eleven arbu-

Though he was
and

body did

SAPTAGA&GA
not show any sign of weakness. At this time he saw once the sun travelling on the first side of the earth, and began to think. "When the sun is walking on one side of the earth, the other side must naturally be dark. Will it happen so in our time? In all places at all times it should be bright and there should be no darkness." Thinking thus he got into a chariot as bright as the sun and travelled round the earth seven times. During these travels the wheels of the chariot made seven furrows on the earth. These furrows became the seven seas and the beds between the furrows became seven islands. Priyavrata made his seven sons 3) Sovereign powers. sovereigns of the seven islands. These seven sovereign
rulers

691
entered
the
battlefield

SAPTASARASVATA
with an
elephants,

aksauhinl of army

Seeing this immense army of the asuras drawing near, KauSiki, MahesvariandKa.il made a loud roaring sound. Then from the mouth of Mahesvarl, BrahmanI came out seated on a swan and wearing rosary and water pot. From her eyes Mahesvarl with three eyes came out seated on a bull and

(21870 chariots, so
.

many

65610 horses and

109350 infantry)

were

Hiranyaretas, Ghrtaprstha, Medhatithi and Vltihotra. SAPTAGA&GA. An ancient holy place. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Anu:asana Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 16, that if one goes to this place and gives offerings to gods and the manes and worships them, one would attain heaven and become adeva (god). SAPTAGODAVARA. A holy place near the temple of Surparaka. Those who bathe in this would attain heaven. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 85, Verse 44). SAPTAJANASRAMA. A holy place where seven to heaven by hermits called the Saptajanas, went standing head downwards in water. This was the
place through which Sri

Agmdhra,

Idhmajihva,

Yajnabahu,

Garuda, holding a conch, discus, club, sword, the bow From her posterior came out the :'arhga and arrow. horrible Varahl ( Boar) with a great pestle, seated on the Naga (serpent) Sesa, and furrowing the ground
with her fierce tusks. From her heart came out the awful Narasirhhl (woman-lion) with fierce claws, who at the shaking of her mane displaced the planets and the stars, and from her foot Camundi came out. (See

and ear-rings and wearing great snakes as bangles a trident. From the loins came out Kaumari, holding seated on a peacock and holding a lance. The beautiher hand, seated on ful Vaisnavi came out from

SAPTANAGA
are

under Palala).
(S).

(Seven serpents)

.

The

Saptanagas

Padma, Mahapadma, Sankhaka and Gulika. All of them should be consecrated in temples as wearing Brahma string and having the face with the expanded hood of a serpent. (Agni
Ananta, Taksaka, Karka,

Kiskindha. Sugrlva told of Saptajanas as follows "Oh Raghava This vast area is the hermitage where rest could be taken, as sweet fruits and pure water could be obtained and the forest looks like a garden. Here the seven hermits called Saptajanas, who did penance and took vow and fast by standing in water always, with heads downwards, did live in days of
: ! !

Rama and Sugrlva went to Sri Rama about the hermitage

SAPTA'RAVA
Verse 11).

Purana, Chapter 51

).

children of Garuda. (M.B.

(SAPTAVARA).
.

One

of the famous
101,

Udyoga Parva, Chapter

SAPTARSIS. (The

old." (Valmiki
13).

Ramayana, Kiskindha Kanda, Sarga

SAPTAJ1T.

SAPTAKRT.

of the daughters born to hiswifeDanu. (Matsya Purana 6 19).
:

One

Kasyapa by

An

eternal

SAPTAMATR (S). (SEVEN MOTHERS).
1 )

(offerings to the Chapter 91, Stanza 36).

god concerned in Sraddha manes). (M.B. Anusasana Parva,
the seven Mahegvari,

age, Marlci, Aiigiras, Atri, Pulastya, Vasistha, Pulaha and Kratu are the mental sons of Brahma. (For further details see under the word Manvantara) . situated SAPTARSIKU1YDA. (tirtha) holy bath

A group of hermits. seven hermits) There are seven hermits in this group. The Saptarsis As in each Manvantara (ageofManu) are different. there are fourteen Manvantaras before a great deluge, by that time ninetyeight Saptarsis will be born and dead. The father of the Saptarsis in each Manu's age will be different. The Saptarsis of the present Manu's

A

within Kuruksetra.

It is

mentioned

in

Saptamatrs are BrahmanI, Vaisnavi, Kaumarl, Varahl, Indranl and Camundi.
General

goddesses
2)

named

information.

Some are of opinion that the Saptamatrs Origin. are connected with Siva. Their names reveal that they were born from the bodies of Brahma, Visnu and such other gods. There is another story that when Siva and Visnu joined together and tried to kill the asura named Andhaka and failed, they created the seven mothers to kill the asura. From each drop of blood of Andhakasura that fell on the ground an asura arose. These seven matrs joined with Yogesvarl, the creation of Siva, drank the blood of the asura without allowing it to fall on the ground and so it became easy for Siva to kill the asura.
a story in Vamana Purana, Chapter 56, In ahout the birth of the Saptamatrs, as follows olden days a fierce war broke out between the devas and the asuras. When the fierce asuras Cancla and Munda were killed the famous asura named Raktablja

Parva, Chapter 73 that those who bathe in this tirtha will obtain the merit of good actions. SAPTASALA (S). The cursed forms of the King Manibhadra's seven sons who were sorcerers. Due to the curse of Agastya they became seven palm trees (salas). They obtained liberation from the curse during the incarnation of Visnu as Sri Rama. (For detailed

Vana

Mahabharata,

SAPTASAMUDRAS.
Saptadvlpa(s)
1
.

story see

under Manibhadra II). (The seven

seas).

See

under

SAPTASARASVATA.
)

Kuruksetra. This

There

is

holy place situated within a holy bath dedicated to Sarasvatl. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Salya Parva, Chapter 37, Verse 61, that during his pilgrimage Balabhadrarama visited this holy bath. in Mahabharata, Salya 2) Origin. story occurs Parva, Chapter 38 about the origin of this tirtha. It is
General information.
is

A

% -

A

:

given below:

Once Brahma performed a
Puskara.

sacrifice on the island of All the devas (gods and goddesses) attended the sacrifice. Among the rivers, Sarasvatl alone did

SAPTASVAS
not

692
at
first.

SARALOMA
three sons (Durjaya

come

Then

Brahma

remembered

SarasvatI and she appeared under the name Suprabha. Thus she appeared before the hermits who were doing penance in that place assuming seven different figures. From that day onwards the place became famous under the name Saptasarasvata. (See under SarasvatI). SAPTASVAS. The seven horses of the Sun. The chariot of the Sun is nine thousand yojanas long and its shaft The length of the is eighteen-thousand yojanas long. axle is fifteen million seven lakhs yojanas. The wheel is secured to this axle:. The entire wheel of 'Time' (Kalacakra) stuck fast in the undiminishing figure of 'year' with three naves of the wheel, five spokes and chariot is drawn by seven horses. sixty rings. The They are the seven Vedic metres with their theory. They are Gayatri, Brhati, Usnik, Jagati, Tristup, Anusjup and Pankti. (Visnu Purana, Ainsa 2, Chapter
'

SAPTOPAYAS.

8).

(The seven

expedients).

See

under

naga born in the Taksaka dynasty. It was burnt to death at Janamejaya's serpent yajna. (Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 8) SARABHA II. A naga born in the Airavata dynasty. It was burnt to death at Janamejaya's serpent yajiia. (Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 1 1) SARABHA III. A notorious Danava, son of Kaiyapaprajapati by his wife Danu. (Adi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 26)
I.
. . .

SARABHA

Caturupayas.

A

^ SARABHA

IV.

A

maharsi,

who

(Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 14). SARABHA V. Brother of Dhrstaketu, King of Cedi. He was a friend and supporter of the Pandavas. During the asvamedha he helped Arjuna to lead the yajnic horse. (Asvamedhika Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 3) SARABHA VI. A brother of Sakuni. He was killed in the great war by Bhima. (Drona Parva, Chapter 157, Verse 24). SARABHA VII. Virabhadra incarnated himself as Sarabha to defeat Narasirhhamurti. (Siva Purana,
court.
.

worships

Yama

in

his

SARABHA&GA. A
forest

Satarudrasarhhita)

.

Maharsi,

who

lived in the

during the

'forest-life'

of Sri

Ramayana,

Rama visited
maharsi told

Rama that he was waiting to see him and did not accompany Indra to Devaloka as he wanted to go there only after seeing Rama. Rama answered the Maharsi that he would take upon himself all the spiritual assets and good results of the actions of the Maharsi, and wanted him to point out a place for them (Rama and others) to live. SarabhaAga directed them to the asrama of Sutiksna, and after that ended his life by leaping into the fire and attained Brahmaloka.
SARABHAtNlGASRAMA.
visit

Sarabhariga's asrama, Indra too came there, but went away saying that he would meet the maharsi after the great mission of Rama was over. The

Aranyakanda,

Canto

Dandaka Rama. (Valmiki
IV).

When

Sri

and others) were born to them. (Adi Parva, Chapter 111). SARADVAN. A muni, the son of Gautama. From his very infancy he preferred learning the dhanurveda Vedas. While a (science of archery) to the other brahmacarin (Religious student) he performed tapas and secured divine arrows. Afterwards, having been overcome by the charms and appeals of an apsara woman named Janapati, Saradvan had seminal emission from which were born Krpa and Krpi. (For details see under Krpa) SARADVATl. An apsara woman. She attended the birthday celebrations of Arjuna. SARAGULMA. A monkey in Rama's army. (Valmiki Ramayana, Kiskindha Kanda, 41, 3). SARAKATlRTHA. A famous sacred place in Kuruksetra. He who takes his bath here on Caturdasl day of the dark half and worships Siva will have all his desires fulfilled and will attain heaven. (Vana Parva, Within this tirtha there are a crore of Chapter 83) other tirthas called Rudrakoti, Kupakunda etc. The sacred place to the east of it is said to belong to Narada. SARALOMA. A maharsi, the father of Dasura. Vasistha once told Sri Rama the story of Dasura to prove that the world is all an illusion. Dasura was the only son of Saraloma, a muni, who performed tapas in the plains of the mountain in Magadha. Datura too did tapas in another part of the mountain. While the father and the son were the father entered samadhi and the son living happily wept over the loss of his father. Then a forest-nymph comforted him with celestial advice. Dasura performed his father's obsequies. He began thinking that the earth was impure and that the top of trees was pure and decided to do tapas in such a manner that he got power to sit on the branches and leaves of trees. Accordingly he made a big pit of fire and began making offerings of flesh cut from his body into the fire. Agnibhaga van (Fire-deity) appeared and asked him to choose the boons he wanted. Das ura told Agni as follows: "Oh Lord; I do not find any pure spot on this earth, which is full of created living beings. You should therefore, grant me the power to live on the tops of trees." Agni granted him the boon. Dasura then climbed a big tree in the forest and occu.
.

without the least fear, a tender leaf at the top of pied, the topmost branch of the tree. He there assumed the Padmasana (the lotus seat for meditation) His mind was functioning actively as it had not been turned inwards into true knowledge. With his mind in such a state he performed yajna. He continued performing yajnas like gomedha, a'vamedha etc. mentally for ten Then self-illuminating knowledge arose in his years. mind, and he saw a beautiful forest-nymph seated beautifully attired at the end of the tender leaf on
.

the

place

SARADANDAYANI. A

Chapter 85, Verse 42)

purify
.

place. Those who their families. (Vana Parva,

A

holy

Srutasena was the younger sister couple did not get a child even very long after their marriage, the King got performed, with Srutasena's permission, the 'Pumsavana' yajna with the result that

Kekaya

His wife, King. of Kunti. As the

I am the great men are requested for. forest-nymph of this forest beautified by the tree you sit on and by trees and creepers equally beautiful. An assembly of the forest-nymphs has been held to celebrate a festival for

which he was sitting. She was looking very sad, her head bent down. Dasura asked her, who she was so much beautiful and attractive as to evoke love even in Kama (the God of love) She answered him in a sweet voice as follows: "Very rare desires in life may be got if
.

SARALOMA
the worship ofKamadeva on trayodasi in thesuklapaksa I too went there, and I, who of the month of Caitra.

693

SARALOMA
him the requested by the son, the father explained to meaning of the story as follows: Svottha was concretised conception born out of the ultimate sky. Conceptions originate and die automaticworld is imaginary. The world ally. The whole visible is there only when there is conception and in its absence no world exists. Brahma, Visnu, Siva and Indra are
which creates the world of three cities in nothingness or vacuum. On account of the blessing (will) of that fundamental Caitanya (awareness, life) the formless conand ception attains Brahmanhood (the universal self)
have been created in the sky is the fourteen the gardens in it are forests and woods, the play worlds, hills therein are mountains like the Himalayas, Meru etc. The two eternal lamps of heat and cold of the or story refer to the Sun and Moon. The creepers of pearl refer to rivers. Special gems have garlands been described as tendrils of lotus and fire in the ocean and the seven seas are described respectively as lotus and
city said to

am

when you, who can
for,

give supplicants anything they wish are here? You should, therefore, bless me with a child or else I will end my life in fire."

childless, felt sorry in mind to see the others petting their children on their laps. But, why should I be sad

went

grant her request for permission to live with him; he into the forests leaving her behind him. The son of the forest-nymph became twelve years old. Then, one day, she took the child to the muni; left it with him and went away. One day the father began telling the son a story, on the top of the tree, and
Vasistha,
to

He to have a son within a month. that it would be difficult for the son to acquire knowledge as he was got on the insistence that He did not she would die in fire unless she got him.
Dasura blessed her
told

only parts of that conception.

It

is

conception

itself,

her

also

engages

itself in the

process of creation.

The

glittering

who was going by the sky in invisible form bathe in Kailasaganga, heard the story. Vasistha hid himself on the tree and listened to the story. It was the story of king Svottha that the muni was tell"He was famous for his noble ing his son as follows
;

qualities and unique prowess. He possessed three bodies, which possessed capacity to rule the country. One of the three bodies was the best, the other midway between good and bad and the third bad. The very origin of the King was in the wide and extensive sky; like birds he lived in the sky. He built a city in the sky with fourteen streets and three divisions or sectors. There were also forests, woods and mountains for games in the city; seven big tanks, wavy- white with creepers of pearl and two lamps, spreading heat and coolness, burning always. The King, who went about all his time in this vast city, built in it many movable inner dwellings, and they were divided between the upper and lower parts of the cuy. They were thatched with a kind of black grass. Each inner house had nine doors, some of them windows, which admitted air always. In each house five lamps burned, the lamps resting on three Each house was pillars and a white piece of wood. A particular glitteringly plastered and had courtyards. feared light, guarded the sect of bhutas, who ever houses. When the houses created thus by magic moved from one place to another, King Svottha enjoyed, like birds in nests, playing various games therein. The used to go out king, who possessed three bodies, after playing for some time with the guards, and run about like one possessed of a desire to occupy houses, newly built, and then reach the city, which was like a Gandharva city. Frail and unsettled in mind, the king, off and on. developed a will to die, and accordingly he died. Just as waves come up in the sea, the king used to be born again from the sky and to attend to worldly affairs. At times he used to repent about and weep over his actions asking himself what he, the fool, was doing and why he should be sad like that. At other times he used to feel elated and enthusiastic. Briefly put, he used to be, by turns drinking, walking, jumping, expanding, contracting, feeling, drowsy and then exuberant. The great and handsome king was actually, like the sea, rendered restless by wind, possessed by various moods. The father was describing a philosophy of life figuratively
to
his

the seven tanks. The statement that in this three-tiered to city the king of conception built play-houses referred the creation of individual bodies. The houses were conto

journey of bodies due

egoes which run away from knowledge and discretion. The king of conception or imagination born from non-

Movement is the of Prana (breath). Pieces of wood refer to bones and the plastering is skin. Black grass said to have been used for thatching is hair on the head. The nine doors are the nine openings in the body. Windows refer to the ear, nose etc. The hand arms etc. are roads and the five sense organs, lamps. The guards, who shun and quit light, are the
loka,

nected as those in the upper, middle and lower parts denote living beings in the three worlds, Deva-

Manusyaloka and Patala.
to the flow

materials finds enjoyment in the house of the body, but the enjoyment is only ephemeral. Imagination develops a moment and is extinguished, like the lamp, the next moment. The place or status of conceptions in the body may be compared to that of waves in the ocean. When desire takes place for things conceived it returns to the 'body-house', which is to be born, and it ends or perishes on achievement. Rebirth due to desire

(will-power) is never for happiness, but is for unending sorrow and pain. The wide world causes sorrow because it is felt to be real. Absence of this feeling ends Lamentation is the sorrow as night swallows clouds.
the appeal or expression of the mind remembering forbidden practices in life and ananda happiness, is the proud state of mind remembering noble practices. The three bodies of the king according to the three states-the best or highest, the middle one and the lowdenote the three attributes (Sattva rajas-tamo gunas)

Causative of the existence of the world. The lowest of the attributes (tamoguna) or conceptions according to them, getting more and more pain-giving on account of uncultured action lead one to lower forms of life like the worm, tree, grass etc. Conception of real knowledge and truth is realisation of duty, righteousness and wisdom. It is next to the state of salvation called
state. Rajasa (the middle attribute) guna functions as material activities in the form of attachment When one has rejected the to wife, son, wealth etc. forms of gunas (conceptions) and the very conception

Devesvara

son, but the

boy understood nothing.

Then,

as

SARAMA
is

I

694
sthira,

SARASVATA
Sarana
also

II

thus annihilated, one attains the supreme state. Therefore, Oh son you reject all external perceptions, control the mind by itself and completely annihilate all internal and external conceptions. Whether you live in heaven, on earth or in patala and do intense tapas for thousands of years, unless conception is eliminated you will not attain salvation. After hearing the above explanation about the illusions
!
!

Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 4) (v) Sarana was the foremost of those who disguised Samba the son of Jambavati as a woman, and abused
.

medha

accompanied him.

(M.B. ASva-

the hermits.
II.

SARAMA

A minister
.

SARA^YA.
SARARI.

word Sukasiiranas)

(M.B. Mausala Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 15) of Ravana. (For details see the
.

in

life,

from

his

SARAMA
1
)

(Jnanavasistha, Canto
I.

hiding place Vasisjha _went away.
1

7)

.

the southern

A monkey, who accompanied Hanuman
regions
in

A

wife of Surya.

(Rgveda, 10,
of

1

7,

2)

.

to

search

Slta.
.

Sabala, sons of Sarama, were two prominent messengers of Yama and they possessed four eyes each. The offsprings of these dogs are called Sarameyas. The Rgveda and Mahabharata contain a story about Sarama cursing Janamejaya. (For details see under Srutasravas III)
.

General.

Bitch of the Devas.

Syama and

SARASA

SARASA

Ramayana, Kiskindha Kanda, Canto 44) I. AchildofGaruda. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 101, Verse M).
II.

(Valmiki

A

son

Krauncapura on

of Yadu. He founded the city the banks of the river Vena in South
.

2) Other information.
(i)

drunk milk from (iii) Sarama after having once dasyus lied about it to Indra, and he punished her. (Varaha Purana) (iv) Indra once deputed Sarama to find out the place where the Panis had hidden the cows on condition that he would feed her children. Sarama found out the place and informed Indra about it thus earning for her children their livelihood. (Rgveda, Mandala 1 Chapter
.

1 1 Verse 40) a graha (Evil spirit) of Subrahmanya which enters the womb of pregnant women and steals the babies. (Vana Parva. Chapter 230, Verse 34).

Sarama worships Brahma
,
.

SARASANA. See under Citrasarasana. SARASTAMBA. A sacred place in ancient
who

India. (Harivarii^a, 2, 38, 27)

times.

He
.

in his

court.

(Sabha

Parva, Chapter
(ii)

Sarama

is

SARASVATA SARASVATA
in

bathes here will attain the state where he is served by apsaras. ( Anu.'asana Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 28)
I.

,

SARAMA SARAMA
AsiknI.

5).

II.

Wife ofVibhlsana

called Sailusa. Sarama consoled Slta ing under the As" oka tree in Lanka. (Valmiki yana, Yuddhakanda, Canto 33, Verse 1 ).

Gandharva

and daughter of the

Rama-

weep-

III. Daughter of Daksaprajapati by his wife She was married by Kasyapa maharsi and from her were born the ferocious animals on earth. Skandha 6 ) ( Bhagavata, SARAMEYA I. A King of the dynasty of Bharata. It was is stated in Bhagavata, Skandha 9, that Sarameya
.

SARAMEYA
&ARANA.

the son of Svavalka. (Svaphalka). II. The son of the
II).
hell.

SARAMEYASANA. A
under Kala)
.

under Sarama

dog
the

Sarama.
section

(See

(See

Naraka

SARAMA
It

A serpent born in Vasuki's dynasty. It was burnt to death at Janamejaya's serpent yajfta. (Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 6)
.

I.

1) General information. Ksatriya of the Yadu clan. is stated in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 218,
1

A

II. An ancient hermit. It is mentioned Mahabharata, Salya Parva, Chapter 51, Verse 7, that Sarasvata was the son of Dadhica. Dadhica once happened to see the celestial maid Alambusa and became excited, and seminal discharge occurred to him. The semen fell in the river Sarasvati. The river became pregnant and delivered a child. This child grew up and became the famous hermit named Sarasvata. After the death of the hermit Dadhici, due to scarcity of rain a great famine occurred which lasted for twelve When the famine became unbearable all the years. hermits on the basin and banks of the river Sarasvati began to migrate to other places leaving all their possessions behind, to save their lives. But Sarasvata alone remained on the banks of Sarasvati, living on fish obtained from the river, engaged in meditation and study of Vedas. After twelve years the famine ended and the country became prosperous as before. The hermits who had gone to other places began to come back to their hermitages. The desire to study Vedas grew up in their minds. But there was not a single person, well-versed in the Vedas, except Sarasvata. So all the hermits accepted him as their teacher. Thus Sarasvata taught the Vedas to Sixtythousand hermits, who had returned to their hermitages. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 50). In course of time the place where the hermitage of Sarasvata stood, became famous under the name Sarasvata tirtha. Tungakaranya is another name of this place. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Verses

See under Apantaratamas.

Verse

7,

that he was the son of

and the brother of Sri Krsna and Subhadra.
2) Other details. (i) This Sarana was one of those

Vasudeva by Devaki

'Kandanukramapatha' and 'S;~rasvatapatha' for the the But Taittirlya-collcction today (Samhita).
as

43-50) In ancient days there were two schemes of study
.

known

Verse 30). (iii) Sarana participated in the Rajasuya sacrifice of Yudhisthira. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 34, Verse 15). Krsna went to Hastinapura from Sri (iv) When Dvaraka to take part in the horse-sacrifice of Yudhi4,

took the dowry to Hastinapura at the marriage of Arjuna and Subhadra. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 220, Verse 32). (ii) Sarana shone in the court of Yudhisthira. (M.B.

who

Kandanukramapatha has become
following
stating
is

how

quite extinct. The a description, given in Sariisk".! iratnamala the 'Sarasvatapatha' attainc;! o vigorous a
.

vogue.

Sabha Parva, Chapter

Once owing

to the curse of the hermit Durvasas, the river Sarasvati took birth as a woman in the house of

a Brahmin, who belonged to the Gotra of Atreya. Later from that same Brahmin she conceived and gave birth to a son named Sarasvata. The river Sarasvati herself, taught her son the Vedas completely, and then

SARASVATA

III

695

SARASVATI

!

which earned metaphysical and philosophical import-

sent him to Kuruksetra to do penance. As a result of the penance Sarasvat a got an original Kramaputha of the Taittirlya sarhhita. He taught (serial lessons) those serial lessons to his disciples. In course of time these serial lessons got the name Sarasvatapatha.

SARASVATA
regions.

ance.

III.

A

hermit
in

who

lived

in

the

western

Mention is made in Padma Purana, about another hermit Sarasvata, who taught the Vedas to several disciples in Tuiigakaranya. SARASVATA V. The people who lived in a particular region of Western Bharata. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9). SARASVATI I. Goddess of learning.
IV.

SARASVATA

Maha.bha.rata, Santi Parva, Chapter 201, Verse 30, that this Sarasvata was the son of the hermit Atri.
It is

stated

Svargakhanda,

see her flowing northwards when she reached the eastern region surrounded by Devas. Sarasvati sent back her companions like Ganga, Yamuna Manorama, Gayatrl and Savitrl who followed her. Then she appeared at the asrama of Uttanka under the Plaksa tree in the presence of the Devas. Just as Siva the Plaksa tree bore Sarasvati and carried Ganga, immediately did Siva give to her Badavagni in a pot. Because of his blessing the agni did not burn her hands. She went towards the north with the pot and came to PuskarinI, and she stopped there to redeem the sins of people. It is believed to this very day that those who drink water from the Puskara will attain Brahma-

loka.

1

Kamadeva was born from Brahma's
(anger)

)

Birth.

Sarasvati

is

the
his

daughter

of Brahma.

eyebrows; Lobha, from his lower lip, Sarasvati, from his face; the Sindhus from his genitals, and Nirrti, from his anus. The following story about the birth of Sarasvati is from Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 43 Brahma got ready for creation, and while in meditation sattvaguna (sublime quality) began swelling up in his mind wherefrom a girl was born. Brahma asked her who she was. She answered "I am born from you. You fix for me a seat and duties." Then Brahma told her that her name was Sarasvati and ordained that she should stay on the tip of everybody's tongue. You dance especially on the tongues of learned people. You should also exist on earth in the form of a river, and assuming a third form you should live in me too." Sarasvati agreed to this. 2 ) Curse of Sarasvati. See under Ganga.
: :

was born from

heart;

Krodha

From Puskara Sarasvati flowed towards the west and reaching a date-garden not far off from Puskara it rose up again where Sarasvati is known as Nanda as well. There is also another reason for the name Nanda. Once upon a time there was a King called Prabhanjana. While hunting in the forest he saw a deer inside a cluster of shrubs and he shot an arrow at it. Then the deer told the King: "What a crime is this You have
!

Misled Kumbhakarna. When Kumbhakarna requested for a boon, Sarasvati, at the instance of the latter, lodged herself in the tongue of Kumbhakarna and made him ask for Nidravatva (Sleep), something dif3)

Brahma

ferent from what he really desired to get Viz. Nirdevatva (absence of Devas).

4) Received Badavagni. (all-consuming fire). Badavagni was born at the quarrel between the Bhargavas and
.

Hehayas. Badavagni is flames of Aurva, the Bhargava. It was Sarasvati who took the (See under Aurva) Agni to the ocean. As a result of this, Sarasvati, became a river in India. The story is told in the Srstikhanda of Padma Purana as follows :The world was about to be burnt in Badavagni, which originated from Aurva, when Indra requested Sarasvati thus: "Oh Devi you should deposit this agni in the western ocean or else the world will be consumed in its flames." To this Sarasv.atl told Visnu as follows: "I am not a free person. I will do nothing without the
! ! ;

father. permission of my Therefore, please think of some other means." The Devas, who understood Sarasvati's nature, went to Brahma with their case. Immediately he called Sarasvati to him and asked her to deposit Badavagni in the western ocean for the safety of himself and the Devas. Unable to disobey her father, Sarasvati, with tears in her eyes, agreed to do so. Then Ganga followed her and she told the former that she (Ganga) would

have heard it is engaged in drinking, sleeping or mating. May you, who have done this cruel act, be transformed into a tiger and roam about this thorny forest." Saying again and again that he did not notice that the deer was feeding its child, the King begged for absolution from the curse. Taking pity on the weeping king the deer told him that he would be redeemed from the curse when he had talked with the cow called Nanda, which would go there after a hundred years. According to the above curse the king got transformed into a tiger and spent hundred years eating wild animals. After hundred years were over a herd of cows came there grazing under the leadership of a cow called Nanda. Beautiful Nanda used to walk ahead of the other cows and graze alone at a secret place in the forest. There was a mountain called Rohita there, on the banks of the river. The northern side of the mountain was a dense forest infested by cruel animals. There lived there a very cruel and terrible tiger as big as a mountain. A generous person called Nanda was feeding the cows with grass etc. Nanda, the cow, got separated from the herd and came to the river when the Crying aloud the tiger ran after it asking it to stop. cow said: Oh tiger; I have a child, which has not begun even tasting grass and it is awaiting the return of I shall go and take its mother to the cow-shed at dusk. leave of the child and return so that you may eat me." Taking pity on the cow the tiger granted its prayer. It returned duly to the tiger at dusk. The tiger, taken by surprise, by the honesty of the cow enquired of it its name, and the cow answered that it was named Nanda by its master, Nanda. As soon as the name was uttered Prabhanjana was released from his old curse and he became the former king. Dharmadeva then appeared there and asked her to choose the boon she liked and
I

wounded me, who am feeding my child. that the King shall not kill a deer while

she replied as follows: ''I, with my child, must attain the ultimate place and position, and let this place become a sacred place for munis. Also, let this river

come to be known as Nanda, by my name." Nanda immediately ascended to heaven and PrabhanSarasvati,
to his palace.

jana returned

River Sarasvati came to be

SARASVATI
called

II

696

SARAVINDU
who
drinks its water will become free from sin. (Adi Parva, Chapter 16, Verse 19) (iii) Sarasvati worships Varuna in his court. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 19) The Pandavas, while travelling in the forest, (iv)
.

daughter and noticing the fact she turned away to the right side of her father. Then did a face appear on his right side. To avoid the amorous looks of the father, she slided off to both his sides, and faces appeared on those
sides of

Nanda from that day: After flowing through the above-mentioned date-garden towards the south for some distance Sarasvati (Nanda) flowed again towards the north. She reached the ocean and deposited therein the pot of Badavagni. (Padma Purana, Srstikhanda) Sarasvatf as Brahma's wife. The Puranas mention 5) three wives of Brahma, Sarasvati, Savitri and Gayatri. But, the three are, according to Matsya Purana, one and the same person. The Matsya Purana mentions: Brahma created, from his own effulgence, a woman, who became famous under the names Satarupa, Savitri, Gayatri and Brahmani. Brahma fell in love with his
.

.

(Vana Parva, Chapter 5, Verse 2) Krsna conducted a yajna in the plains of river Sarasvati. (Vana Parva, Chapter 12, Verse 14).
crossed the river.
(v) Sri
.

(vi)

36, Verse 41). (vii) It is a holy river. If one bathes in it and worships one's ancestors one will attain Sarasvataloka. (Vana

Kamyaka

forest

is

on the banks

of

Sarasvati.

(Vana Parva, Chapter

and a

fifth

Brahma. Then Sarasvati jumped up to the sky face appeared on his head, turned upwards.

Finding escape impossible she yielded to the desire of Brahma and they enjoyed honey-moon for a hundred years. To them was born a son called Svayambhuva or
ViraJ.

Vinasanatlrtha and river (x) The disappears in reappears at Camasodbheda. (Vana Parva, Chapter 130,

his asrama on the banks of the (Vana Parva, Chapter 100, Verse 13). (ix) Muni LomaSa once extolled the greatness of river Sarasvati. (Vana Parva, Chapter 129, Verse 20).
(viii)

Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 66)

Dadhlca had

river.

Verse 3).

At one place
are refeired

in
to

Skanda Purana,
as

Savitri

and Gayatri

different

individuals.

(See under

Savitri). 6) Idol of Sarasvati. sits on a white lotus.

She holds in her hands a string of beads, book and Vina. She is depicted in sitting, standing and dancing postures. She is conceived as Sakti related to Visnu as also to Siva. In certain old works in Bengal, Sarasvati, instead of Bhumidevi, is to be seen along with Visnu. Agni Purana, Chapter 50, enjoins
temple should hold hands book, string of beads and Vina.
in

Sarasvati,

clad in white clothes,

(Vana Parva, Chapter (xi) It is the source of Agni. 222, Verse 22) on the plains of the (xii) There are many holy places river. They are described in Chapters 35-54 of Salya Parva. (xiii) River Sarasvati once carried Vasistha in its flow.
.

(See under Vasistha) cursed Visv?.mitra (xiv)
.

Sarasvati.

(See

under

Vasistha). (xv) Sarasvati returned to Dadhici maharsi the son born to her by him and he blessed her. (Salya Parva,

that idols of Sarasvati
7)

in

its

Other information. It was on the banks of Sarasvati formed tapas and Suka was born.
(i)

that
(

Skandha 1). There are various ( ii)
Rgveda.

Devi Bhagavata,
Sarasvati

Vyasa perin the

references

to

Sarasvati shines forth in Indra's court. (Sabha (iii) Parva, Chapter 7, Verse 19). (iv) Once Sarasvati advised the muni called Tarksya (Vana Parva, Chapter 185). (v) During Tripuradahana (burning of the city of the Tripuras) Sarasvati served as a passage for the chariot of Siva to advance. (Karna Parva, Chapter 34, Verse
(vi) Muni Yajftavalkya once thought of Sarasvati and she appeared before him wearing ornaments of vowels and consonants and sounding 'Om'. (Sanli Parva, Chapter 318, Verse 14). SARASVATI II. River Sarasvati, flowing through north India is, according to Puranic conception, Sarasvati devl who has assumed the form of a river. (See under The following information about river Sarasvati I) Sarasvati famed in the Puranas is from the Mahabharata. once performed a yajna on the (i) King Matinara banks of river Sarasvati. At the close of the yajna SarasvatidevI appeared and chose the King as her husband, and a son called Tarhsu was born to the couple.
.

8, Verse 71). Following the death of Sri Krsna his 16008 (xviii) wives drowned themselves to death in Sarasvati. (Svargarohana Parva, Chapter 5, Verse 25). SARASVATI III. Wife of Manu. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 117, Verse 14). SARASVATI IV. Wife of Dadhici maharsi. The couple had a son called Sarasvata. (Brahmanda Purana, 101, Verse 9)

once extolled the greatness of Sarasvati. (Salya Parva, Chapter 54, Verse 33). the son of Satyaki as the (xvii) Arjuna appointed master of a particular region on the banks of the river.

Chapter 51). (xvi) Balabhadrarama

(Mausala Parva, Chapter

.

SARASVATlSAGARASAJVGAMA.

34).

The point where Sarasvati joins the ocean. It is considered to be a holy dimmed by place. Candra regained his brilliance once the curse of Daksa by bathing at this holy place. (For
details see

SARASVATlSA&GAMA. A
the

under Candra IV, Para

6)

.

SARASVATYARNUASAislGAMA. A
Kuruksetra.

maharsis once worshipped Visnu here. bathes here will attain Brahmaloka. (Vana Chapter 83, Verse 151).

sacred place.

Brahma and He who
Parva,

sacred place in bathes here and fasts for three will be freed from the sin of Brahmahatya nights of a brahmin). (Vana Parva, Chapter 83). (killing SARAVA1VA. The place where Subrahmanya was born.

One who

SARAVINDU
in the

(See under

Subrahmanya)
(

.

(Adi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 26). tributaries of (ii) River Sarasvati is one of the seven river Ganga and its source is under the Plaksa tree. One

dynasty of Bharata, son of Dusyanta. His father's name was Citraratha. He was a great ascetic and a He had powerful emperor. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha).

SASABI'NDU)

.

A

famous King

bom

SARAYO

697

SARMISTHA
him
13.

no less than ten thousand wives and lakhs of children by each wife. SARAYO I. A river very famous in the Puranas. The most important things associated with the river are given below tributaries of Ganga originate from the (i) Seven golden peaks of the Himalayas and Sarayu is one of them. Those who bathe in the river will be absolved from sins. (Adi Parva, Chapter 169, Verse 20) (ii) The river exists in Varuna's court worshipping him. (Adi Parva, Chapter 8) Sri Krsna, Arjuna and Bhima, on their way to (iii) Girivraja from Indraprastha crossed this river. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 20, Verse 28) (iv) It was at Gotara (or Gopratara) in this river that Rama drowned himself to death and attained Sii Visnupada. (Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 70). (Vana (v) This river is the source of Agni (fire). Parva, Chapter 222, Verse 22) (vi) Vasistha once blocked the course of Ganga on its way to Kailasa at Manasasarovara. But, Ganga broke the obstruction and flowed on, and Sarayu is the stream that started from there. (AnuSasana Parva, Chapter 155, Verse 23). one of the rivers to be remembered both at (vii) It is dawn and dusk. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 165, Verse
:

in

Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter

4,

Verse

SARIMEJAYA.

A King in ancient India. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Verse 19, that this King was present at the Svayarhvara of Draupadi. (marriage)
(BODY).
Body
is

SARlRA.

constituted

of the five

.

.

air and sky elements, earth, water, (ether). What is solid or hard in the body is earth; liquid, is water; hot or burning, fire; what gives motion to the body is air and what are pores in the body is sky.
fire,

.

Body is that which exists and functions with the five organs of knowledge eye, ear, nose, tongue and skin, and the five organs of action like Upastha (sex organ), Pani (hand), Pada (leg) and Van! (speech). The body
depends on the
six tastes,

sweet,

sour,

saltish,

bitter,

.

hot and astringent. (Kaju, amla, tikta and kasaya) The body is internal elements (dhatus) of seven dark (black), black and white,
.

madhura, lavana, composed of seven

21).
(

viii)

The
II.

city

of Ayodhya

is

situated

Sarayu. (Valmiki

Ramayana,

Balakanda,

on the banks of Canto 5,

SARAYU
11).

Verse 5).
son called

Wife of the Agni Vira. The couple had a Siddhi. (Vana Parva, Chapter 219, Verse
spy of Ravana. It was he, who informof Rama. (Valmiki
30).

SARDULA. A
ed

SARDULl.

Daughter of Kasyapaprajapati by his wife Krodhavar'a, who had ten daughters including Sarduli. Tiger, leopard etc. were born from Sarduli. (Valmiki Ramayana, Aranyakanda, Canto 1 4) SARGA (CREATION). Agni Purana, Chapter 20
.

Ravana about the arrival Ramayana, Yuddhakanda, Canto

The

refers to various sargas as follows.
first

creation

is

Brahma.

called called Aindriyikasarga. These three kinds of creation are called Prakrta srsti (natural creation) and that is conscious and intelligent creation. The fourth is

The second creation is that of tanmatras bhutasarga. The third is Vaikarikasarga also

that of greatness

(Mahatva)

i.e.

mukhyasarga.
is

Mukhyas mean immovables. The

fifth

is both sattvic and tamasic. Thus, are five in number and prakrtascirgas vaikrtasargas The ninth sarga is the Kaumara sarga, which three. and Prakrta. The fundamental or is both vaikrta root cause of the universe is the above nine creations of Brahma. Prakrtasarga is of three types, nitya (eternal) , naimittika (casual) and dainandina (daily). Nityasarga is the creation after interim deluges. SARIDDVIPA. One of the prominent sons of Garuda.

Since it functions side-long it is tiryagyonisrsti. called tiryaksrotas. The sixth is the creation of Urdhvasrotas, called devasarga. The seventh is the creation The eighth, called of arvaksrotas, manusasarga.

colours, white, red, yellow, brassy and faint-white (Pandura) Vatapittakaphas (wind, bile and phlegm) are intertwined in the body. Since the body is formed of vital fluids from the sex organs of the father and the mother it is dviyoni (males with male and females with female organs of reproduction) The body exists by four kinds of foods, bhojya, bhaksya, khadya and lehya. After coitus, within one night, the male and female semen and blood combine into one body in the womb (Kalala). Within seven days it becomes foamy (budbuda) After a fortnight it becomes solid (pinda) and after one month hard (kathina). During the second month the head of the child is formed; in the third month its feet: in the fourth its ankles, stomach and waist are formed. In the fifth month is formed the back (Prstha) and face, nose, eyes and ears are formed in the sixth month. During the seventh month life enters the child's body. By the eighth month all the signs of the human being are completed in the child. If the' vitality and effulgence of the mother are more than those of the father the off-spring will be female and vice versa; if both are in exactly equal proportions the child will be a eunuch, neither male nor female. If the parents were sad and worried during the time of the mother's conception, the child born would be either If the semen is cleft into two blind, lame or a pigmy. by wind (in the womb) the mother would give birth to In the ninth month the child will be gifted twins. with knowledge and it will remember to what caste it belonged and what all good and evil actions it did in
. .
.

its

SARISRKKA.

anugrahasarga,

Son of the bird Mandapala. (See under Khandavadaha, Para 8). SARNJAYA. A Srnjaya King. Mention is made about this King who had been the supp*ort of the Bharadvajas, in Rgveda, Mandala 6, Anuvaka 47, Sukta 25. &ARKA. A son of King Kusamba. Sarka had a brother called Gani. (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 57).

previous

life.

SARMAKA. A
India.

SARIKA.

(Udyoga Parva, Chapter 101). A hermit who was a prominent member of the council of Yudhisthira. Mention is made about

famous rural region in the northeast of Bhimasena conquered the region during his triumphal tour. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 13). SARMI. A brahmin scholar. (See under Parnasala).

SARMISTHA.

asuras. (For details see

Daughter of Vrsaparvan, King of the under Devayani)
.

SAR5IGA
SAR5IGA. Sri Krsna's bow. The following facts about the bow are gathered from the Mahfibharata.
(i)

698

SARVABHAUMA

III

When Krsna
this

hand

in the assembly of the

exhibited his VisVarupa (cosmic form) Kauravas he had held in one

kalam. Then the Pulluvan playing on the Vina in front and a male member of the house with a vessel containing milk, a female member holding a lamp, two girls
holding brass plates and the Kaimal and all of them following the Pulluvan go round the Kalam thrice and

bow. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 131, Verse 10). (ii) Krsna's Sarnga is on a par with Indra's bow called Vijaya. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 158, Verse 4) (iii) Sarriga is one of the three divine bows. (Udyoga Parva.. Chapter 158, Verse 5) (iv) Sarriga was made by Brahma and presented to Krsna. (M.B. Southern text, Anusasana Parva, Chap. .

and return. After all these persons are seated, the Kaimal washes the feet of and puts flowers on the heads of the two girls, who had held the brass plates; seats them on two pieces of round wood in the kalam. The They should girls will have mirror etc. in their hands.

proceed to the serpents' temple in the compound, pray

SAR&GAKOPAKHYANA.
SARfsIGARAVA.
officiating

ter 141).

The

bird. (See

under Khandavadaha)

story of the Sarrigaka
.

A

priests

SARPABALI.

(Adi Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 6). SARPA. A son of Tvasta. According to Agni Purana the sons of Tvasta were called Ekadasarudras; But according to Mahabharata, Sarpa, one of the EkadaSarudras is the son of Sthanu and the great-grandson of Brahma. (Adi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 2)
.

m'aharsi. He was one of the at the Sarpasatra of Janamejaya.

concentrate their eyes on the heads of the serpents. Now begins the Pulluvan pajtu (song by Pulluvan). At the time of the worship they will be beating tunes on a brass pot, music being made on the Vina. 'Pulluvan pattu' is the most important item in the whole programme. The songs relate to the burning of the khandava forest, Kaliyamardana (suppression of the

members of a Hindu

offering made by Hindus in South India to propitiate serpents. Serpents are pleased by songs by Pulluvan and Pulluvatti (Male and female

An

.

,

(drawings on floor conveying certain esoteric meanings) , to make offerings and for the Pulluvars to sing these form important elements of Sarpabali. The bali has a connection with the story of Khandavadaha. The legend behind the bali is that a Pulluva woman saved Taksaka, who escaped to the ocean after the Khandava forest was burnt down. Songs by Pulluvan and Pulluvatti are unavoidable items in Sarpabali. Drawing the Kalam is a very important item in Sarpabali. It is drawn on a platform made of puttumannu (small heaps of earth thrown up by earthworms and terthe platform being demarcated by four pieces mites) The platform is covered with silk .of arecanut wood. and tender coconut leaves are hung all around it. The Kalam is drawn with rice powder, and other coloured powders. The husk of paddy burnt into charcoal is powdered and with it serpents are sketched first on the mandapa (platform). The naga drawings are tinted with colours. The (colour) powders are collected in coconut shells and sprinkled on the drawings through holes in shells. Pulluvas exhibit wonderful artistic talents
,

sub-caste)

.

To draw Kalams

momentum the girls begin to shake their heads and to wipe off the kalam. Then the girls are asked questions and they answer. Within a short time the girls will swoon and fall on the ground. They are brought back to consciousness by water being sprinkled on them and by fanning. This is in general the nature of a Sarpabali. SARPADEVl. Sarpadevi, also called nagatlrtha, is a sacred place in Kuruk setra. A bath here is as beneficial as the performance of an agnistoma yajna. (Vana
songs acquire

naga king) etc. One Pulluvan sings songs and a second one repeats them. A minimum of two Pulluva males and two females are required for the purpose. As the

SARPAMALl. A maharsi gifted He had a talk with Sri Krsna on
SARPANTA. A
Hastinapura.

Parva, Chapter 83)

.

with divine powers.
the latter's
.

way

to

bird born in the line of Canada's children.

(Udyoga Parva, Chapter 83)

SARPASATRA. See under Janamejaya, Part 5. SARPASYA. A Raksasa. He was the commander-in-chief
of the army of Khara and Dusana, who had clashed with Rama and Laksmana at Paficavatl. Khara and Dusana had twelve reputed army-chiefs, including

(Udyoga Parva, Chapter 101, Verse 12).

additional cloth across his shoulders (Uttariya) he comes with water in a jar. Four lamps should be burning on four sides of the kalam. Also, paddy, rice, tender coconut, milk, fruit etc. should be placed on its four sides. As directed by the Pulluvan the 'Kaimal' conducts the worship by offering flower, water etc. The Kaimal is to sit on each of the four sides of the kalam and do the puja. Then wicks (made of cloth) should be lighted, water sprinkled on it and with that the Kaimal should go around the kalam thrice. With the

making the drawings. the kalam is drawn worship of naga is begun compulsorily by a male member of the house, and he is technically called 'Kalattil Kaimal'.Hehasbeen observing 'vrata' during two days previous to the puja (worship) Having taken his bath and wearing an

in

When

Sarpasya. (Valmiki Ramayana, Canto 27). maharsi, who flourished in the court of Yudhisfhira. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 4. Verse 10). SARU. A Devagandharva. He participated in the birth(Adi Parva, Chapter 122, day celebrations of Arjuna. Verse 58) SARVA. One of the eleven Rudras. (Bhagavata, 6th

SARPIRMALl. A

.

.

Skandha) Another name of Sri Krsna. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 70, Verse 12). SARVA. A Puranic river. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 89, Verse 36) SARVABHAUMA I. A king of the Bharata dynasty. He was the son of Viduratha and the father of Jayatsena.
.

SARVA.

,

SARVABHAUMA SARVABHAUMA
the Diggajas

(Bhagavata, Skandha 9). A son born to King Aharhyati of II. the Lunar dynasty, by Bhanumati, daughter of KrtaThis Sarvabhauma married Sunanda, daughter virya. of the King of Kekaya. (M.B Adi Parva, Chapter 95). III. An elephant born in the family of

wicks placed on a leaf with paddy underneath it and also with burning camphor he should go round the

Mention is made about this elephant in Mahabharata, Drona Parva, Chapter 121, Verse 26.

(Eight elephants supporting the globe).

SARVABHAUMA
SARVABHAUMA

IV

699
Puranjaya Chapter 1 )

SASlKALA
was Sasada's
.

IV. An incarnation in the Manvantara Manu. Sarvabhauma was of Savarni (Manu's age) begotten by Devaguhya and was born of Sarasvati.
(Bhagavata, Skandha
8).
.

son.

(Brahmanda Purana.

SA$ADA

Bharata, the heroic son of Sakuntala. (For details see under Bharata I) SARVADEVATlRTHA. A sacred place in Kuruksetra. He who bathes there will derive benefit equal to that of gifting away thousand cows. (Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 88) SARVAGA. Son of Bhlmasena by his wife Balandhara. (Adi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 77) SARVAKAMA. Son of King Rtuparna. (Bhagavata,
.

SARVADAMANA.

&A&AKA.
ter 254,

II. A son of Iksvaku. His real name was Vikuksi. (For the detailed story as to how 'Vikuksi' became 'Sasada' see under Vikuksi)
.

A

caste.

Kama,

during his triumphal tour,

defeated the

reputed in the very much Puranas. He did tapas at Kuruksetra and attained heaven. (Asramavasika Parva, Chapter 20, Verse 14). SASAYANA. A sacred place. In the waters of river
Sarasvati at this

SASALOMA. A King

Verse 21).

King of the Sasakas. (Vana Parva,

Chap-

SARVAKAMADUGHA. A

Skandha

SARVAPAPAPRAMOCANAKUPA. A Kupa
which drives away
bathes
all

daughter of Surabhi. She holds up the northern region. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 102, Verse 10). SARVAKARMA. Son of King Saudasa. When Parasurama killed the Ksatriyas it was Paraaramuni, who saved Sarvakarma from death. (Santi Parva, Chapter 49, Verse 76).
sins.

9).

It

is

a

tirtha.

He who

(well)

SARVARTUKA. A beautiful
SARVASARA&GA. A
It

in its waters will never have (Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 126).
text,

to face

evil fate.

(M.B. Southern

was burnt to death at Janamejaya's serpent yajfia. (Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 18). SARVASENA. A king of Kasi whose daughter Sunanda was married by emperor Bharata. The couple had a son called Bhumanyu. (Adi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 32). SARVATEJAS. A King born in Dhruva's dynasty.

forest near mount Raivataka. Sabha Parva, Chapter 38) naga born in Dhrtarastra dynasty.

area in ancient India. (Bhisma Verse 46) SA&IKALA. Daughter of Subahu, King of Kasi. She was married by a prince Sudarsana who had been driven out of his kingdom by Yudhajit. As she became a young woman Sagikala heard about Sudargana, who lived in the forest with his mother and fell in love with him. One night Devi appeared in dream to her and told her that marriage with SudarSana would take place, and at those words of Devi she awoke from sleep and began laughing. Though her mother asked Saiikala about the reason for her laughing thus, she answered not, but continued laughing. One day while she was picnicking in the Campaka
rural

&AIKA. A

form of asasa (hare). as bright and lustrous Chapter 82, Verse 114).
9,

place

the full

bath here will make a man as the moon. (Vana Parva,

A

moon

reflects

in

the

Parva, Chapter

.

SARVATOBHADRA.
SARYATI

Vyusta was

his father.

Chapter 98, Verse 10). A son of Vaivasvata Manu. I. 1 General. ) Iksvaku, Saryati, Nabhaga, Dhrsta, Narisyanta, Pramsu, Nrga, Dista, Karusa and Prsadhra were sons of Vaivasvata Manu. Saryati had a son called Anarta and a daughter called Sukanya, who was married by the aged and blind Cyavana, and a son named Pramati was born to the couple. (See under Cyavana)
.

(Bhagavata, Skandha 4) Varuna's home. (Udyoga Parva,
.

forest, an old brahmin came there and described to her about the great personality and beauty of Sudarhis mother at sana, who then was staying with Bharadvajasrama. a,<ikala's heart yearned to be with Sudarsana.

2

the Ar'vinikumaras, in disobedience of Indra, drank Somarasa. (Vana Parva, Chapter 124). Two famous Kings, Haihaya and Talajarigha (iii) were born in Saryati's dynasty. (Anugasana Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 6). SARYATI II. A King of the Puru dynasty. He was the son of Pracinvan and father of Aharhyati. (ASramavasika Parva, Chapter 90, Verse 14)
.

Yama's court worshipping him. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 14) (ii) Cyavana performed for Saryati his yajiia at which
.

Other information. (i) Saryati lives in
)

It was after also. Sudarsana and his mother took refuge in the asrama of Bharadvajamuni. One of those days, Nisada, King of Srngiverapura and a friend of Sudarsana 's father (Dhruvasandhi) came to Bharadvajas'rama and presented a chariot, which possessed mysterious powers, to Sudarsana. The munis were pleased at this and imparted to Sudarsana the Kamarajamantra, which gave one who practised it all that one desired, and after the above incident Sudarsana began slowly to come out of the agrama. He went about the forests in the chariot presented by Nisada, and he was astonished to find many an armed soldier surround him wherever he went. This happened because of the mysterious powers

Sudarsana, after the death of his fath:r Dhruvasandhi, lived with his mother Manorama and her father. But,
Yudhajit killed Manorama's mother
this

that

of the chariot.
It

SARYATIVANA. A

Arjuna, in the course of his 'dream-trip' to Kailasa in the company of Sri Krsna crossed this forest also. (Droria Parva, Chapter 80, Verse 82). SASABINDU. See under Saravindu.
forest.

sacred

was at this time that King Subahu decided to conduct the Svayamvara of his daughter '!a:'ikala. Kings from all lands came. SaSikala told her mother in secret about her desire to marry Sudarsana, and the mother in turn told about this to the father. But, he was not for it. Then Sasikala sent a messenger secretly to Sudar-'ana to present at the request him to be
Svayamvara, and Sudarsana and his mother started for the palace of the King of KagI and when they reached A like Yudhajit had already come there. it, kings rumour was spread that Subahu, insultingly ignoring all the crowned heads, was going to marry his daughter

SASADA

I.

Son of Vikuksi,

the

King of

Ayodhya.

SASTA
to

700

SATAHRADA
actions to all." So saying the Devi took from Priyavrata the corpse of his child and brought it back to life. SASTHlHRADA. sacred place. Bathing here is more beneficial than gifting away food. (Anusasana Parva,

therefore, got themselves Subahu, but, he pacified

SudarSana, a mere beggar. The assembled Kings, ready to pick a row with them with the assurance that the Svayarhvara of SaSikala would formally be conducted and her husband could then be selected by herself. That night Sa&kala's parents tried their best to divert her heart away from Sudarsana, to no purpose and the same night she was duly married to him. By the next morning news about the marriage became public and

A

SASOLUKAMUKHI. A
SASVA.
this

Chapter 25, Verse 36).

female attendant of Subrahsaid in that

manya.

all the Kings, who had come for the Svayamvara decided in conference to kill Sudarsana on his way back home with his wife, and abduct Saiiikala. Accordingly

Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter
him.

(Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 22). An ancient King in Bharata. It is
in the palace of

King remains

Yama and

I,

Verse

1

7,

glorifies

on the fourth day after the wedding when Sudarsana and SaSikala were returning to Ayodhya escorted by the army allotted to them by Subahu, King Yudhajit and his followers attacked them from their hiding place. In the battle that ensued Devi appeared and helped
Sudan! ana,

who

defeated

the

enemies.

People

of

Ayodhya received with enthusiasm the victorious Sudarsana and he was crowned their King. In later years he became famous as emperor Sudarsana. SASTA. The presiding deity (idol installed) in the
Sabarimala temple.
1)

A great yaksa friend of Vaisravana. (See under Dipakarni for the story about how Sata became a cursed Yaksa). SATABALA. A peepal tree on the peak of mount Kumuda. From the branches of the tree milk, butter-milk, ghee, juice of Sugar-cane etc. descend carrying with them divine rice, clothes, ornaments etc. to the Kumuda mountain and flow in rivers towards the north. The
SATA.
ments etc. from the river. MinaksidevI praised by Devas has her abode here. Those who drink milk etc. flowing in the river will not be affected by hunger, thirst and signs of old age. Nor will any danger overtake them. They will live long. ( Devi Bhagavata, 8th Skandha) SATABALI. A great monkey under the leadership of Sugrlva. He was the leader of the monkeys deputed to the northern regions to look for Sita. (Valmlki Ramayana, Kiskindha Kanda Canto 43)
.
.

people in

those places

get

their rice,

clothes orna-

Birth.

Siva
as
(

fell

assumed form
their union.

in love with Mahavisnu in his MohinI and Sasta was the result of

2)

SASTHIDEVI.
1)

refers to the child by name Sasta. Other information. In the battle between Indra and the asura called (i) Surapadma the former deputed Sasta for the protection of Sacldevl. (Skanda Purana, Asura Kanda) Sasta is supposed to have two wives called Purana (ii) and Puskala and a son called Satyaka. (Astottarasatakam about Sasta; also see under Sabarimala).

occurs in the 8th Skandha of Bhagavata and the Asura kanda of Skanda Purana, but only the Skanda

Kambaramayana, Balakanda). This

story

Purana

SATABHISAK. A star. He who gives gifts of fragrant
Chapter 64, Verse 30)
.

materials like sandalwood

.

on the day of this star will, after death, live with the apsaras and enjoy fragrant smell. (Anusasana Parva,

SATACANDRA. A
Verse 23).

General.

A

nature (Mulaprakrti)
part,

she
life.

is is

Sasthidevi

them

She protects them

1/6 part of original Since she was born out of 1,6 called Sasthidevl. Also called Devasena, the patron-devi of children. She grants
.

Devi born out of

brother of Sakuni. In the battle of Kuruksetra he fought on the side of the Kauravas and got defeated by Bhima. (Drona Parva, Chapter 157,

SATADHANUS (SATADHANVA). A

Yadava

as

the real

mother and

has earned Siddhis is the best among the astamatrs (eight mothers) and is the wife of Subrahmanya. 2) Blessings of the Devi. She is foremost among the devis, who bless children. There is a story in the ninth canto of Devi Bhagavata revealing the importance of

always remains by their by the practice of yoga,

side.

She

Sasthldevi. Priyavrata, son of Svayambhuva Manu was at at last, married, on the first averse to marriage he, insistence of Brahma, a woman called Malini. For long he had no issues and sad at heart he got a putrakamesti

Though

SATADYUMNA. A

(For details see under Krtavarma Para 2). SATADRU. The Puranic name of the Indian river now called Sutlej. Grief-stricken over the death of his son, Vasistha once jumped into this river, which, realising that the maharsi was as powerful as fire, divided itself into many branches and flo wed in various directions, and hence the river came to be known as Satadru. (Adi Parva, Chapter 176, Verse 8). Once in talking about sublime rivers to Siva, Parvati mentioned this river also. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 146, Verse 18). Satadru is also one of the ten rivers referred to in the Rgveda.

king.

year. But, the child was still-born and Priyavrata set out with the corpse for the burning ghat. But, he could not make up his mind to give it up and so decided

yajna performed by Kasyapaprajapati as a result of which Malini got pregnant, and delivered in the twelfth

follows: "I
to

himself also to court death. stop there with a woman in

Devasenadevi, the mental daughter of Brahma and wife of Skandadeva. It is I, who grant son
the sonless,
Hess,

am

Then he saw a divine plane who spoke to him as it,
husband

SATAGHANTA. A
His father's

Caksusa Manu by his wife Nadvala. (Visnu Purana, Part 1, Chapter 13). Nadvala had ten brilliant sons including Satadyumna. Satadyumna once gifted away a house of gold to the brahmin called Mudgala and thereby attained heaven. (Santi Parva, Chapter 234, Verse 32).
.

King

in

ancient

India, son

of

female attendant of Subrahmanya. (Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 11) SATAHRADA. Mother of the Raksasa called Viradha.

wife

to

the wifeless,

to the

name was
.

husban

wealth to the poor and the results of their

Jaya.

(Valmlki Ramayana,

Aranyakanda)

SATAJIT

i

701

SATARUDRA
.

SATAJIT
son

I.

A

had three sons called Mahahaya, Venuhaya and Hehaya. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha). SATAJIT II. SonofSrl Krsna by Jambavatl. Satajit met with his death in the quarrels among the Yadavas at Prabhasatlrtha. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha). SATAJYOTI. Son of King Subhrat. The King had one lakh sons. (Adi Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 44). SATAKARNI I. See under Mandakarni. SATAKARM II. Son of King Purnotsauga. He ruled the country for fiftysix years. ( Matsya Purana) SATAKSl. Another form of Devi. (For details see under Durgama)
of Sahasrajit,
.

King of

the

Yadava dynasty.

Satajit,

.

SATAKUMBHA. A
source of agni.

sacred river,

considered to be the

CATALOG ANA. A

(Vana Parva, Chapter
.

SATAMUKHA
of

Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 60)
i.

222, Verse 22). warrior of Subrahmanya. (Salya

SATAMUKHA
He

Indumukhi, the wife of Sahasramukha Ravana. Satamukha had defeated Patala Ravana in battle. He gave the eternal weapon called Kathorakuthara as his daughter's wedding. (See under dowry for Sahasramukha Ravana).

(SATAMUKHA RAVANA).

Father

An asura, a great devotee of Siva. II. did very intense tapas for hundred years making offerings of his flesh in the fire. Siva, who was pleased with his tapas, granted him many boons. (Anugasana
Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 58). I. Priest of King Janaka. He was the son of Gautama by Ahalya.. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha

SATAN AND A

He once paid a visit to Bhisma. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 8) SATANANDA. A female attendant of Subrahmanya. (Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 11 ). SATANIKA I. A King born in the dynasty of Yayati. He was the son of Brhadratha and father of Durdama. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha) SATANIKA II. Son of Nakula. The Mahabharata contains the following information about this Satanika. (i) To Nakula was born of Draupadi a son called Satanika. (Adi Parva, Chapter 63, Verse 123).
gifts.
. .

SATANANDA

and Agni Purana, Chapter 278). Satananda felt elated that Sri Rama restored to Ahalya her old sanctity and also that his father Gautama received back his mother and lived with her. It was Satananda, who acted as high-priest at the wedding of Sita with Rama.
II.

jaya (Pariksit's son) of his wife called Vapustama. He married the princess of Videha and to the couple was born a son called Asvameghadatta. (Adi Parva, ChapHe had also another son named ter 96, Verse 88) Sahasranlka. (Kathasaritsagara). (See under Udayana). SATANIKA IV. A well-known Rajarsi born in the Kuru dynasty. It was to perpetuate his name that Nakula called his son Satanika. (Vana Parva, Chapter 220, Verse 84). SATANIKA V. A brother of Virata, the King of Matsya. He was called Suryadatta too. Further he was the cornmander-in-chief of the army of Virata. When Virata's cows were lifted by the Kauravas, Satanika went to war against them along with the Trigartas, who wore golden helmets on their heads. (Virata Parva, Chapter 31). He was an ally of the Pandavas in the great war. He was wounded in the war by Bhisma and killed by Salya. (Drona Parva, Chapter 167, Verse 30; Bhisma Parva, Chapter 118, Verse 2 7). SATANIKA VI. Younger brother of the Virata king. He was killed by Urona. (Drona Parva, Chapter 21, Verse 18). SATAPATRAVANA. A forest on the western side of Dvaraka. The mountain called Sukaksa is at the centre of the forest. (Sabha Parva, Southern text, Chapter 33) SATAPARVA. Wife of Sukracarya. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 117, Verse 13).
.

hit by the arrow of (vii) He died in the great war Asvatthama. (Sauptika Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 57) to by the following names also (viii) He is referred in the Mahabharata, viz. Nakulaputra, Nakuladayada, Nakuli SATANIKA III. A prince born as the son of Janame.

A

maharsi,

who

SATARATHA. A
the court of

possessed

divine

Yama and
.

King

in

ancient India. He lives in worships him. (Sabha Parva,

SATARUDRA. The

story of Satarudra was imparted to Sri Rama by Vyasa to show that all life is mere Sataruillusion or different complexes of the mind. dropakhyana is the story of a contemplative sannyasin. Whatever subject or object he conceived in his mind used to assume its form as water changes into waves,

Chapter

8,

Verse 26)

it was a boon or great asset, which his heart had acquired as a result of its purity. He confined himself to his asrama and thought about things one after the

and

other.

This Satanika was born from an aspect of Visvadeva. (Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 127). (iii) Once upon a time there was in the Kaurava dynasty a Rajarsi called Satanika and it was to perpetuate that name that Nakula named his son 'Satanika'. (Adi Parva, Chapter 220, Verse 84) (iv) This Satanika defeated in the great war Jayatsena,
(ii)
.

To

start

with,

Satarudra

thought to himself that he

was a 'dream person' called Jivata.
overcome by

in the streets of a 'dream-built city' the

Duskarna and Citrasena. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 79, Verse 42; Chapter 79, Verse 46 and Drona Parva, Chapter 168, Verse 12). (vj Satanika fought with Vrsasena, Srutakarma, the son of Dhrtaras{ra and As'vatthama. (Drona Parva, Chapter 167, Verse 7; Karna Parva, Chapter '25, Verse 13 and Chapter 85, Verse 14)
.

Bhutakarman and the prince of Kaliriga in the great war. (Drona Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 23; Karna Parva, Chapter 85, Verse 21 ).
(vi)

He

killed

the effect of unconscious state for some time. He also felt immediately to be a brahmin learned in the Vedas. 'Jivata', who transformed himself thus into a brahmin slept during day-time overcome by exhaustion on account of work. At once he dreamt himself to have been transformed into a feudal lord or tributary King, who, after taking his meals went to sleep when he dreamt The King, that he was changed into a great King. who ruled the country peacefully changed himself one day in dream into a celestial woman. The next dream was that the woman, while in deep sleep after a hilarious sexual act, was turned into a she-deer. The she-deer, in dream turned into a creeper, and it duly bore leaves, flowers and fruits. The creeper felt that it

While picnicking 'dream person' liquor remained in an

SATARCPA
entwined and climbed some trees. Then he (Jivata) went into deep sleep, absolutely unaware of himself, for some time. Then he dreamt himself to have changed into a beetle.
lotus

702

SATRAJIT
.

The beetle felt attracted towards a An elephant flower and got captured therein. from the forest nearby entered the 'lotus pond', plucked and tore into pieces the lotus flower. As the beetle had got fixed in its mind and imagination the picture of the elephant it became a tusker elephant after its death. While roaming about in the forest the elephant fell into a deep pit and the King's men captured and listed number of beetles gathered round it in the army. Because the elephant to suck its ichor (madajala). it thought about the beetles the elephant, after its death in battle, again became a beetle, which imagined about the swan in the lotus-pond. The beetle one day got captured in the lotus-flower and became a swan on being killed by the elephant. Thus the beet'e, after

Daksaprajapati and Akuti to Ruciprajapati. (Visnu Purana, Part I, Chapter 7) SATASAHASRA. A well-known sacred place in Kuruksetra. Bathing here is productive of the same result as gifting away thousand cows. This place is thousand times more beneficial than other places. (Vana Parva,

SATASAHASRAKA. A

Chapter 83).

A

holy place at Ramatlrthaon the river Gomatl. He who bathes here and takes food as per sastraic injunctions will get results equal to those of giving in gift a thousand cows. (Vana Parva, Chapter 84,

SATASIRSA.
(

Verse 74),

Wife of Vasuki, King of the nagas Udyoga Parva, Chapter 7, Verse 7) SATASRlvIGA I. A muni, who lived on Mount SataIt was this muni, who cursed Pandu that he Sriiga.
1 1 1
.

would die on

Brahma's vehicle, the swan. While the swan once moved about the surrounding places of mount Kailasa it saw Rudra and imagining itself to be Rudra attained Rudrahood. (Rudroham I am Rudra) all the While living happily with paraphernalia of Rudra he remembered his past lives, and wondering about the many continuous dreams of his, "The power of in solitude he thought like this Maya (illusion) which rules over everything in the world is really wonderful. How curious and peculiar
:

taking

many

births

and

forms,

became ultimately

have attained Rudra-hood. Hundred Caturyugas and thousand years have passed in this 'show" Now, I will return and personally see all past episodes and I
shall identify

the cunningness or trickeries of Maya in creating, mirage, the illusion that things, which did not really exist, existed. Mistaking Maya or mirage, as the truth and the fact, I roamed about in many a material desert. In one form of life I was born as Jivata, in another, King in yet another, swan etc. and now I
is

II. A Raksasa, who had three sons called Sarhyama, Viyama and Suyama. (Santi Parva, Southern text, Chapter 98) SATASR&GA III. A mountain where Pandu once practised austerities. (Adi Parva, Chapter 118, Verse The Pandavas were born here and they were 50) named in the presence of Munis who lived there. ( Adi Parva, Chapter 122) Also, here it was that Pandu died. Once in the course of a dream-trip of Arjuna in the company of Krsna to Kailasa they saw Satasrnga also. (Drona Parva, Chapter 80, Verse 32). SATATAPA. Author of a Smrti in prose and poetry in
.
.

SATASR&GA

his coming into physical contact with his wife. (For details see under Pandu and Mahabharata) .

.

like

SATAVAHANA. A
SATAVANI.
59).

six chapters.

King. Gunadhya, Brhatkatha was a minister of this King.

author of (See under

:

A Rajarsi. His son was known as Satavaneya. (Rgveda, Mandala 1, Anuvaka 11, Sukta

Gunadhya).

them

all

knowledge on them.

with myself after bestowing

Having made up
there.

his mind like this, Rudra descended He infused life and to the state of the old Sannyasin. vitality into the dead body of the sannyasin that was

and hallucinations.
crossing various of them together

The Sannyasin remembered

his

old

illusions

He had
to

attained

Rudrahood

after

came

stages

from being Jivata.

Then both

He abdicated the Rajarsi. throne in favour of his son and went to perform tapas in Kuruksetra forest where he saw Dhrtarastra and others and spoke about the rules to be observed in "forest life". (Asramavasika Parva, Chapter 19, Verse His name was 8) grand-father's Sahasracitya (Asramavasika Parva, Chapter 20, Verse 60). SATAYUS I. One of the six sons of Pururavas by Urva;'.I. (Adi Parva, Chapter 75, Verse 24).
.

SATAYCPA. A Kekaya

'dream-person' by giving him mind and vitality. Afterwards the three of them, who assumed single form by
attained the composition of different personalities, awoke them too and various stages like brahmin etc., added them to themselves (the three). Thus there came about to be hundred persons formed from aspects or fractions of Rudra, and at the instance of the real Rudra they returned to their homes and lived there

the Jivata stage,awoke the

&ATAYUS

II.

A

warrior,

death. (Bhisma Parva, Parva, Chapter 2, Verse 19). SATHA. An asura, son of Kasyapaprajapati by his wife Danu. (Adi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 29). SATl. A birth of Devi Parvatl. (For more details see

side against the Pandavas. position of the Vyuha made

fought on the Kaurava fought from the 'waist' by Bhisma and courted Chapter 75, Verse 22; Salya

who

He

happily with their sons, relations etc. Those hundred persons are the Satarudras. (Jnanavasistha, Satarudropakhyana). In Verse 13, Chapter 150 of AnuSasana Parva, Mahabharata also is found references to the Satarudras.

king of the solar dynasty. It is stated in 9, that he was the son of Jayatsena. SATODARl. A female attendant of Subrahmanya. (Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 10)

SATKRTI.

under Parvatl).

A

Bhagavata Skandha

.

SATRAjIT.

SATARClPA.

Wife of Svayambhuva Manu, who took The couple had his sister Satarupa herself as his wife. two sons called Priyavrata aud Uttanapada and two daughters Prasuti and Akuti. Prasuti was married to

Bhagavata Skandha 9, and the brother of Prasena. (To know the previous birth of Satrajit see under Satyabhama) Sri Krsna married Satyabhama the daughter of Satrajit. In connection with the jewel Syamantaka, Krtavarma
.

A Kingof the

Yadavas. It is mentioned in that he was the son of Nimna

SATRUGHNA
caused Satrajit to be murdered. ( More details about Satrajit occur under the entries Prasena, Krtavarma, (Para 2) and Satyabhama). SATRUGHNA. A brother of Sri Rama. He and Laksmana were the sons of Sumitra, and Srutakirti was his wife. As ordered by Rama he killed Lavanasura, who

703
has been told by sage Saunaka to Bharata,
Sri
It

SATYA
brother

II

of

Rama.

was Bharata, who led the yajnic horse towards the north in connection with the Asvamedha yajiia performed by Sri Rama after he was crowned King. The
horse,

which

started

on

its

lived in Madhu forest, and established there the city called Madhurapuri. After the death of Satrughna two sons of his lived in Madhurapuri, and after the disappearance of the solar dynasty the city went to the Yadus. (For details see under Sri Rama and Hanuman,

A prince, the son of Dhruvasandhi by his second wife Lllavatl. (See under Dhruvasandhi). SATRUMARDANA. The third son of King Rtadhvaja by his wife Madalasa. ( Markandeya Purana, Chapter 23, Verse 26). SATRUNJAYA I. A Sauvlra prince, who followed Jayadratha with a flag. Arjuna killed him in a battle consequent to the Svayarhvara of Draupadi. (Vana Parva, Chapter 2 71, Verse 27). SATRUNJAYA II. A son of Dhrtarastra. The following facts about him are gathered from the Mahabharata. (i) Duryodhana deputed him for the protection of Bhisma in the great war. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 51, Verse 8) (ii) He attacked the five Kekaya kings. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 79, Verse 56) (iii) Bhima killed him. (Drona Parva, Chapter 227, Verse 29). SATRUNJAYA III. A warrior and a brother of Kama
SATRUJIT.
. .

Para 10).

who fought on the Kaurava side and got killed by Arjuna. (Drona Parva, Chapter 31 Verse 62). SATRUNJAYA IV. Another warrior, who fought on
the

Kaurava

side

Parva, Chapter 56, Verse 181) SATRUNJAYA V. A son of
.

whom Abhimanyu
killed
).

killed.

(Drona

SATRUNJAYA

great Parva, Chapter 56 Verse 151

battle

Asvatthama

In the Drupada. him. (M.B. Drona

May be, it is all fate." Following Hanuman's speech, Satrughna asked Sumall the explanation for this state of the matter, but the latter could not find one for it. Then it was decided to find out a maharsi and ask him for the explanation. The soldiers accompanied by Bharata went in search of a maharsi, reached Saunaka's asrama and submitted the case to him. The maharsi remained in meditation for some time and the condition of the horse became vivid in his mind. Then he spoke as follows: "There was once a brahmin named Satvika in Gauda(?) land on the banks of river Kaverl. Once he began performing tapas. He spent three days, drinking only water the first day, consuming air the next day and fasting completely the third day. He continued his tapas repeating the above course until one day he entered samadhi (expired). He got into a decorated plane sent from Devaloka, went to the peak of mount Meru and thence came to river Jambu, which flowed from the great Jambu tree on the mountain. There in Jambu were many maharsis, who had acquired merit by bathing in the golden water of the river, enjoying

reached, after six months, Hemakuta on the limits of India. As soon as it got into a beautiful garden it was rendered stationary as though paralysed. All attempts to make the horse move failed. Satrughna and some soldiers tried to lift the horse by its legs, to no purpose. Hanuman bound its legs with his tail and pulled, again to no purpose, and surprised at this failure of his he spoke to Satrughna and others thus. "It was only just now that I pulled out with my tail the Drona mountain so very easily; but this small horse does not stir at all.

journey from Ayodhya

VI. A King of Sauvlra. Kanika, the son of Bharadvaja, taught him political science and all Santi Parva, other cunning ways. ( Mahabharata,

SATRUNTAPA. A

Chapter 140).

SATRUSAHA. A
in the great war.

King, who fought in Duryodhana's army. Arjuna killed him on the occasion when the Kauravas lifted Virata's cows. (Virata Parva, Chapter 54, Verse 11).
son of Dhrtarastra.

Bhima

killed

him

SATRUTAPANA. An
pati 29).

(Drona Parva, Chapter

127, Verse 9)

by

his wife

Danu. (Adi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse
prince.

asura, the son of Kasyapapraja-

SATVADANTA. A Yadava
:

This

Satvadanta

SATVATA

I. A King of the Yadu dynasty and son of Devaksatra, Satvata had seven sons called Bhaja, Bhaji, Divya, Vrsni, Devaprstha, Antaka and Mahabhoja. Satvata was one of the Satvalas and the men born in

was one of the sons born to Vasudeva Bhadra. (Vayu Purana, 96 71).

by

his wife

his dynasty are called Satvatas.
2,

SATVATA

Verse 30).
II.

(Sabha Parva, Chapter

SATVIKA.

Another name of Sri Krsna. brahmin, who was turned inio a Raksasa due to a curse after he had entered heaven. His story

A

Purana, Patalakhanda, Chapters 47 and 48). A hermit. Mention is made about this hermit I. who shone in the court of Yudhisthira, in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 10. SATYA II. An Agni (fire). This Agni Satya was the son of the Agni NiScyavana. He was a worker of Kaladharma (The god of Death). He reduces the pain of

all comforts in the company of apsara women. Satvika, one day, haughty with the thought that he was the master of the maharsis, did something which quite displeased the latter, and they cursed him. When he prayed for absolution from the curse they told him thus: "When you paralyse the feet of Sri Rama's horse, you will happen to hear Rama's story and then you will be redeemed from curse." On Saunaka informing them thus that it was the brahmin transformed into a Raksasa, who had paralysed the legs of the horse, Bharata returned to the horse and recited the story of Rama and immediately an effulgent person came there in a plane and said, "Oh. I have now heard the story of Rama intelligent King and so have become pure; so, please let me go to heaven." After saying this he returned. Bharata and others were pleased to know that the visitor was Satvika brahmin. The horse became free from its paralysed condition. The party resumed its journey. (Padma
!

SATYA

got

living beings who are the name Niskrti

suffering. So this Agni Salya also. This Agni brightens the

SATYA

III
in
13,

704
uproot the
tree.

SATYABHAMA
To honour
the

SATYA

served in the army of the of Kalinga. This warrior fought against the King Pandavas in the battle of Bharata. This warrior who stood as the wheel-guard of Srutayus the King of Kalirga, was killed by Bhimasena in the Bharata-battle.
III.

houses and gardens where people stay. It is stated Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 219, Verse that this Agni had a son named Svana.

A

warrior

who

SATYA

wife Puskaradharini helped him in the sacrifice. Dharmadeva came theie in the form of an antelope to test the The animal came near non-killing principle of Satya. Satya and said "I am a deva (god) belonging to the Sukra-clan. I dwell in this forest as an antelope, due to the curse of Dharmadeva. Kill me and complete
:

(M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 54, Verse 77) IV. A hermit in the country of Vidarbha, This hermit who was a brahmin was a believer inahirhsa also. Once he performed a sacrifice without any killing. His
.

to Dvaraka. The Kalpaka tree brought from the world of gods, was planted in the in front of the palace of Satyabhama. When Krsna and the Kalpaka tree became her own, ri tarden Satyabhama became proud. At that time Narada came there. She asked Narada what she should do so as to have Sri Krsna and the Kalpaka tree with her in

goose and jungle crow were born from Garuda. Sri Krsna who won the war, returned with Satyabhama

feather of his there and returned to Dvaraka. Because of the hitting of the thunderbolt, the peacock, mon-

Then Indra wielded his thunderbolt. weapon thunderbolt, Garuda left a

mounted on Garuda,

this sacrifice."

animal.
eight

Though Satya heard
At
last the

arts of the antelope Satya saw there celestial maids and the aeroplanes of Gandharvas. The antelope said A desire that if he was killed he would attain heaven. arose in Satya for killing and forthwith he lost all the attainments he got by penance. (M.B. Santi Parva. Chapter 272) SATYA V. Another name of Sri Krsna. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 342, Verse 75). SATYA VI. The son of Vitatya, born in the dynasty of the King Vltahavya. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, AnuSasana Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 62, that this Satya had a son called Santa. SATYA I. A wife of Sri Krsna. Mention is made about this wife in Mahabharata, Daksinatyapatha, Sabha
.

steps

and

he did not wish to kill the antelope decided to go and walked then returned. Due to the delusive
this,

ness. Sri Krsna described the previous birth of Satyabhama. (Padma Purana, Uttara Khanda, Chapter 90). 2) Previous birth of Salyabhama. Towards the close of the Krtayuga, there was a Brahmin named DevaSarma who was born of the clan of Agni in Mayapurl. This Brahmin was well-versed in the Vedas and the Vedangas. In the old age a daughter named Gunavati

Narada said that, for that, she had only to do Tulapurusadana. She instantly placed Sri Krsna and the Kalpaka tree in the balance and all the things placed in equal weight were given to Narada himself. Narada received them and went to the world of Gods. Satyabhama became overjoyed. She asked Sri Krsna, what good deeds she had done to earn so much happiall births.

to him. He gave his daughter to his Candrasarma. Once Devas arma and Candra^arma went to the forest to bring Darbha (poa) and Samit (butea). While they were walking here and there in the Mango grove in the Himalayas a giant closed with them. Because of terror their bodies were stiffened and so they could not

was born
disciple

SATYA II. The

born to Samyu by Satya. Bharadvaja had three sisters. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 219, Verse 4). SATYA (S). A group of Devas (gods). This group of devas lived in the third Manvantara. The name of the then Manu was Uttama and the King of the devas was There were then five Devaganas the Indra Susanti. (groups of Gods) each consisting of twelve devas. Those ganas were Sudhamas, Satyas, Japas, Pratardanas and VaSavartis. (Visnu Purana, Arhsa 3, Chapter

Parva, Chapter 38. called Samyu. So wife of the Agni beautiful a woman as Satya is said to have not existed in any of the three worlds. Bharadvaja was the son

SATYABHAMA. The
1 )

!)

Introduction.

previous birth for saying that.

wife of Sri Krsna. Sri Krsna himself said about the of Satyabhama. There was an occasion

Once

Once Narada came from

Dvaraka.
the
Sri

He had
tree.

and wept and sighed and lay there. Sri Krsna came to know of this. He took Satyabhama with him on the back of Garuda and went to the world of Gods. They reached there and asked Indra for some Kahlara flowers. Indra refused to give. Garuda got ready to

Krsna. Sri Krsna divided them among his wives, but he had forgotten Satyabhama. Being unable to subdue her sorrow and anger she got into her bedroom

Kalpaka

the world of the gods to brought with him some flowers of Narada gave all those flowers to

bathe. When she got into the river she shivered because of cold. Then an aerial chariot came down from the sky. The messengers of Visnu took her in the chariot, to Vaikuntha. The celestial maids fanned her with the whisk of yak. After this Mahavisnu incarnated as Sri Krsna to destroy the wicked. Those who were the dependants of Visnu in Vaikuntha took birth in Dvaraka. DevaSarma the father of Gunavati took birth as Satrajit. Candrasarma became Akrura. Gunavati became Satyabhama. Because of the goodness earned by the fast of Krttika, she had become a beloved one of Visnu. Because she made a grove of holy basil (tulasi) at the gate of Visnu in the previous birth the Kalpaka Because she tree came to her garden in this birth.

by Visnu came and took both of them to VaikunGunavati cried aloud when she heard that her tha. She father and husband were killed by a giant. lamented for a long while and then fainted and fell down. When she came to herself she began to cry At last she sold the furniture and conducted again. After that the funeral rites of her father and husband. she lived by manual labour. She observed fast and the vow of Krttika and Ekadas'I. Gunavati, who was weak and lean because of old age and fever once walked slowly to the river Ganges to

run. sent

The

fierce giant killed

both of them.

The

escorts

lamps in Karttika month MahalaksmI lives permanently in her house. Because she did fast and vow in Karttika imagining Visnu as her husband, she
lighted

became

the wife of Sri

Krsna

in

this
).

birth.

(

Padma

Purana, Uttara Khanda, Chapter 91

SATYADEVA
3) Family
life.

705

SATYAKAMA
Vedas and Vedangas.
(M.B.

See under Krsna, Para 16 and

Naraka

Drona Parva, Chapter

Para

4)

.

and others were born to Sri ( Agni Parana, Chapter 276) (ii) Narakasura stole the ear-rings of Aditi, the mother of the devas. Sri Krsna and Satyabhama went to fight with Narakasura. They killed him and recovered the ear-rings and gave them back to Aditi. At that time Aditi blessed Satyabhama thus "Till Sri Krsna forsakes his body you will not be affected by old age. Moreover you will always have a divine fragrance and good qualities." (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 38) (iii) Satyabhama had a beautiful white palace in Dvaraka. The steps of the palace were paved with

4)

Krsna by Satyabhama.

Other details. (i) The sons Bhima

.

SATYADHRTI

23). (v) In the Bharata-battle he was killed by Dronacarya. ( M.B. Karna Parva, Chapter 6, Verse 34) III.' The son of the King Ksemaka. In the Bharata-battle he fought on the side of the Pandavas against the Kauravas. ( M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter
.

SATYAHITA. A King
of

23, Verse 58).

:

Rsabha and

of the Puru dynasty. He was son the father of Sudhanva. (Agni Purana,

.

SATYAJ1T I. A King belonging to the He was the son of Sunita and the
(Bhagavata, Skandha
9).

Chapter 2 78).

dynasty of Yayati.
father

of

Ksema.

those who pass over its steps, hot season will jewels. appear to be cold. (M.B. Daksinatya Patha, Sabha

To

SATYAJIT

Parva, Chapter 38),
(iv)

When

time of their forest life, Sri Krsna and Satyabhama paid them a visit. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 183, Verse 11). (v) At this time Satyabhama asked Pancali about the means and ways to bring the husband over to her side. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 238, Verse 4).
forest at the

the Pandavas were living in

the

Kamyaka

II. A brother of Drupada, the King of Pancala. He appears in the story of Mahabharata for the first time at the battle between Drupada and Arjuna. When the education of the Kauravas and the Pandavas was over, Drona asked his pupils to bring Drupada tied

had forsaken
After

(vi)

When

Arjuna came

to

other queens Chapter 5, Verse 13).
(vii)

his body, Satyabhama lamented with the for a long time. (M.B. Mausala Parva,

Dvaraka,

after Sri

Krsna

this

penance. (M.B. Mausala Parva, Chapter 7, Verse 74). SATYADEVA. A prominent warrior of the army of Kalinga. He took part in the Bharata-battle and served as the guard of the wheel of King Srutayus of Kalinga and was killed by Bhimasena. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 54, Verse 74). SATYADEVI. The daughter of King Devaka. This Satyadevi was one of the seven wives of Vasudeva. (Matsya Purana, 44-73). I. A King of the lunar dynasty. He was a helper of Yudhisthira. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 141, Verse 25). A brother of Susanna, the King II. of Trigarta. Arjuna killed him in the Bharata-battle. (M.B. Sand Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 36) SATYADHRTI I. A son of Satananda. It is mentioned in Agni Purana, Chapter 278, that this Satyadhrti had two children called Krpa and Krpl. SATYADHRTI II. A warrior who fought in chariot on the side of the Pandavas in the Battle of Bharata. The following information is given about him in Mahabharata. Bhisma considered Satyadhrti as one of the (i)

Satyabhama

went

to

the forest for

(M.B. Karna Parva, Verse 4). SATYAKA. A king of the Yadava clan. He was the father of Satyaki. Satyaka also took part in the festivals conducted on the Raivata-mountain by Sri Krsna and
followed

attempt was made to bring which attempt Drupada and Arjuna confronted each other. In this fight it was stood as the right hand of his brother Satyajit who Drupada. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 137, Verse 42). Arjuna defeated this Satyajit. Immediately Satyajit ran away from the battle-field. After the marriage of Pa.ftca.li, Pandavas and Drupada became relatives. With this Satyajit also came to be on In the battle of good relation with the Pandavas. Bharata this Satyajit was the bodyguard of Yudhisthira. In the battle which (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 17)
as

teacher's

gift.

An

Drupada before Drona,

in

.

Drona

killed

Satyajit.

Chapter

6,

SATYADHARMA

SATYAKAMA (SATYAKAMA J ABALA
mit.

SATYADHARMA

.

A noble her) a story as given below, in the Chandogyopanisad about the greatness of this hermit. As his father died in his boyhood, Satyakama was brought up by his mother Jabali. Whan it was time to begin education, the boy told his mother, "Mother, I would like to be educated under a teacher, in the But I don't know what clan I belong to. Vedas. What answer shall I give, when the teacher asks me about my clan ?" His mother Jabali replied. "I also do not know much about the clan of your father who married me when I was a girl. From that day onwards I did not ask your I was engaged in house-keeping. father about the clan. In my younger days I gave birth
.

manes

the others. It is stated in the as vamedha Parva, Chapter 62, Verse 6, that Satyaka conducted offerings to the
in respect of
is

Abhimanyu.

There

prominent fighters in chariots. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 17, Verse 18). (ii) This Satyadhrti had been present at the Svayarhvara marriage of Draupadi. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Verse 10). This Satyadhrti who was the son of Sucitra conti(iii) nued helping Ghatotkaca the son of Hidimbi, during the battle of Bharata. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 93, Verse 13). Satyadhrti was an expert in the wielding of all ( iv) weapons, especially in archery. He was a scholar jn the

to you. Shortly after that your father died. Tell your teacher that you are Satyakama the son of Jabali." Having heard this Satyakama went in search of a At last he reached the hermitage of the sage teacher.

Gautama and

told him every thing. The hermit was attracted by his truthfulness and behaviour. Believing that Satyakama was a Brahmin boy, Gautama accepted him as a disciple. The hermit entrusted the boy with four hundred lean cows to look after. The boy accepted the work, and said to the hermit. "When this becomes a group of thousand fat cows, I will bring them back."

He

lived in the forest looking after the cows.

The Pevas

SATYAKARMA

I

706

SATYAKI
Vasudeva was Krsna's father. Srutadevi and Rajadhidcvl
Srutakirti,
Sruta;'.ravas,

sympathised with him. Vayu (wind), the Sun, Agni him divine knowledge and (fire ) and Prfma together gave wisdom. After this Satyakama returned to the hermit Gautama with thousand fat cows. Seeing the boy whose the hermit was face shone with the light of God, amazed. "Who gave you divine knowledge ?" asked the hermit. Satyakama told the hermit all that took place. Fully satisfied with the boy, Gautama imparted to h knowledge about the universal Soul(Paramatma) and Satyakama became a noble hermit.
:

m

of the four daughters married respectively by Sura were Dhrstaketu, king of Kekaya, Damaghosa, king of Cedi, Vrddhagarman. king of Karusa and Jayasena, king of Avantl. Dhrstaketu was a great ally of the Pandavas. Sisupala was the son of Damaghosa, and Dantavaktra the son of Vrddhagarman. SiSupala and Dantavaktra, the third human incarnation of Jaya and Vijaya were

Satyakama got several disciples of whom Upakosala .vas prominent. He approached Satyakama as a student. For twelve years he served his teacher and kept up the
fire in

war-crazy and haughty persons. Vinda and Anuvinda, sons of Jayasena, were great friends of the Pandavas. As KuntI, daughter of Sura became the adopted daughter

the firepit for burnt offering, without being extinguished throughout the twelve years, and worshipped the fire god. Yet the teacher did not impart knowledge The teacher's wife recommended to her husto him. band that Upakosala should be given learning. But the teacher was silent. UpakosalA took a vow and fast

of Ugrasena, she became also the niece of Vasudeva and Krsna's father's sister. KuntI married Pandu and she
delivered four sons, Karna, Yudhisthira, Bhlmasena and
Other information I. The following facts about Satyaki are extracted from the Mahabharata. ( 1 ) Satyaki was born from an aspect of the Maruddevatas. (Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Verse 18). (2) He was present at the wedding of Draupadl. (Adi
3)

Arjuna.

SATYAKARMA

yoga (union) by knowledge of the Sarikhyas.
I.

before the burnt-offering fire pit. Agni Deva felt pity for him and informed him that God is all-pervading and that his teacher would show him the way to God. When he came to the teacher, his face was seen shining. Satyakama asked Upakosala for the reason. Upakosala told the teacher what the fire god had told him. his disciple the path of Immediately Satyakama taught

Parva, Chapter 185, Verse 18). 3) He was in the company of the Yadavas, who went to Indraprastha with the dowry for Subhadra. (Adi
(

A

SATYAKARMA II.
was
killed

was the son of Dhrtavrata and the father of Anuratha. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9).

king of the family of Bharata.

He

Parva, Chapter 220, Verse 31 ) (4) A member in the court of Yudhisthira, Satyaki learned dhanurveda (science of archery) from Arjuna. Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 34) ( (5) He was one of the chief Yadava warriors. (Sabha
.

Trigarta. Though that he would kill Arjuna,

brother of Sus"arma the king of he took a vow in the Bharata battle

The

Verse 17; Salya Parva, Chapter 27, Verse 39). SATYAKETU I. A king of the Solar dynasty. He was the son of Dharmaketu and the father of Dhrstaketu.
.

what happened was that he by Arjuna. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 17,

Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 57). (6) At the coronation of Yudhisthira he held the royal umbrella over his head. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 53,

SATYAKETU

III. A king belonging to the Puru dynasty. This Satyaketu was the son of King Sukumara. (Agni Purana, Chapter 278) SATYAKI (YUYUDHANA). A Yadava, who was a warrior of the Vrsni dynasty and a friend of Sri Krsna. Descended from Visnu thus Brahma 1 Genealogy. ) Atri - Candra - Budha - Pururavas - Ayus - Nahusa -

SATYAKETU

(Bhagavata, Skandha 9) Mention is made II. A king of Pan cala. in Brahmanda Purana, Sloka 73, of a Pancala King Satyaketu who fought with Paras urama.

He also was present at the wedding of Abhimanyu ( 7) held at Upaplavya city. (Virata Parva, Chapter 72, Verse 21). (8) He went to Yudhisthira with a big army to participate in the great war. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 19,
Verse
(9)

Verse 13).

.

:

Yayati

-

Yadu

-

Sahasrajit
-

-

Kuni

-

Bhadrasena
-

Dhanaka
-

Satajit
-

-Hehaya - Dharma
-

-

yarjuna

Madhu

-

Vrsni

Krtavirya Yudhajit Sini

Karttavlr-

Satyaka

-

son of Yudhajit, became famous through Prasena, Satrajit, Svaphalka and Akrura. Of the four sons of Andhaka, predecessor of Krsna, Kukura and Ahuka, in the Bhajamana deserve special mention. dynasty of Kukura had two sons named Devaka and Ugrasena. DevakI, daughter of Devaka, became wife of Vasudeva and mother of Krsna. Karhsa was the son of Ugrasena. Sura, seventh in the line of Bhajamana, son of Andhaka had twelve children. His first son

Satyaki. Sini was the younger son of Yudhajit. Satyaki alias Yuyudhana, a companion of Sri Krsna and a great friend of the Pandavas, was Mini's grandson. 2) His relation to other prominent Tddavas. The dynasty of
first

informed Sri Krsna, who went to the Kaurava assembly as the messenger of the Pandavas, that he desired war. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 81, Verse 5). (10) Sri Krsna started for the Kaurava assembly with Satyaki after making him leave his weapons in the chariot. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 12). 1 1 On the first day of the great war, he fought a ) ( duel with Krtavarman. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 12). (12) He saved Arjuna, who was in difficulties on account of the rain of arrows from Bhisma. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 69, Verse 78). (Bhisma Parva, (13) He fought with Bhuris"ravas. Chapter 64, Verse 1).
(14)

He

1).

When

his charioteer

was

killed

Anamitra,

drove the chariot himself. 73, Verse 28)
.

by Bhisma, Satyaki (Bhisma Parva, Chapter

(15) Bhurisravas killed ten sons of Satyaki. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 74, Verse 1 ) (16) He defeated Alambusa. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter
.

82, Verse 45).

(Bhisma (17) He rendered AgvaUharna. unconscious. Parva, Chapter 101, Verse 47) (18) He fought with Bhisma. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 104, Verse 29).
.

SATYAKI
(19)
(20) (21)

707
fought

SATYAKATA
Verse 48)
(51)

He He

with

Duryodhana. (Bhisma
Bhagadatta.

Parva,

(50)

He

defeated Sakuni.
.

(Karna Parva, Chapter

61,

Chapter

110, Verse 14).

fought with
111, X^erse 7)
.

(Bhisma Parva,

He

killed

Prasena,
.

son of Karna. (Karna Parva,

Chapter

He

Chapter

Chapter 116, Verse 9). (22) Following that he fought with Ksemamurti and Brhanta on the Kaurava side. (Drona Parva, Chapter
phant. (Drona Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 43). (24) Karna and Satyaki fought each other. (Drona Parva, Chapter 32, Verse 67).
(25)
25, Verse 47) (23) His chariot
.

fought with AsVatthama.

(Bhisma Parva,

(52) (53 )

He fought with Salya. (Salya Parva, Chapter 13). He killed Salva, the mleccha King. (Salya Parva,
(Salya

82, Verse 6)

Chapter 20, Verse 26). (54) He killed Ksemamurti. 21, Verse 8).
(

Parva,

Chapter

was thrown

off

by Bhagadatta 's

ele-

.

At

the

instance
.

of Arjuna

he

remained on the

(Drona Parva, protecting Yudhisthira. Chapter 84, Verse 35) (26) He fought with Dussasana. (Drona Parva, Chapter 99, Verse 14). (27) He saved Dhrstadyumna from being killed by Drona. (Drona Parva,' Chapter 97, Verse 32). (28) He fought Drona again and broke six bows of the latter. (Drona Parva, Chapter 98). (29) He fought with Vyaghradatta. (Drona Parva,
Chapter 106, Verse 14). (30) He killed Vyaghradatta.
107, Verse 32). (31) Drona wounded Satyaki. (Drona Parva, Chapter 110, Verse 2). wounded Krtavarman. (Drona Parva, (32) Satyaki Chapter 113, Verse 46). (33) He killed Jalasandha. (Drona Parva, Chapter 115,
.

battle-field

captured Sanjaya alive. ( Salya Parva, ChapVerse 57). (56 ) Though he got ready to kill Sanjaya, yet he set him free on the advice of Vyasa. (Salya Parva, Chapter 29, Verse 38) (57 ) After the great war was over he went to Dvaraka from Hastinapura in the company of Sri Krsna. (ASvamedhika Parva, Chapter 52, Verse 57).
)

55

He

ter 25,

.

(58

)

He

Raivataka in the company of Sri Krsna. (Asvamedhika Parva, Chapter 59, Verse 3) (59) He performed the after-death ceremonies of Abhimanyu. (Asvamedhika Parva, Chapter 62, Verse 6).
.

participated in the celebrations held at

mount

(60)

He

participated in the
at
3)
.

Yudhisthira

(Drona Parva, Chapter

Chapter 66, Verse

Hastinapura.

aSvamedha yajna held by (Asvamedhika Parva,

man

(61

)

Under
for

Verse 52)

(34) He defeated 116, Verse 24).

Duryodhana. (Drona Parva, Chapter
Chapter 117,

(35)
(36)

He

Verse 30)

defeated Drona. (Drona Parva,
.

He

killed

Verse 15).

SudarSana. (Drona Parva, Chapter 118,

(37) He defeated 121, Verse 29).

Dussasana.

(Drona Parva, Chapter

Chapter 3, Verse 16). (62 ) For Satyaki's part in the Syamantaka incident see under Syamantaka. (63) When Satyaki, after killing Krtavarman, rushed forth to kill many others, Krsna, and Pradyumna interfered. Yet, he killed many others. (Mausala Parva, Chapters, Verse 29). (64) Arjuna appointed Yauyudhani, son of Satyaki, chief of the region in the plain ofSarasvati. (Mausala Parva, Chapter 7, Verse 71) (65) After death his soul went to the Marudganas. (Svargarohana Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 17).
. :

the influence of liquor he ridiculed Krtavarkilling sleeping children. (Mausala Parva,

(38)

He

killed kina;

140, Verse 18). Bhurisravas. (Drona Parva, Chapter (39) He killed 143, Verse 54). in fighting. (Drona Parva, (40) He defeated Chapter 144, Verse 64). (41) He killed Somadatta in battle. (Drona Parva,

Alambusa. (Drona Parva, Chapter

Kama

Vrsnikulodvaha, Vrsnyandhakapravira, Yadava, Yadudvaha, Yaduttama, Yuyudhana.
4)

(66 ) Synonyms used for Satyaki in the Mahabharata Anartta, Saineya, Saineyanandana, Sauri, Siniputra, Sinipautra, Sininapta, Sinipravara, DaJarha, Madhava, Madhavagrya, Madhavasimha, Madhudvaha, Satvata, Satvatagrya, Satyaka, Varsneya, Vrsni, Vrsnisardula,

Chapter 162, Verse 33). (42) He killed King Bhuri.( Drona Parva,
Verse 12).

Chapter 166,

(43) He defeated Vrsasena, son of Karna. (Drona Parva, Chapter 170, Verse 30). Bhima and Sahadeva prevented Satyaki, who (44) rushed forward with his club, from killing Dhrstadyumna. (Drona Parva, Chapter 198, Verse 6) (45) He routed six maharathas of the Kaurava army. (Drona Parva, Chapter 200, Verse 53). (46) During the battle with AsVatthama he fell unconscious. (Drona Parva, Chapter 200, Verse 56) (47) He killed Anuvinda, King of Kekaya. (Karna Parva, Chapter 13, Verse 11). (48) He killed Vinda. (Karna Parva, Chapter 13, Verse 35).
.
.

Other information II. From Bhagavata (1 ) In all the wars in which Sri Krsna was engaged, it was Satyaki, who was his most powerful supporter. In the battle between Krsna and Banasura, Satyaki clashed with Kumbhanda, Bana's minister. (Bhagavata

Skandha
(2)

1

SATYANRTA. See under Pramrta. SATYAPALA. A hermit. It is mentioned
rata,

Skandha 1). (3) He participated in the Salya and Paundrakavasudeva wars. (Bhagavata, Skandha 1). SATYALOKA. The world of Brahma. (See under Brahma)
in

who guarded

When

).

Jarasandha attacked Mathurapuri, Satyaki
the
city's western entrance, his forces. (Bhagavata,

former and routed

fought

the

Mahabhathis

Chapter 22, Verse 13).

(49)

He

killed

the

King of Vaiiga.

(Kama

SATYARATA. A Kekaya

Verse 14, that mit shone in the court of Yudhisthira.
4,

Sabha Parva, Chapter

her-

Parva,

the king of Ayodhya married this princess. Chapter 88; Verse 117).

princess. Satyavrata (Trisanku)

(Vayu Purana,

SATYARATHA
SATYARATHA. The
Trigarta. (M.B.

708
brother of

SATYATAPAS

II

Su&rma the king of Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 11). SATYARTHAPRAKASA. A commentary on the Veda suktas by Svami Dayananda who founded the Arya
Udyoga

SATYASANDHA.

Samaja.

I. (SATYAVRATA, SATYASENA, SANDHA).Oneof the hundreds ons of Dhrtarastra. The

Devadatta became miserable and begged Godila by holding his feet to pardon him. He gave liberation from the curse that his son would be a cobra and said that he would become a sage. The wife of Devadatta became pregnant and gave birth to a son. He was named Utathya. In the

following information about

this

chariot-fighters in the army of the Kauravas. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 63, Verse 119). (2) This Satyasandha stood as the bodyguard of Salya and fought in the Bharata-battle. (M.B. Bhisma

Mahabharata. (1) This Satyasandha was one of the eleven

Satyasandha

is

from

great

was performed and the boy commenced education. The teacher began to teach the Vedas. From that day onwards the boy became self-conceited. All the attempts made by the teacher to change his behaviour were futile. His father tried the four exstring

eighth year, the ceremony

of investiture

with

the

Brahma

(3) Abhirnanyu wounded him in the Bh.~irata-battle. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 73, Verse 24). (4) Satyaki showered arrows on Satyasandha. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 1 16, Verse 7) (5) Bhimasena killed Satyasandha in the battle of Bharata. (M.B. Kama Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 2) SATYASANDHA. II. One of the two followers given to Subrahmanya by the god Mitra. The other follower was Suvrata. ( M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 41 ). SATYASANDHA III. An ancient king in India. There is a story in Mahabharata, Santi Parva, Chapter 234, Verse 16, as to how, this king Satyasandha, who was an observer of vows and fasts, saved the life of a Brahmin by sacrificing his own life. SATYASENA I. See under Satyasandha. SATYASENA II. A brother of Susanna, the king of TriIt is mentioned in Mahabharata, Karna Parva, garta. Chapter 27, Verse 3, that this Satyasena confronted Arjuna in the Bharata-battle and was killed by him. SATYASENA III. A son of Karna. He served as the guard of the wheel of the chariot of his father Karna in the Bharata-battle. (M.B. Karna Parva, Chapter 48, Verse
.
.

Parva, Chapter 62, Verse 17).

Thus twelve years elapsed. The pedients in vain. boy did not even learn the evening prayer. Everybody thought that he was a cobra. All scoffed at him. His own people disliked him; with this, self-renunciation took root in his boyish mind and he left his home and went away. He reached the banks of the Ganges and made a hut there and lived there observing rigorous Thus the boy-hermit celibacy, and vow of truth. began severe penance. He had learned no rites or rituals according to the Vedas. He would rise early in the morning, and after cleaning the teeth he would take a dip in the Gangetic waters, without any spells or actions and return to the
hut.

He would
harm

anybody, though he had no power to do good to anybody. Everybody in the neighbourhood began to realize that he was a boy who would on no account utter falsehood. So all began to call him Satyatapas. Satyatapas had no peace of mind. Life seemed to be a burden to him. He became thoughtful day and night. Thus he spent fourteen years there. People firmly believed in his truthfulness. So they
cause no
to

eat anything that

came

by.

He would

named him

hut.

SATYARAVAS
^

18).

I.

side against the Pandavas.
rior.

SATYASRAVAS
Markandeya.

Abhirnanyu killed this war(M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 3).
II.

A warrior who fought

on the Kaurava

A

Rgveda-disciples of Vyasa.

teacher-priest of the line of the He was the son of the hermit
I.

SATYATAPAS (UTATHYA)
Godila.

(Vayu Purana, 96:

A

changed into a cobra by the curse of a saint called The original name of this youth was Utathya. Later he came to be known as Satyatapas. The story of this Satyafapas is given in Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 3,
as follows:
-

brahmin boy who was

171)

.

its wound. The jungle-dweller also into the hut following the hog. Seeing Satyavrata the man asked "Where is the hog that I had shot ?" Satyavrata who knew that killing animals was a beast. Devi was pleased sin, kept silence to save the at the moral courage and truthfulness of Satyavrata. It is said that the moment the hog got into the hermitage, the Sarasvata syllable 'Ai' arose from the tongue of

was oozing from

Satyavrata. Once a forester came near his sent an arrow at a hog, which ran into the hermitage with the arrow sticking on its body. Blood

He

came

Satyavrata. The moment he had pronounced the rootsound of Sarasvati, 'Ai', by the grace of Devi, he became a poet like Valmiki. Looking at the forester

Satyavrata said

:

"Yah

in Kosala.

In days of old, there was a Brahmin named Devadatta His wife was called Rohim. Though much time elapsed no child was born to them. At last Deva-

Yo

datta performed the sacrifice called Putrakamesti, on the banks of the river Tamasa. Several saintly persons took part in the sacrifice. Suhotra was detailed as

Brahma, Yajnavalkya
sacrificer, Paila to recite

hymns. The singing of Godila, an expert singer, caused horripilation to everybody in the sacrificial hall. But in the middle of singing he had to take breath, and there occurred a solecism in his voice. Devadatta did not like it. He warned Godila, who instantly became angry and said to Devadatta. "Since you called me Cobra, the son born to you will become a cobra."

Vedasand Godila losing Saman

as officiating priest, Brhaspati as

vyadha, svakaryarthin prcchasi punah punah // "He who sees does not speak. He who speaks, does not see. Selfish hunter, whom do you ask again and again ?" When the forester heard these words of Satyavrata, the bow and arrow fell from his hands. With self-renun!

Kam

Aho

paSyati na sa brute brute sa na pasyati /

ciation

poet Satyavrata spread everywhere. His father also heard about this from others. He came to the bank of the Ganges and took his son home. Even today Brahmins sing about the fame of that hermit on
of the great

he went away from the hermitage.

The fame

SATYATAPAS
celestial

the

New moon

days.
II.

A

hermit.

Once

he

cursed

a
to

maid who had

tried to hinder his

penance,

SATYAVAN

I

709

SATYEYU
marry Satyavati. Two sons Citrangada and Vicitravirya were born to Santanu by his wife Satyavati. Citrangada was killed in his boyhood. Vicitravirya became a youth and married Ambika and Ambalika the daughters of the King ofKasI. Vicitravirya met with untimely death before a child was born to him. When Satyavati saw that the family was about to become extinct, she thought of her son Vyasa, who Ambalika instantly arrived at the palace. From Vyasa, the son Pandu and Ambika, the son Dhrtarastra. got Both the sons Dhrtarastra and Pandu got married. Pandu died. The death of her son struck heavily at the heart of Satyavati. She did not wish to live much about the fearful longer after this. She mentioned

become a'phoenix tree. Later this hermit liberated her from the curse. (Padma Parana, Uttarakhanda, Chap-

SATYAVAN
for

ter 178).

I.

Husband

of

matrimonial
II.

fidelity.

Savitrl who was famous (For detailed story see under

SATYAVAN SATYAVAN

Savitri II).
III.

of the Kauravas. Mention

See under Rtambhara. One of the commanders of the army
is

made about

this

comman-

Satyavak, were born to Caksusa Manu by Nadvala. (Agni Purana, Chapter 18). SATYAVAK II. A Deva Gandharva. This Gandharva was the son born to Prajapati Kasyapa by his wife Muni. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 43) SATYAVARMA. A brother of Susarma the King of Trigarta. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 17, Verse 17).
including
his wife
.

der in Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 167, Verse 30. SATYAVAK I. A son of Caksusa Manu. Ten sons

SATYAVATI
1 )

I.

The mother

A

short history.

celestial

maid Adrika.
the

a

fish

in

Uparicaravasu happened to fall in the Ganges and this fish swallowed it in consequence of which it became

Satyavati was the daughter of the Because of a curse she lived as river Ganges. Once the semen of King

of Vyasa.

things yet to happen. Then taking her daughters-inlaw Ambika and Ambalika with her, Satyavati went to the forest to do penance and finally attained heaven. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 127). (For further details see under Adrika, Vyasa and Santanu) Kali 2) Names. Daseyi, Gandhakall, GandhavatI, Satya, Vasavl, Yojanagandha and such other words are used in the Mahabharata as the synonyms of
.

SATYAVATI

Satyavati.

II.

The
.

sister

of Visvamitra.

(See

under

pregnant. A fisherman caught this fish and cut it. He got two human babies, male and female from the stomach of the fish. The fisherman gave the two This infants to the jKing who took the male child. child later became the Matsya King. The female child had the smell of fish. The King called her MatsyaGandhi (She who has the smell offish) and gave her back to the fisherman, who took the child to his hut and brought her up as his daughter. As the child was dark in complexion the fisherman called her Kali. Thus the girl was known by two names Kali and Matsyagandhi. Later she got the name Satyavati also. The fisherman was engaged in the work of ferrying people across the river. Matsyagandhi helped her father in this work. She became a full-bloomed young woman. One day the hermit Parasara came by that way and when he saw Matsyagandhi, he fell in love with her. She ferried the hermit across the river. In the middle of the river Parasara created an artificial fog inside which Parasara took Matsyagandhi as his wife. From that moment Matsyagandhi became Kasturigandhl (she who has the smell of Kasturi (musk). Kali became pregnant and delivered instantly. ParaSara left the place after having blessed her that she would not lose her virginity. The son born to Kali, immediately grew up to be a youth. After promising his mother that he would come to her when she thought of him, the youth went to the forest for penance. The name of the son was Krsna. This Krsna later became famous by the name Vyasa. Satyavati again engaged herself in helping her
father.

SATYAVATI
'l

III. A princess of the country of Kekaya. She was the wife of Tris'aiiku and the mother of Hariscandra. (Mahabharata, Daksinatyapatha, Sabha Parva, Chapter 2). SATYAVATI IV. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 1 1 7, Verse 1 5, that one Satyavati was the wife of Narada. SATYAVRATA I. Another name of Trisanku. (See under Trisaiiku). SATYAVRATA II. The Brahmin boy Satyatapas. See under Satyatapas) (
.

Jamadagni Para 2 )
;

SATYAVRATA
that he

III.

A

was
.

known
IV.

Satyasena, Satyasandha, Sandha

son of Dhrtarastra. It is seen by other names also such as
etc.

(See under Satyathe

SATYAVRATA

sandha)

It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Drona Trigarta. Parva, Chapter 17, that this cursed warrior took in vain a vow in the battle of Bharata that he would kill

Brother of Susarma,

King of

SATYAYUGA.
'

Arjuna.

Another name of Krtayuga.

(

See under

SATYAYUS.
Urvasi.

Krtayuga).

One
six

The
I.

SATYESU
It is

Raya, Vijaya and Jaya. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9).
Brother of Susarma the King

of the six sons born to Pururavas by sons were Ayus, Srutayus, Satyayus,
of Trigarta.

Santanu, a King of the lunar dynasty came to The fragrance of musk emanatthe forest for hunting. ing from the body of Kasturlgandhl spread throughout the whole forest. The King walked on through the forest tracing the origin of the smell of musk and reached the fisherman's hut. The King fell in love with The King had a son named Bhlsma by his Satyavati. first wife Gariga. Bhlsma made it easy for the King to

One day

mentioned in Mahabharata, Drona Parva, Chapter 17, and Salya Parva, Chapter 27, that this Satyesu was killed by Arjuna in the Bharata-battle. SATYESU II. A Raksasa (giant). Mention is made about this giant who had ruled over the world in ancient days and had to go, leaving this world due to fate, in Mahabharata, Santi Parva, Chapter 227, Verse

SATYEYU. A King
This Satyeyu was
9).

51.

born in the dynasty of King Puru. one of the ten sons born to Raudra-

sva by the celestial

maid Ghrtaci. (Bhagavata, Skandha

According to the statement that occurs in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 94, the father of Satyeyu was

SAUBALA

710

SAUNAKA
Padma Purana, Uttara Khanda
262;

i

Raudralva and mother, Mis rakes I. The son Satyeyu was born to RaudraSva by the celestial maid Mi* rakes I. SAUBALA. A Vaisya. It is mentioned in Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 2, that King Dhrtarastra had two wives, one a Ksatriya woman, named Gandhari, the daughter of the King of Gandhara and the other a

Garuda Purana,

SAUDASA.
known by
see

1,

138).

the

A King

of the

SAUBHA.
Sri

Vaisya

woman named
The

aerial chariot

of Salva. This was

Saubali, the daughter ofSaubala. or Vimana of the King

SAUGANDHIKA. A flower-garden ofKubcra. It is assumed
that

under Kalmasapada).

name Kalmasapada

Iksvaku dynasty.
also.

He was

(For details

also called

SAUBHADRATIRTHA. A
SAUBHAGYAGAURl. A
Padmatirtha and Varga).

Vana

Krsna killed Salva, this Vimana was smashed by the power of his weapon, the Cakra (Discus). (M.B.
.

Saubhanagara.

When

Vayu (the wind-god ) carried fragrance from this garden and remained in the palace of Kubera, praising him. This garden was full of sweet-scented lotus (Saugandhika-flower) (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter,
.

Parva, Chapter 22, Verse 33) holy place on the coast of see under details the southern sea. (For further

particular kind of image of Devi Parvati. When the image of this goddess Parvatl the posture with one is fixed and consecrated as having of the left hands touching the head and shoulder and the other hand holding a mirror, one of the right hands holding fruit and the other one being held high, it is called Saubhagyagaurl. (Agni Purana, Chapter

SAUBHAGYASUNDARl. A
SAUBHAPATI. The King
(See under Taladhvaja
I).

50).

feminine form of Narada.

Salva. As he had been in possession of an aerial chariot called Saubha, he is said to have got this name. SAUBHARA. Afire. This agni (fire) was born from a portion of Varcas. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 220,

holy place. It is assumed, gods such as Brahma and others, hermits, Siddhas, Caranas, Gandharvas, Kinnaras, Big Nagas, and so on dwell in this place. All the sins of a man are washed away, the moment he visits this holy place. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 34, Stanza 4). SAUHRDA. An ancient country in South India, famous in the Puranas. (Mahabharata, Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 59). SAUMADATTI. Bhurisravas the son of Somadatta. (See under Bhurisravas) SAUMANASA I. One of the eight elephants supporting the globe. (See under Astadiggajas). SAUMANASA II. The peak of a mountain. It was on this golden peak, with a girth of one yojana and an
that the
.

SAUGANDHIKA VANA. A

10).

A hermit who had performed penance, I. on the banks of the river Kalindl. (For detailed story see under Garuda, para 11). SAUBHARI II. A hermit who had put up his hermitage on the Vindhya. At the time of the horse-sacrifice of Yudhisthira, Arjuna called on this hermit Saubhari. On that occasion the hermit told Arjuna about the previous history of Candi, who had been cursed by the hermit Uddalaka. It is mentioned in Jaimini Asvamedha Parva, Chapter 96, that Arjuna later redeemed Candi from the curse. SAUBHARI III. A hermit famous in the Puranas. A Puranic story about this hermit's marrying the fifty

SAUBHARI
sitting

Verse

6)

.

of Meru." Valmlki Ramayana. Kiskindha kanda, Sarga

elevation of ten yojanas, that Bhagavan Visnu placed the first of his three steps during the incarnation as Vamana, the second step being on the peak of Meru and the third on the head of Mahabali. "There is a golden peak called Saumanasa, with girth of one yojana and a height of ten yojanas. It is said that in days of yore Mahavisnu placed the first of his three steps on this peak the second being on the peak

SAUMYAKSADVlPA. An

40).

island famous in the Puranas (Mahabharata, Daksinatyapatha, Sabha Parva, Chapi.

SAUNAKA
1)

ter 38).

daughters of Mandhata is given below. Saubhari saw two fishes engaged in coition, while he was doing penance on the banks of the Yamuna. This sight aroused matrimonial thoughts in the hermit's

A renowned acarya. He is believed to be author of the famous works "Rgveda Anukramani", "Aranyakam", "Rkpratisakhya", etc. The famous Asvalayanacarya was Saunaka's disciple. Acaryas like Katyayana, Patanjali and Vyasa belonged to his class. Saunaka's real name was "Grtsamada". It was because he was the son of Sunaka that he got the
General.

the

name "Saunaka".

mind. He instantly approached Mandhata and formed him of his desire to marry a princess.

in-

Mandhata did not
to the old hermit. hermit as follows:

"Out of my fifty daughters, she wishes to be your wife, shall be given to you." Saubhari, who had already read the thought of Mandhata entered the harem in the shape of a handsome fine youth, and all the flfty damsels liked him. Thus Saubhari married all of them, and begot hundred sons of each of them.

Concealing

like to give his daughter in marriage his thought, he told the

2) Birth. Saunahotra, the son of the sage Sunahotra, once performed a yaga. Indra attended that yaga. At that time Saunahotra rescued Indra from an attack of the Asuras. Indra who was pleased at this, blessed Saunahotra that he would be born in his next birth in

who

Bhrgu family under the name "Saunaka". Genealogy In Vayu Purana his genealogy is given in two forms.
the
3)
i)
ii)

Ruru ( PramadvarJ) - Sunaka-Suunaka-Ugrasravas Dharmavrddha Sunahotra Grtsamada
.

This matrimonial life lasted for some t'.me. At last the hermit grew weary of this life. Discarding everything, Saubhari went to the forest. His wives, who also had

Sunaka Saunaka. (Vayu Puraaa, 92, 26) 4) Important works. Saunaka is believed to be the author of numerous works. The most important of them are given below:
(1)

become
him.

worldly enjoyment, followed (Bhagavata, Skandha 9; Visnu Purana, 4, 2, 3;
disinterested
in

Rkpratisakhya (2 ) RgvedacchandanukramanI (3) Rgvedarsyanukramam (4) Rgveda Anuvakanukramani (5) Rgvedasuktanukramam (6) Rgvedakathanu-

SAUNAKA n

711

SAVARNA
SAUVlRA.
An
ancient
It is stated in

I

kramanl (7) Rgvedapadavidhana (8) Brhaddevata (9) Saunakasmrti (10) Caranavyuha and (11) Rgvidhana. Matsya Purana, Chapter 252 mentions that Saunaka had written a work on the science of architecture. 5) Disciples. The chief disciple of Saunaka was Asvalayana. Once Asvalayana wrote and dedicated to his Guru (master) two treatises entitled "Grhyasutra" and "Srautasutra" to please him. After reading it, Saunaka destroyed his own work on "SrauteSastra". Asvalayana wrote his treatise after having studied the ten works of Saunaka on Rgveda. Katyayana, the disciple of Asvalayana later received the ten books written by Saunaka and the three books written by Asvalayana. Katyayana gave his disciple Patanjali, the two works, "Yajurvedakalpasutra" and "Samaveda Upagrantha" which were written by himself. From this we may infer that the series of Saunaka's Saunaka Asvalayana disciples was as follows: Vyasa. Katyayana Patanjali SAUNAKA II. A Brahmana who went to the forest with Yudhisthira. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 2) SAUISPIKAS. A Caste. Originally they were Ksatriyas. Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva, Chapter 35, Verse 17, mentions that they were debased on account of a curse by a Brahmana. SAUPTIKAPARVA. A Parva (section) in Mahabharata (See under Bharata). SAURABHEYI. A celestial maid. For details see under
.

Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 133, that during the period of Mahabharata, the King of this country was killed by Arjuna. SAUVlRl. The wife of King Manasyu, the son of Pravlra and the grandson of emperor Puru. ( Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Stanza 5).

country near the river Sindhu.

SAVANA.
1)

I.

Son of Priyavrata who was the son of Svayambhuva Manu, by his wife, Suriipa. Surupa had ten sons including Savana. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha
General.

Savana married Suveda, daughter of but he expired before children were born to Sunabha; him. According to the Vamana Purana, Chapter 72, sevtn children were born from the dead Savana. The story about it is as follows Suveda, heart-broken at the death of Savana, did not permit the dead body to be burnt, herself holding it in embrace. Then a celestial voice said to her "Cry
2) Birth of son.
:

8).

:

not.

you are really chaste and true, enter the funeral pyre along with your husband." To this Suveda answered thus "I cry because of grief that he died before making me the mother of a son." The celestial
If
:

voice

weeping. Your husband

SAURABHl. A cow which was

Varga.

Having drunk too much of celestial honey (amrta) which is the essence of the six tastes (sadrasas), Brahma had to vomit, on which occasion, the cow Surabhi sprang up from his face. Her milk having accumulated in a low place the milk-sea was formed. The hermits

the daughter of Surabhi.

the Phenapas live on the shore of the milk foam that settles on the shore being their food. Around them, there are four cows which protect the four directions. Saurabh: is one of them. She supports the east. Hamsika bears the south, Subhadra the west and Dhenu the north. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter
as
sea, the

known

SAURI.

102).

Vasudeva, the son of Surasena.

SAUSALYA.
the Puranas.

A

country in ancient India very famous (Mahabharata, Bhlsma Parva, Chapter

in
9,

stanza 40)

.

SAUSRUTI.

Brother of Susanna the King of Trigarta. Sausruti who had fought on the side of the Kauravas in the battle of Bharata, was killed by Arjuna. (M.B. Kama Parva, Chapter 27, Verse 3). SAULKAYANI. A sage who belonged to the series of

SAVANA

SAUTI. A famous son of Hermit Romaharsana. The real name of this son was Ugrasravas. This teacher is
responsible for the arrangement in the form that we see today.

Vyasa's disciples.

of the Mahabharata.

The

Vaisampayana

of Mahabharata composed by Vyasa and contained only a graphic description of the battle of Bharata. No vivid description of Sri Krsna born of the Yadava dynasty and of the Yadavas, was given in it. To remove this deficiency, Sauti added an appendix called 'HarivarhSa' to Svargarohana Parva in Mahabharata. (For further details see under
story

were the Maruts of the first Svayambhuva Manvantara. sons of Bhrgumuni, II. -One of the seven the other six being Cyavana, Vajraslrsa, Suci, Aurva, Sukra and Vibhu. They are called Varunas also. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 85, Verse 129). SAVANTA. A King born in the dynasty of emperor Prthu. He was the son of YuvanaSva and father of Brhadasva. (Devi Bhagavata, 7th Skandha). SAVARNA. Wife of the muni called Pracmabarhis. Savarna was the daughter of Samudra (ocean). (Visnu Purana, Part 1, Chapter 14). The couple had ten sons called the Pracetases, and they were very efficient in Dhanurveda. All of them engaged themselves in observing the same dharma (duty) and did tapasfor 10,000 years under the sea. (For details see under

alive out of the fire with his wife and rose to the sky with her. He stayed in the sky for another five days and on the sixth day had the sexual act again with her. His semen dropped on earth from the sky. The then with his wife went to Brahmaloka. King Samada, Nalini, Pusyati, Citra, Visala, Harita and Alinlla, all of them wives of munis saw the semen in the sky and when it fell into the water they thought it was amrta, which conferred eternal youth, and with the permission of their husbands swallowed it. As soon as they swallowed it their divine effulgence was diminished and their husbands, therefore, abandoned them. Those women delivered seven children, who cried fiercely and that sound filled the entire universe. Then Brahma appeared and asked the children not to cry and also told them that they would come to be called Maruts. Brahma himself called them Maruts. They

enter the pyre without have seven sons." Sudeva now permitted her dead husband to be cremated and meditating upon her chastity she jumped into But within minutes Savana came the funeral pyre.
said
to

her again

:

"You

will

SAVART^A
council

Pracinabarhis).

I. hermit. This hermit shone in the of Yudhisthira. (Mahabharata, Sabha Parva,

A

Bharata

I).

Chapter

4,

Verse

15.)

SAVARNA
details see

II

712

SAVITRI
fi

I

SAVARNAII. (SAVAR1VI). A Manu.

hermit shone in the council of Indra. (Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter This hermit Savarni did penance for six 7, Verse 10) thousand years in Satyayuga. (M.B. Anusasana Parva Chapter 14, Verse 103). SAVITA. One of the twelve sons of KaSyapaprajapati
.

SAVARyi

SAVARfcfl I. The eighth Manu. _see under Manvantara),
ii.

under Manvantara)

(For

further

.

(For further details

am Your wife. Are you not ashamed three godheads shivered with fear.Savitrl cursed everybody. The curse given to Brahma was that
oi this

f as
, )

tn

s ? I

.

The

A

hermit.

This

by his wife called Aditi. These sons are called Adityas. So, Savita also is one of the Dvadasadityas. Visnu,' Sakra, Aryama, Dhatii, Tvasta, Pusa, Vivasvan, Savi'ta,' Mitra, Varuna, Amsu and Bhaga are the Dvadasa-

dityas.

Prsnl, wife of Savita, gave birth to three daughters called Savitri, Vyahrti and Trayi and three sons called Pasusoma and Caturmasya the great Agnihotra,

gods and would :Indra their captive. Savitri cried out that Visnu birth of man by the curse of Bhrgu She cursed Siva that he would lose his manliness. She gave Agm the curse that he would eat anything and everything without the discrimination of purity or impurity She cursed the Brahmins that they would, in future perform sacrifice merely with a view to obtain gifts and that they would be wandering about from temple to " temple and from tirtha to tlrtha merely for gain Uttering these words of curse, Savitri left the sacrificial

day except the month of Karttika in the She cursed Indra year. that enemies would enter the world of

body should worship him on any other

would take the

Ul.

SAVITRI
1)

Chapter 15). eleven Rudras. (M.B. Sand Parva, Chapter 208, Verse 20). SAVITRA II. One of the eight Vasus. (Mahabharata Anus"asana Parva, Chapter 150, Verse 16). SAVITRA III. A lofty peak of the mountain Sumeru. name of this peak, which is Jyotiska is another not approachable. It is adorned with precious stones and is glorified by all. Siva and Parvati once sat on this peak and did penance. It was on this peak that Devi Ganga did penance to Siva, assuming a divine figure. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 283, Verse 5)

SAVITRA

sacrifices.

(Visnu Purana, Part

I.

One

1,

of the

Savitri said to them, "LaksmI not so ? Right. Hereafter you vnere. you become the

None

I.

General information. The daughter of the Sun This Savitri is the elder sister of Tapati. Brahma married these sisters. It is stated in some Puranas that Savitri, Gayatri, Sarasvati all these are one and the same. But there is a story in Padma Purana, Srstikhanda, Chapter 1 7, stating that Brahma once went to Gayatri in the absence of Savitri, who got angry at this and cursed all

the Gods.

perform a sacrifice. there. Everything was ready for the sacrifice convention according to But Savitri, who had been engaged in household duties had not yet arrived. So a priest was sent to bring her Savitri said to the priest, "I have not finished dressing! There are so many things to be done here. Moreover LaksmI, BhavanI, Ganga, Svaha, Indrani, celestial women, wives of Rsis (hermits), none of these have arrived yet. How can I enter the hall as the only woman ?" The priest returned and reported that it was not convenient for Savitri to come as she
to

Once Brahma went
Siva,

to

Puskara

Visnu and

all

the hermits

came

fied.
2.

Those who worship Brahma, will be blessed with the pleasure of wife and children and wealth and they will unite with Brahma. Even if Indra is taken captive, he will be made free by his son and will become the king of heaven again. Visnu will rescue his wife and kill the enemy. The phallus will be worshipped in all the worlds. As Brahmins are the gods on earth the gift you take, will be considered your dues. LaksmI you need not worry. Everybody will worship you. He whom you favour will become a well-to-do person and he whom you forsake will become miserable. You Indrani Because oi Nahusa s arrogance Agastya will change him to a bijr python and he will fall to the earth. The celestial maids will have no desire for children. So childlessness will not make you miserable." By these words of blessings Gayatri, everybody in the sacrificial hall was paciall curses.
! !
,

these words Savitri left the hall. Not knowing what to do, all sat there. Instantly Gayatri rose up and looking at everybody, said as a remission of curses "I shall
:

of you will give birth to child and you will not enjoy the pleasure of nurturing a child." Saying

at the celestial sacrificial hall, Savitri said;

Indrani also wants to return. Hear thisVrtra and incur the sin of Brahmahatya and at that time Nahusa will capture heaven. Then Nahusa will abuse you."

ioolishetc.

they begged for permission to return You are leaving me Is it shall be permanent noMay companion of the wicked the wavering, the low-minded, the sinner, the cruel the
!

little

while

Laksmi and some other goddesses followed her a

Then

Indra will

kill

Looking

women who were going to the Look, Ye celestial women

remit

had

so

much work

said to Indra. a wife from wherever you like. But it must be done instantly." Hearing the order of Brahma, Indra selected Gayatri who was a damsel

me

Brahma became angry and "Lord Indra, it is up to you to bring
to

do.

just then,

babha Parva, Chapter
(ii)

(1)

Other details. Savitri shines
Savitri

in

the
11,

with anger Savitri said "Lo; Brahma, how is it that you have committed this sin? Have you not married me with

dais. With the blessings of the hermits and gods, Brahma held her hand and acknowledged her as his wife. Savitri dressed well, adorned herself with ornaments and reached the sacrificial hall. She saw the marrige scene and became furious. Everybody in the hall held their breath, thinking of the approaching danger. Trembling

cowherd's family,

and brought her

good-natured
to

of a

the

sacrificial

Siva, on starting for Tripuradahana (the burning Tnpuras), placed Savitri as the bridles of his horses (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 202, Verse 75). (iv) Oncejapaka Brahmin worshipped Devi Savitri who appeared before him and gave him boons. As the Brahmin was engaged in deep meditation and praver
oi
(jii)

is the sovereign deity of the mantra Gayatri goddess Savitri rose up from the sacrificial fire of King Asvapati and gave him a boon, and accordingly a daughter named Savitri was born to the King. This princess was Savitri the wife of Satyavan Vana Parva, Chapter 290).

palace of Brahma. Verse 34).

(MB

1 his

(MB

SAVITRl

II

713

SAVITRl IV
who
gladly consented to the marriage. Asvapati returned to the palace leaving Savitrl with Satyavan and his parents. Assoon as Asvapati had returned, Savitrl discarded her ornaments and assumed the dress suitable to life in the forest and lived with them. 3) The death of Satyavan. It was nearly a year and the day of death of Satyavan was fast approaching. There were only four days more. Savitrl had taken a vow lasting for three days. Dyumatsena dissuaded her from taking
fast.

he did not see the Devi when she appeared. It was due to this piety that the Brahmin was given boons. (M.B Santi Parva, Chapter 199). (v) Once Devi Savitri appeared before Satya, a brahmin of Vidarbha. (M.B. Sand Parva, Chapter 272, Verse
11).
(vi)

Once Devi

(M.B. Anugasana Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 8) SAVITRl II. A hand-maid of Devi Uma. (Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 231, Verse 49) SAVITRl III. A Savitrl who was the wife of a king and a righteous woman is mentioned in Mahabharata, Santi Parva, Chapter 234, Verse 24. This Savitrl gave two ear-rings as alms and attained heaven.
. .

Savitrl praised the giving of rice as alms.

SAVITRl
Birth.

IV.

The

She completed the fast. There was left only one more. She kept awake for the whole night. Morning came. Though she ended her fast she had not taken any food. Dyumatsena wanted to know the reason. She humbly said that she would eat only after
night
sun-set.

famous in the 1) Puranas, there was a king named Asvapati. His wife was Malati Though the couple grew old they were childAt last they worshipped Devi Savitrl. After vows less. and prayers for eighteen years the Devi appeared before them, and giving them the boon that a daughter would be born to them, she disappeared. The couple returned to the palace and Malati conceived and delivered a daughter whom they named Savitri. (Skandha 9, Devi Bhagavata; Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 293). 2 ) Marriage. Savitrl grew up as though Laksml had taken an incarnation and bloomed into a beautiful damsel. But nobody came forward to marry her. On a New moon day she bathed and purified herself and getting the blessings of Brahmins, came and bowed
In the
.

wife of Satyavan. country of Madra,

As usual Satyavan took

his

axe and started for the wood.

Savitrl also followed him.

before her father. The King felt sorry as nobody had offered to marry her though she was in the full bloom of youth. He advised her to travel in the outside world and to select a husband by herself. According to the order of her father she took the aged ministers of the King and travelled through the forests in which hermits
lived.

Once Narada came talking with King

palace and while he was Asvapati, Savitri and the aged ministers returned. She bowed before her father and Narada. As soon as Narada saw her, he asked with curiosity about her marriage. The father replied that he had sent her in search of a husband. Savitrl said "I have accepted the Prince Satyavan as my husband. He is the son of King Dyumatsena of Salva. Dyumatsena became blind in his old age, and takinsr this 'opportunity his enemies captured his country. Dyumatsena with his wife and son went to the forest and lived there." Narada described the qualities of Satyavan. "Satyavan is as radiant as the sun, as intelligent as Brhaspati, as valiant as Indra and as patient as the Earth. Asvapati was immensely pleased at hearing about the good qualities of Satyavan, and asked Narada, if there was anything to say against him. Narada said
to the

Satyavan :-"You have never accompanied me before. Moreover you are very weak on account of the fast. Then how can you come with me?" Savitrl: "I am not at all weak by the fast and vow. I want to come with you. I pray, don't hinder me." At last Satyavan consented after getting the permission of his parents. Both went to the forest to gather fruits and roots. They gathered fruits and roots. Then Satyavan began to cut wood. By that exertion Satyavan sweated all over. He was affected by headache. "Let meliedown !"Hesaid. The axe fell from his hand. Savitrl caught her husband who was falling down and laid him on her lap. Savitri saw a person clad in blood-coloured garments, with red He eyes and a rope in hand, coming towards them. came to the spot and stood there looking at the body of Satyavan. Realizing the person to be Kala (Deathgod) Savitri stood up instantly and bowed before him. "Who are you Lord. What may be your Savitrl: object in coming here?" Yama: Hei, Savitri. As you are a hermitess of chastity I

may
away

take

the

converse with you. I am Yama. life of your husband."
I

I

am come

to

Savitri:

come and take away the come in person today?"

"Lord,

have heard that your messengers souls. How is it that you have

Yama:

This Satyavan is a righteous man who is an ocean of good qualities. Messengers are not sent, in the cases of persons like him." Saying thus Yama cast his rope and caught the soul of Satyavan. Savitri saw the body of her husband lying without life and soul. Savitri followed Yama who had gone to the south with the soul of Satyavan. Yama: Child, you go back and conduct his funerals. You have followed your husband as far as you can.
I am coming to the place where my husband taken. That is the duty of a wife. What imbeing pediment is there on my way to follow you, when I have the merits of vow, fast, devotion to my elders, love and regard for my husband and the good will of your-

Savitri:
is

had nothing to say against Satyavan except would die "within one year from this date." (Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 294). The King felt miserable when he heard this. Savitrl said that she had accepted Satyavan as her husband and that nothing could make her waver from her
that he that he

self,

my Lord." When Yama realized
Savitri back,

decision even
year.

going to live more than a wish of his daughter and preparations for the marriage were begun. The King went with Savitrl to the forest and saw Dyumatsena
if
is

he

not

The King agreed

to the

that it was difficult to send he asked Savitri to ask for any boon. Yama was prepared to give anything except the life of Satyavan. She requested for the recovery of sight by Dyumatsena. Yama granted it. Still Yama asked her to pray
Savitri did
for

not turn back.

one more boon.

She

SAVYA
requested for the recovery of the lost kingdom of Dyumatsena. Yama sanctioned that request also. Still she followed Yama, who was ready to grant her a third boon. She requested: "My father may, please be given a hundred sons who would continue the family. Yama granted that too. But she did not turn back. Yama told her that she might ask for a fourth boon. She said: "I may be given a hundred sons born directly from

714
their

SENODYOGA PARVA
teacher.

Satyavan. Yama granted this fourth boon also. Then would be realized Savitri asked Yama how the boon unless the li<e of Satyavan was given back to him. Yama was pleased with her at her love and devotion and returned the life of Satyafor her husband van. Yama blessed her that she and Satyavan would

But Seduka directed them to King VrsaVana Parva, Chapter 196, Verse 4). SEKA. An ancient country in India. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 31, Verse 9, that this country was conquered by Sahadeva during his regional conquest of the south. SEKKIZHAR. Author of the Tamil song Periyapuranam (See under Arulmozhitevar) SENA. Son of King Rsabha. It is mentioned in Bhagadarbha. (M.B.
' .

vata,

Skandha 5
I.

that this king

had nineteen

sons

SENABINDU
1 )

including Sena.

live for

hundred

there disappeared. Savitri returned and sat taking the body of Satyavan on her lap. Satyavan came to life. Both of them rose up. Night came on. It was dark. They could not find the way. Satyavan Savitri wanted to reach their hermitage somehow. took the axe and supporting her husband in the dim moon light, walked to the hermitage. Dyumatsena got sight. He started with his wife in search of his children, and walked about in the forest. At last all of them met together. They reached home.

Yama

years.

Adi Parva, Chapter 67)
2). Other details.
(i)

General information. Ksatriya King who lived in the age of the Puranas. This King was born from a portion of an asura called Tuhunda. (Mahabharata
.

A

of Draupadi.

Senabindu was present at the Svayamvara marriage (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Verse 9).

Then

The story is that Angiras began worshipping the Devatas for a son equal to Indra and that Indra, thinking that there should not be another person equal to him, got himself born as the son of Angiras. That son is Savya. (Rgveda, Mandala 1, Anuvaka 10, Sukta 51). name of Arjuna. (Virata SAVYASACI. Another Parva, Chapter 44, Verse 19). SAVYASIVYA. One of the sons of Vipracitti by Sirhhika. This asura was killed by Paras urama. (Brahmanda Purana, 3.6. 18-20). SAYAMVAlSVADEVA. The sacrificial offering given by the wife with the food prepared in the evening without any spell or incantation, is called Sayarhvais'vadeva. (Manusmrti, Chapter 3, 121). SAYANA. A hermit who was an expounder of the Vedas. In course of time, due to the differences in languages and grammar, the Vedas became difficult to be grasped. It was Yaska and Sayana who saved the Indians from this difficulty. For the Vedas to be grasped easily, Yaska made the Nirukta (Etymology) and Sayana wrote the Book Vedarthaprakasa. &AYU. A maharsi. (Rgveda, Mandala 1, Anuvaka 1 12, Sukta 16). SECAKA. A naga (serpent) born in the family of Dhrtarastra. This serpent was burnt to death in the
self.

of them returned to Salva. Dyumatsena King of Salva. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapters 293 to 299) SAVYA. A son of Arigiras, Savya is actually Indra him-

to the hermitage. They said that the minister had killed the King, that the people had expelled the minister, and that they had come to request Dyumatsena to return to his country and to resume the reign.

Savitri told them all that had happened. Everyone was delighted. Then some people from Salva came

was anointed

Accordingly

all

as the

.

lost his kingdom. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 27, Verse 10). The Pandavas had invited this King to take part (iii) in the Bharata battle. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 13). (iv) It is said that Senabindu was known by another name Krodhahanta. He was as valiant as Sri Krsna and Bhimasena. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 171, Verse 20). (v) He was killed in the battle of Bharata. (M.B. Kama Parva, Chapter 6 Verse 32). SENABINDU II. A warrior of Pancala who had taken part in the battle of Bharata on the side of the Pandavas. Karna killed him. (M.B. Karna Parva, Chapter 48, Verse 15). SENACITTA. A King of the dynasty of Bharata. This King was the son of Visada and the father ofRucirasva. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9).

of the north, (ii) Arjuna, during his regional conquest with the King of Uluka had attacked this King who

SENAJIT

lived in the period of Mahastated in Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 13 that the Pandavas had decided to send a letter of invitation to this King, for the battle of
I.

A King who

bharata. It

is

A King. He lived in tears because of the II. of his son. At last by the advice of a brahmin he got peace of mind. (M.B. Sand Parva, Chapters 25 and 179). SENAJIT III. A King who was the son of King Visada and the father of Rucirasva. Besides RuciraSva Senajit had three more sons named Drdhahanus, KaSya and Vatsa. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9). This King is mentioned as the son of King Visvajit in Visnu Purana and Vayu Purana and as the son of
SENAJIT
loss

Bharata.

As'vajit

in

bharata, Santi Parva, Chapter 26, that this King had written a treatise on justice (duties of a King). SENAMUKHA. A division of an army. (See under

Matsya Purana.

It is

mentioned

in

Maha-

of the serpent-sacrifice of Janamejaya. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 52, Verse 14). SEDUKA. An ancient King in India. Once some brahmins approached this heroic King who was wellversed in the art of wielding weapons, for Daksina to
sacrificial fire

SENANI (SENAPATI). One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra. He was killed by Bhimasena in the battle

Aksauhim)

.

SENODYOGAPARVA. A

of Bharata. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 54, Verse 32) sub-section of Udyoga Parva in Mahabharata. This sub-section comprises Chapters 1 to 19 of Udyoga Parva in Mahabharata.
.

SESA
SESA(ADISESA).
Ananta. (q.v)
Additional information (i) Ananta is the reposing

7)5
(x)
It is this

SlBI

V

The

people of the
.

illiterate

and ignorant. (Karna Parva,

country in earlier days

were Chapter 45,

bed of Visnu.

Ananta who dislodged Mandara mountain at the time of Ksirabdhi mathana (churning of the ocean of milk) (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 18, Verse 8) Ananta is the noblest of the nagas. (M.B. Adi (ii)
.

(M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 36, Verse 3) (iv) Ananta obtained from Brahma the boon to be able to stand firmly on Dharma. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 36, Verse 17).
.

Parva, Chapter 35, Verse 2) were mutual dissensions among the (iii) When there nagas, Ananta visited holy places such as Puskara.
.

(v) Ananta carries and supports the earth at the behest of Brahma. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 36, Verse 18).
(vi)

Ananta's father

is

(M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 41 ). Balabhadra Rama was born from a portion of Ananta. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 152). (viii) At the time of Tripuradahana, Ananta served as the axle of Siva's chariot. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 202, Verse 72). SETU. A King of the family of Bharata. He was the son of Babhru and the father of Anarabdha. (BhagaKaclru.
(vii)

Ka:'yapa

and

his

mother

is

Verse 34) SlBI III. A King born in the dynasty of Usinara. He was present at the wedding of Draupadi. He fought on the side of the Pandavas in the great war and was killed by Drona. (Drona Parva, Chapter 155. Verse 19). King Sibi had four sons Bhadra, Suvira, Kekaya and Vrsadarbha. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha). SlBi IV. An Indra. There were four sects of Devas called Suparas, Haris, Satyas and Sudhis in Tamasa Manvantara, and there were twentyseven Devas in each Sect. Sibi, who performed hundred yajfias then was Indra. (For details see under Manvantaram). SlBI V. An ancient Rajarsi. thus from Visnu Descended 1) Genealogy. Brahma-Atri-Candra-Budha-Pururavas- Ayus - NahusaSrnjaya Yayati- Anudruhyu Sabhanara Kalanara
:

Us"Inara-Sibi. Sibi was born

to
to

Usinara of Madhavl, daughter

of

Yayati. 2 ) Suhotra made

dynasty once on

give way. King Suhotra of Kuru his return from a visit of maharsis saw

King

Sibi

chariot,

SEYA.

vata,

Skandha

One

9)

.

of Visvamitra's

sons

Vedas. (M.B. Anus asana Parva, Chapter 4, Stanza 58). SlBII. Grandson of Hiranyakas ipu, who had four sons called Anuhrada, Hrada, Prahlada and Sarhhlada, and of the four, Sarhhlada had three sons called Ayusman,
ers of the

who were expound-

age ordained. But, they did not give passage to each other as they thought themselves to be equal in merit. At that time Narada came there and asked the kings

coming in the opposite direction in his and both the Kings saluted each other as their

answered Narada thus "He who clever on account of former actions
:

why

they

stood

there thus blocking the path.
is

They more noble or
is

etc.

usually

and Baskala. (Agni Purana, Chapter 19). This Sibi was the son of Hiranyakas ipu. (Adi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 18). as a King (2) This Asura took birth again and lived by the name Druma. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 8). SlBI II. Inhabitants of the country called Sibi; they are called Saibyas also. The following information about the country is gathered from Mahabharata. Sunanda, mother of King Santanu was a princess (i) of this country. (M.B.Adi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse
Sibi
(1
)

by the other person. Both of us are comrades and are equals." Narada then spoke as follows "Oh King of the Kuru dynasty You are cruel to the To the evil you are gentle and gentle to the cruel. good; then why not be good to the good. Devas have ordered that he who does good will get it hundredfold by return. King Uiinara is more noble and gentle than you are. The miser is won over by liberality, the liar by truth, the cruel by patience and the evil person by good. But, both of you Kings are noble persons. Therefore, one of you should give way to the
given

way

to

:

!

!

44).

other."

Govasana, father-in-law of Yudhisthira, was a King of Sibi. (Adi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 76). (iii) Nakula, during his triumphal tour of the western regions, conquered the kingdom of Sibi. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 7) (iv) People of Sibi attended the Rajasuya yajna conducted by Yudhisthira with presents. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 52, Verse 14) (v) A King called Usinara, once ruled the country. (Vana Parva, Chapter 131, Verse 21 ). (vi) The kingdom of Sibi was once under the jurisdiction of Jayadratha. (Vana Parva, Chapter 267, Verse
(ii)
.

Listening
Sibi
3)

to

and proceeded on

Narada's advice, Suhotra gave way to his way. (Vana Parva, Chapter

.

11).

Arjuna annihilated the armies of the kingdom of Sibi which followed Jayadratha to the battlefield. (Vana Parva, Chapter 271, Verse 28) maharathas of Sibi, with their armies, (viii) The arrayed under the banner of Duryodhana to fight the Pandavas. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 195, Verse 7). the kingdom of Sibi. (ix) Karna once subjugated (Drona Parva, Chapter 91, Verse 38)
(vii)
.

.

Sibi tested. Sibi's fame spread in the three worlds, and an idea was mooted among the Devas that it should be tested how much of the reputation of the King was genuine. Accordingly, Agni in the form of a dove and Indra in that of a kite hunting after the dove, rushed to King Sibi. The dove took refuge in the lap of the King sitting in 'divya' posture, and the priest told the King that it was the latter's duty to protect the dove, which took refuge with him for its life. The dove also told the King thus '! am really a muni, who has entered the body of the dove. I take refuge in you for my life." By that time the kite too had flown up to the King. It asked the King to return the dove, which it had been chasing. The King was surprised to hear the kite talk and told the bird that it was not proper for him to give up the dove who had sought refuge under him, but that he would give the kite any other flesh in lieu of the
;

194).

SIDDHA
dove.

I

716
:

SIKHANDI

flesh cut

kite replied as follows "You must give me from your right thigh equal in weight to that of the dove. If you do so, the dove will be saved and you will be praised by people." Accordingly, the King cut a piece of flesh from his right thigh and weighed it in the balance against the dove. But, the dove weighed more. The King cut more flesh from his thigh and weighed, but the dove still weighed more. Thus, by instalments the King cut his whole body and weighed the flesh against the dove, yet it weighed more. Then the King himself sat in the balance, seeing which the kite flew away. Then the dove assumed its original form and told the King that it was Agni and the kite, Indra. The Devas were greatly pleased with the firm sense of sacrifice of the King; they blessed him and told him that a son called Kapotaroma will be born to him. (Vana Parva, Chap-

The

A warrior of Subrahmanya. (M.B. II. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 64). SIDDHARTHA III. The name of Buddha in his childhood. (See under Buddha). SIDDHARTHA IV. A minister of King Dasaratha.

SIDDHARTHA

SIDDHASRAMA. A

(Valmiki Ramayana, Ayodhya Kanda, Sarga 36). hermitage. The place at which Vamana thrust Mahabali down to Patala. This place became a hermitage later. When ViSvamitra took Sri

Rama and Laksmana
his sacrifice, he

to the forest for the protection

of

ter 197).

4)
(i)

Other information.

When

Yayati

fell

down on
to

him
(ii)

promised

to transfer

him

(Sibi). (Adi Parva, Chapter 93, Verse 3). Sibi worships Yama in his court. (Sabha
8,

earth from heaven, Sibi the merits acquired by

showed them this hermitage. (Valmiki Ramayana, Balakanda, Sarga 29, Verse 22). SIDDHI I.' A daughter of Daksa. Thirteen daughters including Siddhi were married by Dharmadeva. (Visnu Purana, ArhSa 1, Chapter 7). SIDDHI II. A goddess. Kunti the mother of the Pandavas was the human rebirth of this goddess. (M.B. Adi' Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 120). This goddess Siddhi had walked in front of the army of Subrahmanya, in the great battle between the Devas and the asuras.

To

attain

the object in

any matter, the blessing of

this

Parva,

Sibi too was present in the company of Indra to the fight between Arjuna and Drona in the battle between King Virata and Kauravas at the
(iii)

Chapter

Verse 10).

witness

Virata city in connection with the lifting of Virata's cow by the Kauravas. (Virata Parva, Chapter 56, Verse
9).
(iv)
,

goddess is essential. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 64). SIDDHI III. The son of an Agni (fire) named Vlra. Siddhi was born to this Vlragni, by his wife Sarayu. The story stating how this agni once screened the sun by his radiance, occurs in Mahabharata, Salya Parva,

Sibi loved
9,

(v) People of the Yadu dynasty presented Sibi a sword. (Santi Parva, Chapter 166, Verse 89). (vi) He gifted away his son to the brahmins, and therefore he attained heaven. (Sand Parva, Chapter 234, Verve 19; Anus asana Parva, Chapter 137, Verse4) (vii) He did not eat flesh. (Anus asana Parva, Chapter
.

Chapter

Indra Verse 7).

very

much.

(Bhisma Parva,

King of the Solar dynasty. In Bhagavata, it is said that he was the son of Agnipurna arid father of Maru. SIGHRAGA. One of the sons of Sampati. (Matsya
9th Skandha,

SIGHRA.

Chapter 218.

A

SlGRU. A
feated.

Purana,

6, 35).

war they fought

11 5,

Verse 61).

5)

Conclusion.

The

SIDDHA
born

the episode of the dove and the kite is mentioned in the Mahabharata. One of the Kings is Sibi and the other Uslnara, father of Sibi. (See under Uslnara)
.

story of two

Kings connected with

to

bharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 46) SIDDHA II (THE SIDDHAS). group of Devas. The group of devas called Siddhas lived on the Himalayas near the hermitage of Kanva. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chap.

Deva Gandharva. This Gandharva was Prajapati Kasyapa by his wife Pradha. (MahaI.

A

this hermit approached Drona and requested him to stop the battle forthwith. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 190, Verse 34). SIKATAKSA. A holy place. Once Yudhisthira visited this holy place. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 125, Verse 12). SlKHAI^DAM. Things which were born from the blood of Vrtrasura and which Brahmins, Ksatriyas and Vaisyas are forbidden from eating. (Santi Parva, Chapter 282,

SIKATA.

In the Dasarajna particular caste of people. against Sudas and got themselves de(Rgveda, 7-18-19). An ancient hermit. When the Bharata-battle

was going on

A

SIKHANDT (SlKHAMDINl

60).

SIDDHA.

Verse 15). It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 29, that this group of Gods stay in the palace of Yama serving him.
ter 70,

SIDDHAGRAHA. An

The Devi (goddess) consecrated in Rambhavana, wearing a water-vessel with a snout, rosary, boon, and fire, is called Siddha. ( See under Devi)
.

Those who are cursed by the group of devas called Siddhas are afflicted by this spirit and they become maniacs. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 230, Verse 49) SIDDHAPATRA. A warrior of Subrahmanya. (Mahabharata Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 66) SIDDHARTHA I. A King. This King was the rebirth of the asura Krodhavasa. (Bharata, Adi Parva, Chapter
evil spirit.
. .

ended her life with the vow that she would take revenge on Bhisma and was born in the next life as the daughter of king Drupada under the name Sikhandini, and Sikhandini helped Arjuna in the war at Kuruksetra to kill Bhisma. (For the history of Amba ending in two lives see under Amba. Certain pieces of information not included under that head are given below). of Abhi(1) Sikhandini was present at the wedding manyu in the city of Upaplavya.( Virata Parva, Chapter
daughter of the king of Kasi.
Sikhandi learned archery at the feet of Dronacarya. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 192, Verse 60). duel was fought (3) On the first day of the great war a between Sikhandi and Asvatthama. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 46) in fear of (4) Sikhandi retreated from battle-field Drona. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 69, Verse 31 ).
(

Amba

I).

Rebirth

of

Amba,

72, Verse 17).
2)

.

67, Verse 60)

.

SlKHAIifDINl
(5)

II

717
tically that

SIMHALA
he could practise jnanayoga living in th e he quitted the city for the forest and began palace performing tapas there. Then on one day, she went to the presence of the king in the forest in the guise of a brahmin boy and stood there without touching the earth with his feet. The king treated the boy with honour and respect taking him for some Deva. Then she revealed her actual form, and the king agreed to return with her to the palace and practise jnanayoga there. At that juncture Cudala created by her soul-power celestial women like UrvasI and also Indra and lined them up before her husband. This was to test whether the king yielded to any of the temptations by the celestial women or by Indra and Cudala returned with the king
itself,

second duel was fought by him and Asvatthama. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 82, Verse 26). (6) Sikhandl broke the arrow of Salya with his divine arrow (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 85, Verse 29) (7) He tried to kill Bhisma. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 108, Verse 45). (8) Sikhandl attacked Bhisma at the instance of Arjuna. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter UO, Verse 1). (9) He followed that attack with many other attacks. (Bhisma Parva, Chapters 114, 118 and 119). ( 10) Sanjaya praised the prowess of Sikhandl to Dhrtarastra. (Drona Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 45) (11) Bhurisrava and Sikhandl fought with each other. (Drona Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 43). and Kama fought with each other. (12) Sikhandl (Drona Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 7). (13) Sikhandl and Balhika fought with each other. (Drona Parva, Chapter 96, Verse 7) (14) In the fight that followed, Sikhandi was defeated by Krtavarman. (Drona Parva, Chapter 114, Verse 82). (15) Krpacarya defeated Sikhandl. (Drona Parva, Chapter 169, Verse 22). (16) In the battle that followed with Krtavarman, Sikhandi fainted. (Karna Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 26).. 1 ( 7) Defeated by Krpacarya, Sikhandl had to run away for life. (Karna Parva, Chapter 54). (18) Karna defeated Sikhandl. (Karna Parva, Chapter 61, Verse 7). (19) Annihilating the army of Prabhadrakas Sikhandl fought fiercely with Krtavarman and Krpa. (Salya Parva, Chapter 15, Verse 7) (20) Sikhandl resisted the advance of Asvatthama. (Salya Parva', Chapter 16, Verse 6) (21) In the fierce battle that was fought after the fall of Bhisma AsVatthama killed Sikhandi. (Sauptika Parva, Chapter8, Verse 65). (22) Synonyms of Sikhandl used in Mahabharata. Bhlsmahanta, SikhandinI, Draupadeya, Drupadatmaja, Pancalya, Yajnaseni etc. SIKHANDINI (II). Wife of Antardhana born in the
.

A

.

SlKSAKA. A

to the

kingdom.
warrior of Subrahmanya.

(Salya Parva,

.

Chapter 45, Verse 76). SlLA. Daughter of Dharmarsi. She was wedded by Marici maharsi. For some reason the maharsi cursed her and she was transformed into a stone in the Gaya temple. (Vayu Purana, 108). SILAVAN. A divine sage. In Mahabharata, Daksinatyapatha, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 83, there is a reference to a conversation between this Maharsi and Sri Krsna.

SlLAVATl. A

heroine

Her husband, Ugrafravas was fidelity to her husband. cruel and vicious. Yet SilavatI used to adore him. Once Ugrasravas fell a victim to the disease of leprosy. From that time , SilavatI used to go about begging in the

reputed for her

chastity

and

.

.

called

dynasty of emperor Prthu. The emperor had two sons Antardhana and Vadl. To Antardhana was born of Sikhandini a son called Havirdhana, who married Dhi sana born in the dynasty of Agni, and the
couple had
Part 1).
six

sons called

Krsna, Vraja and Ajina.

Praclnabarhis,

Sukra, Gaya,
14,

houses of Brahmanas to feed and support her husband. After some time by her constant nursing, his condition was slightly improved. After that she continued her begging from door to door, carrying him on her shoulders. Once they happened to arrive in front of a huge manWater was flowing in front of the gate and so sion. SilavatI returned from there with her husband without stepping into the water. When they reached home, Ugrafravas asked his wife why she returned without entering the mansion. She explained that it was the house of a prostitute and to touch the water coming out of that house was sin. On hearing it, Ugrasravas felt an irresistible desire to visit that brothel. He expressed his desire to her. Quite obediently SilavatI took up her husband on her shoulders and went to the prostitute's house. mandavya, (For more details see under

Am

(Visnu Purana, Chapter

maharsi, who lived in the court of Yudhisthira. (Sabha. Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 14). SlKHAVARTA. A Yaksa, who lives in the court of Kubera worshipping him. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 17). SlKHl. A naga born in the Kasyapa dynasty. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 103, Verse 12). SlKHIDHVAJA. A king, who ruled over Malava during the first Dvaparayuga in the seventh Manvantara. Cudala, daughter of the king of Saurastra was SikhidhThe Jnanavasistham contains a story about vaja's wife. how the royal couple renounced all attachments in life as the result of intense tapas.
.

SlKHAVAN A

SlLAYUPA. A Vedantist

Anasuya and

Atri)

.

SlLl. A naga born in the Taksaka dynasty. It was burnt to death at the serpent yajna conducted by Janamejaya. (Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 9).

son of Visvamitra. Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 54).

(AnuSasana

SlMANTINl. The
of this

wife of
is

King Citrtangada.

The

SIMHACANDRA. A
SIMHAKETU. A

given in in Skanda Purana. tmya.

SimantinI

Somapradosavrata maha-

story

king who had helped Yudhisthira. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 158, Verse 40)
.

warrior

who

took the

side

of the

Sikhidhvaja and Cudala began practising jnanayoga (communion through knowledge) It was Cudala, who gained Siddhis first. Though the king was pleased with the achievements of his wife he felt sorry about his failure or drawbacks. Cudala had attained the Siddhi to travel even in air. Though she told her husband empha-

Pandavas and fought against the Kauravas. (Mahabharata, Karna Parva, Chapter 56, Verse 49,) This Sirhhaketu was killed in the battle of Bharata by Karna.

SIMHALA. Modern

was called Simhala and the inhabitants were called The following statements about Simhala Simhalas. occur in the Mahabharata.

Ceylon.

In ancient days this place

SIMHAPURA
The low caste people of the Sirhhalas originated (1) from the sides of NandinT, the cow of the Devas. ( M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 174, Verse 37). (2) The king of Simhala had taken part in the sacrifice Rajasuya of Yudhisthira. (Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 34, Verse 'l2). (3) The Ksatriyas of Sirhhala gave Yudhisthira, Chrysoprases, pearls and such other wealth of the sea as preThe people of Simhala wore clothes studded with sent. jewels. They were ot dark complexion with eyes the ends of which were red. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 58, Verse 35). (4) The Sirhhalas took the side of the Kauravas in the In the Garuda vyuha formed by battle of Bharata. Drona, the Sirhhalas were stationed in the position of the neck. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 20, Verse 6) SIMHAPURA. A city in Bharata, famous in the Puranas. This city was situated in the mountainous region of North India. During the period of Mahabharata, Citrayudha was the king who ruled over this city. (Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 27, Verse 20) Arjuna during his regional conquest of the North, de. .

718
2)
Other details.

SINlVAK
Sarhvarana, a King, who was defeated by his enemies, hid himself for a while in the natural arbours on the basin of Siridhu. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 94,
(i)
(ii)

SIMHASENA
vlryarjuna.

feated this king.

SIMHASENA

Sirhhasena

I. The commander of the army of Karta(Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 46). This captured and imprisoned Ravana.

II.

of Bharata he
16,

warrior of Pancala. In' the battle took the side of the Pandavas and was

A

killed in the battle

SIMHASENA
killed

Verse 32).

by Drona.

Drona

Parva,

Chapter

him

SIMHAVAKRA. An
SIMHIKA. A
15,

asura. (Skanda Purana, Asura Kanda, ) This asura fought Subrahmanya.
giantess.

Chapter 56, Verse 44)

III. Another warrior of Pancala. in the battle of Bharata. (Karna
.

Karna
Parva,

and Agni Purana Chapter 19). Two sons named Hiranyakasipu and Hiranyaksa and a daughter named Simhika were born to Prajapati Kasyapa by his wife Did. Simhika was married by Vipracitti. Two sons named Rahu and Ketu were born to them. Because they were the sons of Simhika, they came to be known by the name Saimhikeyas. (But it is stated in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 65, that Simhika was the daughter of Prajapati Daksa and the wife of KaSyapa.) A story occurs in Ramayana, that this Simhika caught hold of Hanum an by his shadow and swallowed him, while he was jumping to Lanka, and that Hanuman escaped from her. (See under Rama, para 27). SlMSUMA, Daughter of a Gandhara King. She is also known as Sukesi. She was married by Sri Krsna (M.B. Southern text, Chapter 38) SINDHU I. A river in India, very famous in the
.

(Visnu Purana,

Ams a

1,

Chapter

Kubha, Sindhu, Suvastu. Vitasta, Asiknl, Parusnl, Vipasa, Satadru, Sarasvati etc. SINDHU II. A country very famous in the Puranas. Jayadratha the King of Sindhu was present at the Svayarhvara marriage of Draupadi (Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Verse 21). SINDHUDVIPA. A King of the Solar dynasty. (Mahabharata, Anufasana Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 4). This King was the son of Jahnu and the father of BalakiisVa. This King did penance in the holy place called Prthudakatirtha and attained Brahminhood. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 39, Verse 37) It is mentioned in Bhagavata, Skandha 9, that Sindhudvipa was the son of Srutanabha who was the son of
.

Sindhu remains in the palace of Varuna and him. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 19). Once Markandeya happened to see the river (iii) Sindhu in the stomach of child Mukunda. ( M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 188, Verse 103). (iv) Sindhu is considered to be the origin of Agni (Fire.) (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 242, Verse 22). channels of Ganga. (v) Sindhu is one of the seven (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 6, Verse 48). (vi) By bathing in the river Sindhu, one could attain heaven. (M.B. AnuSasana Parva, Chapter 25 Verse 8) (vii) Once Parvati held a talk on the duties of women. All the rivers met to hear the talk. Sindhu was prominent among the rivers who were present. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 146, Verse 18). (viii ) This is one of the rivers which ought to be remembered every morning and evening. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 165, Verse 19). (ix) Mention about river Sindhu occurs throughout the Rgveda. Prominent rivers mentioned in Rgveda are
glorifies
.

Verse 40).

SINDHUPRABHAVA. A
starts

holy place. The river Sindhu from this place. This is a place frequented by the Siddhas and the Gandharvas. He who bathes here for five days with fast can obtain heaps of Gold. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 86, Verse 84). SINDHUPULINDA. A kingdom of India very famous in the Puranas. (Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 40 j. SINDHUSAUVlRA. A place in the North-west part of India, famous in the Puranas. (Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 86, Verse 84) The people of Sindhu.

Bhaglratha.

sauvira do not

know dharma

SINDHUTAMA. A

(duty)

.

Puranas.
It is assumed in the Puranas 1) General information. that this river is a branch of the heavenly Gariga. By the efforts of Bhaglratha, the heavenly Gariga fell on After that it had six the earth in the Lake Bindu. channels. Three channels flowed to the east and three to the west. The rivers which flowed to the East were Hladini, Pavani and Nalini. The three rivers Sucaksus, Sita and Sindhu flowed to the west. This seventh branch

followed Bhagiratha and flowed obsequies to the sons of Sagara.

to

Patala

to

perform

(Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 82, Verse 79). This is one of the famous holy places in the world and that by bathing in this tlrtha one can obtain heaps of gold. SlNI. A King of the Yadava dynasty. He secured Devaki to be wedded toVasudeva after defeating, singlehanded in battle, all the kings. A fierce battle was fought between this Sini of Devamldha family and Somadatta. (Drona Parva, Chapter 114). SINlVAK. A hermit. This hermit had shone in the council of Yudhisthira. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter
holy place.
4,

Verse 14).

SINlVALl SINlVALl
1) Birth.

I

719

SISUPALA

I.

daughter of Arigiras. The wife of Arigiras was Smrti. She gave birth to four daughters named Kuhii, Raka, Anumati and Sinlvall. (Visnu Purana, Arhsa 1, Chapter 10). is mentioned in Bhagavata, Skandha 6, that (It Sinlvall was the third daughter of Arigiras by his wife Sraddha.

A

SlSUMARA

Drsyadrsya is another name of Sinlvall. Her body is small. So sometimes she can be seen and sometimes she cannot be seen. It is in this meaning that she
(i)

2) Other

details.

gets

and unseen). Siva So she has another name Rudrasuta. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 218, Verse 5). used Sinivali as the yoke of the horses of his (ii) Siva chariot in the battle with Tripuras. (M.B. Karna Parva, Chapter 34, Verse 32). (iii) At the time of his birth Sinlvall had come to see
(seen

the name Drs~yadrs"ya bears her in his forehead.

Devendra ordered Sisumara to praise answered proudly that he had no time sage for it and that he would praise Indra for as much time as was needed to throw the water upwards. Accordingly he started praising Indra. The sage to whom Indra's praise was at first disagreeable, subsequently felt that he could not do it too much. By his He even composausterity he acquired "Samavidya". ed a "Sama" (a hymn) in praise of Indra. In later times it became famous as "Sarkarasama". SlSUMARA II. A constellation so called because it is in It is said to be the form of a Sixumara (Crocodile) At the tail-end of it is the starry form of Visnu. Dhruva, which automatically rotates and also makes
it.

A Rsi. This Rsi used to live in water in I. the form of a crocodile. There is a story about him in the Pancavirhsa Brahmana. Once all the Rsis joined together in praising Indra. Sij'umara alone remained silent without taking part in
Seeing
this,

him.

The

.

the child
(iv)
It
is

45, Verse 13).

Subrahmanya. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter
mentioned
in

Atharva Veda that Sinivali

is

a

wife of Mahavisnu.

SINlVALl

Soma Moon) SlPHA. A river extolled in Rgveda. It is stated in Sukta 104, Anuvaka 15, Mandala 1 of the Rgveda that the asura named Kuyava should be thrown into the
(
.

A daughter born to Brhaspati by his II. wife Subha. It is stated in Vayu Purana, Chapter 90, that though Sinivali was given in Marriage to Prajapati Kardama, she abandoned him and lived with

depths of Sipha as he stole money.
details see

the father of Slta. (For further under Janaka ). SlRlSAKA. A naga born in Kasyapa dynasty. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 103, Verse 14). SlRlSl. A Vedantist son of Viivamitra. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 59). SIRKALI. A sacred place in South India. Brahmapura is another name for this place which is near Kumbhakonam in Tanjore District. The place was sanctified by the birth of Tirujnanasambandhar. (For further details see under Tirujnanasambandhar). SlSlRA. Son of Soma the Vasu, of his wife Manohara. To the couple were born four sons called Varcas, Prana, Ramana and Sis"ira. (Adi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 22). SlSlRAPARVATA. A mountain near Mount Meru. (See under Mahameru) SlSTA. Dhruva's son by Dhanya. Sista married Succhaya, daughter of Agni. Four sons, Krpa, Ripunjaya, Vrtta and Vrka were born to them. (Matsya Purana, 4/38). SlSTI. A son of Dhruva. Dhruva had two sons, Sisji and Bhavya, by his wife Sambhu. Sisti's wife, Succhaya gave birth to five sons, namely, Ripu, Ripunjaya, Vipra, Vrkala and Vrkatejas. The eldest of them Ripu was the father of the Manu, Caksu Fa. (Visnu Purana, Arhsa 1, Chapter 13). SlSU. A son born to the Saptamatrs due to the blessing of Subrahmanya. The eyes of the child were blood-red. It was called Virastaka as well. (Vana Parva, Chapter 228, Verse 11).
.

SIRADHVAJA. Janaka

Surya is dependent on Dhruva. (Visnu Purana, Part 2, Chapter 9). SlSUMARAMUKHl. A woman follower of Subrahmanya. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 22). SlSUNAGA. The first King of the Sisunaga dynasty. He founded the dynasty after defeating Nandivardhana of Pradyota family, King of Magadha. Though he first belonged to Kas'i region, later on he settled down in Magadha. Kakavarna was SiSunaga's son.

planets like the Sun and the moon to rotate. Stars follow the self-rotating Dhruva and rotate like a wheel. The Sun and the moon along with stars and planets are bound by the cord of atmosphere to Dhruva. The basis and support of this constellation of Sisumara is Mahavisnu, who is the support of all light and effulgence. Dhruva, son of Uttanapada came to be installed at the tail-end of Sisumara as he had worshipped Visnu. Siiumara is dependent upon Visnu, the Lord of all, and Dhruva is dependent upon SiSumara.

The

following ten Kings of Sisunaga dynasty ruled the (1) Kakavarna (2) Ksemacountry for 360 years. dharma (3) Ksemajit (4) Vindhyasena (5) Bhumimitra (6) Ajatagatru (7) Varhsaka (8) Udasi (9) Nandivardhana (10) Mahanandi. (Matsya Purana, 272, 6-17; Vayu Purana 99. 314-315).

SlSUPALA.
1)

Vaikuntha were born thrice in asura womb as a result of the curse by munis like Sanaka. They were first born as Hiranyaksa and Hiranyakasipu, next as Ravana and Kumbhakarna and the third time as Sisupala and Dantavaktra. (See under Jayavijayas) Sisupala was the son of King Damaghosa 2) Birth. of Cedi by his wife, Srutasravas (Bhagavata, 9th He was born with three eyes and four Skandha) hands, and at the time of birth he brayed like an ass, so the parents decided to abandon the ugly and awkward child. Immediately a Jin (ghost) appeared and told the father that the child would grow up to become very strong and powerful, and that only one person would be able to kill him and that person had already been born on earth. Further questioned by Sisupala's mother, the Jin said that as soon as the son saw the person born to kill him, he would lose his third eye, and that if he was seated on the lap of the person, two
. .

Previous birth.

KingofCedi. Jaya and Vijaya,

gate-keepers

at

Si SU PALAVADHAPARVA out of his four hands would be
this the
lost.

720
After having said

SlTA
are in various Puranas and given here. Laksmi, SarasvatI and Gariga were the wives of Mahavisnu. One day Visnu was sitting with his three wives and entertaining them with conversation when Devi Ganga looked at Visnu amorously. Instantly a quarrel arose among the three of them. When the row became uncontrollable, SarasvatI cursed Laksmi to take birth in the earth as a plant. Ganga cursed SarasvatI and made her a river. SarasvatI cursed Ganga and made her a river. At the end of all these rows and curses Visnu stood up and said to Laksmi. "Laksmi! you will take birth as the daughter of Dharmadhvaja on the earth

world of Visnu, occurring
collected

this peculiar child spread far and wide and many kings visited him. Damaghosa placed the child on the lap of each of them. But, no physical change occurred to him. Then one day Sri Krsna and Balabhadra came to see the child, whose mother Srutasravas (she was also the sister of Krsna's father) placed him on Krsna's lap. Immediately two hands and the third eye of the child vanished, and with tears in her eyes the mother prayed Krsna never to kill SiSupala, and Krsna promised that he would forgive the crimes of Sis'upala a hundred times. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 43)

News about

Jin disappeared.

.

with the

name

Tulasi. In order that the curse ofSarasvatl

Other information. at the wedding of Draupadi. (i) Sis upala was present In his attempt to draw the bow he fell down on his
3)

knees. (Adi Parva,
(ii)

He was
King
.

of the
(iii)

Chapter 185, Verse 23). present at the wedding of the daughter of Kalinga also. (Santi Parva, Chapter 4,

the Commander-in-Chief of the armies of Jarasandha. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 10). (iv) When Bhima conquered all the kingdoms Siiupala honoured him. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 29, Verse 11). (v) He too was present at the Rajasuya of Yudhisthira. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 234, Verse 14). (vi) At the Rajasuya, Krsna heaped insulting words on Sisupala. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 37). (vii) Sisupala objected to the selection of Krsna as president of the Rajasuya and controversy followed it.

Verse 6)

He was

grow up on the earth from a portion of you. While you are living as the daughter of Dharmadhvaja, an asura named Sankhaciida born from my portion will marry you." The curse was realized. SarasvatI and Ganga became rivers. Laksmi was about to be born as the daughter He was of Dharmadhvaja. Who was Dharmadhvaja? a man of righteous deeds and good qualities, born of the family of Daksasavarni who was born from a portion of Mahavisnu. Brahmasavarnl was born from Daksasavarni. Dharmasavarni begot Rudrasavarni, Indrasavarni begot Vrsadhvaja. Rathadhvaja was the son of Vrsadhvaja. Two sons named Dharmadhvaja and Kusadhvaja were born to Rathadhvaja. Dharmadhvaja and Kus"adhvaja were performing penance before Devi Laksmi to regain the wealth and prosperity lost by the

may come

true, a plant called

Tulasi (holy basil)

will

(Sabha Parva, Chapter
(viii)

(ix) Once in the absence of Krsna Sis'upala attacked Dvaraka. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 45 Verse 7). (x) He stole the sacrificial horse of Vasudeva. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 9) (xi) He abducted the wife of Babhru. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 10). (xii) He abducted the daughter of his uncle, the King of Visala. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 11 ). the above he was killed in battle by ( xiii ) Following Krsna. (Chapter 45, Verse 25, Sabha Parva) (xivj After death his effulgence got absorbed in Krsna. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 26) (xv) Krsna once told Arjuna that he killed Sis' upala
.
.

(Sabha Parva, Chapter 41

Sis'upala

39, Verse 11). insulted Bhlsma at
).

the

Rajasuya.

How

curse of the Sun.

prosperity? Their grandfather Vrsadhvaja was a devotee of Siva. He performed penance before Siva for a long time. Siva became pleased with Vrsadhvaja and lived in his hermitage for the period of three Devayugas. This king Vrsadhvaja made a proclamation that none other than Siva should be worshipped. As all the other gods were despised, the Sun got angry and cursed Vrsadhvaja. "Let the prosperity of yours and your posterity be destroyed." Siva did not like the action taken by the Sun against his favourite. Siva took his trident and went against the Sun, who took refuge near his father Prajapati

did Dharmadhvaja and Kusadhvaja lose their

.

for his (Arjuna's) good.

(Drona

Parva,

Chapter 181,
of Sabha

SlSUPALAVADHAPARVA. A
SlSUROMA. A
Parva, Chapters 40-45.

Verse 21).

Sub-Parva

naga (serpent) born in the family of Taksaka. This Naga was burnt to death in Janamejaya's Sarpasatra. ( Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 10).

SITA.

warrior of Subrahmanya. (Mahabharata, Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 69). Salya SlTA. Wife of Sri Rama. 1) Who is Sftd? Sita is the incarnation of Mahalaksml. Laksmi took the birth of a woman because of the curse ofSarasvatl. VedavatI, Sita, Pancall, all these women of chastity were the incarnations of Laksmi The stories of Laksmi passing from birth to birth such as VedavatI, Tulasi, Sita, Pancall and so on until at last she reached the

A

Kagyapa. KaSyapa complained to Brahma. to Vaikuntha. Siva also came there with his trident. Visnu looked at them and said "You What is the need of all this hurry? gods, hear this. Within the short time you have taken to run up to this It is a place so many years have elapsed in the world. long time since Vrsadhavaja died. His son Rathadhvaja also is dead. Rathadhvaja has two sons named Dharmadhvaja and Kusadhvaja. They both have become Kings. But because of the curse of the Sun, they are devoid of any radiance. They are now worshipping Mahalaksml for radiance." Hearing this talk of Mahavisnu all of them returned to their places. It has been mentioned that Dharmadhvaja and Kuadhvaj a had been engaged in penance before Mahalaksml. Devi Mahalaksml appeared before them and granted their wish. Devi promised them that she would take birth as the daughter of each of them, and she would recover for them all the wealth and prosperity they had lost. Accordingly Mahalaksml took birth by her portion as the daughter of Madhavl, the wife of Dharmadhvaja

Brahma ran

SlTA

I

721

SlTA
brought up by the king

I

under the name Tulasi. (For the rest of the story of TulasI see under Tula si, Para 4). Malavati was the wife of Kusadhvaja. As Laksmi had promised to take birth as their daughter, both of them waited for the birth of the child uttering the Vedas. At this time a child was born from the mouth of Kusadhvaja. This child was the incarnation of Laksmi. With child KuSadhvaja regained all the the birth of the
wealth and prosperity he had lost. The child was named Vedavatl (DevavatI). She grew up and became a young woman. Her desire was to get Mahavisnu as her husband. Once an asura named Sambhu came to the hermitage of Kusadhvaja. When he saw Vedavatl he fell in love with her. He asked Kui'adhvaja lor the hand of his daughter, but Kusadhvaja did not give his consent.
got angry. He came back in the night and killed Kusadhvaja with his sword. Hearing the sound Vedavatl woke up and saw the dead body of her father lying In in a pool of blood. She looked at Sambhu angrily. that fiery look Sambhu was burnt to ashes.

who named

the portion of this Slta herself that Pancall. (Devi Bhagavata, Kamba Other versions.

her Slta. took birth

It

was

next as

Ramayana)

Sambhu

vara (the bride herself choosing a husband). On the day fixed for the marriage Raksasas came and destroyed all the preparations and killed King Padmaksa. Because of her sorrow at this disaster Padma jumped into the fire. The giants searched for Padma every where, but they could not find her. They returned in
disappointment.

performed penance before (i) The King Padmaksa Mahavisnu with a view to get Mahalaksm! as daughter. Mahavisnu gave the King a great Phallus to realize his wish. From that a beautiful girl was born. The King named her Padma. When she attained marriageable age, the King made preparations for her Svayam-

One
his

Vedavatl began to perform very severe penance to get Visnu as her husband. It was at this time that Ravana

had begun kings and

campaign of conquest. He defeated all was proceeding victoriously through the vicinity of the Himalayas, when he saw the beautiful damsel Vedavati sitting alone and performing penance. Seeing so beautiful a girl engaged in penance, he told her that he was the famous Ravana with ten heads and requested her to throw away the garment of bark of the tree and the matted hair and to accept him as her husband. She rejected his request. The angry Ravana caught hold of her hand. She resisted using her teeth and finger-nails. She cried out that she wanted no more to retain the body made impure by the touch of a wicked person. She made a fire and jumped into it. Thus in the sight of Ravana, she burnt herself to death. Before death she vowed that in the next birth Mahavisnu would become her husband and would kill Ravana. Ravana who himself was burning in the fire of amour, was extremely sorry at the death of the beautiful girl. He took the ashes of hers to Lanka and put them in a golden box and kept the box in a solitary place. He used
his

day, during this period, Ravana was travelling in Aerial chariot. When he reached this place, he saw Padma who had come out of the fire. Ravana was fascinated by the beauty of Padma. So he turned towards her. Seeing this, Padma again jumped into the pile of fire for safety. Without any delay Ravana made a search in the pile of fire. At last he got the body of Padma (Ska) in the form of five jewels. The Ravana placed the five jewels in a disappointed box and took it to Lanka and gave it to his wife Mandodari. One day Mandodari opened that box and saw Padma sitting in the form of a beautiful virgin. Thinking that it .was not propitious to keep her who was the cause of destruction to Padmaksa, his family and kingdom, Mandodari exerted pressure on Ravana to cast the box out of Lanka. Ravana with his men took the box from Lanka and buried it in Mithila. Before the box was closed Padma cursed

Ravana. "I will come to Lanka again to kill you and your clan." One day when a brahmin of Mithila was ploughing his field he got this box. Thinking that it belonged to the King, the brahmin took the box to King Janaka. The King took the child in the box and brought it up.

bad omens began

to Lanka. Ravana asked Narada for the reason of constant occurrences of bad omens in Lanka. Narada replied that the cause of bad omens was the golden box

came

to visit the place daily. Since the arrival of the ashes, to occur in Lanka. One day Narada

He named
(ii)
is

the child Slta.

(Ananda Ramayana,

In Adbhuta

he was keeping and that

if it was kept in Lanka any longer, it would cause destruction and that if it was destroyed, great disaster would follow. Narada advised Ravana to remove the box without opening it to somewhere else outside Lanka. Accordingly Ravana caused the golden box to be dropped in the sea. By and by it came with the waves to the shore of Bharata (India) . Robbers took it and went to the north and hid it in a forest. They were not able to take it away again. Thus the box came to be deposited on the basin of a river in

somewhat different from Ramayana. It is given below Ravana who had become the harasser of the entire world began to harass the hermits and sages also. He
:

Ramayana we

7-6). see another story which that we see in Ananda

used to shoot arrows at the hermits who were sitting in meditation in the forests, and taking their blood in the arrow-head, he stored it in a big pot. In the same forest a hermit named Grtsamada was engaged in penance to get a daughter who would be equal to Laksmi in everyway. He took milk with the head of

Darbha grass and stored it daily in a pot. One day Ravana came to his hermitage and took the pot of
milk

Mithila.
It

was this river -basin that King Janaka selected as the place for sacrifice. Being kept in this holy place, the ashes of the body of DevavatI in the box mingled with her spirit and was taking shape into a child. When the place was ploughed for preparing the spot of sacriThe fice, for Janaka, this golden box was discovered. child which was inside the box, was taken home and

He poured the milk into the pot in stealthily. which he had stored the blood and stirring it well gave it to his wife Mandodari. Seeing the character of her husband becoming worse and worse every day, Mandodari became miserable. One day she decided to commit suicide and drank the contents of the pot given by Ravana. The thing which was taken for suicide, made her pregnant. Mandodari buried that After a while a girl was born foetus in Kuruksetra.

SITAI
from
(iii)
it.

722

SITAI
and bridegrooms went to Ayodhya with their Barents and relatives. (Kamba Ramayana, Balakanda)
.

That

child

was

Slta, the

daughter of King

Janaka.

There is a story in Devi Bhagavata stating how Slta was born as the daughter of Ravana. It is as
follows
:

ing to the horoscope of Mandodari, the first child born to her will be the destroyer of its clan. So it would be better to kill that child." Not acting upon the advice of Maya, Ravana put the first child in a box and buried it in the city of King Janaka. This child was Slta, the wife of Sri Rama. 2) Marriage. Slta grew up in the palace of King Janaka. Kugadhvaja the younger brother of Janaka had three daughters. They were named Mandavi,

Ravana wished to marry Mandodarl, the daughter of "AccordMaya. Then Maya said to Ravana thus
:

cosmetics. Anasuya blessed Sita again and said that she would shine as Laksmi if she besmeared her body with the divine cosmetics. (Valmiki Ramayana, Ayodhya

and ornaments. Dasaratha who had become old, wished to hand over the realm to Sri Rama. Since Kaikeyi stood as a hindrance, the kingdom fell into the hands of Bharata. Moreover Sita had to live in the forest with Sri Rama and Laksmana for fourteen years. In the early period of their forest-life they visited the hermitage of Atri. Seeing the devotion of Sita towards her husband, Anasuya the wife of hermit Atri, blessed her and gave her a fine garland, clothes and ornaments and
3)

Anasuya's gift

of

clothes

Urmila and

Saivacapa (the bow of Siva) Siva had used this bow, in days of old, to destroy the sacrifice of Daksa. Siva, who was pacified by the destruction of the sacrifice of Daksa and the victory over his enemies, gave this bow to his devotee, the King of Videha. That King kept the bow in his weapon-house and used to worship it. Slta had taken that bow and shot with it. The King who had been thinking about the marriage of Sita thought that what he saw was a good omen. So the King made a proclamation that only he who could take the bow of Siva, draw it, and shoot with it would
.

flower garland. All their attempts to gather the jasmine flowers from the twigs of a large mango tree in the garden ended in failure. Slta instantly ran to the weapon house and taking a bow and arrow, shot down the flowers. The flowers fell down on the cloth placed on the ground without being damaged. Janaka saw the shooting of Slta, from the palace. He was amazed at the expertness of Slta. The bow which Sita took was

grew up along with these The four of them grew up as sisters and three sisters. Slta grew up to be a young woman. Several friends. young men wished to marry her. Janaka refused everyone of them. One day the princesses were playing with their maids in the garden of the harem. Sita sat on the dais in the centre of the garden to make a
Srutakirti.

Slta

Kanda, Sargas 118-120).
4)
forest-life

In the last year of Parvati and Paramesvara tested the firmness of the love of Sita and Rama. (See under Rama, Para
Test by Pdrvati and Paramesvara. 14).

5) Phantom Sita.
Sita

A

by Ravana, Fire god took the guise of a Brahmin and approached Sri Rama and said "O, Sri Rama The Devas have sent me to tell you certain things which will take place shortly. Your incarnation has the aim of killing Ravana. Sita is meant to be a cause
: !

few days before

the abduction

of

for the

same.

The death
Sita

of

Ravana

is

imminent.

He

will

me.

Skandha
Ravana.
8)

Sitadevi. After the killing of Ravana, when Sita enters a proof of her purity, I will return Devi Sita." Sri Rama agreed to it. Fire god by his power of contemplation, created a phantom Sita, exactly like the real Sita in shape and figure and nature and placing her beside Rama, he disappeared with the real Sita. Even Laksmana was not aware of this fact. The real Sita Devi was under the care of Fire god till the moment of the test of chastity of Sita by fire, after the killing of Ravana. During the time of entering the fire the illusory Sita vanished in the fire and the real Sita came out. (Devi Bhagavata,
fire as

away. Make a phantom carefully. keep her Sita and keep her here, instead of the real (Maya)
I will

come and carry

So entrust Sita with

become

9)

.

Slta,

conducted. Rama married marriage ceremony was Bharata married Mandavi, Laksmana married Ormila, and Satrughna married Srutakirti. The brides

the bow with his left hand, drew it easily and fastened the string tightly and the bow was broken. When the Kings who were present, heard the roaring sound of the breaking of the bow, they shivered with fear as serpents at the sound of thunder. Sita jumped with joy like a peacock. letter was sent to Dasaratha then and there. Friends and relatives arrived. Under the guidance of the presiding priest Satananda, the
lifted

He

where the Saivacapa was placed, ready

adventurers came to the palace and tried to handle the Saivacapa and retreated admitting defeat. It was at this time that Vis vamitra brought Rama and Laksmana to the forest for the protection of sacrifice. Hearing about the Svayarhvara of Slta, VisVamitra took the princes to the palace of Janaka. The King was greatly pleased when he learned that the princes were the sons of Dasaratha, of the solar Dynasty. Next morning, at the instruction of his elders and priests and teachers, Sri Rama stood on the dais in the middle of the hall,
to

eligible

to

marry

Sita.

Hearing

this

many

6) Sita killed Sahasramukha.

See under Sahasramukha

7) Abandonment of Sita. See under Rama, Para 31. Sita in the hermitage of Valmiki. Abandoned Sita, who was pregnant, wandered about in the forest and at last reached the hermitage of Valmiki, who gave her protectThe story of an occurrence at this ion and shelter. time is given in Kathasaritsagara, Alankaravatilambaka,

Taranga

1.

The

handle

it.

up

A

we also would become sinners. As the hermit kind, he will not cast her away especially when she is pregnant. So the best thing for all of us, is This murmuring of the to go to another hermitage." hermits reached the ears of Valmiki. He said "She is
association
is

other hermits did not like Valmlki's action of giving shelter to Sita. They said "Sita is impure. Otherwise her husband would not have abandoned her. By her

Valmiki

pure and chaste.
test

I

they did not believe

found to be impure you may cut off my head." The hermits tested Sita in the Tittibhasaras (a divine lake near the hermitage of Valmiki ) and were

my

chastity in

know it with my inward eyes." But it. Then Sita said "Lord you can whatever way you like, and if I am
!

SITAI
convinced that she was chaste and pure. (See under THtibhasaras to know the greatness of this divine lake) Sita was spending miserable days in the 9) Cursed Sita. hermitage of Valmlki. Her matrimonial life was a hell. Is there any special reason for misery? Yes. It is the curse of a bird. Once Sesa told this story, of the cursing of Sita by a bird, to the hermit Vatsyayana. That story is given below The event took place when Sita was a young girl in the palace of Janaka. One day while Sita was playing in the garden she saw two parrots, cock and hen, which
.
:

723
Sita.

SIVA (RUDRA)
The male bird cried to Sita to let him take his mate along with him, and beat his head on the ground. The female bird, filled with misery Sita was adamant. and anger cursed Sita thus. "You have separated me from my husband. 1 am pregnant. May you too be separated from your husband when you become pregnant". When she had finished saying, she fell on the ground and wriggled and died. An aerial chariot came down to the earth from heaven for the soul of that bird which had died exalting and glorifying Sri Rama. The soul of the bird got into the chariot and went up to heaven. The male bird, being unable to bear the death
of his beloved wife, dipped himself in the Gariga. Before death he cried out in anger. "I must be born in the city of Rama. By my words, this Sita should be separated from her husband and fall into misery." He died So he took in the Ganges in Krodha (anger) and fear. rebirth with the name Krodhana as a washerman by
his

talked well. The spouses were delightfully engaged in love-making. As soon as the couple saw Sita they flew up to a tree and sang thus: "A handsome king will take birth on the earth. His name will be Sri Rama. His
wife's

name will be Sita. Their wedded life will be happy. Hearing the song, Sita thought that they were some divine persons, and asked her maids to catch them and
give

to happen, and has taught it to his disciples. We have heard those songs. Having heard them over and over we also have learned them by heart. We will tell you who Rama is and who JanakI is and what would happen to her who lives happily with him. Hear it Saying
!

is that Rama ? Who is Sita ? How did you come to know of them ? Tell me all. I will not hurt you The birds replied. "In the forest there is a hermit named Valmlki. We live in his beautiful hermitage. That hermit has composed the story Ramayana, which is yet
!

Who

them food. The maids caught the parrots and She asked the birds. brought them before Sita. "Don't fear. Who are you ? Where do you come from ?

and profession. It was this washerman who spoke words of calumny about Sita. Due to the calumny of this washerman, Sri Rama abandoned Sita and she had to take shelter in the hermitage of Valmlki. (Padma Purana, Patala Khanda, Chapter 57). 10) The end of Sita. (See under Rama, Para 33) SlTA II. A river. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 188, Verse 102, that once the hermit Markandeya saw this river also in the stomach of child Mukunda (Sri Krsna). This is one of the seven branches of the river Ganges. (See under Sindhu). SITAPUTANA. A ferocious she-devil. (Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 230, Verse 28). This terrible mon.caste
.

ster causes aborti )n in

thus the parrots passed on to the story of Rama. Due to the sacrifice of the hermit Rsyas'rnga, Mahavisnu incarnated as four persons, of whom Rama the eldest, with his

SlTASI.

younger
Mithila. Sita was the birds

brother

He would draw
and asked them

and

Visvamitra,
the

would come
Sita

to

extremely pleased with the sweet song of so many questions repeatedly with curiosity. Seeing the excitement of the questioner the parrots understood that she was Sita herself. They asked her. "Beautiful girl who are you? Why are you
!

bow and marry

flowing through Sakadvlpa and famous in the Puranas. (Mahabharata, Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 32). SlTIKAT<fTHA A naga which was in the company of the nagas that came to lead the soul of Balabhadrarama
to Patala.

A river

women.

SlTIKESA.

the birds, and said "I am the same Sita, the daughter of Janaka you have sung about. I will let you go only on the day when that handsome prince Rama comes and marries me. Your conversation has made me so curious. You can live comfortably in my house, eating sweet-

much interested in knowing about Rama ? What is your name ?" Sita disclosed everything about her to
so

SIVA (RUDRA). One of the Trinity. 1 Birth. The seers or spiritual giants
)

Chapter 45, Verse 61)).

(Mausala Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 16). A warrior of Subrahmanya. (Salya Parva,

of India imagined

Visnu was born

three forms to God, dividing all the activities into three departments, i.e. creation, sustenance and destruction or annihilation. Brahma, for creation, Visnu, for sustenance and Siva, for annihilation - they are the Trinity.

meats."
this.

trees
I

The birds were in great fear when they heard They looked at each other and replied to Sita. "Good child we birds fly about in the sky and perch on
!

and bush. Houses are not comfortable
I

over

am

Then

the male parrot prayed humbly with anxiety. "Sita, allow her to go. Why do you detain my beautiful wife ? Allow us to have our own way in the forest. wife is pregnant. After the confinement both of us will come back." Sita said "Let her live with me. You

here. You need not have any doubt." female parrot said thus. But Sita did not let them
will

come

pregnant. After

my delivery

to us. Morein our own place

first, Brahma, next and Siva last. The essence of Indian spiritualistic thought is that these three visible forms of God will, at the close of the Kalpa cease to be and become one with the cosmic power, and that the trinity will be born again at the commencement of the Kalpa and will take up their respective

functions.

The
go.

My

may go as you please." The parrots were in great
any noise on that occurred. These
tree

this

sorrow. If they had not made detention would not have

quality or attribute of Siva is Tamas (darkness). Many stories, with slight variations, are told in the various Puranas about the birth of Siva. Some of the more important stories are summarised below, At the begining of the Kalpa, while Brahma was (i) meditating upon the birth of a son like himself, a child deep blue in colour, appeared on his lap, and the child began running about crying aloud. Brahma asked the child why it was crying; then the child asked Brahma to give him a name. Though Brahma told him that

The dominant

his

pitiable supplications

had no

effect

on

cried seven times more.

name was Rudra and asked him not to cry, he Then Brahma gave him another

SIVA (RUDRA)

724

IVA (RUDRA)
to the east of it is Indra's AmaravatI; at the south-eastern corner is Agni's Tejovati; on the south is Yama's SarhyamanI; at the south-western

seven names, and for the total eight names eight Murtis (forms) wives and children were allotted. Bhava, Sarva, I* ana, Pasupati, Bhlma, Ugra and Mahadeva were the additional seven names, and Sun. Water, Earth, Wind, Fire, Sky, the Brahmin who has taken diksa and Moon were the eight Murtis and the presiding deities allotted to them. To these deities the following wives were also allotted, i.e. Suvarcala, Usa, Vikesi, Siva, Svaha, Disa, Diksa and Rohinl. The world is full with

ManovatI; exactly
corner

their progenies. Sanai^cara, Sukra, Lohitanga, Manojava, Skanda, Sarga, Santana and Budha are the sons of the above eight wives. This Rudra married Sati, daughter of Daksaprajapati. ( Visnu Purana, Part 1, Chapter 8). Brahma whose predominant quality or attribute (ii) the navel of Mahavisnu. From is rajas was born from the Centre of the brow of Brahma was born Rudra of Tamasic quality. Brahma, by the power of his tapas, acquired the power of creation and created a red-coloured world by his attribute of rajas. The very same world is annihilated by Rudra at the close of the Kalpa

is Krsnanjana of Nirrti, on the west is Varuna's Sraddhavati, at the north-western corner is Gandhavati of Vayu, on the north is Kubera's Mahodaya, at the north-eastern corner is Siva's Yasovati this is the set of the nine cities. Two sons called Subrahmanya and Ganapati were born to Siva of Parvati, and they are his actual sons. Some other sons also were born to him in his assumed forms and by other women. Such have been Indrajit, Hanuman and others. For details see the respective words. (Devi Skandha; KathasaritBhagavata, 8th Skandha, 9th

period. (Devi Bhagavata, From the wrath of (iii )
his lap

Narada, from his Sanaka and others, and from

Brahma was born Rudra, from finger Daksa, from his mind

7thSkandha).

Sanatana and Sanatkumara showed disinclination to beget progenies. Brahma got angry at this attitude of the four sons and from the centre of his brow was born a body blue and white in colour, and he, in tears, requested Brahma for names and stations. Blessing him by saying 'ma ruda' (do not cry) Brahma allotted him names and stations. He became famous by the name Rudra. He was also given eleven more names by Brahma as follows Manyu, Manu, Mahinasa, Mahan, Siva, Rtudhvaja, Ugraretas, Bhava, Kama, Vamadeva and Dhrtavrata. These names are otherwise famous as follows: Aja, Ekapada, Ahirbudhnya, Tvas^a, Rudra, Hara, Sambhu, Tryambaka, Aparajita, Is ana and Tribhuvana. The eleven Rudras were also allotted the following eleven positions by Brahma i.e. heart, the five
:

his left finger a daughter called Viranl. (Devi Bhagavata, 7th Skandha). Four 'mental sons' of Brahma Sanaka, Sanandana (iv)

and played with it. its foundations (Uttara Ramayana) Siva incarnated himself as Sakti, son of Sakti. (iii) Vasistha and was devoured by Kalmasapada, who took the form of a Raksasa. (Vamana Purana, ChapKailasa from
.

sagara, Kathamukhalambaka) Siva has taken several partial incar3 ) Incarnations, nations, the chief of which are given below. (See under Durvasas) (i) Durvdsas. Vdnara (Monkey] Siva, Parvati and their attend(ii ) ers like Nandikesvara once transformed themselves into monkeys and played about on the Himalayas. Ravana, who came there on the occasion ridiculed Nandikesvara, who, in great rage, cursed Ravana that monkeys would cursed Ravana raised destroy him. Being thus
. . .

Siva once assumed the form of Varuna Varuna. iv) and conducted a yajna which was attended by the Vedas in assumed forms. (M.B. Anusasana Parva,
(

ter 6).

Chapter 85)
4)

.

persons, who had earned boons from him and others who attained heaven on account of their devotion for him. The following are important among such persons.

Boom

granted by Siva.

The Puranas

refer

to various

organs of the body, vital force ( Prana) wind, fire, water, earth, sun and moon. Rudra has eleven wives, called DhI,Vrtti, Usana, Uma, Niyuta, Sarpis, lla, Ambika, Iravati, Sudha and Diksa. Rudra, under the name Siva, is considered to be the third of the trinity. The doctrine is that as long as time is real, deluge, or annihilation does not take place. Therefore, Rudrasamhara (annihilation by Rudra) may be taken to mean only as the beginning of new creation. (v) At the commencement of Yuga (era) Brahma was born from the navel of Visnu. Two asuras called Madhu and Kai^abha rushed up to kill Brahma, and from the brow of Visnu, who got angry towards the asuras was born Siva holding in his hands Sula (the three-pronged

(Skanda Purana, Asura Kanda). (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha) Bana (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha). (iii) (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha). (iv) Sudaksina Salva (Bhagavata 10th Skandha). (v) (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha) (vi) Vrkasura RatidevI (Kathasaritsagara, Lavanakalambaka, (vii)
(i)

Sirhhavaktra

(ii)

Rukml

.

.

Taranga
(viii)

1

)

.

(ix)
(x)

(Uttara Ramayana). Bhrgu (Padma Purana, Adi Khanda, Chapter 2) Gandhari (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 109, Verse
Indrajit

.

107).
(xi)

A

rsi girl

(M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 168, Verse

6).

Prabhanjana (xii) Verse 20).
(xiii)

(M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 214,

(Vana Parva, Chapter 12). 2) Family life. Siva has two wives, Ganga and Parvati (See under Ganga and Parvati). He lodges Ganga on his head. Uma, Katyayani, Gauri, Kali, Haimavati
trident).

Svetaki

(M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 222, Verse

41).

Sarvamangala Aparna, Parvati, Durga, MrdanI, Candika, Ambika, Menakatmaja, Camunda, Arya, DaksayanI, Girija, Karnamoti, Carcika and Bhairavl these are synonyms of Parvati. Siva lives on the top of the Mahameru, where there are nine cities. At the centre is Brahma's
IsVari, Siva, Bhavani, Rudra.nl, Sarva.ni,

(M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 14, (xiv) Jarasandha Verse 64) (M.B. Sabha Pirva, Chapter 33, (xv) Banasura Southern text). (Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Verse (xvi) Mankana
.

132).
(xvii

Sagara

(Vana Parva, Chapter 106, Verse

15).

SlVA(RUDRA)
(xviii)

725

SIVA (RUDRA)
6) (i)
Incidents.

Bhaglratha
1).

Verse
(xix)

(Vana

Parva,

Chapter
272,

103,

How
He

Siva got the
.

name

Jlmiitaketu.
.

(See under

Jayadratha

(Vana Parva, Chapter

Verse

Jimutaketu)
(ii)

28).

(xx) (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 187, Verse 12). (xxi) Somadatta (Drona Parva, Chapter 143, Verse

Amba

16).

Visnu (Drona Parva, Chapter 201, Verse 56). (xxiii) Parasurama (Kama Parva, Chapter 34, Verse 116; Santi Parva, Chapter 49, Verse 33) (xxiv) Skanda (Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse
(xxii)
.

Brahmahatya approached Siva who asked she was and why she came. She answered that she was Brahmahatya and asked Siva to take her into him. She entered his body so that he felt
terrible

became Kapdli. (See under Kapali) As he plucked off the Sin of Brahmahatya on Siva. (m) head of Brahma Siva became subject to the sin of Blue in colour and with grey hair, Brahmahatya.

her

who

46). (Salya Parva, Chapter 48, Verse (xxv) ArundhatI 38). Brahmin boy (xxvi) (Sana Parva, Chapter 153, Verse 114), (xxvii) Tandi muni (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 16, Verse 69). 5) Assets of Siva. Siva possesses a mass of matted hair, red in colour. It is known as Kaparda also, and hence he is called KapardI as well. Siva is also stated to be Agni. He has three eyes, the third one on the forehead Phalanetra, being all fire. Siva is called Trinetra, Agnilocana etc. because of the above facts. It is only just and proper that Siva, who is the destroyer of all Siva, the allthings should have relation to Agni. destroyer, carries the Sula in his hands always. Another weapon is named Pinaka, and therefore Siva is called Pinakapani (he who holds Pinaka in his hands). Both Siva and his vehicle, the Bull, are white in colour. The white colour indicates the justice observed in the process of annihilation. Siva has been described as possessing two, four, eight and ten hands. Besides the Pinaka, he holds in his hands the club called Khatvanga, the bow called Ajagava, a deer, beads, skull, damaru (a musical instrument) and many other sacred articles.

A

yanas were not there in the

BadaryaSrama. But, the great Rsis, Naranaraar'rama. Sad at heart Siva went to the river Yamuna to take a bath. But the river dried up. Then he went to Plaksa island to bathe; but the island disappeared. Then he went to Puskararanya, Magadharanya, Saindhava.ran.ya, Naimisaranya, Dharmaranya etc. all to no purpose. He got worn out but could not have a bath. The terrible Brahmahatya did not leave him. Though he visited sacred rivers, asramas and temples and practised Yoga, Siva did not get redemption from sin. At last, in great disappointment he went to Kuruksetra, where he saw Visnu. With folded hands Siva praised Visnu who advised him the following means for absolution from sin. "A Bhagavan born from my aspect under the name YogaSayi is

a burning sensation

all

over him. In this condition Siva

went

to

Ganga and Candra (moon)dwell on his head, and he is, known as Gangadhara and Candracuda also. A Garland made of human skulls adorns his neck. Siva
therefore,

wears the skin of the leopard for clolh and uses the skin of the elephant for blanket. All over his limbs snakes are worn as ornaments. The Puranas contain stories as to how Siva earned most of the above assets. The wives of many Rsis felt enamoured of Siva, who once appeared in the garb of a beggar. The Rsis, who got angry with Siva on the above account, decided to kill him. From the pit they dug on the ground, a tiger emerged. Siva killed it and wore its skin. A deer followed the tiger from the pit. Siva held it in his left hand. The next to emerge out of the pit was a red-hot iron rod. Siva took it in his hands as a weapon. Lastly snakes came out of the pit and Siva wore them on his body. On another occasion an asura called Gaya assumed the form of an elephant and chased the munis, who took refuge in a Siva temple. Siva appeared, killed the elephant and wore its skin on his body. Since Siva wore snakes as ear-rings he came to be known as Nagakundala. Brahma ordered that Rudra should create people and accordingly he created people. But, his creations were very cruel beings.

three worlds and annihilative of all sins. That city is the great Varanasi. Even materialistic or worldly people get salvation there. It is my (Visnu) asrama. There dwells Surya called Lola destroying all sins. The place where Kesava my aspect lives, is DasaSvamedha. If you go there you will get redemption from sin." Thus directed by Visnu Siva went to Varanasi and achieved absolution from the sin of Brahmahatya by bathing in the holy tirthas there. (Vamana Purana,

living at Prayaga. The great river Varuna which has which started from the right leg of Yogasayi and redeems all sins as also the sublime river Asi, which has started from his left leg are both worshipped by the whole world. The temple of Yogasayi is at the centre of these rivers, and that is a sacred place most important in the

Chapters).
(iv)

(v)

Salakatanka, daughter of Sandhya. While they toured the world round enjoying their honeymoon Salakatanka conceived and delivered in due course a son in the valley of Mount Mandara. Siva and Parvati, who passed that way in an aerial chariot saw the child and came down to it. By the blessing of Siva the child grew up to a youth very quickly. Siva named him

Birth ofVirabhadra. (See under Daksa) dark in colour. in Kdlindi got (See under Parvati, Para 2). (vi) Siva became Ndgabhusana. (See under Nagastram). (vii) Blessed SukeSa. Vidyutkesa, the Raksasa married
,

Water

Sukesa and after blessing that he would grow up to become a pious soul disappeared from the scene. (Uttara Ramayana)
.

Brahma

ions.

to to

Accordingly, Rudra started practising tapas.

feared that they would eat up the other creatBrahma, who trembled with fear, asked Rudra retire from the act of creation and to train himself do creation in the proper manner as ordained.

(See under Indrajit, of Indrajit. Para 2). See under Tilottama, Para 2) ( (ix) Four faces of Siva. Siva holds a sword in his hand to (x) Sword of Siva.
(viii)

Siva, the father

.

destroy the

asura tribe.

The

Chapter 166 of Santi
sword.

Parva about the origin of the

following

is

told

in

SIVA (RUDRA)
created the universe also laid down laws to keep living beings in the path of righteousness. But, the asuras did not conform to those laws. So, the maharsis decided that there should be some other means to instruct the asuras. They conducted a Brahma-

726
that
to

SIVA (RUDRA)
it became dark in colour. Thenceforth Siva came be known as Sitikantha also. Narayana plucked a blade of grass and recited some mantras. It became a paras"u ( axe) He threw it at Siva, who broke it into pieces, which act gave him the
.

Brahma when he

the Himalayas. A terrible Jin (Evil Spirit) emerged from the sacrificial pit. At the emergence of the Jin the earth shook; the great sea grew wild with waves and eddies. Lightning and shooting stars appeared and branches of trees were torn asunder. A vicious whirl-wind swept the ten All living beings trembled at the sight of the regions.

yajna

at

additional

name

of

became
refused
recollect

fierce
to

and

Khandaparasu
the

also.

The

world

fighting

began

receive offerings made; the Vedas; Rajas and Tamas

the

earth
fell

Brahma
Devas
told

shook;

Jin.

Brahma appeared
them

flames of fire emerged, who changed himself to various colours like blue, white and red, who wore deer skin

to the frightened maharsis and told that it was not a Jin, but only the sword for the destruction of the asura tribe. Siva took the sword in his hand, and as soon as he touched it he became possessed of four hands. "Siva, whose head touched the sun, who had the third eye and from whose mouth

got dry; the Himalayas crumbled. On the continuous appearance of such ill omens Brahma and all the
:

down from

planets

his seat; sky

became dim and dark; came down; oceans

burning. Fire Rsis could not attacked Devas;

came to the battlefield. Saluting Rudra Brahma him thus "Oh Lord Let good happen to the world. In the interests of the welfare of the world, you would please give up arms. The Naranarayanas are
!
!

upholders of righteousness; they are the incarnations of
the
indestructible and supreme sages. I was born from their pleasure. You were born from their wrath." hearing these words of Brahma Siva cooled down.
(ii)

On

with golden spots,
effulgent
fiery

who had on

his

such Siva took in his hands the sword and raising his shield he swirled the sword
as

the

Sun

forehead an eye as

Rendered Kamadeva
4)
.

bodiless

Kamadeva, Parva
(iii)

(limbless).

See

under

in various directions."

When
7)

Siva, who thus became terrible, walked with the sword amidst the asura army the entire asura forces were annihilated and the Devas came out victorious.
(i)

Daring deeds of Siva. Clash With Visnu. Though there were differences of opinion between Siva and Visnu on many occasions, only very rarely had occurred actual clashes between the two. The Puranas refer to two such important clashes. One has reference to a direct fight Siva fought with Visnu and the other is about Siva's fight with Narayanarsi, an incarnation of Visnu. There was no reason for the direct fight between Siva and Visnu. The Devas wanted to test who was the more powerful of the two, Siva or Visnu, and they told Brahma about the idea By carrying tales to them, one against the other, Brahma made Siva and Visnu mutual enemies. The enmity led to a fight between the two. Visvakarman made a bow for each of the contestants. In the fight between the two Siva got defeated. Siva,
this bow, which Sri Rama broke at the wedding of Slta in a later period. As soon as the fight was over the Devas realised that Visnu was greater than Siva. After the fight Visnu gave his bow to RcTka, the

Bore Gangd on the head. See under Ganga. Consumed Kalakuta. Owing to the curse of Durvasas the Devas were subjected to symptoms of old age, and to produce amrta (nectar) as remedy for this unfortunate development, the churning of Ksirabdhi (ocean of milk) was started. Vasuki, the snake, was used as cord to rotate mount Mandara, which was used as the churning rod. When the churning became very intense, the mortal poison Kalakuta emerged out of Vasuki's mouth. (Another view is held that Kalakuta rose out of the milk-sea) On the emergence of the deadly poison the asuras ran off in great fear, the Devas got bewildered, Bali and Sugrlva too got frightened; and without exhibiting his fright Visnu covered his face; on the whole it appeared as though the entire
(iv)
.

world would be reduced

At

to ashes. Siva, reputed for his reckless daring, put all the Kalakufa into his mouth. Frightened at it Parvati held Siva's throat by her hands so that the poison did not enter his stomach. At the same
this critical

moment,

who got angry at his temporary defeat presented his bow and arrow to Devarata, King of Videha. It was

vomited from Siva's throat got

time Mahavisnu covered with his hands Siva's mouth was not spitted out. Kalakuta thus prevented from going down into the stomach or being
so that the poison

Bhirgava muni. Jamadagni got it from Rcika, and he gave it to Paras urama. It was with this bow that Paraiurama confronted Sri Rama on his way back after wedding Slta. (Valmlki Ramayana, Balakanda,

Nllavarna and Kali Yuddhakanda).
(v)
(vi)

itself digested in the throat giving it a blue colour. Thus did Siva become Nilakantha (of the blue throat). Visnu and Parvati who were affected by the flames of the poison became

respectively.

(Kamba

Ra.ma.yana,
.

The

related in the Anusasana Parva of Mahibhlrata about the fight between Narayanarsi, incarnation of Visnu and Siva. Siva, in great fury, threw his Sula into the Yajna hall of Daksa, and the Sula after reducing the Yajna, to ashes, hit the breast of Narayanarsi, who was doing raised the sound tapas in Badarikas'rama. Narayana 'Hum' as a result of which the Sula returned to Siva's

Canto 75)

.

following story

is

Narayana placed

hands, who, in great anger, rushed forward to Narayana. his hand on Siva's throat with the result

Burned the Tripuras. (See under Tripura). Fought Surya. Siva once plucked out Brahma's head (See under Kapali 1 ), and Brahma cursed Siva that he should beg for food with that head (skull) in his hands. This fierce curse of Brahma affected Siva so much that, in uncontrollable wrath, he beat whomsoever he met. Thousands of Devas and others were killed. Surya, who relished not these atrocities of Siva confronted him with out-stretched hands. Siva held with one hand of his, both the hands of Surya from the fingers of which blood began to flow. Siva turned Surya round and
(vii)
( vii'i)

See under Daksa Para 3) Destroyed Daksa's yajna. Fought ankhacuda. (See under TulasT, Para 5)
.

IVA (RUDRA)

727
his

IVA (RUDRA)
eyes with her hands. At once darkness enveloped the whole world, and when people suffered in the absence of day-light Siva opened his third eye. Himavan began getting burnt by the fire emitted by Parvati got alarmed at this/and woke Siva Siva's eye. up. He closed his third eye and Himavan resumed its

round by his hands with the result that the hands of Surya became short. When Surya became completely drenched in blood Siva let him free and walked to
another side when Surya, laughingly challenged him again to fight. Greatly enraged by the challenge Siva fisted him on the face with the result he lost all his As Surya fell teeth. Also he fell down unconscious. thus Bhaga looked with fierce eyes at Siva, who then struck the former on his face, Both the eyes of Bhaga fell down, and the Devas were alarmed by it. Then all the Adityas, under the leadership of Indra ran off to the ten regions along with the Maruts and Agni. Only prominent asuras like Prahlada remained on the scene. They saluted Siva. Siva surveyed the yaga hall, the Devas and the asuras with his three eyes. All of them then ran away to different places. Siva looked at the three Agnis with his three eyes and they were reduced

anger subsided Surya was installed in former form. (Vamana Purana, Chapter 5) (ix) Fought with Andhaka. See under Andhaka.
.

When
(x

to ashes. Siva's

his

)

were Indras. (Adi Parva, Chapter 199). The Devas once conducted at Naimisaranya a lengthy yajna of which Yama was the manager. In the absence of Yama there was no death on earth. Thus, human beings also, like the Devas, became Amartyas (deathAlarmed at this the Devas submitted their less).
former
life,

Made five

Indras Pandavas.

The Panda vas,

in

their

(Anusasana Parva, Chapter 104) Innumerable people in India Worship of Siva. 8) worship Siva and they follow different forms or systems of worship. There are forms of worship which follow the Vedas and which do not as also forms which are The form of worship called sattvic and which are not. Parasupadam (? Pasupatam) is a very ancient one. It is believed that the paras upadas once honoured and afterwards opposed the Vedas. The Siva linga at the place called Gudamillam is supposed to be as old as the second century B.C. One of the many symbols, which represent Siva, Sivaliriga is the most important. They are of two kinds, the movable and the immovable. The immovable are those which appear by themselves or installed in temples. The movable are those made of earth, stone, timber, gems etc. There are also temporary liiigas, which are placed on stools of various shapes. Lingas are made of he-stones and stools of 'she-stones'. There are also various types of lingas indicative of the different attributes of Siva; for example Lingoclbhava,
.

former shape.

death. TheDevas then returned to Naimisaranya, the scene of their yajna when they saw a woman, lustrous as fire, descending the steps of Ganga to carry water. She was sobbing and each drop of tear that fell into the waters of the river transformed itself into a lotus flower. As deputed by the Devas Indra approached the woman to get facts from her. Indra asked her who she was and why she was weeping.

pacified them by saying that Yama would return as soon as the yajna was over and then men will, as usual be subjected to the process of

grievance to

Brahma who

Gajari,

Jnana, Yoga and Vinadhara. Biksataka, Kapaladharl. Vrsabhavahana and Garigadhara, ArdhanarlSvara Visabhaksaka are other forms of Siva. Rarely is he depicted in the form of Sadar'iva, Mahegvara, Ekadar arudras

in his fierce aspects. Siva is also represented in poses of blessing Candesa, Visnu, Nandlsvara, VighnesVara and Arjuna. He is also presented in various poses of dancing, Daksinamurti is represented in four forms, i.e. Vyakhyana

Candrasekhara, Raudra, Umasahita etc. Kamantaka, Kalari, Tripuradahaka etc. represent the Lord

Vidyefvara andMurtyastaka. There are Agamas descriptive of these forms.

The woman answered him
to the source of the

Visvabhuk, Bhutadhama, Sibi and Santi. The woman whom Indra had followed was Sridevi. Siva blessed that the five Indras, in their next birth, would wed Sridevi. When the Indras saw Mahavisnu after this he also blessed them, and promised them that he would incarnate and help them when they were born as men in their next life. Then Visnu plucked a black and a white hair and put them on earth. The black hair was born as Sri Krsna in Devaki's womb and the white hair as Balabhadrarama in the womb of Rohim. (xi) Kiratarjuniyam. Arjuna once did tapas to Siva, who appeared to him in the garb of a hunter in the forest and presented to him the Pasupata arrow. (For details see under. Arjuna, Para 20) (xii) Fought with Mahifasura. (See under Mahisasura). (xiii) Fought with Vrtrdsura. See under Vrtrasura. (xiv) Burnt Himavdn. Siva once did tapas on the top of Himavan when Parvati came behind him and covered
.

Ganga. Indra followed her. When they had thus walked some distance Siva and Parvati were found in the forest at a game of dice, and Indra, afraid of Siva, ran way. But, Siva called him back and asked him to enter the cave there. When Indra did so after removing the mountain at the entrance of the cave he saw four Indras sitting there. They were called

not, but

walked in

silence,

Ganapati occupies the most prominent place among Devas connected with Siva. Ganapati came to be worshipped from 6-7 centuries B.C. His present idols might have been made after this period. There are many temples dedicated to Ganapati in South India. Chief among the idols are itarhpiri (proboscis
turned to the
left side)

and valampiri (proboscis turned
is

Siva. Being the God who removes obstacles in devotee's path, Ganapati is called Vighnes"vara. universe is contained in his big stomach. Next to Ganapati in importance is Subrahmanya.
is

to the right side).

Ganapati

a physical

aspect

of
the

The

He

worshipped in South India only. Kumara, Muruka, Karttikeya, Skanda, Arumukha. Guha, etc. are some of his popular synonyms There are a number of Subrahmanya temples in Tamil Nadu, many of them on the tops of hills. In North India Subrahmanya temples are rare. But, books written during the Sangha period go to prove that Subrahmanya was worshipped in South India from very olden times. He is depicted in many postures, sitting, with six faces, with only one face, with two hands, with four hands, with wife, wearing the

Now, about

sacred thread etc. Sakti idols. Sakti is the Devi closest to Siva. In South India there are special Sakti temples called SaktipHhalayas. Durga is the most important among

SlVA(RUDRA)

728

SlVA(RUDRA)
Siva for a passage to get into the pool. Siva "Oh! Before this even though you sat in water, one crore yojanas in depth, it came only up to your thighs. But, now though you are on your legs you say you cannot enter the water. Look here, the water comes only up to my thighs. You may descend into it. I shall see

the manifestations of Sakti. There are idols of Durgas as standing in the lotus flower and also as mounted on the lion. Agamas refer to nine kinds or forms of Durga
i.e.

Visnu

!

called

Nilakanthi, Ksemahkari, Harasiddhi, Raudra, Vana, Agni, Jaya, Vindhyavasini, and Ripunagini. Durga's most terrible form is as Mahisasura-mardini, found at Mahabalipuram, Ellora and other places. Durga is also

to
I

it

that
:

Candika and Katyayani. Durga

you can step

into the water.

A

Vedic saying

is

worshipped as

Nanda, Bhadrakali, Amba, Rajamatarigi etc. Thousand Caturyugas constitute 9) Siva's life-period. one day of Brahma. According to the Puranas fourteen Indras fall dead from heaven during the life time of one Brahma. Two such life times of Brahma form one life time of Visnu; at the end of the period he too will
expire. Siva's life time is double that of Visnu, according to Devi Bhagavata, 5th Skandha. (For details see

under Manvantara)
1

.

0)

11)
12)

names of Siva are mentioned mainly in Chapter 285 of Santi Parva and Chapter 17 of Anusasana Parva of Mahabharata. There are substantial differences between
the two

Sahasranamas (thousand names] of Siva.

Siva and creation of the universe. See under Creation Maya Siva. ( See under Maya iva )
.

)

.

The thousand

14) Rudras. The EkadaJarudras, viz. Mrgavyadha, Sarpa, Nirrti, Ajaikapat, Ahirbudhnya, Pinaki, Isvara, Kapali, Sthanu and Bharga are the sons of Siva. (Adi Parva, Chapter 66) Sivabhasma (Ashes worn by Siva] The Puranas 15) contain many references to the great power of Sivabhasman. The following story about even Visnu turning out to be a devotee of Siva on account of the sanctity of Sivabhasma is related in Chapter 101, Patalakhanda of Padma Purana.
.

Para 6).

13)

of names. Asvatthamd and Siva.
lists

(See

under Agvatthama

In the beginning or during the Brahmapralaya (deluge) Mahavisnu was lying in the great waters of the deluge. On both sides of Visnu hundred universes each and on both sides of his feet and at the centre of hishead twenty universes each remained attached. One universe glowed as a gem on Visnu's nose. Maharsis like Lomasa did tapas seated on his navel. Meanwhile Visnu sat in deep meditation ready for creation. But, he did not find anything and began, therefore, sobbing. Then appeared an extra-mundane light at which he got frightened and closed his eyes. Siva, rotating in both his hands a garland each made of a crore of universes appeared before Visnu. He then stood up and enquired of the visitor who he was. Siva exhibited his form. Siva told Visnu that he had not attained sufficient wisdom for creation and also advised him to achieve enough knowledge by first taking the Varuna bath and then the

Visnu Nobody can step on sound. One may ascend on what is material, i.e. with form; but, how could one step on that which is formless? Siva: Why can you not get hold of that which is and ascend ? You receive this great Veda. Visnu received it, but it appeared that his hands were not strong enough to hold it. Siva smiled at the inability of Visnu and asked him to get down into water by the steps made of Veda and when Visnu descended the steps into the water, it came only up to his thighs. He had his bath and then asked Siva what he should do "What do you feel in your mind? Is it next. Siva: that you do not feel anything" I feel not anything. Visnu: Siva Jf you get sanctified by bhasmasnana you will receive the ultimate knowledge. I shall give you the bhasma. Siva took a pinch of bhasma from his breast and chanting the Gayatrl and pancaksara (Om namai'Sivaya) mantras sprinkled it all over the body of Visnu. He also said to Visnu, "You live, you meditate, now what do you feel in your mind?" Visnu meditated whereupon he saw a very bright light in his heart. When he told Siva that a light was being seen by him the latter said that his knowledge was not mature enough and asked him to eat some bhasma so that it might become perfect. Visnu accordingly consumed the bhasma, and colour became lo he, who was till then red-blue in
:

recite will serve as the step."

!

felt happy and contented having seen Siva, asked the former what it was he saw in his mind just then. Answering that he saw the blissful form of Siva before him Visnu fell at the latter's feet. To Siva's query as to what boon he desired to have, Visnu replied that he wanted to become a devotee of Siva and because of the greatness of the bhasma Visnu thenceforward became a devotee of Siva.

be called as white as pearl. He began to (white in colour) from that day onwards.

Suklavarna

Mahavisnu

who

.

Bhasma

bath.

Visnu answered by saying that there was nowhere water .enough for him to bathe, and he, who was closely surrounded by universe's, sat in water. But, it came only up to his thighs. Then Siva said laughingly that there was enough water for Visnu to bathe and cast a glance at him with his (Siva) eye on the forehead and also his left eye. And, immediately Visnu's body became very small and it began to shiver. Then Siva said as follows:- "Oh! Visnu here is deep water. you may bathe in it. But Visnu could not get into the tremendous pool created on Siva's lap. So, he requested
this
!

To

is a Sivaliriga Worship of 16) Sivalinga (Phallus). India. The Puranas contain a in popular practice number of stories about the importance Sivalinga achieved so as to make it an object of worship. Three of the more important stories are given below: Siva wandered about the world lamenting over the (i) death of Satldevi at the Yajfta conducted by Daksa, and Kamadeva followed him with his erotic arrows to exploit Siva's sorry predicament. During his wanderings Siva once came to the Vindhya mountain. Kamadeva followed him there too and began attacking Siva with his arrows and to escape from the fierce onslaught Siva

took refuge in the terrible Daru forest. There MaharSiva saluted them and resis with their wives lived. for alms. But, the Maharsis only kept mum. They quested did not like their wives saluting Siva. Siva went about the a 'ram a and all the women except Arundhati and Anasuya, followed him overcome by lust for him. Enraged at this, munis like Bhargava and Angiras cursed

SIVA (RUDRA)

729

SIVA (RUDRA)
The women were overcome by
lust

Siva that his phallus should drop to the ground. Immediately it fell down and Siva disappeared. The phallus rent asunder the earth, reached Patala and rent the universe also. The whole universe shook at which Brahma met Visnu at Patala and enquired of him the reason for the universal upheaval. Visnu answered him that the world shook because of the weight of Siva's phallus, which the maharsis had caused to be dropped. Then Brahma, along with Visnu, came to the spot where Siva's phallus lay. At the sight of the limitless phallus Visnu, in great wonder, descended to Patala mounted on Garuda. Brahma, on his plane, toured above. Both Visnu and Brahma returned to earth, having failed in their attempt to find the end of the phallus. They then praised Siva, who appeared to them. They requested him to take back his phallus from the earth. Siva insisted that he would do so only if the
to worship his phallus. Visnu agreed to Brahma took the phallus, golden suggestion. in colour. Thereafter Mahavisnu created brassy the four castes and various :'astraic texts for each of the castes to worship the phallus. The four texts are known as Saivam, Pasupatam, Kaladamanam and Kapalikam. After making the above arrangements Brahma and Visnu returned. Siva took back his phallus. (Vamana

and one of them

caught hold of his neck, another of his hands, another of his knees, another of his hair and yet another of his waist. Seeing the excitement of their wives the mahar'Strike him' and struck down his phallus sis cried, with sticks and stones. As soon as the phallus was thus felled down, Siva disappeared from the spot and returned to Kailasa with Parvati. When the phallus fell down the whole universe shook and the maharsis were alarmed. A very intelligent "We know not the real maharsi among them said facts about the great ascetic. Let us take refuge in
:

Devas agreed

He may know the facts." Accordingly the maharsis went to Brahma, who found fault with their ignorance and indiscretion and asked them to shed their anger and please Siva. Accordingly they went to Kailasa and praised Siva, who appeared to them and
Brahma.
told

them

as follows

:

the

be pleased if you would duly install it. Nothing will be impossible to those who worship my phallus with devotion. Even will be removed by the sins consciously committed
phallus
will

"You may now
I

return.

The

belong to you.

shall

worship of my phallus.
struck

You

down

in

the great

Purana, Chapter 6) (ii) Eightyeight thousand Balakhilyas were born from the mind of Brahma. They emaciated their bodies by
.

will achieve for you all will worship it under the name 'Sthanu'. ed at Sthanvis'vara it will be known as

install the phallus you pond of Sannihita. That your desires. Even the Devas

constant baths, fasting and worship of Siva. Though they worshipped Siva thus for one thousand divya years, he did not appear in front of them. Afterwards, when Parvati was travelling by sky one day, the latter saw and took pity on the Balakhilyas and told Siva thus: "These maharsis are suffering like anything. For my sake, you should put an end to their sufferings. Has their evil fate no end? They are reduced to mere skin and bones, and yet they are denied realisation." Smilingly Siva told Parvati as follows "You do not know the real course of righteousness. These people do not understand righteousness; they are not free from lust and anger. They are mere fools." At these words of Siva, Parvati told him thus: If things be as you have
said please

SthanvKvara Constant meditation upon Sthanu will remove also. The sight of Sthanu will bring about salvaall sins.
tion." After this
to

Being

install-

show

me

their nature, I feel interested.

Then

some youth, wearing the Vanamala garland on his head, holding the alms bowl in his hands and completely in the nude and requested for alms. The Womenfolk of the Advaitins were much attracted by the handsome youth and came to him with a lot of fruits, roots of alms. Siva wished them good and etc. by way Parvati espied her smiling lord from her seat. After giving him alms the women spoke to him as "Oh follows what penance are you anchorite, practising ? You have no clothes on you, but you wear Vanamala. You are a handsome sannyasl. If you have no objection, please tell us about you." The sannyasl (Siva) answered them by saying that his was a very secret penance and could not be imparted to others. Especially in the presence of so many others it could not be revealed. So, you may please go. But, the women said that they wished very much to hear the secret, and they caught hold of his hands saying 'Come'.
: !

Siva asked Parvati to remain where she was, telling her that he would go to the Balakhilyas and show her how they behaved. Accordingly Siva went to them. Siva approached the Balakhilyas in the guise of a hand-

maharsis, along with Brahma, returned phallus to Sannihita. But, they could not move it even by an iota. They returned again to Kailasa, but could not see Siva there. When Brahma sat in meditation for sometime to know where Siva was, he saw in his mind Siva, in the guise of an elephant, standing in the stream praised by munis. Immediately Brahma and others went there, but missed Siva there. But Parvati appeared there and served them amrta (nectar). When they had consumed the nectar they saw Siva standing in the stream, and they spoke about their difficulties to him. Siva, in the guise of the elephant, accompanied them to the Daru forest where he, in sport, took the phallus by his proboscis and installed it on the banks of the stream. All those who witnessed the installation attained ultimate realisation. Upon the phallus thus installed Brahma built another phallus with stone. After a period that phallus became one with the effulgence of the first phallus. Those who saw that also achieved ultimate realisation. Immediately Brahma built, for the pleasure of the Devas, seven phalluses one upon the other, and sages attained ultimate realisthe dust of the ation by smearing their bodies with

Dam

the

forest to carry the

The spot where the phallus was installed became famous by the name Sthanutlrtha. (Vamana
phalluses.

Purana, Chapter 45). beginning Brahma entrusted Siva with (iii) In the the duty of creation and to earn the power for creation he lived under water for many generations. Siva having not returned though Brahma waited for him

long, the latter created the prajapatis and got done by them all creations. Then it was that Siva, having acquired all the more power, came out of water. Siva who got angry that all creations were effected in his

SIVA (RUDRA)
absence
earth.
his phallus and threw it into the said that, since matters of creation had been managed by Brahma, he needed the phallus no further. The phallus thus thrown by Siva stuck to the earth

730
study of theses
(56)

SIVA (RUDRA)
Visited

He

plucked

northern

Wedded

Halasya
(initiation

and remained pointed upwards. Next, Siva performed a dance of annihilation among the Devas .Ultimately, on the request of the Devas Siva deposited his fire of wrath in water It is that fire which dries up water in seas, When Siva had shed his anger and become rivers etc. quiet the Devas worshipped the phallus, which had stuck to the earth, and thenceforth worship of Siva's phallus became popular. (M.B. Sauptika Parva, Chap.

minister called Vatapuresa (59) Sold magic horses to the Pandyan King (60) River made bigger (61) Carried mud for pancakes (62) Cured the fever and hunch-back of Kubja Pandya (63) Made Jnanasambandhar kill the naked ones on

fisher-girl (58) knowledge) given to the

Jnfmadiksa

(57) into

Madhura
5). 18) Bull

theSula (64) Brought
as

tree,

tank,

Sivalinga

etc.

to

witnesses.

(Halasyamahatmya, Chapter

of Siva.

Surabhi.

Cows were born on earth from The foam of milk which flowed like sea

1

ter 17). 7) Sivalilas

from cows

(

Sports of Siva)
sin.

.

The Puranas

refer to

the

following sixtyfour

lilas (sports)

Building of Madhurapura in Kadamba forest. (4) Parvat! born as Tatataka. (5) Pandyadeva wedded Dance before sage Patanjali (7) KundoTatataka. (6) dara granted power to consume much rice (8) Quenched Kundodara's hunger and thirst with rice etc. and waters of river Vaiga ( 9 ) Brought the seven seas near to please his wife (10) Brought Malayadhvaja down to earth from Devatoka (11) Created the son called Ugra (12) Ugra given three weapons like Sula (13) Removed the sea from his side (14) Broke the crown oflndra (15) Ugrapandya given gold from Mahameru the maharsis the meaning of Vedas ( ( 16) Taught 17) Sold gems to the King to make a crown (18) Made the clouds drink water from the ocean (19) Stopped excessive rain-fall (20) Exhibited the prowess of realisation (21) Made 'stone-elephant' eat sugar-cane (22) Killed the elephant which a Buddha sannyasin had sent after being subjected to black magic (23) Blessed a brahmin girl (24) Did various kinds of dances (25) Brought to light and proved the death of brahmin woman (26) Annihilated the evil or sin of having slept with the mother and killed the father (27) Killed Siddha to save the wife of preceptor, who taught archery (28) Made the snakes sent by Buddha sannyasins poisonless (29) Killed cows sent by the same sannyasins (30) Exhibited innumerable soldiers to save the commander-in-chief of the Pandya army (31) Gave the Pandya King a money-bag, which would never become empty (32) Disguised himself as a VaiSya and sold bangles (33) Granted astasiddhis to Yaksis. (34) Opened the door of the temple for the Cola King (35) Supplied water to the Pandyan army De(36) Converted base metals into gold etc. (37) feated the Cola King ( 38) Gave a Sudra a vessel filled with gingelly seeds (39) A Vaisya boy given victory in a suit (40) Redeemed the Pandya King from the sin of brahmahatya (41) Carried firewood to save the devotee named Bhadra (42) Wrote a letter to the Cera King on behalf of Bhadra (43 ) Bhadra presented with a plank (44) Bhadra's wife granted victory in nagavidya (45) Assumed the form of pork and saved the small offsprings (46) Small pork made minister (47) A Khanjarlta bird was taught the mrtyunjaya mantra so that it could escape from the attack of crows (48) A Sarari bird granted salvation (49) Boundaries of Madhurapura shown by serpent (50) Defeated the Cola King (51) Dravidian scholars given the Sarhgham plank (52) Wrote a verse for a brahmin at the instance of the Pandya King (53) Saved Nakkira (54) Nakklra
(

redeemed from
3)

of Siva. (1) Devendra (2) Airavata redeemed from sin.

Sri

rose into waves and fell in Sivabhumi (Siva land). Siva did not like it. He opened his third eye and looked at the cows. The flames from the eye caused different colours to the cows. The cows took refuge with Candra. But, the fire of Siva's eye followed the cows there abo. At last the Prajapatis pacified Siva and presented him a bull for vehicle. From that

day onwards Siva came to be known as Vrsabhavahana and Vrsabhanka also. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 77)
.

1

(iv) Siva once presented an armour to Indra. (Drona Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 61 ). (v) When the battle with the Tripuras reached its climax in intensity Siva mounted the Bull and looked at the capital of the asuras. As a result of the fiery look the breasts of cows were cut and their hoofs rent into two. The hoofs of cattle came to be cleft from that day onwards. (Karna Parva, Chapter 34, Verse 105). (vi) Living beings are kept healthy by the kindness of
Siva. (Sauptika Parva, Chapter 18, Verse 20). the penal code in (vii) It was Siva, who organised
(viii)

because of the (i) The son Suka was born to Vyasa blessing of Siva. (Devi Bhagavata, 1st Skandha) (ii) During the period of emperor Prthu when the Devas made the earth a cow and milked resources, Siva served as calf. (Drona Parva, Chapter 69, Verse 24). (iii) Siva occupies a seat in Kubera's court. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 21 ).
.

9)

Other information.

the

world. (Santi Parva, Chapter 59, Verse 80).

Once

in the

war between the Devas and the
.

Asuras Siva gave refuge to Sukracarya. ( Santi Parva, Chapter 389, Verse 36) (ix) Siva performed the thread- wearing ceremony of Suka, the son of Vyasa. (Santi Parva, Chapter 248, Verse 19). (x) On the occasion when Siva burnt Tripuras and their city to ashes they saw him as a boy with five horns. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 160, Verse 32).
(xi) There is a story in Santi Parva of Mahabharata about Siva's bringing back to life the dead child of a brahmin. The story was told by Bhisma to Yudhisthira. The brahmin took his dead child to the burning ghat when a fox asked him to wait at least till dusk to see

At the same time a if the child would regain life. vulture, which came there pointed out to the brahmin that the dead never came back to life and asked him to leave the dead body there and return home. As advised by the fox and the vulture the brahmin took to the burning ghat and took back from there the dead body of his child. Parvati took pity on the brahmin and as

taught sutras

(aphorisms)

(55)

Made

a comparative

The

requested by her Siva brought the child back to life. logic and reasoning advanced by the fox and the

SIVA

I

731

SlVASARMAN
worshipped. Then chanting the mantra 'Ham, hum, ham Sivamurtaye' Siva is to be worshipped. Siva is to be worshipped with angas (with limbs, touching certain portions of the body) and with Vaktra (mouth, chanting). Angas are to be worshipped with the chanting, Haum Sivaya haum' Vaktra with the chanting 'Ham GaurT should be worshipped with the bija Isanaya'. 'Hrlm', Ganapati with 'Gam' and Dikpalas like Indra, his arrows and Candesvara should be worshipped by touching the heart etc. of the worshipper. (Agni Purana,

vulture for their selfish ends is famous under the name Grdhragoinayusarhvada. (xii) The following words are used in the Maha.bha.rata as synonyms of Siva
:

Aja, Ambikapati, Anangaiigahara,
ghatl, Andhakanipati, Atharva,

Ananta, AndhakaBahurupa, Bhagaghna,

Bhava, Bhavaghna, Bhlma, Sankara, Sarva, Sitikantha, Smasanavasi, Srlkantha, Sukra, Sulabhrt, Suladhara, Suladhrk, Sulahasta, Sulaiika, Sulapani, Suli, Daksakratuhara, Dhanvi, Dhruva, Dhurjati, Digvasas, Divyagovrsabhadhvaja, Ekaksa, Ganadhyaksa, Ganesa, Gaurisa, Gaurihrdayavallabha, Girlsa, Govrsarika, Govrsabhadhvaja, Govrsottamavahana, Hara, Haryaksa, Jatadhara, Jatila, Jati, Kamariganasana, Kapah, Kapardi, Khatvangadhari, Krttivasas, Kumarapita,
Lelihana, Mahadeva, Mahaganapati, Mahayogi, Mahesvara, Mahisaghna, Makhaghna, Midhvan, Mrgavyadha, Munindra, Nandisvara, Nisacarapati, NllagrTva, Nllakantha, Nilalohita, Pa&ubharta
Lalataksa,

SlVARATRl.
1 )

Chapter 21).
General. Sivaratrl
is

on the eve of New moon day (Caturdasi) falling in the middle of Magha and Phalguna (February-March). During this night, penance should be done with fasting. On Caturdasi day penance (vrata) should be observed without sleep and food and Siva worshipped. 2) Origin. There is the following Puranic story about

a holy day.

Sivaratrl

is

observed

Pinakadhrk, PaSupati, Pinakagopta, Pinakahasta, Pinakapani, Pinaki, Pingala, Prajapati, Rudra, Rsabhaketu, Sarva, Sarvayoges varesvara, Sthanu, Trisulahasta, Trisulapani, Trilocana, Trinayana, Trinetra, Tripuraghati, Tripuraghna, Tripuraharta, Tripuramardana, Tripuranasana, Tripurantaka, Tripurantakara, Tripurardana, Tryaksa, Tryambaka, Ugra, Ugre a, Umapati, Visalaksa, Vilohita, Virupaksa, Vrsabhadhvaja, Vrsabhanka, Vrsabhavahana, Vrsaketana, Vrsavahana, Yamya, Yati, Yogas' vara.
(xiii)

Brahma took

and was answered 'I am Visnu, your father'. That answer did not satisfy Brahma and a quarrel ensued between him and Visnu which ended in fighting. Brahma shot the Brahmastra, which Visnu countered with Pas upatastra and neither of the two was able to withdraw it, which went round the world. While both

the origin of the observance of Sivaratri as a sacred day. his birth in the lotus that originated from the navel of Visnu. Brahma trying to know the source of the lotus saw Visnu only. He asked, 'Who are you?'

Names of Siva. Sambhu, Isa, Pasupati, Siva, Mahesvara, Isvara, Sarva, ISana, Sankara, Candrasekhara, Bhutesa, Girlsa, Khandaparas'u, Girisa, Mrda, Mrtyunjaya, Krttivasas, Pinaki, Pramathadhipa, Ugra, Kapardi, Srikantha, Sitikantha.KapalaSuli,

bhrt,

Vamadeva, Mahadeva,
Sarvajfia,

Virupaksa,

Trilocana,

Hara, Tripurantaka, Bharga, Tryambaka, Gaiigadhara, Antakaripu, Kratudhvarhsl, Vrsadhvaja, Vyomakesa, Bhava, Bhima, Sthanu, Rudra, Umapati, Mahanata. Ahirbudhnya, Astamurti, Gajari,
Krsanuretas,
Dhurjati,
Nilalohita,

Smarahara,

known

stood aghast not knowing what to do, Sivalinga appeared betwixt the two. Both the ends of the linga were invisible. To find the ends Brahma went upwards and Visnu downwards. Though they travelled a great distance they could not find out the ends, and, so, returned to their old seats. Immediately Siva appeared betwixt the two and withdrew the pagupatastra. It was on Caturdasi day in the month of Magha that Siva thus appeared. Siva that in future Caturdasi night every year enjoined should be observed as a holy day, which should be
as Sivaratri.

SlVA

(Amarako'a). SlVA. I Wife of Angiras. Consumed by lust she once slept with Agnideva and then flew away in the form of a she-kite. (Vana Parva, Chapter 225). SlVA II. Wife of the Vasu called Anila and mother of two sons called Manojava and Avijnatagati. (Adi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 25)
.

III.

The very noble
1 )

SlVA

Chapter 225 Verse
IV.

wife of Angiras.

(Vana Parva,
Puranas.

A

river in India

made famous
9,

in the

Verse 25). One of the seven sectors of Plaksa island. Sivam SlVA(M) Yavasam, Subhadram, Santam, Moksam, Amrtam and Abhayam are the seven sectors. (Bhagavata, 5th Skandha. SlVABHASMA. See under Siva, Para 15. SlVAJVARA. See under Visnujvara. SlVALI&GA. See under Siva, Para 16.

(Bhlsma Parva, Chapter

SIVAPUJA (SlVA WORSHIP). There

ctions with regard to the worship of Siva.

Dharma be worshipped.
powers)
i.e.

NandikeSaand Mahakala are to be worshipped first. Then should Gariga, Yamuna, the ganas, Vastupurusa, Sakti, and

are certain injun-

river Sindhu. The boy grew up to be an immoral fellow and he married a Candala girl with whom he lived for seven years. Five daughters and two sons were born to him of the Candala woman. The father, Sukumara, himself married the daughters. One day he, in the course of his search for a flower to be worn on the hair of the Candala woman, came near the Siva temple called Nagesvara. A Sivaratri festival was being celebrated there that day and Sukumara, participated in it. Shortly afterwards Sukumara died. Messengers of Kala and Siva arrived to carry off his soul and a battle ensued between the two for the soul. His soul attained Sivaloka as he had, though by accident, participated in

3) The greatness of Sivaratri. The following story about a sinner, who attained Sivaloka by observing Sivaratri is related in Sivaratrimahatmya. A son named Sukumara was born to the Brahmin manager of the king of Kunjara, a kingdom on the banks of

(Kannassa Ramayana).

SlVASARMAN. A

Sivaratri festival.

Next, the navasaktis (nine Varna, Jyesjha., Raudn, Kali, Kalavikarini (Kalavikalini) Balavikarim (Balavikalini) Balapramathini, SarvabhutadamanT and Manonmam should be

sarman, Dharmasarman, Visnu:' arman and SomaSarman, all of them deeply devoted to their father. The father decided to test the devotion of each of the sons.

brahmin well-versed in all sastras Sivasarman, who lived in Dvaraka had, by (sciences). his wife GunavatI five sons called YajnaSarman, Veda-

SIVASARMAN
Sivasarman had, due to Siva's blessing, achieved all kinds of siddhis (spiritual gifts). By the power of illusion he showed the sons their mother lying dead and all the sons wept uncontrollably. Then he asked his eldest son Yajnasarman, to cut the dead body of his mother into pieces and throw thenfoff. After having done so he came and saluted his father. After bidding adieu to Yajnasarman, who proved his devotion to his father as above, Sivasarman called his second son Vedasarman to him and told him thus: "I find it difficult to get on without a woman. Look, there is a beautiful woman there endowed with all qualifications. (And he created such a woman by illusion). You go and fetch her to me." Vedasarman, after saluting his father went to the woman and requested her to become the wife of his father. But, the woman did not want to become the wife of an old man, and she told Vedasarman that she would love him, and not his father, to have as her husband. He shuddered to be told thus, and by the power of his tapas he got down Indra and other Devas on earth and showed them to her. She then told him in indifferent tone the following: "Yes, I have seen the prowess of your tapas. But, I have nothing to do with Devas. If you want me as wife for your father, please cut off your head with your own hands

732

SKANDAGRAHA
upon

down her, he hurried forward. But, she jumped from her seat, blocked his path and made enquiries about him. She also tried to make love to him. But, Visnusarman turned down her overtures of love. At this stage Indra adopted many magical tricks to frighten away the unwelcome visitor. Angered by such attempts Visnusarman got ready to destroy Devaloka along with handed Indra, who then begged pardon of him and

for my pleasure." Vedasarman drew his sword and very happily cut off his head and presented it to the woman. She came to Sivasarman and requested him to accept his son's head, which he (son) had voluntarily cut off for the sake of his father. The other sons of Sivasarman shuddered at the sight of their brother's head. They told among themselves thus "Our mother entered eternal Samadhi, but this brother of ours, who courted death on behalf of father is really blessed." Then Sivasarman asked his third son DharmaSarman to receive his brother's head. He received it and went out with it and prayed to Dharmadeva, who,
:

gave the nectar to his father the latter asked him to choose any boon he wanted, and according to his request the father brought back to life Gunavatl. Now Sivasarman very much pleased with his sons sent the first four of them to Visnuloka. He decided to live for some time more on earth with his youngest son, and he told the latter that he was going on a pilgrimage and asked him to keep the pot of nectar with him. The son kept it very carefully for ten years. Now Siva'arman with his wife returned from pilgrimage. By magic he had become a leper, and made his wife also a leper. Somasannan, his youngest son felt pained that his parents had fallen victims to such a fell disease and served them with meticulous care in every way. He foresaw their wants and desires and satisfied them to the full. Yet, the father lost temper with the son and used even to fist him. But, the son did not lose his temper in any manner and to the least degree. He continued to serve his parents most cheerfully. A century was over in this manner. The parents were greatly satisfied and pleased with their son, and ultimately the father cast one more illusion on the son. After stealing away by magic the nectar from the pot, he asked the son for it. When Somasarman looked into the pot for nectar, to his horror it was missing. But, he
took the pot to his father saying to himself, 'Let there be nectar in it if I am truthful, if I have served my elders well and if I have observed pure tapas', and lo the pot was filled with nectar. Sivasarman blessed his son, and by the power of his yoga ascended to Vaikuntha in the company of his wife. After this Soma'arman began practising the most intense form of tapas. When the time for his death was near asuras approached him. Fear about asuras gripped him, who was in deep meditation, and as he breathed his last thinking about asuras he was born in his next
!

When Visnusarman

over to him a pot

full

of nectar.

had brought as his father's wife. Then Vedasarman and Dharmasarman returned to their father, and Dharmasarman told the father about his bringing back to life his dead brother. Though the father felt very happy
about the great devotion of
his son

appearance, was requested to restore Vedasarman to life. Dharmadeva did so, and the first question asked by Vedasarman, who returned to life as though awakened from sleep, was about the woman, whom he
his

on

he did not answer

life

him

deputed Menaki to make him withdraw from the plan. Immediately Menaka put on her best clothes and singing sweet music occupied the hanging seat in Nandanavana, and Visnu'arman lost not a minute to divine the object of her presence. Without even casting a look

Sivasarman fell into contemplation for sometime and then told his fourth son, Visnusarman as follows: "You go immediately to Indraloka and bring amrta (nectar) for me to drink along with this woman. Nectar removes diseases. Now, this woman has no interest in me. It is only natural that young, beautiful women will feel no love towards an old man and unless I regain my youth this woman of mine may sleep with others. You, my son, should act in such a manner that I can enjoy life with this woman in all the three worlds. As soon as he heard his father, Visnusarman, by the power of his tapas ascended to the sky and started for Indraloka. Being told about the object of his visit Indra

(son).

Visnu

Purana, Bhumi Khanda). great poet in Sanskrit in the court of king Avantivarman, who ruled Kashmir between 854 and 884 A.D. Only one poem by him, Kapphinabhyudayam, composed on the model of Kiratarjunlyam, has been unearthed yet. SlVODBHEDA. A sacred spot. One, who lives here taking the holy bath will derive the benefit of making a gift of a thousand cows. (Vana Parva, Chapter 82) SlYALI. A Puranic place in Tanjore District in South India. Indra once fled to this place in fear of the asura

as Prahlada, son of Hiranyaka' ipu and got killed by in the war between Devas and Asuras. (Padma

SlVASVAMl. A

.

called

Surapadma

and

did

tapas

there.

(Skanda

SKANDA.

Subrahmanya. (For further details see under Subrahmanya). SKANDAGRAHA. An evil spirit which afflicts boys upto the age of sixteen. It is mentioned in Mahabharata,

Purana).

Vana

Parva,

Chapter 230, Stanza 43, that

this

spirit

SKANDAPASMARA
is

733

SOMADATTA

III

also

known by

the

name Matrkagraha
would

or Purusa-

SOMA

II.

One

of the eight Vasus.

The

eight Vasus

are

SKANDAPASMARA. A demon
of Subrahmanya.

graha.

This

derived from the body enter the womb of
in

of Dhrtarastra. This serpent was burnt to death in the sacrificial fire of the serpent sacrifice of Janamejaya. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 18). SKANDHAKSA. A warrior of Subrahmanya. (Maha-

pregnant women and afflict the child (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 230, Verse SKANDHA. A naga (serpent) born in

the

womb.

26). the family

Apa, Dhruva, Soma, Dharma, Anila, Agni, Pratyusa and Prabhasa. (Visnu Purana, Arhsa 1.15). SOMA III. A son of Jarasandha. It is stated in Bhagavata, Skandha 9, that Jarasandha had four sons named Soma, Sahadeva, Turya and Sruta;'ru. SOMA. A celestial maid. This celestial beauty performed a dance at the birth festival of Arjuna. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 122, Verse 61) SOMA. Juice extracted from Soma creeper. It is be.

SLESMAKA

bharata, Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 60)

.

was when Visravas, the grandson of Brahma and Kaikasi, the daughter of Sumali were living in this Kumbhakarna, Vibhisana and forest, that Ravana, were born to them. (Kamba Ramayana, Surpanakha Purva Kanda). SLISTI. Son of Dhruva. Dhruva had two children married Slisti and Succhaya by his wife Sambhu. Slisti Five sons, Ripu, Ripunjaya, Punya, Vrkala Succhaya. and Vrkatejas. were born to them. Ripu, the eldest of them, was the father of Caksusa Manu, according to Harivarh a, Chapter 2. SMARADCrl. A maid of Vrnda, the wife of Jalandhara. (Padma Purana 3:9). SMR.TI. The sovereign deity of remembrance. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 64, that this goddess Smrti had walked in front of the army of Subrahmanya. Smrti was the wife of Angiras. Four daughters, named Siniva.li. Kuhu, Rakfi and Anumati, were born to Angiras by his wife Smrtidevi. (Visnu Purana, Arhsa 1, Chapter 10). SNANA. Bathing. The Puranas have ordered six kinds of bathing. They are Nitya snana (daily bath), Naimittika snana (incidental bath), Kamya snana (Desirable) Kriya snana (ceremonial) Kriyanga snana (bathing only the limbs used for rites) and Malakarsana snana (Bathing to drag out excrements). (Agni Purana, Chapter 155) SOBHANA. Son-in-law of Mucukunda. (See Para 3 under Mucukunda).
,
,
.

(M).

(&LESMATAKAM). A

SOMADA. A
see

lieved that the devas accept

Soma

in sacrifices.

Gandharva damsel. (For
.

further

details

forest,

it

SOMADATTA I. A
:

under Cull)

Descended from Visnu in the following Genealogy. order Brahma-Marlci-Kasyapa-Vivasvan-Vaivasvata Manu-Iksvaku-Dista-Nabhaga - Phalantana-VatsaprltiPramsu - Pramati - Khanitra- Caksusa-Rambha- Kaninetra -Karandhama-Aviksit-Marutta-Dama - Rajyavar-

King of the Iksvaku dynasty.

dhana

-Sudhrti- Nara-Kevala - Bandhuman-Vegavan Trnabindu-Alambusa-Visala-Hemacandra- Dhumraksa

SOMADATTA
SOMADATTA
1
)

He was the great grandson of Srnjaya and the grandson of Sahadeva. The father of Somadatta was Krsasva. (Valmiki
Ramayana, Sarga
III.

Srnjaya-Sahadeva-Krsasva-Somadatta. A King of Pancala. II.

47)

.

This General information. Balhika and the grandson of

A King

of the

Kuru

named

Bhuri,
details.

Bhurisravas

King was the son of King Pradlpa. Three sons and Sala were born to

dynasty.

Somadatta.
2) Other

and his sons were present at the (i) Somadatta Svayamvara marriage of Draupadl. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Verse 14). Somadatta had participated in the royal consecra(ii) tion sacrifice of Yudhisthira. (M.B. Chapter 34, Verse
8).

SODARYAVAN. A
chariot fight at the
this

chariot of Indra.

The

was that two chariot-fighters could sit and same time in (his. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 24, Verse 12, that Indra had, sitting in this chariot, killed ninetynine asuras (demons). This chariot passed hands from Indra to Uparicaravasu from him to Brhadratha, and from this King to Jarasandha, on whose death, Indra took possession of it again. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 24, Verse 48). SODASARAJAKA. The story of sixteen famous Kings related by Vyasa to Yudhisthira who, after the death of Abhimanyu in the war became averse to fighting. The Kings were (1 ) Marutta (2) Suhotra (3) Paurava (4) Sibi (5) Sri Rama (6) Bhaglratha (7) DilTpa (8) Mandhata (9) Yayati ( 10) Ambarlsa(ll) Sasabindu (12)Gaya(13) Rantideva (14) Bharata (15)Prthu (16) Para'iurama. (Drona Parva, 16 Chapters from
;

peculiarity of

This Somadatta was present at the Svayamvara At that time there occurred a hand to hand fight between Sini and Somadatta. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 11 4, Verse 14).
(iii)

of Devaki.

(iv)

The

defeat from Sini being unbearable,
to

did penance

appeared before him. Somadatta made the following a son who would request :- "God May I be granted be powerful enough to kick down the son of Sini in his
!

get

power

to

Somadatta him and Siva vanquish

was the palace." Siva granted his wish. Bhuri!ravas son born in conformity with this boon. He grew up and defeated the son of Sini and kicked him in the in Mahabharata, palace of the King. This story occurs

Drona Parva, Chapter 144. and Bhimasena (v) Somadatta fought against Satyaki in the battle of Bharata and fell down unconscious. (Drona Parva, Chapter 157, Verse 10).
followed this, Satyaki killed (vi) In the battle which Somadatta. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 162, Verse
33).
(vii)
It
is

SOMA
Agni

165).
I

mentioned

in

Mahabharata, Asramavasika

given birth to two sons Soma and daughter named Rohinl. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 221, Verse 15).
wife Nisa,

A

son born

to

fire

who had

Bhanu by

his

third

Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 17, that Dhrtarastra performed the sacrifice of giving offerings to the spirit of

and a

Somadatta.
(viii)

Somadatta was one of the

spirits

which appeared

SOMADHEYA
SOMADHEYA. An
is

734

SRADDHAVATI
fruits

on the surface of the Ganges when invoked by Vyasa. (M.B. Asramavasika Parva, Chapter 32, Verse 12).
mentioned
ancient country in east Bharata.
It

in

30, Verse 10,
this country.

Mahabharata, Sabha. Parva, Chapter that Bhlmasena defeated the people of

SOMAGIRI. A

SOMAKA
SOMAKA
1)

mountain. This mountain ought to be thought of every morning and evening. (M.B, Santi Parva, Chapter 165, Verse 33)
.

I.

It

is

mentioned in Mahabharata,

Adi

Parva, Chapter 122, Verse 40, that all the Ksatriyas of the Somaka dynasty are called Somakas.
II.

General information. ous King was the son of

A King

Sahadeva and the grandson of

of Pancala. This gener-

Subhasa. In accordance with the advice of Brahmins, in the King once sacrificed his son. It is mentioned Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 128 that on completion of the sacrifice he got one hundred sons.
travelled with his (i) This King Somaka priests, through the holy worlds and hell and returned. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 128, Verse 11). (ii) King Somaka made offerings of cows as alms and attained heaven. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 76, Verse 25). had he eaten flesh in his life. (M.B. (iii) Never Anuiasana Parva, Chapter 115, Verse 63). (iv) Mention is made in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, Stanza 8, that this Somaka stays in the palace of Yama praising him. SOMAKlRTI. One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 99) SOMAPA. I. A warrior of Subrahmanya. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 70). SOMAPA II. An eternal god of offerings to the manes. (M.B. Anuslsana Parva, Chapter 91, Verse 34) SOMAPA (SOMALA). One of the seven Pitrs. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 1 1, Verse 49, that this god dwells in the palace of Brahma. SOMAPADA. A holy place. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 34, Verse 119, that those who bathe in the particular holy bath called Manes' varapada in this place will obtain the fruits of a horse-sacrifice. I. A brahmin. (See under Gunadhya) II. Son of the brahmin Sivafiarma.
.

manes. (Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva, Chapter 91, Stanza 33) SOIilA NADl. A river famous in the Puranas. Some important facts about this river are given below :in Varuna's arsembly wor(i) River Sona remains shipping him. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 9, Verse
.

II. Another ancient holy bath situated Kuruksetra. In Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Stanza 114, it is mentioned that by bathing in this holy place, one could attain the world of Candra (Moon) (See under Prabhasa Tirtha also) SOMAVARCAS. An eternal god of offering to the

SOMATIRTHA
in

in this holy bath.

Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 19, that one could attain the of the sacrifice of royal consecration by bathing

.

.

2

2) Other details.

Asvamedha Yaga. (M.B. Vana Parva, ChapVerse 8). as the source of Agni. (iv) River Sona is regarded (M.B. Vana Parva. Chapter 222, Verse 25) (v) Visvamitra, Rama and Laksmana took rest for a night on the banks of river Sona. (Valmiki Ramayana, Bala Kanda, 3 1st Sarga) SOI^ITAPURA. The capital city of Banasura. This
benefit of
ter 85,
.
.

Lord Sri Krsna crossed this river on his way from Indraprastha to Rajagrha. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 20, Verse 27). sacred place called "Varhsagulma (iii) There is a tlrtha" in river Sona. By bathing in it one gets the
(ii)

!>

was protected by Siva, Karttikeya, Bhadrakali, Agni and other divinities. In the battle between Sri Krsna and Bana, the former defeated all the sentries and entered the city through the northern gate. Within the fort, Bana was defeated. Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Daksinatya Pafha, Chapter 38 mentions that Sri Krsna released Aniruddha and Usa from their
city

.

SOIiJITODA. A Yaksa. He remains in Kubera's assembly and worships him. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 10,

prison.

SRADDHA

Verse 17).

I.

his wife Prasuti.

SOMASARMA SOMASARMA

.

(For detailed story see under Sivasarma). SOMASRAMA. A holy place. He who visits this holy place will be praised by others. (Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 157). SOMASRAVAS. A hermit. His father was Srutasravas. Once King Janamejaya approached Srutasravas and requested him to let him have Somas'ravas as sacrificial

II. Surya's 'daughter. She had several other names such as, VaivasvatI, Savitrl, Prasavitri etc. (For more details, see under Savitrl I) SRADDHA III. Wife of Vaivasvata Manu. (See under
,

SRADDHA

them. Of deva including Sraddha.. Dharmadeva had a son named (Visnu Purana, Part 1. Chapter 7).

daughter born to Daksa Prajapati by Twentyfour daughters were bcrn to them, thirteen were the wives of Dharma-

A

Kama

by Sraddha.

SRADDHA

SOMASRAYAYAl^A. An

(For further details see under Srutasravas III) ancient holy place situated in the basin of the Gahga. The Pandavas visited this holy place while they were on their way to Pancala from Ekacakra. It was in this place that Citraratha the Gandharva who had been defeated by Arjuna, had enjoyed bathing sports with girls. It was because of became a holy these two facts that Somasrayayana place. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 169, Verse 3). SOMATIRTHA I. An ancient holy place situated in Kuruksetra. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Vana
priest.
.

Vaivasvata Manu). IV. Daughter born to Kardama Prajapati by Devahuti. She became the wife of Angiras. They had two sons, Utatthya and Brhaspati and four daughters, Sinlvali, Kuhu, Raka and Anumati. (Bhagavata, 3rd

SRADDHA. The
the Puranas

Skandha)

.

a very important ceremony. Here, "Pitrs" does not mean "the souls of the dead". Pitrs belong to a special class of gods. SRADDHAPARVA. A sub-division of Strl Parva in Mahabharata. It comprises Chapters 26 and 27 of Strl Parva. SRADDHAVATI. A city of Varuna. (See under
is

Sraddha

offering given

to

Pitrs.

According

to

Asjadikpalakas)

.

SRAJA
SRAJA.

735

SRlDATTA
king of Kalinga. (Mahabharata, Santi Parva, Chapter
4,

91, Verse 33). SRAMA. Son of Apa, one of the Astavasus. Apa had four sons named Vairunda, Srama, Santa and Dhvani.

An eternal god concerned with offering to the manes (ViSvadeva). (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter

SRGALA VASUDEVA.
'Para 5.

Verse

7)

See under Krsna, Para

13,

Sub

SRlBHANU.
Srldatta)
land.

SRAVA. Son
63).

Chapter 15). Maharsi who belonged to Grtsamada's family. He was the father of Tamas. (Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva, Chapter 30, Verse
1,

(Visnu Purana, Arh'a

of Santa, a

A son of Satyabhama. She had ten sons Sribhfmu. (Bhagavata 10th Skandha). including SRlBIMBAKI. Father of Mrgarikavatl. (See under
SRlDATTA.
a

SRAVA.

Son of Yuvanasva, a King of the Iksvaku dynasty. He was the father of the King Sravasta.

SRAVAiyA
sons.

(Maha

Bharata,
I
.

A

Vana Parva, Chapter 202, Verse 3) son of Murasura. Murasura had seven
. :

believed to bring Moksa. SRAVASAUCA. Defilement attached to the flux due to It is ordered in Agni Purana, Chapter 258, abortion. how to observe this defilement. It is said that women should observe defilement for as many nights as the number of the months of pregnancy, till the flux. If the flux took place in the fourth month, defilement should be observed for three nights. If it was in the fifth month that the flux had occurred, pollution for ten days would have to be observed. This is meant for Brahmins. In the case of a Ksatriya woman if the flux occurred in the fifth month, she has to observe defilement for four days; and five days for a Vaigya woman, and eight days for a Sudra woman. In the case of a Sudra woman, if the flux is after five months, she has to observe pollution for twelve days. In this stage the father will be purified by a bath. SRAVASTA. Son of the King Srava. (See under Srava) SRAVASTlPURA. Capital city of Sravasta, King of the Iksvaku dynasty. It was named "Sravast!puri"or
rivers
is
.

Tamra, Antarlksa, Sravana, Vasu, They were Vibhavasu, Nabhasvan and Aruna. They were all killed by Sri Krsna. (Bhagavata, Skandha 10). SRAVAIVA II. One of the twentyseven stars (naksatras). Those who perform Sraddha on the day of this star will attain heaven. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 39, Verse 11). SRAVANA. See 3rd Para under Dasaratha. SRAVAT^ADVADASI. A holy day. Observance of a fast on this day after a bath at the confluence of two

Srldatta grew up and became an expert in archery. Kalanemi's younger brother, Vigatabhaya left home and went on a pilgrimage after his wife's death by snake-bite. Kalanemi's king, Vallabhasakti was pleased with Srldatta and invited him to live in the palace. In this way, he became the intimate friend of the
After that, Bahusali and king's son, Vikrama Sakti. Vajramusti, the princes of Avanti became the friends

Yajnasena. After the death of to Pataliputra for education. The teacher gave his two daughters in marriage to them. By the blessing of goddess Laksmi, Kalanemi became rich in course of time and he was also blessed with a glorious son. Since he was given by the blessing of Laksmi (Sri) he was named Srldatta.
their father they

Brahmana named

Son of Kalanemi a Brahmana of Malava Kalanemi and Vigatabhaya were the sons of
went

ofSridatta. Mahabala, Vyaghrabhata, Upendrabala and Nisthuraka, who were the Minister's sons, also

engage in some amusements. Srldatta assumed the role others of a king and the posed as his subjects. Vikramasakti, the king's son, could not tolerate it. He challenged Srldatta for a fight. In the fight VikramaBut he secretly resolved to kill s akti was defeated. Srldatta understood his Srldatta by hook or by crook.
secret plan. After leaving Vikramasakti, Srldatta was walking with the others along the river-bank when he saw a woman in a whirlpool struggling for life because she was caught Srldatta at once left his in the middle of the river. companions and jumped into the river and swam up When he was almost within reach of her hair to her. the woman sank into the water. Srldatta also sank and followed her, but after some time, he found neither the woman nor even water. He found himself in a Siva temple. He offered worship there and took rest in a park close by. The next morning a woman came to worship in the temple. When she returned after The woman who was worship, Srldatta followed her. alarmed, walked faster and at last reached a heavenly abode. She entered the house and took her seat on a Srldatta also got in and sat near the cot. cot inside. Many other women came and stood around her. Without any apparent reason she began to cry. Srldatta who was puzzled, asked her why she was crying. She replied to him in the following words "I am the grand-daughter of the Asura king, Mahabali. I am the eldest of his one thousand grand-daughters. name is 'Vidyutprabha'. Visnu has captured and imprisoned our grandfather, Mahabali. He has also After that he has expelled killed our father in battle. us all from our Capital city. To prevent us from he has posted a lion as sentry entering it again,
:

sought the protect ion ofSridatta. day, Srldatta along with VikramaSakti and other companions went to bathe to the banks of the Gariga. While they were there, the party of friends began to

One

"Sravastipura" because it was built by Sravasta, according to Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 202, Verse 4.

SRETiTMAN.

A Rajarsi. Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 51 says that he was the rebirth of
the fourth Kalakeya. The following pieces of information about this Rajarsi are gathered from Maha-

bharata
(i)

:-

SRGALA. A King

Verse 5). (iv) In the course of the Bharata Yuddha, Sreniman was killed by Drona. (M. B. Karna Parva, Chapter 6, Verse 35)
.

triumphal march of the eastern lands, defeated Sreniman. (M. B. Drona Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 1 ). Sahadeva, in his conquest of Southern lands (iii) defeated him. (M. B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 31,

Sreniman was present at the Svayarhvara of Pancall.' (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Verse 11). KumaradtSa. Bhlmasena, in the (ii) He ruled over

My

of the "Strl rajya". This king had attended the Svayarhvara of the daughter of Citrangada,

SRIDATTA
at the palace gate. That lion is a Yaksa by Kubera. If any one defeats him, he

736

SRIDATTA
he returned with his leaving behind the ring with Mrgankavati. The King who was deeply grateful for the cure of his daughter sent plenty of wealth and gold to Sridatta. But Sridatta gave all of them to Bahusali's father. He was always doting on Mrgankavati and was much pained at his separation from her. At this stage, the princess's favourite maid came to him on the pretext of returning the magic ring and informed him that Mrgankavati was also pining for him and was even prepared to die for his sake. Sridatta sent her back with a secret message of love and cheer. After that in consultation with his friends he made a plan to take the princess secretly to Mathurapuri. On the next day, Bahusall with three of his friends left for Mathura pretending to go there for trade. He made all arrangements on the way for the secret conveyance of the princess. That night, Sridatta sent a woman and her daughter to the palace after making them senseless with heavy drink and arranged for their sleeping there. As directed by Sridatta, Bhavanika set the palace on fire and slipped out of the building with the princess. Sridatta sent them at once to Mathurapuri. The woman and her daughter who were burnt alive in the palace were supposed to be the maid and the princess. Sridatta set out to Mathura to meet Mrgankavati. On the way he saw several evil omens. On arrival at Vindhyavana, he saw his friends lying helpless, after having been severely beaten up by unknown enemies. They informed
earlier. After that

who was

cursed
libe-

will rated from his curse. By defeating that With that you can defeat anyone." get a divine sword. As soon as he heard this story, Sndatta rushed towards the lion. In the fight that followed, the lion was defeated and it was suddenly transformed into the old Yaksa. Pleased with the hero who was instrumental in lifting his curse, he gave Sridatta a sword called "Mrgarikaka" and then disappeared. Vidyutprabha entered the palace, accompanied by her sisters and Sridatta. She gave a ring to Sridatta which had the power to destroy She fell in love with him. She the effects of poison. asked him to take a bath in the tank close by after giving the sword to her, and undertook to kill any crocodile which might attack him. Sridatta, keeping the sword in his own hand, stepped into the water and sank into it. But he rose up in the river Ganga into which he had jumped earlier. He reached the bank of the river and went in search of his companions. On the way, he In the course of their talk, met with Nisthuraka. Nisthuraka informed Sridatta that, Vallabhasakti passed away and Vikramagakti was then ruling over the country.

would be lion, you

had given him

friends to Bahusali's

house,

king had killed Kalanemi and was on murdering Sridatta. Both of them resumed their journey and when they reached Ujjayini. they met with the rest of their friends. On their way, a woman joined their party. She had lost her way while going to the land of Malava. Sridatta and Nisthuraka walked in the company of that woman and at last they arrived at a deserted city. They spent the
the

The new

look-out

for

him

that

a

night in

that city. During the night when Sridatta happened to wake up, he saw to his horror, that the woman had killed his friend Nisthuraka and was eating Sndatta at once drew his sword and caught his flesh. hold of her hair and was about to cut off her head when she was transformed into a Raksasa woman. She prayed to him not to kill her and told him her story. She had become a Raksasa woman by a curse. Long ago Visvamitra did tapas to obtain Kubera's place. At that time Kubera sent her to break Visvamitra's tapas. Since she failed in her attempts to attract him by her charms, she tried to subdue him by assuming the form of a terrible monster. The sage thereupon cursed her to become a Raksasa woman with that figure. He declared that the curse would be lifted when Sridatta grasped her hair. She added that she had been killing and eating the inhabitants of that city for a long time and that explained why the city had become deserted. Now that she was liberated from the curse, she asked Sridatta what boon

the princess with him. Sridatta immediately started in pursuit of the unknown enemy. Shortly after, he caught sight of the army led by a Ksatriya prince who was taking Mrgaukavatl on horseback with him. After a fierce fight, Sridatta rescued the princess from the youth, captured his horse

powered them and galloped away on horseback,

stranger

leading a

powerful army overtaking

and rode on it with her towards his friends. When they had gone a short distance, the horse which had been wounded in the battle, fell dead on the way. At that time he went in search of water to quench their thirst, leaving Mrgankavati at the spot. By the time he returned with water, the sun had set. So he lost his way and wandered about in the forest till day-break when he reached the place where he had left Mrgankavati. But she was not seen anywhere there. To get a better view of the neighbourhood in the hope of finding
her. he climbed to the top of a tree near by, after placing

he wished

to have.

He

met

Early next morning they reached Ujjayini. There, they their old friends, Bahu.'ali and others. Sridatta described to them his experiences after sinking in the

replied that he only wanted his friend to be restored After reviving Nisthuraka, she disappeared. to life.

Later, once
to

Ganga.

fell in love with each other. When she the place, Sridatta felt very much depressed. Eahusall and others also knew about it. They offered (o take him to Mrgankavati. But just then she fell down unconscious, bitten by a snake. Sndatta soon restored her with the help of the magic ring which Vidyutprabha

bimbaki. They
left

when Sridatta went to a festival, he happened meet Mrgankavati, daughter of a King named Sri-

his sword on the ground. Just then a hunter named Sabara came that way and took up Sridatta's sword. Sridatta saw this, but he got down from the tree and instead of attacking him, merely asked him whether he knew about the whereabouts of Mrgankavati. To this Sabara said that he thought that she had reached his cottage and asked Sridatta to accompany his followers to the cottage. He also offered to go with him and promised to return his sword after reaching there. Sndatta reached the cotfage with them. Being utterly exhausted, he fell into a deep slumber. When he woke up he found that his legs were chained together. While he was lying thus, a woman named Mocanika approached

him and said: "Why did you come here to court death? Sabara has now gone out on some business. As soon as he returns he will offer you as a sacrifice to It is for that purpose that he has Bhadrakall. brought

SRIDATTA
you here and put
in chains. But there is yet one way of escape for you. This Sahara has a very beautiful daughter. She has fallen in love with you. If you marry her everything will turn out well." For his own safety, Sridatta married Sahara's daughter according to the Gandharva method. Shortly after, she

737

SRI RAMAKRSTvTA PAR AMAH AMSA
with Sridatta. The Candalaband took Vigatabhaya and
others to Sridatta

words she took leave of him. Sridatta disclosed the story of that sword to her and started on his journey again, in search of Mrgankavati. From a hunter whom he happened to meet on the way, he came to know that she was living in a place called Nagasthala near Mathura, under the protection of Visvadatta a Brahmana. Sridatta at once went to VijSvadatta's house and made
enquiries about his wife. Visvadatta informed him that he had entrusted her with a Brahmana who was the minister and priest of King Surasena. He suggested that Sridatta should stay with him that day and they

became pregnant. Her maid Mocanika informed her mother all about it. That kind and affectionate mother came to Sridatta and said "Sahara is a very cruel man. If he comes to know of this, he will never forgive you. Therefore you must leave the place at once, but you should never forget my daughter." With these
:

and they were released. After the death of King Sahara, Sridatta became the King of that wood. He got back his sword Mrgfirikaka. He married the daughter of Surasena. Sridatta's friends also came there. All of them joined together and killed Vikramasakti in a battle. After that Sridatta was crowned king of the whole country up to the ocean. (Katha-

SRlDEVA. Daughter
Purana,
1.

Kathamukhalambaka, Taranga 2) of King Devaka. This princess was married by Vasudeva. They had six sons including Nandaka. (Bhagavata, Navama Skandha; Visnu
saritsagara,
.

king who lived in Tretayuga. (For more information see under Varatanu). SRlKRSNA. See under Krsna.
If one worships Brahma at holy place. holy place famous in the three worlds, one would get the benefit of the gift of a thousand cows. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 82, Verse 85). Son of the Vai:: ya Hemakundala. (See Para 2_under Yamuna). SRlKUNJA. A Sarasvati tlrtha situated in Kuruksetra.
this

SRlDHARA. A

18),

SRlKUNDA. A

SRIKWDALA.
By bathing

could proceed to Surasena's place next morning. Sridatta accordingly stayed there and started for Mathura at day-break on the next day. On the way he took bath in a tank just outside the city. While bathing he happened to get a silk cloth and a necklace of beads from the bed of the tank. After his bath, he entered the city with the silk and necklace. Mistaking him for a thief, the police arrested him. Really the silk and necklace had been hidden in the tank by thieves. Sridatta was produced before the King with the stolen
articles.

SRIMADBHAGAVADGITA PARVA. A

in this tlrtha, one gets the same reward as by performing an Agnistoma yajfta. (Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 105).

sub-division

of

kavati

The king condemned him to death. Mrganwho was staying in the custody of the minister

Bhisma Parva in Mahabharata. Chapters 13 to 42 of Bhisma Parva, are included in it. SRlMAN. Son of Nimi, who was the son of Dattatreya. SRlMATA. An aspect of Devi who incarnated to kill the Raksasa named Karnataka who used to abduct the wives of Maharsisin the disguise of a Brahmana. (Skanda
Purana, 3:2: 16-18).

to see Sridatta being taken to the place of execution. She immediately ran up to the minister and told him that Sridatta was her husband. When the

happened

SRlMATl

King came to know it, he ordered him to be brought back to the palace. As soon as Sridatta saw the minister, he felt certain doubts about his identity. The minister had a striking resemblance to his father's brother Vigatabhaya who had left home years ago. His doubts were confirmed when the minister revealed his identity and the two embraced each other after their long separation. Sridatta narrated the whole story of his sufferings and misfortunes beginning from the murder of Kalanemi up to that time. On hearing his tragic story, the minister burst into tears and told him that he had received a boon from a Yaksi by which he had obtained 5000 horses and plenty of wealth. All this he gave to Sridatta and his wife. The king of that country had a daughter. Srldatta's next plan was to marry her also. Vigatabhaya gave

I. A Gandharva maid. In Kamba Ramayana, Yuddhakanda there is a story associating this Gandharva maid with the churning of the ocean of milk :A Gandharva maid named Srimati who had acquired incomparable proficiency in music used to sing hymns in

praise

SRlMATl
this

of Laksmldevl. Devi appeared before her and presented a garland of Kalpaka flowers to Srimati. As she was returning with the garland, she met sage Durvasas on the way. She offered the garland to him. Durvasas who reached Devaloka with the garland gave it to Indra. Indra used it for adorning the tusk of Airavata. Airavata who was annoyed at it threw it away in a fury. Durvasas took it as a personal insult to him and in his rage cursed all the gods to be subjected to the infirmities of old age. It is to save them from the effects of old age that the ocean of milk was churned to obtain Amrta. (For more details see under Amrta)
.

II.

A woman

follower of

him the necessary help. The minister took her with Sridatta and his friends on the pretext of offering worship at the temple in Avantl. They had to encounter a band of robbers on the Vindhya mountain. Sridatta was overpowered and the robbers plundered all their wealth. Vigatabhaya and others were captured. Sridatta was taken to be sacrificed to Bhadrakali. When he was about to be sacrificed, his wife, the daughter of
Sahara arrived there with her son. Itwas within the territory of Srlcanda. She stopped the robbers from performing the sacrifice and returned to her own house

SRlPARVATA. A
ing in
the forest

Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 3). sacred mountain. Those

Subrahmanya. (M.B.

mountain and

who go

to

worship to Sarikara after bathrivers get the same reward as from an
offer

Asvamedhayaga.
Verse 18).

(M.B.

Vana

Parva,

Chapter 85,

SRi RAMA. See under Rama. SRI RAMAKRSJVA PARAMAHAMSA. A great thinker who shed new light on Indian
philosophy.

born on February 18, 1836 in a village called Kumarpukkur. His father was Khudiram Cattopadhyaya and his mother was Candradevl.

He was

spiritual

SRlTlRTHA
SRlTlRTHA. A
Vana

738
jaya, for the at this and

SRSTI
hand of his daughter. Parvata got angry cursed Narada that he would not attain Narada retorted with the same curse. Srnjaya

naga who was born to Kasyapaprajapati by his wife Kadru. (Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 35, Verse 13). SRlVATSA. A mole on Mahavisnu's chest. (For more details see under Bhrgu) SRMARA. A young deer. Mrgamanda daughter of KaSyapa gave birth to Rksas (Bears) Srmaras (young deer) and Camaras (a kind of deer called Bos grunniens). (Valmlki Ramayana Aranya Kanda, Sarga 14). SR5IGA. Siva's special musical instrument. (M.B. Vana 'Parva, Chapter 88, Verse 8)
. .

SRlVAHA. A

holy place in Kuruksetra. In MahaParva, Chapter 83, Verse 46 it is stated bharata, that by bathing and worshipping gods and pitrs at this holy place, one would be blessed with issues.

heaven.

pacified both.

Srnjaya had no sons. He informed the hermits of this sad state. Narada blessed the king and said that a son named Suvarnasthivl would be born to him and that with his birth everything in the palace would become gold. Accordingly the son Suvarnasthlvi was born to

Srnjaya and everything in the palace became golden. When the son became four years old, by the sorcery of Indra the child died. Narada brought him to life again.
(See under Suvarnasthivl). fact that gold was accumulating in the palace of Srnjaya due to the boon given to Suvarnasthivl, reached the ears of robbers. One night they carried the child away, and killed him. Then only did they come to understand that there was no gold inside him. Srnjaya cried aloud at the loss of his son. To pacify the King, Narada and Parvata told him stories of sixteen kings.

The

SR5IGARAVALLI. Mother
1) General.

of

Kambar

the

celebrated

SR5IGAVAN

Tamil poet and author of Ramayana.

mountain. It is situated to the north of the called "Ilavrtta". Devi Bhagavata, 8th Skandha region refers to three mountains Nilagiri, Svetagiri, and Srrigavan which are the sources of many rivers and which stand at intervals of 2,000 miles. 2) Other details this mountain and entered Kuru(i) Arjuna crossed varsa in the course of his triumphal campaign over the northern land. (ii) This mountain is rich in minerals, is of outstanding brilliance, and is the abode of Siddhas and Caranas.
Verse 5). Saftjaya spoke at length about this mountain to (iii) Dhrtarastra. (M.B. Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 8) (iv) This mountain is glorious enough to be remembered with reverence at dawn and dusk. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 165, Verse 32).
6,
.

A

I.

(M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 55).

3) Other details.
(i)

Srnjaya sits in the palace of Yama, praising him. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 15)
.

Kings, his sorrow subsided. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 71, Stanza 4). (iii) By the power of Narada Srnjaya's son was brought
to life again. (Drona Parva, Chapter 71, Verse 8). (iv) Sri Krsna told Dharmaputra the story of Srnjaya,

(ii)

When Narada

told the

King

the

stories of

sixteen

(M.B. Bhlsma Parva, Chapter

with a view to pacify him.
ter 29)
.

(M.B. Santi Parva, Chaplife.

(v) Srnjaya had never eaten flesh in his Anusasana Parva, Chapter 115, Verse 63).

(M.B.

He married by force, a After a night's married life, Vrddhakanya kanya. The sage then renounced everything and departed. followed her. V M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 82). SR5IGAVERA. A naga born in Kauravyakula. This naga was burnt up in Janamejaya's Sarpasatra. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 13).
Galava.

SR&GAVAN

II.

An

ancient sage.

He was the son of woman named Vrddha-

SRNJAYA

II. This royal hermit was royal hermit. the father of the mother of Amba, the princess of KasI, and a friend of Parasurama. At the request of Amba who had been forsaken by Salva, Srnjaya first approa-

A

him

ched Parasurama and then saw Bhlsma and persuaded to marry Amba. (M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 175, Stanzas 15 to 27)
.

SRSTI (CREATION)
is

.

The Indian

place ferried Rama It became a holy spot by the touch of Sri Gariga. Rama's feet. (See under Guha). SR5IGAVISA. A sage. In Rgveda, Mandala 8, Anuvaka 17, Sukta 13, it is mentioned that Indra was born from the stomach of this sage. SRSlGERl. Math was founded here by Sankaracarya.

SRJsIGAVERAPURA. A

sacred place. Guha, ruler of this and Laksmana across the river

given below:

theory of creation

A

SRNGl.
1

(

See under Sankaracarya ).

SRNJAYA
)

3rd para under Pariksit)
I.

The young

sage

who
.

cursed Pariksit.

(See the

See under Somadatta. Genealogy. 2) General information. king of the Iksvaku dynasty. His father was Sviti. This king Sviti was also called the death of his father Srnjaya became Svitya King.

A

1) Trigunas (The three attributes). The base of the universe is the set of the three attributes. They are Sattva (purity), Rajas (passion) and Tamas (inertia). Only things which could be seen, possess these three attributes. Things which could be seen are perishable. The indestructible could not be seen. Shape or form is an attribute. God has no form. So god is without attributes. The God devoid of attributes can be realised by knowledge, but cannot be seen with the ordinary eyes. The three attributes have a power each. Knowledge is the power of Sattva, activity, the power of Rajas and reason the power of Tamas.

On

The hermits Narada and Parvata were friends of Srnjaya. Once both of them came and lived in the palace of the King as his guests. Srnjaya had a beautiful daughter named Sucismita. Both Narada and Parloved her. One day Narada directly asked Srn-

king.

2) The five elements. From the divine power of Tamas, five senses came into being, such as sound, touch, form, taste and smell. Sound is the attribute of ether; touch, the attribute of air; form, the attribute of fire; taste, the attribute of water; and smell, the attribute of earth. These are the minute senses or essentials. These five senses having the divine powers, joined together with the five minute essentials, make up the attribute of

Tamas.

SRSTI
From

739
.

SRSTI
These are called Sprouts (Udbhids) Seeing that this creation was not sufficient, the god again sat in contemplation. This time animals having horizontal back bones and organs of sense were created. They were called tiryaksrotas, as they walked horizontally. They, such as cow etc. are having more of the attributes
less

Brahma, Rudra, Ksetrajiia and mind, came

the attribute of Sattva having the power of knowledge, the ten essentials, such as air, the Sun, two Asvini-gods, Candra (Moon), Pasi (Varuna)
into being. these essentials the formation of five matters took place. They are the five elements. When vigour enters the quintupled elements, egoism is given a form.

From

This vigour with perceptible body is called Adi Narayana (Primordial Narayana). Anyhow, quintupled elements will be bright with firm attributes. Ether has the attribute of sound only. Air has the attributes of sound and touch. Fire has the three attributes of sound, touch and form. Water has the four attributes of sound, touch, form and taste, and earth has the five attributes of sound, touch, form, taste and smell. The variegated expression of these five elements is called the universe.
It is stated in Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 3, that the number of species of living beings found in the universe

of darkness and wrong paths due to
otherwise.

of knowledge. They traverse lack of knowledge though they think

Egoism, pride

and

twentyeight kinds of
possess other.

incapacities are their qualities.

Though they knowledge inwardly they do not know each
this

Thinking that

creation also was not sufficient,

Brahma again engaged himself in contemplation, and there came out another creation. It was called 'UrddhvaThis third creation (flowing upwards) having the attribute mainly of Sattva moved in a lofty level. Those who were born in this creation, desired for comfort and pleasure and were with the light of knowledge inwardly and outwardly. When the third
srotas'
.

Mahavisnu lay on a banyan tree, as a child. "Who am I ? How was I made, and what for ? What have I to do ?", and so on were the thoughts of the child. Insinto his ears saying, "I am everything. There is nothing eternal except me." Mahavisnu lay contemplating on the voice he heard, tantly
fell
:

eightyfour lakhs. It has been mentioned 3) The embodied three (Trinity). in the last section how the three attributes came into existence and how the five elements originated from the three attributes and how vigour or energy acted upon the five elements and Adi Narayana or Visnu came into being. In this section the birth of the three divine figures is being dealt with. In the known beginning, on the surface of the wide waters, covering the universe made of the five elements,
is

from Brahma he grew happy and contented. Even after creating thus much, Brahma did not feel So he made the creation of 'Arvaksrotas' satisfaction. (moving downwards) The creatures of this group were having the attributes of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas in an advanced degree. So they are miserable and full of
.

creation called Devasrsti (creation of gods) originated

Thus
(

the creation of Udbhids Sprouts) ,Tiryaks (animals) and Arvaks (human beings) Brahma passed on to the creation of heavenly beings.

activity.

They

are

human

beings.

having

completed

a

voice from the ether

(Visnu Purana, Ariisa

1;

Chapter

5)

.

thus

when MahadevI appeared before Mahavisnu and said "Lo Mahavisnu Whenever the universe
! !

originated from him unknowingly. It was Avidya (Ignorance), having inertia, desire, great desire, darkness and great darkness as its five branches. That god continued his contemplation. Then five kinds of immovables without the power of knowledge or brightness in and out alike, and with souls covered with darkness, originated. As these immovables are said to be prominent, the creation of them is called prominent creation.

Rajas as his main attribute and from the forehead of that Brahma, Siva with Tamas as his main attribute will be born. By the power of penance, Brahma will acquire the power of creation and with the help of the attribute of rajas, he will create a world of the colour of blood. You will be the protector and preserver of that world, and at the end of the Kalpa (world-age) Siva will destroy that world. I am that power of purity, which stands as help and assistance to you in creation." Accordingly, Brahma was born from the navel of Visnu and Siva was born from the forehead of Brahma. (Devi Bhagavata, Skandha 1) After the 4) Creation. Sprouts, Animals and Humanity. birth of the Trinity, while Brahma was contemplating on creation, some creations of the attribute of Tamas
.

required creation, preservation and destruction, by the potentiality of the Omnipotence or the Brahman with no attributes, you too had taken origin. Understand that the Omnipotence is beyond attributes. all are within the purview of attributes. Your attribute mainly is Sattva. From your navel, will be born Brahma with

Morning. After this Brahma again sat in contemplation for water-creation which is the creation of Devas, Asuras, Pitrs and Manusyas ( Gods, Demons, the Manes and Man) As he was sitting in contemplation, the attribute of Tamas (inertia) advanced in him and the asuras
5) Creation. Night, Day, Evening,
.

We

discarded the figure of Tamas in him. That discarded figure of darkness became the night. Next, from the face of Brahma, the Devas (gods) were born. They were having the attribute of Sattva (purity) Brahma discarded that of purity also. That figure figure became the bright day. So the asuras are powerful in the night and the Devas are powerful in the day. After the manes were born from Brahma. They were this, also discarded. They became the evening between the
.

(demons) were born from

his loins.

Then Brahma

Brahma discarded

that figure also. It became a very shining thing which is called the Dawn. So men are powerful in the dawn and the manes are powerful in the evening. The four creations of Day, Night, Evening and the Dawn are considered to be the bodies of Brahma. (Visnu Purana, Arhsa 1, Chapter 5). Taksas (Demi-gods}, Rdkfasas (Giants], 6) Creation.

day and night. Then Brahma assumed the figure having the attribute of Rajas. From this, man, who was having more of the attribute of rajas was born.

Brahma again assumed Serpents, Devils, Gandharvas. another figure having the attribute of Rajas. Due to this Brahma felt hungry. Along with hunger desire also grew in him. Then the Prajapati (Lord of Emanation) sat in the darkness and created some creatures which were very hungry. Uncouth with plenty of hair on the face, they ran towards Brahma. Of them those who said, 'don't do so, save him*

SRSTI
became Raksasas (giants) Those who said "We will eat him", became Yaksas. (demi-gods). Because of Yaksana (Bhaksana-Food), they got the name Yaksa.
.

740
the Sanaka brothers and the mental sons of Bhrgu, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Arigiras, Marlci, Daksa, Atri and Vasistha, and gave these nine the name Prajapatis Then he created nine women (Lords of Emanation)
.

Because of the dislike at seeing these creatures the hair had fallen from the head of Brahma. They crept back again into his head. Because they did 'sarpana' and (creeping up) they were called sarpas (serpents) as they were 'Hina' (fallen) they were called Ahis

and Prasuti and gave in marriage Khyati to Bhrgu, Bhuti to Pulastya, Sambhuti to Pulaha,
Urja, Anasuya.
to Kratu, Priti to Arigiras, Sannati to Marlci, Daksa, Anasuya to Atri and Prasuti to Vasistha. The great hermits such as Sanandana and the others created before the Prajapatis, were not desirous of propagation as they were wise sages who had renounced all attachments and who had been indifferent. When Brahma saw that they were not mindful about producing subjects he grew angry. (It was from the middle of the eye brows which were curved by his fury, that Siva, one of the three divine figures was born). After this, Brahma appointed Svayambhuva, who originated from

named Khyati, Bhuti, Sambhuti, Ksama,

Prlti,

Sannati,

Ksama
Urja

Lord of creation became very angry and created some creatures. Because of their colour which was a mingling of red and black, they were horrible and they became pisitaSanas (those who eat flesh). Then Brahma began to sing and from his body the Gandharvas were born. Because they did 'dhayana' (Appreciate) of 'go' (word) when they were born, they were called Gandharvas.
(serpents)
.

After

this the

to

7) Creation. Birds, animals. After creating all these creatures, Brahma created birds, from his 'vayas' (strength), as free agents, according to their actions in the previous
lives.

Then Brahma

to be properly used in only from Tretayuga (one of the four ages) The animals such as the cow, sheep, goat, horse, mule and donkey are called domestic animals and flesh-eaters such as the leopard, animals with forked hoof such as the wild bull, elephant, monkey, birds, and other animals and reptiles, are included in the word 'wild
sacrifices

From his stomach and flanks he goats from his face. created cows, and from his legs he created other creatures such as the horse, elephant, donkey, wild bull, deer, camel, mule, antelope etc. He created plants bearing fruits and bulbs from his hairs. Though Brahma had created vegetables and animals at the beginning of the
Kalpa (world-age), they came

created sheep from his breast and

sons

himself, and was of the same shape, as the first for the protection of the subjects. This divine Svayambhuva took his sister Satarupa as wife.

animals'. 8) Creation-The Vedas etc. After having completed creation of the things mentioned above, the Prajapati created from his face looking to the east, the Vedic metre Gayatrl, Rgveda, Trivrtstoma, the sama song called Rathantara and the sacrifice called Agnistoma; from his face looking to the south, Yajurveda, the Vedic metre Traisfubha, Pancadasa stoma. Brhatsama and the sacrifice Uktha; from his face looking to the west, Samaveda, the Vedic metre JagatI, Saptadasastoma, Vairiipasama and the sacrifice Atiratra. Thus all the creatures lofty and lower originated from the body of Brahma. After having created Devas, Asuras, the manes and men, Brahma again at the beginning of the world age, created Yaksas, Devils, Gandharvas, celestial maids, Naras, Kinnaras, Raksas, cows, birds, animals, serpents etc. such as have long life and short life, movable and immoCreatures which are vable, that we see in the world. created again and again do perform functions which creatures of their kind had been doing previously. Habits of killing or not killing, kindness or cruelty, righteousness or evil, truth or falsehood are adopted by
to their kind in previous lives. It was created the uses and differences seen in the sense organs, elements and bodies. Brahma took from the Vedic voice the shape, form, name, activities etc. of various creatures such as the Devas etc. and allotted them to each particular kind. So also he allotted names, work etc. to hermits as seen in the Vedas.

daughters Prasuti was given to Prajapati Daksa and Akuti to Prajapati Ruci. A son named Yajiaa and a daughter named Daksina were born as twins to Prajapati Ruci. Twelve sons were born to Yajna by Daksina. They were devas named the Yamas of the Manvantara of Svayambhuva. Daksa begot twentyfour daughters of Prasuti. They were Sraddha, Laksmi, Dhrti, Tusti, Medha, Pusti, Kriya, Buddhi, Lajja, Vapus, Santi, Siddhi, Kirti, Khyati, Sail, Sambhuti, Smrti, Priti, Ksama, Santati, Anasuya, Urja, Svaha and Svadha. Of these the first thirteen were given to Dharmadeva as wives. Of the remaining daughters, Khyati became the wife of Bhrgu, Sati, the wife of Siva, Sambhuti of Marlci, Smrti, of Arigiras,
Priti

Of the two

daughters

named Priyavrata and Uttanapada and two named Prasuti and Akuti were born to them.

Manu Manu Two

Anasuya of Atri, Urja of Vasistha, Svaha of Agni, and Svadha of the manes. (Visnu Purana, Amsa 1 Chapter
;

of Pulastya,

Ksama

of Pulaha, Santati of Kratu,

?

)"

.

them

as

Brahma who had

becoming

subjects he

9) Creation of the four castes 10) Creation of Prajapatis.

.

When Brahma saw
flourish,

See under Caturvarnya.
that

the
first

had created, did not

he created

Urvarlyan andSahisnu. Santati the wife of Kratu, gave to sixty thousand hermits called Balakhilyas. Seven sons named Rajas, Gotra, Urdhvabahu, Savana, Anagha, Sutapas and Sukra were born to Vasistha by his wife Urja. These sons were the seven hermits of
birth

Laksmi who became the wife of Visnu and two sons named Dhata and Vidhata were born by Khyati. These two married Ayati and Niyati the two daughters of Meru. To the two couples two sons named Prana and Mrkandu were born. From Mrkandu, Markandeya was born, and from Markandeya, Vedas iras was born. To Prana a son named Dyutiman and to him a son named Rajavan was born. From this Rajavan the Bhrgu dynasty grew up. Sambhuti the wife of Marlci gave birth to a son named Paurnamasa. To Arigiras four daughters named Sinivali, Kuhu, Rakaand Anumati were born by Smrti. Three sinless sons named Candra, Durvasas and Dattatreya were born to Atri by Anasuya. Of them Dattatreya was a hermit. A son named Dattoli was born to Pulastya by Pratiti (Priti) That Dattoli was the Agastya of Svayambhuva Manvantara. Ksama the wife of Pulaha gave birth to three sons named Kardama,
.

11)

The

children of the Prajapatis.

To

Prajapati

Bhrgu,

SRUTA

i

741

SRUTARVA
SRUTADEVl. A
Vasudeva had
Sruladevi,

Pavaka the third Manvantara. Three bright sons Pavamana and Suci were born to god Agni (fire) by his wife Svaha. Fortyfive sons were born to them. (Visnu Purana, Arils' a 1, Chapter 10)
.

of Vasudeva, father of Sri Krsna. who "were: Maninl, Prtha, and Sruta;'ravas. (Bhagavata, Srutaklrti
sister

five sisters

12) Creation Living things. Creations of Sprouts, animals, Men, Devas, Danavas and so on have been dealt with. But all these creations were pertaining to the world of gods only. Sprouts and animals were born in the earth only from Prajapati KaSyapa, the son of Marlci.

SRUTAHVA. A King who
Pandavas.

was on the side of the Ai'vatlhama at the Bharata by battle. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 156, Verse 82). SRUTAKARMA I. Son of Sahadeva, one of the Pandavas.

9th Skandha).

He was

killed

Other details:

Prajapati

Kasyapa married

Vasus and the Rudras were born. from Diti and Danavas from Danu. The asuras Naraka and Kala were born to KaJika. Five daughters named KrauncI, Bhasi, Syeni, Dhrtarastrl and SukI were born Bhasi gave to Tamra. Owls were born from KrauncI. birth to the Bhasas. Hawks and Vultures were born from Syeni Swans, geese and ruddy geese were born from Nata was born from SukI and Vinata Dhrtarastri. was born from Nata. Ten daughters named Mrgi, Mrgamanda, Hari, Bhadramata, Matangl, Sardull Surabhi, Surasa and Kadru, were born to Sveta, Krodhavasa. Mrgi gave birth to animals. From Mrgamanda, bears, young deer and Bos grunniens were born. Lions and monkeys were the sons of Hari. A Bhadramata. daughter named Iravati was born to Airavata was the son of Iravati. Elephants were born from Matangl. Tigers were born from Sardull. The eight elephants supporting the globe were born from Sveta. Two daughters named Rohini and Gandharvl were born to Cattle were born from Rohini, and horses Surabhi. were born from Gandharvl. Surasa gave birth to Nagas (serpents) and Kadru gave birth to Uragas Men were born from Manu. The trees were (reptiles) born from Anala. Garuda and Aruna were born from Vinata. Sampati and Jatayu were the sons of Aruna.
;
.

daughters of Daksa.

Tamra, Krodhavasa,

Manu

Aditi, Dili,

From

and Anala, the

Danu, Kalika,
eight

Aditi, the

Devas, Adityas, Daityas were born

Srutakarma fought a duel with Sudarsana on the day of Bharata battle. (M.B. Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 66). Srutakarma. (M.B. Bhlsma (ii) Durmukha defeated Parva, Chapter 79, Verse 35). son. (M.B. (iii) He fought a duel with Citrasena's Drona Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 27) Srutakarma killed Sala. (M.B. Drona Parva, (iv) Chapter 103, Verse 10). (v) He killed Citrasena, King of Abhisara. (M. B. Kama Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 1) He fought against Asvatthama. (M.B. Kama (vi) Parva, Chapter 55, Verse 13). Srutakarma killed Devavrddhakumara. (M.B. (vii) Kama Parva, Chapter 88, Verse 18). (viii) Asvatthama killed Srutakarma in Bharata battle. (M.B. Sauptika Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 50). SRUTAKARMA n. (SRUTAKIRTI) A son of Arjuna. (See under Srutaklrti II) SRUTAKIRTI I. Wife of Satrughna. Rama married Slta; Bharata married Mandavl! Laksmana married Urmila, and Satrughna married Srutaklrti. Of these Slta was the daughter of Janaka and the other three were the daughters of Janaka's younger brother, Kusadhvaja. (Kamba Ramayana, Balakanda).
(1)
first
. .

.

.

SRUTAKIRTI

II.

SRUTA

(Valmiki Ramayana, Aranya Kanda, Sarga 14). (Facts about creation seen in various Puranas do not agree with each other. This essay is based on facts gathered from various Puranas. So disagreements may occur in it.)
I.

sons by the five Pandavas. Of these Prativindhya was the son of Yudhisthira; Sruta was the son of Bhlmasena; Srutaklrti was the son of Arjuna; Srutakarma was the son of Sahadeva and Satanika was the son of Nakula.

A

son of Arjuna.

Pancall had five

Son of Bhlmasena.

(Agni Purana,

Chapter

SRUTA

SRUTA

II. A King of the Solar dynasty. Bhagavata, 9th Skandha refers to him as the son of Subhasana and father of Jaya.

278).

(Agni Purana, Chapter 278). Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 127 mentions that this Srutaklrti was born from a portion of Viivadeva. In the Bharata battle he had fought against Jayatsena and the son of Dus'sasana. In the end he died by the arrow of Asvatthama. (M.B. Sauptika Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 61). SRUTAKIRTI III. See under Srutadevl.

III.

was the

King belonging to Bharata's dynasty. He son of Dharmanetra and father of Drdhasena.

A

SRUTANABHA. A
SRUTANlKA. A

(Bhagavata, 9th Skandha). SRUTA IV. A son born to Sri Krsna by Kalindl. (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha). SRUTADHVAJA. A brother of King Virata. He was a supporter of the Pandavas. Virata's brothers were Gajanlka, Srutanlka, Virabhadra, Sudarsana, SrutaBalanlka, dhvaja, Jayanlka, Jayapriya, Vijaya, Labdhalaksa, Jayasva, Ratbavahana, Candrodaya and Karnaratha. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 158, Verse
41).

brother of King Virata. He was a supporter of the Pandavas. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 158, Verse 41). SRUTANJAYA. Brother of Susarma, the king of Trigarta. He was slain by Arjuna in the course of Bharata Yuddha.

king of solar dynasty. He was the son of Bhaglratha and father of Sindhudvlpa. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha)
.

(M.B. Kama Parva, Chapter 27, Verse 12). SRUTANTA CITRA&GA) A son of Dhi-tarastra. He
(
.

was

SRUTADEVA. A

devotee of Sri Krsna.

10th Skandha it is the story of Sri Krsna.

In Bhagavata, stated that once he had described

SRUTARVA (SRUTARVA)
time of Agastya.

I. king who lived at the the sage Agastya approached him for some wealth. In Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 98 there is a story of how the king solved the problem

Kuruksetra in his fight with Bhlmasena. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 26).
slain at

A

Once

SRUTARVA (SRUTARVA)

742

SRUTAYUS n
He was among the sages who attained Siddhi (superhuman powers) by performing tapas. (M.B. Santi Parva,

by presenting the accounts of his income and expenditure to Agastya and convincing him that he was unable

SRUTARVA (SRUTARVA

to oblige the sage.

)

II.

One

of the hundred

SRUTASRAVAS

Chapter 292, Verse 16).
IV.

SRUTARYA. A
16,

Mahabharata, there is a reference to an incident in which Srutasena beat a dog which entered the place where Janamejaya was performing his Yaga. (For further details see under Srutasravas III) SRUTASENA II. Younger brother of the serpent Taksaka. There is a reference to this Naga in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 3, Verse 141. SRUTASENA III. Son of Sahadeva. He is also known as Srutakarma. (See under Srutakarma).
.

In Rgveda, Mandala 1, Anuvaka sage. Sukta 132, there is a passage which says that the As vinidevas once turned a river into honey and pleased sage Vasis^ha and protected two sages Srutarya and Narya. SRUTASENA I. A brother of King Janamejaya. In

sons of Dhrtarasjra. In the course cf the Bharata battle he attacked Bhimasena with twelve of his brothers and in the battle which followed Srutarva was killed, by Bhlmasena. Among the Kauravas, Srutarva was one The terrible battle fought of the mighty archers. against Bhimasena under his leadership alarmed the other warriors. M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 26) (
.

SRUTASRAVAS
place after
Si:'

upala's birth) not to kill Sii'upala. Sri to forgive Sis upala's wrongs a hundred times. (For further details, see under Si:'.upala) SRUTASRl. An asura. Garuda killed this Asura. Once

V. WifeofDamaghosa King of Cedi. She was the sister of Sri Krsna's father and mother of Sisupala. She requested Sri Krsna (who came to re-

assembly, offering worship to Yama. Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 9).

A Raja. He

remains in Yama's

(Mahabharata,

Krsna agreed

.

Garuda happened
brag about
his

to

own

go

to

greatness.

Indraloka and he began to He claimed that he had

SRUTASENA

IV. An asura. Garuda killed this asura. (See under Srutagri). SRUTASENA V. A warrior on the Kaurava side. He was

SRUTASRAVAS
9th Skandha.)

killed by Arjuna. Verse 10).
I.

(M.B.

Kama

Parva,

Chapter 27,

killed Sruta^ri, Srutasena, Vipasvan, Rocanamukha, Kalaka, Ahar, Prastuta and other Asuras. (M.B. Udyoga Parva. Chapter 105, Verse 12). SRUTAVATl. Daughter of Bharadvaja Muni. Once Bharadvaja happened to see the Apsara woman Ghrtaci and he had an involuntary emission of semen. Srutavati was born from that semen. She observed an austere tapas with the object of getting Indra as her husband. (For more information see Para 30 under Indra) SRUTAYAJNA. A king who belonged to Bharata Vain' a. Bhagavata, 9th Skandha states that he was the son of Karmajit and grandson of Vivanava. SRUTAYUDHA. A king of the Kalinga land. He was the son of Varuna by Parnasa. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 23; Bhisma Parva, Chapter 16, Verse
.

A A

34).
sister

of Sri Krsna's father

SRUTASRAVAS SRUTASRAVAS
Somasravas.

Vasudeva. (See under Srufadevi).
II.

king of Magadha.

(Bhagavata,
a son

III.

A
is

Maharsi.

He had

named

the following story in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 3, about the way in which these two sages came to be associated with King

There

In Bharata battle he took his stand on the Kaurava side and at first clashed with Bhimasena. Even at the beginning of the battle, Bhima killed Satya and Satyadeva, two of the assistants of Srutayudha. (M.B. Bhisma In the end, he used his Parva, Chapter 50, Verse 69) cudgel which was given to him by Varuna against Sri Krsna who did not take part in the battle at all. Sruta.

Janamejaya. Janamejaya, son of Pariksit, along with his brothers performed an elaborate Yaga at Kuruksetra. His three brothers were Srutasena, Ugrasena and Bhlmasena. While they were performing the Yaga, a dog which was
the son of Sarama came there. Janamejaya's brothers attacked the dog without any provocation. Sarama became angry and she cursed Janamejaya. The curse frightened him. After the Yaga he reached Hastinapura and went out in search of a priest who would be able to liberate him from the curse.

his own Cudgel. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter, 67, Verses 43-48) (See also under Srutayus

yudha died by

.

SRUTAYUS

I.

A

son ofPururavas.

(See under Puru-

SRUTAYUS
1) Birth.

ravas)

.

n.

(SRUTAYUDHA.) A

(For more details see under Parnas'a).
2)
(i)

Srutayus was son of Varuna

Kalinga king. by Parnasa

Other details.

Srutasravas lived there. He had a son named Somasravas. Janamejaya invited Somasravas to be his priest. At that time Srutasravas said to him: -"This my son was born to a serpent-woman and he is endowed with the power of my austerity. He is capable of releasIf a ing you from all sins except "Mahadevakrtya". Brahmana prays to him for anything, the prayer would be fulfilled. If you can set it right, you may take him with you." Janamejaya agreed and took Somasravas with him to the palace. He made him priest and completed the Yaga. Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 58 states that Srutasravas was also a member of Janamejaya's Yaga.

come

named

Once, as he was returning from a hunt, he happened to across an asrama within his country. A sage

He was a member of Yudhisthira's assembly. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 26).
(ii) Srutayus participated in Yudhisthira's Rajasuya yajna and presented precious stones to him. (M.B. Daksinatya Pafha, Sabha Parva, Chapter 51 ). (iii) He had attended Draupadi's Svayamvara. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Verse 13) (iv) In Bharata Yuddha, he joined the Kaurava camp and assumed command of an Aksauhini (a division of the army) (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 76, Verse 16 J.
.
.

fierce fight took place between Srutayus and Bhimasena in the field of Kuruksetra. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 54, Verse 67) (vi) In the above battle, Satya and Satyadeva who were the supporters of Srutayus, were slain by Bhimasena. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 54, Verse 76)

(v)

A

.

.

SRUTAYUS in
(vii) Another battle was fought between Srutayus and Arjuna. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 92, Verse 36) (Maha(viii) Srutayus was killed by his own cudgel. bharata, Drona Parva, Chapter 92, Verse 54). (See also under Srutayudha). SRUTAYUS III. A Ksatriya king. He was born from a portion of the Daitya, Krodhavasa. We get the following details about him from Mahabharata: Srutyayus was the re-birth of Krodhavasa, the (i) Daitya. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 64).
.

743

STHULASIRAS

I

leaves, roots and fruits, once a day. The thief of pearl, coral, copper, silver, iron, bronze and stone, will have to eat millet rice (Kananna) for twelve days. Those

who

fruits, roots

steal food products, vehicle, bed, chair, flowers, eat etc. will be made to Pancagavya

(Milk,
steals

curd,
grass,

butter, urine

and dung of cow).
have
to

He who

cloth,

Srutayus, who was a Maharatha (a great warrior) was present at the Svayarhvara of Draupadi. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Verse 21 ). (iii) This Srutayus was a member of Yudhisthira's assembly. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Verse' 28). (iv) On the first day of Bharata battle, there was a clash between Srutayus and Iravan. (M.B. Bhlsma
(ii)

STHAIVDILEYU.

A son born to Raudrasva, the third son of King Puru. The celestial maid Misrakesi was the mother of Sthandileyu. This Sthandiltyu was a great archer. (Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse
I.

hide, three days.

meat

firewood,

tree,

dried rice, saccharum,

etc. will

be

made

to fast for

STHAftU
STHA1SU

8).

Siva,

the

son of Brahma.

The

eleven

Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 69)
(v)

Rudras were born from Sthanu. Parva, Chapter 66).
II.

(Mahabharata, Adi
Rudras.

.

One

of the eleven

He was

wing of the Kaurava army. After a life-and-death Arjuna killed both of them. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 7) SRUTI. An ancient King in India. (Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 238) STAMBAMITRA. A bird. This bird was born to the hermit Mandapala by his bird-wife Jarita. (For further details see under Mandapala)
struggle,
.

Bharata Parva, Chapter 59, Verse 75) (vi) It was this Srutayus who stood in the middle portion of the Kraunca Vyuha formed by Bhlsma in the above battle. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 75, Verse 22). (M.B. Bhlsma (vii) Yudhisthira defeated Srutayus. Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 1). Srutayus in the (viii) At Kuruksetra, Arjuna killed battle. Arjuna had to fight a fierce battle in order to kill Srutayus. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 98) SRUTAYUS IV. A warrior who fought on the Kaurava of the hero Ayutayus. In side. He was the brother Bharata battle, both these brothers joined the Kauravas. Both were assigned the task of defending the southern
.
.

the King of Ambastha country. In the battle he enccuntered Arjuna. (M.B. Bhlsma

Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 6). STHAlVU III. A hermit. This hermit shines in the palace of Indra. (Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter

(M.B. Adi

STHAiyUSTHANA.

7,

Verse 17).

A

STHANUTlRTHA (STHAlVUVATA).

.

An ancient holy place, situated in Kuruksetra. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 1 78, that those who bathe in this holy tirtha and remain there for a night will attain the world of Rudras. STHIRA. One of the two followers given to Subrahmanya by Meru. The followers given to Subrahmanya were Sthira and Atisthira. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 48). STHULAKESA. An ancient hermit. He was the fosterunder father of Pramadvara the wife of Ruru. (See

Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 48)

here. It is said that the devas anointed Subrahmanya as the commander of the army, at this place. (M.B.
.

on the eastern bank of the river Sarasvatl. Vasistha had once built his hermitage here. This place became a holy tirtha since god Sthanu had performed penance

holy place. This place

is

situated

.

STAMBHA. One

STHULAKSA

Pramadvara)

.

I.

STANAKUiVDA.
this

of the Saptarsis (seven hermits) of the Manu-age (Manvantara) of Svarocisa. The seven Svarocisa Manvantara are OVja. Stambha, rsis of Parlvan. (For Prana, Vata, Vrsabha, Niraya and further details see under Manvantara).
tirtha,

A holy place. Those who bathe in which is one of the holy places of ancient Bharata, would obtain the fruits of performing the sacrifice Vajapeya. (Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 34,

STANAPOSIKA.

ancient country of South India. (M.B. B_hlsma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse68). STANAVALA. An ancient place in South India. (Mahabharata, Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 63). STEYA. Theft. In the law of chastisement of ancient Bharata, appropriation of the property of others un.

Verse 152).

It is mentioned in living in the forest in Pancavatl Valmiki Ramayana, Aranya Kanda, Sarga 26, that when Khara, Diisana and TriSiras were killed, Mahakapala, Sthulaksaand Pramathi confronted Sri Rama and were killed. STHULAKSA II. A Saintly hermit. He was one of those hermits who had visited Bhlsma in his' bed of arrows. (M.B. Anu-'asana Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 7).

fought with Sri

A giant. He was one of those giants who Rama while Rama and Laksmana were

An

STHULASIRAS
bharata.
2) Other

I.

hermit. It is observed that 1) General information. he was alive in the ages of both Ramayana and Mahadetails.

A

justly,

was counted as theft (steya). The punishment awarded for theft in ancient Bharata, is mentioned in Agni Purana, Chapter 173, as follows. "All thefts are violation of justice. The thief of gold, will have to be

shone in the court of Yudhisthira. (i) Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 11).
(ii)

He

(M.B.

It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 135, Verse 8, that Yudhisthira once visited his

beautiful hermitage.

beaten to death with a pestle. Then only his sin will be remitted. Or, he must live for twelve years, lying on the earth, wearing matted hair and eating only

In olden days this hermit had performed penance (iii) on the North East side of Meru. (M.B. Sand Parva, Chapter 243, Verse 59)
.

STHtlLASlRAS
(iv)
It

II

744

SUBAHU IX
The
father

in is mentioned Mahabharata, Anus'asana Chapter 26, Verse 5, that this hermit Sthulasiras was one of the hermits who had visited Bhisma on his bed of arrows. (v) Kabandha became a Raksasa (giant) because of the curse of Sthulasiras. (For detailed story see under

who

Parva,

STHtJLASIRAS
vana made

Kabandha).

II.

A

giant.
this

Once a
giant

friends

with

servant of Vaisraand Vais'ravana
.

death of her husband, are men of mean character. (Manusmrti, Chapter 9). STRlPARVA. An important section of Mahabharata. (See under Bharata).

husband before she attains puberty, the husband who does not engage in coition with his wife after puberty, and the son who does not support his mother after the

does not give his daughter to a suitable

STHULAVALUKA. A

river famous in the Puranas. (Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 15) STHOlVA. One of Visvamitra's sons who were expounders of the Vedas. (Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva,
.

cursed his servant. (See under Gunadhya)

STRlRAjYA.
tioned
in

A kingdom in ancient India. It is menMahabharata. Vana Parva, Chapter 51, Verse 25 that the King of this country had participated in the Rajasuya (sacrifice of royal consecration) of
of Stri Parva
in

STRlVlLAPA PARVA. A sub-section
.

Yudhisthira.

A hermit in the assembly of Yudhi(M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 23). STHUJ^AKARIifA. A Yaksa. It was this Yaksa, who gave Sikhandl virility. (For detailed story see under
STHtnVAKARiyA.
sthira.

Chapter

4,

Verse 51).

Mahabharata comprising Chapters 16 to 25. STUBHA. Son of Agni (fire) named Bhanu. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 221, Verse 14)

SUBAHU

Amba). STRI.
1)

In both Hindu and Christian scriptures, about the origin of woman appears to be similar. It is stated in Manusmrti, Chapter 1, Verse 32, that Brahma divided his body into two and made one part male and the other part female and the male embraced the female, from which union was born the
Origin.

the story

naga born to Kasyapaprajapati by his wife Kadru. (Acli Parva, Chapter 85, Verse 14). SUBAHU II. An apsara, daughter of Kagyapaprajapati of his wife Pradha. (Adi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 50). This apsara had participated in the birthday celebrations of Arjuna. (Adi Parva, Chapter 122, Verse
1.

A

SUBAHU

63).

III.

A

the asura reborn

Ksatriya King
as such.

Viratpurusa.

Dvidha krtvatmano dehamardhena purusosbhavat Ardhena nari tasyarh sa Virajamasrjat prabhuh // In the book of Genesis in the Bible, the origin of the to the one first woman is given. It is somewhat similar given above. God created Adam as the first man. God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam. Then he took a rib from Adam, made a woman with it, and gave that woman, who was called Eve, to Adam as wife.
/

despatching a letter war. (Udyoga Parva Chapter 4, Verse 14). SUBAHU IV. A Ksatriya King who was Krodhvasa, the asura, reborn. (Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 60). SUBAHU V. One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra. He was killed by Bhima in the great war. (Bhisma Parva, Chapter 96, Verse 26 j.
;

who was in fact Hara The Pandavas, thought of inviting this King to the great

SUBAHU
1)

A King of KaI. Subahu had a very daughter called Sasikala, who was married, by Sudarsana, son of Dhruvasandhi. (For details see under Sasikala)
General.

VI.

beautiful

.

2)

Cyavana, who agreed to recover for them the lost right, for which purpose he began a sacrifice. Indra caused obstruction to the sacrifice. Instantly by the power of Cyavana, an asura named Mada rose up from the sacrificial fire. Finally Indra begged the hermit for pardon. Cyavana divided the asura into four parts and placed one portion in gambling, one portion in hunting, the third portion in liquor and the fourth part in woman. Thenceforward woman began to have
fascination.
about women. The following is the place in of women in ancient days, according to Manu. society Husband or relatives should give women no freedom. Even if they became immoral, they should be kept under the control of men. As woman has to be under the protection of father in childhood, under the protection of husband in youth and under the protection of son in old age, she does not deserve freedom at any time.
3)

A story as given below occurs in Devi Fascination. Purana, which states how woman acquired fascination. Once Indra prohibited As vinldevas from drinking the liquor called Soma. They complained to the hermit

2)
(i)

Other information.

Bhimasena, in the course of his triumphal tour of the east defeated him. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 20, Verse 6)
battle,
.

Though he had never been

defeated

till

then in

present at the wedding of Draupadi in the of his son Sukumara. In this context he is referred to as Sucitra as well. (Adi Parva, Chapter 185,
(ii)

He was

company

SUBAHU

Manu,

Verse 10). VII. A Raksasa. One of the two sons of Tataka, the other being Marlca. A Gandharva named Sunda was their father. Subahu and Marlca possessed, like Tafaka, great power and adeptness in magic. once cursed Ta$aka and her two sons who went Agastya to fight him for his having cursed Sunda to ashes when he attacked his a^rama. Subahu was killed in a battle with Sri Rama during his stay in exile in the forest. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 38). SUBAHU VIII. A King of Cedi, son of Vlrabahu and brother of Sunanda. (Vana Parva, Chapter 65, Verse
45).

SUBAHU IX. A
in the
.

"Pita raksati kaumare

Bharta raksati yauvane / Raksanti sthavire putrah

Na

stri

svatantryamarhati."

//

King of Kulindas whose kingdom was suburbs of the Himalayas. (Vana Parva, Chapter 140, Verse 40) The kingdom was rich in many curious objects and elephants and horses. Kiratas, Tariganas and Kulindas lived there. King Subahu received the Pandavas with great respect when they visited his

SUBAHU X
kingdom during the period cf their forest-life. They actually catered thi forest after spending one day there. Suba.hu fought on the Pandava side in the great war. (Vana Parva, Chapter 140, Verse 2*)
.

745

SUBHADATTA
(ii) After the Rajasuya was over it was Nakula, one of the Pandavas, who led Subala and his sons beyond the boundaries of the Kingdom safely. (Sabha Parva Chapter 45, Verse 49)
.

SUBAHU
fijfit

in the great war.

the Pandavas Both his hands were cut off in his with Yuyutsu. (Drona Parva, Chapter 25, Verse

X.

A warrior who fought against

SUBALA
SUBALA

King of the Iksvaku dynasty. His son was a great friend of King Jayadratha. (Vana Parva, Chapter 265, Verse 8)
II.
.

A

13).

III.

A

son of Garuda.
acarya,

SUBAHU

warrior of Subrahmanya. (Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 73).

XI.

A

ter 101,

Verse 3).

(Udyoga Parva, Chapthe

SUBANDHU. An
from

who was
the

SUBAHU

XII. There is a reference in Verse 66, Chapter 115 of Anu:'asana Parva, Mahabharata, about a Subahu, who never consumed flesh in life.
details see

King

Asamati.
his

Once

SUBAHU

XIII. Father of Sagara of Solar dynasty. under Sagara)
.

(For

SUBAHU XIV. A

Cola King. A great devotee of Visnu, the King performed many yajnas. Though he lived according to the spiritual advice of his preceptor Jaimini he was denied the sight of Visnu. Ultimateand his queen attained heaven as they ly Subahu listened to Vijvala, their second son, reciting hymns addressed to Vasudeva. (Padma Purana, Bhumi

Akuli in his stead, and after some time, the new priinstance of the King, killed Subandhu. ests, at the But, three brothers of his joined together and brought Subandhu back to life again by chanting hymns from the Vedas. (Rgveda 10, 57. 60; Brhaddevata. 7. 33). SUBELA. A mountain near Lanka. (Vana Parva, Chapter 234, Verse 21)
.

job and appointed two

King removed
priests,

high priest of
the
priest

Kirata

and

SUBHA.

Khanda, Chapter 94).

Dhruva's mother. According to Harivams'a, Chapter 2, she was born from Asvamedha. SUBHA. Wife of Angiras and mother of seven sons like Brhatkirti. (Vana Parva, Chapter 218, Verse 1).

SUBHADATTA.
putra.
forest

A

wood-cutter

who

lived

in

Patall-

Ultimately they forsook their bodies in the forest and after a very long walk came to the abode of munis. The king queried them as to why he failed to see Visnu though he performed penance for a very long time. The King and queen were done up due to hunger and thirst and the munis asked them to return to Anandas'to

Though Subahu and his queen worshipped Visnu for a long time in the Ananda forest, the lord did not appear
them.

rama and eat the corpses left there. While they were accordingly eating the corpses, Vijvala questioned Kunjala a bird which lived nearby, why his parents were eating dead bodies. The bird answered that when the King and queen had recited the praises of Vasudeva they would see Visnu. It also taught Vijvala songs in praise of Visnu. After having studied the songs, Vijvala went and sat on a tree at ananda:'.rama and sang the songs. Subahu and his queen repeated them and immediately Visnu appeared before them and conducted them to heaven.

Subhadatta earned his living by cutting wood in the and selling it for fuel. One day, while cutting wood in the forest he saw four Yaksas by chance. When he understood from their dress and bearing that they were divine beings, Subhadatta was frightened. The Yaksas spoke to him and when they came to know that he was poor, they engaged him as their servant. Subhadatta served them with devotion. When it was time for their meal they pointed to him a pot and asked him to serve them food from it. But when Subhadatta saw the pot empty, he was confused. The Yaksas, with an amused smile asked him to put his hand into the pot and assured him that he would get anything he wished to get from it.
Subhadatta accordingly took out all the things they wanted from it and served them. They took their food and were satisfied. A few days passed in this way and then Subhadatta began to think of his family. The Yaksas understood that he was longing to return home. So they allowed him to go after getting whatever boon he wished to ask them. Subhadatta asked for that magic pot which would supply whatever he wanted. On hearing it the Yaksas told him that he would not be able to keep that pot and that if it was broken everything would be lost. So they advised him to ask them something else. But Subhadatta was not prepared to accept their advice. At last they gave him the magic
pot.

SUBALA

I.

General. A King of Gandhara. Subala was the 1) father of Sakuni, uncle of the Kauravas. Sakuni was the rebirth of Nagnajit, disciple of Prahlada. Sakuni inherited the name Saubala from his father Subala whose

only daughter was Gandhari, mother of Duryodhana. Both Sakuni and Gandhari were economic experts. (Adi Parva, Chapter 63). At the time of the marriage proposal of Gandhari the fact of the blindness of Dhrtarastra, the prospective bride-groom, worried Subala much, but he married his daughter to the blind King considering the great reputation of the (Adi Parva, Chapter 109, Verse 1 1 ). royal family.
2)
Other information, (i) Subala, his sons Sakuni, Acala and Vrsaka

Rajasuya performed by Chapter 34, Verse 6)
.

the company of participated in the Yudhisthira. (Sabha Parva,
in

Subhadatta reached home happily with the pot. He told the whole story to his people at home. His neighbours grew suspicious when he stopped going to the forest to cut trees, after he returned with the pot. To their enquiries about it, he replied haughtily and informed them of his good luck. One day in his frantic joy, he danced, carrying the pot on his head arid as ill-luck would have it, he slipped his foot and fell down. The

SUBHADRA

I

746

SUBHARYA
Many
of the
to

So he was forced

pot crashed to the ground
to

and was broken to pieces. become the wood-cutter again.

Yadava

chiefs

wedded

Duryodhana, a

disciple of

SUBHADRA

(Kathasaritsagara, Saktiyasolambaka, Taraiiga 1 ). I. Sisier of Sri Krsna. 1 was the daughter of Vasudeva by ) Birth. Subhadra his wife Devaki. She had two brothers, Krsna and Sarana and she was her father's pet child. (Adi Parva, Chapter 2 17, Verse 18). 2) Married to Arjuna. During his one year's pilgrimage Arjuna, after visiting various holy places, came at last to Prabhasa tirtha in the plains of the western mountain. He met Gada there who described to him the unique beauty of Subhadra. The description evoked in him the desire to marry her fcr which purpose he assumed the form of a Sannyasin and sitting under a tree thought about Sri Krsna who understood the fact while lying on the bed with Satyabhama and immediately he began laughing. Asked for the reason for his laughing thus, Sri Krsna told her about Arjuna thinking about him etc. Krsna then went to Arjuna and questioned him about the reason for his pilgrimage and the latter explained the circumstances of it. They then went to the Raivata mountain where Arjuna revealed
to

against this desire of theirs gether drove themselves away in a chariot through lines of people and this created a stir among the Yadavas. But, Krsna pacified them all. (Adi Parva, Chapters 213-228'; Bhagavata, 10th Skandha).
2) Other information.

wanted Subhadra to be Balabhadra and Subhadra and Arjuna to-

Dvaraka. Within a few days the Yadavas celebrated a festival at Raivata attended by prominent leaders like Balabhadra, Ugrasena, Pradyumna, Sri Krsna and others. The sight of Subhadra among them evoked uncontrollable love in Arjuna who asked Krsna secretly about the means for him to marry Subhadra. Krsna answered him thus: "Svayarhvara (marriage by self choice by a woman ) is ordained for Ksatriyas. But, how would we know whom Subhadra loves. Abduction also is ordained for Ksatriyas. So abduct Subhadra." you Arjuna immediately sent word about the matter through emissaries to Indraprastha. After the festival at Raivata was over, Subhadra returned to Dvaraka. As for Arjuna, he sat on a rock in the forest thinking about Subhadra when Yadava heroes like Bala, Samba, Sarana, Pradyumna and Gada came that way by chance. They saluted the Sannyasin (Arjuna) and after blessing them he made them sit on the rock around him and related to them various stories. Then Yadavas felt great respect for the Sannyasin and invited him and took him to Dvaraka. Krsna and others arranged for the stay of the Sannyasin, who pretended to spend Caturmasya there. He was to be fed from Subhadra's house and the Sannyasin was overwhelmed with joy. As days passed on thus, Arjuna grew more and more Subhadra felt unbounded affection for sick with love. him. She heard from him many stories about the valiant Pandava, Arjuna. When he was convinced that Subhadra cherished strong love for him, Arjuna revealed the truth about him. When he told her that he, the fake Sannyasin, was really Arjuna who was living there without the knowledge of his mother and brothers, Subhadra bent down her head in shyness. Subhadra's wedding was decided to be held on the twelfth day from that date. Balabhadra and Uddhava both of them short-tempered, were not informed about
the decision. Sri
tions
Ut.' all

Krsna his desire to marry Subhadra. Krsna agreed and, after leaving Arjuna at the mountain, returned to

(i) Later on, the wedding of Subhadra with Arjuna was duly consecrated. (Adi Parva, Chapter 220, Verse 10). (ii) Arjuna came to Indraprastha with Subhadra disguised as a Gopl. Many costly things, by way of Subhadra's dowry, were duly sent from Dvaraka to Indraprastha. (Adi Parva, Chapter 220). A son named Abhimanyu was born to the couple. (iii) (Adi Parva, Chapter 220, Verse 65). (iv) During the period of the 'forest life' of the Pandavas Subhadra and her son lived with Krsna at Dvaraka Vana Parva, Chapter 22, Verse 3) ( (v) Subhadra too was present at the wedding of Abhimanyu at UpapJavyanagara. (Virata Parva, Chapter 72 Verse 22) (he great war, (vi) When Abhimanyu was killed in Subhadra wept before Krsna. (Drona Parva, Chapter 78, Verse 2) (vii) Following the death of Abhimanyu Subhadra returned with Krsna to Dvaraka. (Asvamedha Parva, Chapter 52, Verse 85) (viii)Remembering about Abhimanyu's death Subhadra swooned. (Asvamedha Parva Chapter 61, Verse 4).
. .

.

.

(x) Subhadra joined her co-wives, Ulupl and Citrangada and embraced them. (Asvamedha Parva, Chapter

ASvamedha yajna performed by Yudhisthira. (Asvamedha Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 4).
the

(ix)

She went from Dvaraka

to

Hastinapura

to attend

83, Verse 3).
(xi)

her

Following the death of Abhimanyu Subhadra spent Parva, days in sad silence. (Maha.prastha.na
1 )
.

SUBHADRA

Chapter

II.

A

Krsna took the lead in making preparfor the wedding and he saw Subhadra and gave good wishes.

SUBHARYA (SUDARYA). A
son of Piini. 9th Skandha).

banyan tree. Garuda went to Devaloka amrta after marking this tree as a sign-post. See under Garuda. (Aranya Kanda, Canto 35). SUBHADRAHARAIVAPARVA'. 'A sub-parva of Mahabharata. (Adi Parva, Chapters 218 and 219) SUBHAGA. A brother of Sakuni. He was killed in the great war by Bhima. (Drona Parva, Chapter 157, Verse 26). SUBHAGA I. Daughter of Kasyapaprajapati by his wife Pradha. (Adi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 46) SUBHAGA II. A term of address. According to Manusmrti (Chapter 2, 129) one should use this word when one addresses the wives of others and women who are not one's relatives. Parapatni tu ya strl syadasambandha ca yonitah / Tarn bruyad bhavatityevarh subhage bhaginiti ca // SUBHANU. One of the ten sons of Satyabhama, the other nine being Bhanu, Svarbhanu, Prabhanu, Bhanuman, Candrabhanu, Brhadbhanu, Havirbhanu, Sribhanu and Pratibhanu. (Bhagavata, 10th Skandha)
to fetch
. . .

SUBHADRA A

the western region. 9).

daughter of Surabhi. She lives in (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 102 Verse

daughter of Svaphalka, She was Akrura's sister. (Bhagavata,

SUBHA5IGADA

747

SUBRAHMANYA
semen." Accordingly it was discharged on the earth. mountains. and over-flowed forests It filled and What next was the problem. Ultimately the Devas asked Agni (fire) to consume it. When Agni consumed and burnt it down absolutely, the ashes thereof formed into a white hill and it became a forest.

SUBHA&GADA. A

This king had attended Drauking. padi's Svayamvara. ( Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Verse 22). SUBHAisIGl. virgin born in the Dasarha tribe. Kuru, King of the Lunar dynasty married her. They had a

A

son

named Vidura.

king of Solar line son of Yuyudhana and father of Sruta. (Bhagavata, 9th Skandha). SUBHAVAKTRA. A female attendant of Subrahmanya. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 7) SUBHlMA. A son of Pancajanyagni called Tapa. This Agni is one of the fifteen Agnis which cause hindrances
.

SUBHASAyA. A

Verse 39).

(M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 95,

Yajnas. Subhima, Atibhlma, Bhima, BhTmabala. Sumitra, Mitravan, Mitrajna, Mitravardhana, Mitradharman, Surapravlra, Vira, Suvarcas, Vesa and Surahanta are the fifteen Agnis which cause hindrances in Yajnas. (Vana Parva, Chapter 220, Verse 11). SUBHRAJA. One of the two attendants given to Subrahmanya by Surya, the other one being Bhasvara. (Salya Parva, jChapter 45, Verse 31) SUBHRU. A female attendant of Subrahmanya. (Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 8) SUBHUMIKA. A holy place of ancient days in the plains of river Sarasvatl where Apsaras used to come daily and bathe. Deva-Gandharvas visit this place every month.
in

Bala,

Parvati did not at all relish the action of the devas and interspoke to them thus: "You prevented my sexual course entered into with the desire to have a son. Therefore, in future you will not have children by your wives." Parvati cursed the earth also as follows: "You will become one of various forms and also a wife to many people. You, who prevented me from having a son, will not enjoy happiness from children." (Valmiki Ramayana, Balakanda, Canto 36). Tarakasura could be killtd only by a child not more than seven days old and the Devas realised that such a child could be begot only by Siva. It was the occasion when Siva was lamenting over the death of Sail and Parvati was doing penance to secure Siva as husband. None could stir Siva immersed in deep meditation

.

and the Devas entrusted Kamadeva. Not only did

.

Sri

Krsna bathed

there once

SUBRAHMANYA.

brahmins.

and distributed money

the responsibility for it to not succeed in the endeavour but also he got reduced to ashes by the fire from Siva's eyes. When Parvati's penance reached its climax Siva appeared before her and wedded her. Because of the power of 2). Birth of Subrahmanya.

Kama

to

1) Reason for birth. A son named Vajranga was born to Kasyapaprajapati by his wife Danu and he married a girl called Varangi. Vajranga performed penance to Brahma so that he might shed his asuric aspect. When he came out of his penance, Varangi was missing and he wandered about the forest in search of her. Finally he saw Varangi crying under a tree. When he asked her the reason for her weeping, she told him about harassments by Brahma during the thousand years when Vajranga was immersed in trance. Indra one day threw about the vessels used by her in worship, appearing before her in the guise of a monkey; on another occasion he threatened her in the form of a lion and on a third occasion he came disguised as a snake and bit on her legs. Very

(Salya Parva, Chapter 37). Son of Siva.

Siva's semen consumed by Agni, his glow began getting diminished. Agni complained of it to the Devas who sent him over to Brahma. On his way to Brahma Agni met Gangadevi whom he told thus: "I can in no way bear this semen of Siva and if I get rid of it, it will burn the entire world. So, you please take charge of it so that you will have a noble son. Ganga 's reply to this was simply to ask Agni to throw the semen into her waters and Agni did so. As the semen had remained

with Agni for nearly 5000 years, his flesh, blood hair, eye etc. had become golden in colour and hence Agni came to be called from that day onwards

Time
to

Hiranyaretas. passed by and the semen of Siva became a burden

grieved over the story Vajranga again took to penance with the grirn determination to punish Indra and when Brahma appeared before him he prayed for the boon of a son who would surpass the Devas includBrahma granted him the boon. ing Indra in prowess. Varangi delivered a son twelve months after the boon. The child was christened Tarakasura. Tarakasura, as a child, began practising penance and Brahma duly appeared before him and granted him the boon that if he were to die, he would die at the hands of a child only seven days old. Haughty over the boon Tarakasura very soon conquered the three worlds. The devas found no means to suppress the asura. Children would not be born to them and there was a reason for it. Once Siva and Parvati started the marital act and it did not come to a close even after a hundred divya - years, with the result that the world shook like anything. Frightened at this the Devas requested Siva to stop the act and he obliged them. Then he asked them who would bear the semen which had been discharged and they replied, "Let earth itself bear the

much

Brahma asked her from whom she had received the semen. Ganga detailed her story to him and concluded

Ganga. She complained

about

that

to

Brahma.

Brahma

by saying that though it was 5000 years since Siva's semen was put into her, she did not deliver yet. Then
:

"You go to the Udaya told her as follows mountain (where the sun rises). There is a forest there, a forest hundred crores of yojanas in extent, where Sara, a particular variety of grass ( Saccharam munja Roxb) grows. You deposit the semen there and a male child will be born after 10, 000 years. As directed by Brahma Ganga went to the Udaya mountain and deposited the foetus there through her mouth. By the power of Siva's semen all the trees and animals and birds in the forest became golden in colour. When 10,000 years were completed a child, as effulgent as the rising sun, was born and Subrahmanya was the child. The child cried in a thunderous voice and six divine Krttikas who came that way saw the child and taking pity on it vied with one another to breast-feed it. Since the child looked at the six Krttikas one after the other it developed six faces and since it was breast-fed by Krttikas it came to be named Karttikeya as well.

SUBRAHMANYA
Brahma informed Agni about
and the
latter, in great fast goat.

748
the birth of the child happiness, hastened to it on a who met Agni on the way and asked hurried trip was told about the birth of

SUBRAHMANYA
Sannyasins)
the locket

Ganga him about his

name Mahasena and under
vana's
(the forest

You made Agni
mukha
immediately

the name Saravana 'Sarawhere it was born) son. He is a great yogi and will be known by these various names. As he possesses six faces he will become famous as 'Sanmukha' also. After having spoken thus Siva thought of the Devas and under the leadership of Brahma and Visnu all the Devas appeared there. They looked at the child to their "Oh Lord hearts' content and then told Siva thus
:
!

Sakha and Naigameya. Visakha, looked at Siva, Vikakha at Parvati, Sakha at Ganga and Naigameya at Agni and all of them felt immensely happy. The Krttikas asked Siva whether Sanmukha (child with six faces) was his son to which Siva answered as follows "Let him be your son under the name Karttikeya; Ganga's son under the name Kumara Parvati's son under the name Skanda my son under the name Guha and Agni's son with the
called

belonged. Siva then told Parvati "Fortunate, fortunate." Only after seeing the child could it be decided as to whose it was and so Siva, Parvati, Agni and Ganga proceeded together to the forest where they saw the child in the lap of the Krttikas. Siva then said "Let us see whom the child looks at before settling its parentage." Understanding the ideas of the visitors the child, by its yogic power, assumed four bodies
really

directed them to Siva for settlement of their claims. Agni and Ganga asked Siva to which of them the child

the child and between the two developed an argument about the ownership of the child. Mahavisnu who came that way just then listened to the above argument and

Visnu the garland, Parvati clothes, Siva and Indra the string of pearls. The consecration of Subrahmanya 5) Devdsura war. as Commander-in-Chief of the army kindled a new hope and enthusiasm in the Devas. They challenged the Asuras for war and they took it up. The asura army entered the battle-field under the leadership of

Kumara

Kumara,

:

;

;

See under Devasena. Marriage. (ValmJki Ramayana, Canto 36; M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 223; Anusasana Parva, Chapter 85; Skanda Purana, Sambhava kanda; Kathasaritsagara, Lavanakalambaka, Taranga 6; Uttara Ramayana Kamba Ramayana, Balakanda; Vamana Purana, Chapters 57-61 Bhavisya Purana).
7)
;

unrivalled warriors like Tarakasura, Mahisa, Bana, son ofMahabali, Taraka's sons, Tarakaksa. Kamalaksa, Vidyunmall etc. In the furious battle that ensued Subrahmanya killed Tarakasura. The other asura chiefs too were killed. the killing of Tarakasura After 6) Vow of celibacy. Subrahmanya became the object of too much of petting by Parvati with the result that his life became unbridled and wayward. His lust was everyday on the increase and he committed even rape on Deva women, who were ultimately forced to complain about him to Parvati. Immediately she called Subrahmanya to her and showed her own image in all other women and he became so much repentant about his past actions that he took the vow before Parvati that in future he would look upon all women in the world as equal to her, his mother. (Brahmanda Purana 81 ).

8)

Other information. the occasion (i)

On

!

serve

the purpose
tirtha

of Devas. Let us

and Visnu performed the consecraceremony with holy water from the seven seas. Gandharvas, Rsis and others sang for joy and Apsaras danced. Parvati placed the child thus consecrated on her lap and kissed him repeatedly on the head. After Guha's consecration, the Devas 4) Presents. presented the army-chief valorous armies. He was given by Siva four Pramathas, equal in prowess to Indra, called Ghantakarna, Lohitaksa, Nandisena and Kumudamill. Brahma and other Devas gave their own Pramathas to him. Brahma gave him the Pramatha called Sthanu and Visnu gave him three sets of Pramathas called Sankrama, Vikrama and Parakrama. Indra gave him UtkleSa and Pankaja; Sun (Surya) gave Dandakapinjalas; Moon gave Manivasumanis;
as army-chief. Siva
tion

Aujasa Kuruksetra. Let him flourish as army-chief of Devas, Gandharvas and Kinnaras and let him kill the terrible Mahisasura and Tarakasura. 3) Coronation. Brahma, Visnu, Siva and others reached Kuruksetra with the child to crown him (Subrahmanya)
at Sarasvati in

start for

and crown San-

thus "You live with sixteen years of age
:

Chapter 226, Verse 33)! was born from the semen of Siva which (ii) Skanda fell into Agni. So he got the name Skanda. (Skand fall). (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 225, Verse 16) asunder the Kraunca mountain. (iii) He once cut (For details see under Kraunca I), (iv) Noticing the very great effulgence of Skanda, Indra feared loss of his place and immediately he clashed with the former. Indra's Vajra ( thunderbolt) hit Skanda on his right and from the wound emerged a person wearing golden armour, divine ear-rings and holding the Vel in his hands and he was named Visakha. Frightened by his sight Indra sought refuge with Subrahmanya. (Vana Parva, Chapter 227). (v) When he married Devasena his six mothers came and blessed him and his wife; he then told the mothers
.

Subrahmanya went there carrying his weapon called 'Sakti' to fight Krsna and Arjuna. (Adi Parva, "
forest

of the burning of the

Khandava

my

father,

Siva.

Until

I

become
spirit

I will

which
serve

the Asvins gave Vatsanandis etc. In short, important Devas, Mitrs, Tlrthas etc. gave Subrahmanya priceless presents too numerous to be named.

his

Aruna gave
(club,

Seeing the rush of presents the great Garuda presented own son, the fast-going Peacock to Subrahmanya.
his

own

son, the cock.

(three-pronged
stick)

weapon, trident), Brhaspati the danda Ganga, the Kamandalu (water-pot of

Agni gave the Vel

the holy place Bhadravata. (Vana Parva, Chapter 231, Verse 56). (vii) Vayubhagavan assumed responsibility for his protection. (Vana Parva, Chapter 231, Verse 56)
visited
.

a terrible person just like Agni emerged from his body and it was called Raudragraha, which is known also by other names such as Skandapasmara, Sakunigraha, Putanagraha etc. This Graha is supposed to cause children's death. (Vana Parva, Chapter 230). (vi) Subrahmanya once in the company of Rudradeva

children and the children killed by me will as your food." As soon as he finished speaking,
kills

be functioning as a

SUCAKRA
(viii)

749
killed

SUC I (NEEDLE)
I. A deva (god) who was born in Agnivariisa. This Suci was the son of Agnideva who was the eldest son of Brahma, and his wife Svaha. Suci had two brothers by name Pavaka and Pavamana. These

He

Mahisasura.
or

231, Verse 96).
(ix)

(Vana Parva, Chapter

SUCI

Synonyms

sacred names of

Subrahmanya

:

Agneya, Skanda, Diptakirti, Aniimaya, Mayuraketu, Dharmatman, Bhutesa, Mahisardana, Kamajit, Kamada, K'inta, Satyavak, Bhuvane'vara, Sisuslghra, Suclcanda, Dlptavarna, Subhanana, Amogha, Anagha, Raudra, Priya, Candranana, Prasantatman, DiptaBhadrakrt, Kutamohana, SasthTpriya, Pavitra, Matrvatsala, Kanyabharta, Vibhakta, Svaheya, Revatlsuta, Visakha, Prabhu, Neta, Naigameya, Sudu'cara, Suvrata, Lalita, Balakrldanakapriya, Khacari, Brahmacarin, Sura, Saravanodbhava, Visvamitrapriya, Devasenapriya, Vasudevapriya, Priyakrt etc. Those who repeat the above sacred names of Subrahmanya will attain fame, wealth arid heaven. (Vana
sakti,

Agnis". Thus there are on the whole fortynine Agnis, including the father, three sons and their fortyfive children. (Visnu Purana, Part 1, Chapter 10). SUCI II. Caksusa was a son of Manu. Ten sons were born to Manu by his wife, Nadvala. They were, Kuru,
Puru, Satadyumna, Tapasvi, Satyavan, Suci, Agnistoma, Atiratra, Sudyumna and Abhimanyu. (Visnu Purana, Part 1, Chapter 13). SUCI III. There is a passage in Chapter 19 of Agni

"

brothers

had

forty-five sons.

They

are

also

known

as

Parva, Chapter 232) (x) In the Devasura war he killed important leaders of the asuras like Mahisa, Tripada and Hradodara.
.

Purana which says that KaSyapa Prajapati had six daughters by his wife Tamra, who were, Kaka, SyenI, Bhasi, Grddhrika, Suci and Griva and that different classes of birds took their source from them.
IV. A King of the Solar dynasty. From Bhagavata, 9th Skandha we learn that he was the son of Sakra-

SUCI

the sons of Tarakasura. (Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 90) (xii) Siva consecrated him as lord ( Srestharaja) of the Bhutas. (Sand Parva, Chapter 122, Verse 32). SUCAKRA. A warrior of Subrahmanya. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 59). SUCAKSUS. One of the seven channels of Gaiiga.
.

(Salya Parva, Chapter 46^ Verse 90) killed (xi) He defeated Banasura and
.

King of Iksvaku dynasty. A son named Visalaniti was born to King Iksvaku by his wife Alambusa. The city Visalanagara was founded by this Visalaniti. A son named Hemacandra was born to Visala. Sucandra was the son of Hemacandra. Dhumrasva was the son of Sucandra. (Valmlki Ramayana, Bala Kanda, Sarga 47). SUCANDRA II. An asura. This asura was the son of
I.

SUCANDRA

(See under Sindhu)

In Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 14, there is a reference to a King Suci who worships Yama, the son of Surya, in Yama's assembly. SUCI VI. The leader of a band of merchants. It was he who met and comforted DamayantI who lost her way in the forest after Nala left her. (Vana Parva, Chapter

SUCI V.

dyumna and

the father of Vanadvaja.

.

A

Simhika. (Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse

VII. One of the sons of Visvamitra. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 54) SUCI VIII. A son of Bhrgu Maharsi. (Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva, Chapter 55, Verse 128) SUCI IX. A Maharsi born in the family of Arigiras. By a curse of Vasistha, this Maharsi was born as a mortal, as the son of Kin VijitaSva. (Bhagavata, 4th Skandha). SUCI. The son of uddha and the grandson of Anenas. Trikalpava was the son of Suci. (Bhagavata, 4th
. .

SUCI

64, Verse 127).

SUCANDRA

46).

Gandharva participated in the birth celebration of Arjuna. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 122, Verse 58). SUCANTI. A muni who was an adorer of Atri Maharsi.
There
is

(Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 46) This Gandharva was the son of Prajapati KaSyapa, by his wife Pradha. This
III.
.

A

Gandharva.

SUCI (NEEDLE).
ant.

Skandha).

Iron

needle

is

Puranically import-

There is a story connecting the iron-needle of Bharata and Vibhisana as follows: Having killed Ravana, Sri Rama anointed Vibhisana as the King of Lanka and returned to Ayodhya. During
the reign of Vibhisana, Lanka reached the highest stage of prosperity. Among the five metals, only gold was seen in Lanka. At this stage Vibhisana got an iron needle from Bharata. He kept it as a rare and valuable

a reference
16,

to

him

in

Anuvaka

Rgveda, Mandala

1

,

Sukta 112.

SUCARU
SUCARU
33)
.

(M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 14, Verse sons born by Rukmini were Pradyumna Carudesna, Sudesna, Carudeha, Sucaru, Carugupta and Bhadracaru. (Bhagavata, Skandha 10). SUCCHAYA. ThewifeofSisti, the son of Dhruva. Two sons named Sisfi and Bhavya were born to Dhruva by his wife Sambhu. Succhaya, the wife of Sisti gave birth to five sons who were sinless. They were Ripu. Ripuftjaya, Vipra, Vrkala and Vrkatejas. (Visnu Purana, Amia. 1, Chapter 13) SUCETAS. The son of Grtsamada who was born in the dynasty of Vitahavya. A son named Varcas was born to Sucetas. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 30, Verse

I. son of Dhrtarastra. With his seven brothers he attacked Abhimanyu. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 79, Verse 22). II. A son born to Sri Krsna by his wife

A

Vibhisana who was an ardent devotee of Sri
to

treasure, in his palace.

Rama

used

Rukmini.

The

,

.

immerstd in the thought of Sri Rama, Vibhisana did not look inside the pot. After reaching the palace he looked into the pot and saw a Brahmin sleeping in it. He was very pleased to see the Brahmin. So after welcoming him with hospitality, he brought the box in which he had kept the most precious treasure and placed it before the Brahmin who returned with the box to Bharata. He eagerly opened the box and saw only an iron needle in it. The consternation of the Brahmin need only be
imagined.

cross the sea, come to Ramevara-temple and offer flower at the feet of Sri Rama, every day. Flower was brought in a big golden pot. Once Vibhisana placed the golden pot in the courtyard of the temple and went in with the flower. After the worship, Vibhisana came out and taking the pot .on his head returned to Lanka. Being

61).

SUCIKA
SUCIKA. An
birth festival.

750
Apsaras.
(

SUDARSANA HI
the Kauravas.

SUCIKA.
hell).

122, Verse 62).

She had participated in Arjuna's Adi Parva, Chapter Mahabharata,
of
the
giantess

(M.

B.

A

SOCIMUKHA. A
ter of

under Brahma, Para 12).
hell.

figure

Karkka|i.

(See

(See under Kala the section on

SUCIMUKHl. Companion
the son of Citraratha

Vajranabha. (Sec under PrabhavatI V). SUCIRATHA. A King born in Bharata's dynasty.

maid of PrabhavatI, daugh-

He was

andDhrsama's
of

father.

(Bhagavata,

SUCIROSITA. A

9thSkandha).

Verse 66.) (vi) Arjuna killed Sudaksina in the batile of Bharata. (M. B. Drona Parva, Chapter 92, Verse 61) The younger brother of Sudaksina confronted (vii) Arjuna to avenge the death of his brother and was
.

On the first day of the battle of Bharata. there (iv) was a combat between Srutakarma and Sudaksina. (M.B. Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 66). There was another combat between Abhimanyu (v) and Sudaksina. (M. B. Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 45,

Verse

Udyoga Parva, Chapter

160,

1

).

minister

Dasaratha.
32).

(Valmiki

killed

A Brahman! who was devoted to her I. For further details see under Dhanaiijaya V) SUCISMITA II. An Apsaras. She attends Kubera's assembly (Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 10). SUCITRA I. A naga (serpent) born in the family of Dhrtarastra. This serpent fell in the sacrificial fire of the serpent sacrifice of Janamejaya and was burnt to death. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 57, Stanza 18). SUCITRA II. (SUMITRA). Father of Sukumara the King of Pulinda. (See under Sukumara I.) SUCITRA III. A son of Dhrtarastra. He attacked Abhimanyu in the battle of Bharata. ( Mahabharata, Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 79, Verse 22). SUCITRA IV. A King who fought on the side of the Panda vas. He was a good fighter from chariot. (MahaBharata, Karna Parva, Chapter 6, Stanza 27). While this king and his son Citravarma were walking in the battlefield, Drona killed them. SOClVAKTRA. A warrior of Subrahmanya. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 72). SUC I VR ATA. A king of ancient times. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 236).
SUCISMITA
husband.
(
.

Ramayana, Ayodhya Kanda, Sarga

Verse

by Arjuna. (M. B. Karna Parva,
110).

Chapter 56,

SUDAKSINA

A warrior who fought on the side III. of the Pandavas. Dronacfirya shot him down from Drona Parva, the chariot with an arrow. (M.B.
Chapter 21, Verse 56).
I.

SUDAKSIIviA.

SUDAMA
SUDAMA

of Dillpa. (See under Dilipa). of king Janaka. (Valmiki Balakanda, Sarga 70). Ramayana, A king of Daiarna. This king had two II. of whom one was married by Bhlma, daughters the king of Vidarbha, and the other by Virabahu

A

The wife

minister

kingofCedi. (M. B. Vana
14).

Parva,

Chapter 96, Verse

SUDAMA
made
11,

SUDA.MA

SUDAMA

SUDAMA VI. A

further details see under Tulasi, para

IV. An attendant of Subrahmanya. (M. B. Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 10). V. A cowherd. This Sudama was reborn as an asura, because of the curse of Devi Radha. (For
5).

III. A country of North India. Mention is Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 27, Verse that this country was captured by Arjuna.

in

warrior

who

took
.

the side

of

the

SUDAKSIIifA
Krsna

1.

The son

of

Skandha 10). SUDAKSI1VIA.II
following

appeared wicked fairy from the fire of sorcery. Accordingly Sudaksina prepared a fire of sorcery, from which a wicked fairy came out and ran towards Sri Krsna. Sri Krsna sent his weapon the Discus which cut off the head of the wicked fairy and from there the Discus flew to Kasi and turned Sudaksina to ashes, and returned to Dvaraka. (Bhagavata,

killed Paundraka in battle and his head, cut off by Sri Krsna, fell in the country of Kasi. Sudaksina who learned about the death of his father, went to KasT and recognized the head by the ear-rings. Sudaksina made up his mind to kill Sri Krsna somehow or other and began to do penance in Kasi before Siva. Pleased with his penance Siva before

king

Paundraka.

Sri-

Pandavas and fought against the Kauravas. (M. B. Drona Parva, Chapter 23, Verse 49) SUDAMA VII. The watcher of the garden of Karhsa. It is stated in Bhagavata, Skandha 10, that this Sudama adorned Sri Krsna and Balabhadra Rama with flower

him and advised him

to create

a

name of Kucela who was the boyhood. Though his name occurs everywhere in Bhagavata, as Kucela, his real name is Sudama. (See under Kucela). SUDAMA IX. A river famous in the Puranas. It is mentioned in Valmiki Ramayana, Ayodhyakanda, Sarga 71, The
real

SUDAMA VIII.
friend

garlands.

of Sri Krsna in

SUDA^DIKA.

that Bharata, the brother of Sri river while he was returning from

Rama,

crossed

this

SUDARSANA

A king of Kamboja (Kabul). The information is taken from Mahabharata

about this king. Sudaksina had been present at the Svayarhvara (i) marriage of Draupadl. (Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Verse 15).

He came with an aksauhini of army to help (ii) Duryodhana against the Pandavas in the battle of Bharata. (M. B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 19, Verse
21).
(iii)

Sudaksina was a valunt fighter in

the

army of

I. A king of ancient India. He was a contemporary of Sri Krsna. This king who was esteemed even by the gods, was once captured and made a Sri Krsna prisoner by another king named Nagnajit. defeated Nagnajit and all the other Kings and made this King free. This story occurs in Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 48, Verse 75. SUDARSANA II. A king who took the side of the Kauravas and fought against the Pandavas in Kuruksetra. This king was killed by Satyaki. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 118, Verse 14). SUDARSANA III. A king of Malava. This king joined the side of the Pandavas in the battle of Bharata and was

Kekaya. See under Suryaprabha.

SUDARSANA iv
killed

751

SUDARSANA XI

by Asvatthama.

SUDARSANA
him.

200, Verse 13).

(M.B. Drona Parva,

Chapter

IV- A son of Dhrtarastra. In the battle of Bharata, he attacked Bhimastna and was killed by

SUDARSANA

(M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 27, Verse 31 ). V. Son of Dhruvasandhi, king of Kosala. Manorama was the mother of SudarSana. (For further details see under Dhruvasandhi) SUDARSANA VI. One of the five sons of Bharata. Bharata, the son of Rsabha, had married Pancajani, Five sons named Sumati, the daughter of Visvarupa. Rastrabhrt, Sudarsana, Avarana and Dhumraketu were born to Bharata, who divided Bharata among his five sons and went to Salagrama and did penance there and died. (Bhagavata, Skandha 5). SUDARSANA VII. The son born to god Fire by his wife Sudar'ana. (Sudar'ana was the daughter of Duryodhana For the story of her (Nila) of the dynasty of Iksvaku. see under Sudar'ana). Sudar'ana, the son of marriage Fire, married Oghavati the daughter of Oghavan. That story is given below :Oghavan had two children a daughter named Oghavati and a son named Ogharatha. Oghavan gave his daughter in marriage to Sudarsana who was wise and learned. The couple lived in Kuruksetra. Once Sudarsana said to Oghavati thus :-"You should honour guests in all
.

them. Angiras became angry and changed him to a mountain snake by a curse. SudarS ana prayed for liberation from the curse. Angiras said that in Dvaparayuga, Mahavisnu would incarnate as Sri Krs na and when Krsna trod upon him, he would regain his original form." Sudarsana became a big snake and began life in Ambadi. Once the people of Ambadi went to Devi forest and worshipped MahesVara. They spent the night on the banks of the river Kalindi. In the night the snake mentioned above, caught hold of the leg of Nandagopa. Seeing the snake swallowing Nandagopa the rest of them crowded there ard struck at the snake with burning faggots. But it was in vain. Finally Sri Krsna came, and gave the snake a thrash. Instantly Sudarsana got his old form. He went to the world of gods. SUDARSANA IX. A brahmin sinner who lived in the Tretayuga. The moment he touched the water in which Visnu washed his feet, he obtained remission of his sins and entered Vaikuntha. This story which is given occurs in I'adrna Purana, Brahma Khanda, under, Chapter 17. There lived a brahmin sinner in Tretayuga. He used to commit sins such as eating food on the eleventh lunar day, ridiculing conventional fast and vow, etc. When he
died, the

men

of Yama took his

soul

to

the world

of

it is the desire of a guest, you should not draw back from giving even your body. Whether I am present here or not a guest should not be insulted." Oghavati promi sed to obey the order of her husband to the letter. Sudarsana had been trying to become victorious over Mrtyu (Death) and so Death had been waiting to find out some vulnerable point in Sudarsana's life. While Sudarsana had gone to cut firewood, a brahmin entered the hermitage and said to Oghavati: -"If you do observe

ways. If

show hospitality to me." welcomed the brahmin and perOghavati Hearing formed the usual hospitality and asked him "What " "Give yourself to me", was the shall I do for you answer. Seeing that the guest was not contented with the usual hospitalities and remembering the words of her
the duties of a house-holder
this,
1

i

them entered the interior of the hermitage. At this moment Sudar ana returned with firewood, and looked for Oghavati and called her aloud, several times. He got no reply. Then the Brahmin who was lying inside called out:-"Hei Son of Fire A guest has come. Your But I was not conwife showed all kinds of hospitality. tented with them. Now she is offering herself to me." These words did not seem to make any change in Sudar'ana. Dharmadeva was much pleased, as Sudarsana had come out victorious in all these tests. He came out and appeared in his own form and blessed Sudarsana. Due to the blessing of Dharmadeva, half of the body of Oghavati flowed as the river Oghavati and the
! !

husband, Oghavati gave herself

to

the guest.

Both of

Sudarsana was laid in horrible excrements for the period of hundred Manvantaras. When he was released he was born on earth as a hog. Because he ate fcod on Harivasara (a fast-day) he suffered hell for a long time. His next birth was that of a crow and lived on excrements. Once the crow drank the water which fell on the steps while washing the feet of Visnu. The crow obtained remission of all On the same day it was caught in the net of its sins. a forestman and died. Then a divine chariot drawn by swans came and took the crow to the world of Visnu. SUDARSANA X. The son of Dlrghabahu who was' born in the family of Manu. He conquered all the kingdoms and ruled as an emperor. The famous hermit Vasistha was his priest. Once Devi Mahakall appeared to him in a dream and said to him: "Very soon a flood will occur in the world. So go to the Himalayas with your wife and the priest Vasistha and stay there in a cave." According to the instruction of Devi, Sudarsana took everybody with him and went to the Himalayas. The prophecy of Devi came true. The earth was filled

Yama.

At

his order

with water.
returned
Parva,
1,

that the earth resumed
to
1).

This deluge lasted
its

for ten years. After original form and Sudarsana

Ayodhya.

(Bhavisya Purana,

Pratisarga

other half was dissolved in the soul of her husband. Sudarsana thus earned victory over Mrtyu and obtained
prosperity.

SUDARSANA
of Angiras,
tain snake.

VIII.

A

this

Vidyadhara was changed into a mounThat story occurs as follows in Bhagavata,

Vidyadhara. Because of the curse

Skandha 9. While Sudars ana was playing about in the world of Gods with some Gandharva damsels, Angiras and some other hermits came by that way. Sudarsana ridiculed

It is mentioned in Kalika Purana that Sudarsana had broken off a piece ot a forest region of Himalaya and taken it to his country and founded on it the city called Khandavlnagara and that after a short period king Vijaya of the Bhairava dynasty killed king Sudarsana and became the ruler of the city. (Kalika Purana, 92). SUDARSANA XI. A wife of God Fire. This Sudarsana was the daughter of Duryodhana, the son of Durjaya of the Iksvaku dynasty. The mother of Sudarsana was Narmada. It is said that so beautiful a woman as Sudar.' ana had never been born. The God Fire was once fascinated by the beauty of Sudar'ana who had been instructed to serve him, and wished to accept her as his wife. So he informed her of his desire. Being

SUDARSANA xn
of a noble race, she said that a virgin ought to be given a w.;y by her parents. The God Fire approached the father of Sudarsana and informed him of every thing. When he knew that the person who made the request

752

SUDEVA
Verse
3)
.

II

SUDASA
who

I.

ought

daughter SudarSana as wife to the God. (Duryodhana had another name In the PurJ.nas there is another statement also Nlla). that Nila was the ruler of Mahismatl. (See under Duryodhana 1 1 and Agni Para 8) SUDARSANA XII. An island. This is another name of Jambudvipa. Once Sanjaya talked to Dhrtarasfra about this dvipa (Island). (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter
Fire, the king

was the God

evening.

gave

his

SUDAS

.

Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 7 that this tree was eleven thousand yojanas high. SUDARSANA XIV. (The Discus SudarSana-weapon). The weapon of Mahavisnu. 1) General information. Two stories are seen about the origin of this weapon. (i) The sun married Sarhjna the daughter ofVisvakarma. Sarhjna complained to her father that she could not bear the radiance of the Sun. VisVakarma put the Sun in a turning machine and turned him and decreased his radiance. Out of the dust of the sun produced by this process, ViSvakarma made the discus-weapon, the aerial chariot Puspaka, the Trident of Siva, and Of these weapons the Sakti (lance) of Subrahmanya. the discus-weapon Sudarsana was given to Mahavisnu. This is one story. (Visnu Purana, Arhsa 3, Chapter 2). (ii) During the burning of the forest Khandava, Indra showered rain, against the fire. According to the second story, the God Fire gave the discus weapon Sudarsana to Sri Krsna and the Gandiva to Arjuna to fight against Indra. (See the word Khandavadaha). Besides these two stories, several statements occur in this weapon Sudarsana. As various Puranas, about SudarSana was in existence even before the incarnation of Sri Krsna, the story that Visvakarma made it, ought to be given prominence. Very often Mahavisnu used to destroy enemies by this SudarSana. Though Mahavisnu had taken several incarnations, only Sri Krsna is mentioned in the Puranas as having used this weapon Sudarsana very often. 2) The power of Sudartana. Sudarsana flies up to the ranks of the enemies, burning like fire. Once Mahavisnu sent the weapon Sudarsana towards the asuras. Then the havoc and destruction caused by this weapon,
mentioned
in
is

SUDARSANA

5).

XIII.

A

tree in the

Jambu

island.

It

is

II. An Aryan King named Sudas is stated in Rgveda. It is mentioned in Rgveda Mandala 1, AnuSukta 63, that VisVamitra saved this King from vaka 1 a danger. (See under Df.garajna) SUDASA III. A King of Ayodhya. He was the son of Sarvakama and the father ofKalmasapada. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9; Visnu Purana, 4, 4, 30). SUDATTA.We of the prominent wives of Sri Krsna. The palace Ketuman in Dvaraka, was given to this wife. (Mahabharata, Daksinatya Patha, Sabha Parva.
1
,
.

165, Verse 57).

King remembered every morning and (Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva, Chapter
to

A King
be

of Kosala. This Sudas a was a

SUDDHA. A King

Chapter 38).

of the Bhrgu dynasty. Bhagavata, 9th Skandha mentions that he was the son of Anenas

SUDESNA
1)

and

Suci's father.

I. The wife of Virata, the King of Matsya. It is mentioned in MahabhaGeneral information. Verse 6, that this rata, Virata Parva, Chapter 9, Sudesna, the daughter of the King of Kekaya, had the

name
2)

Citra also.

Other details. the pseudonymity, Pancali lived with (i) During Sudesna in the guise of Sairandhrl. (M.B. Virata Parva, Chapter 9). the request of Klcaka to get (ii) Sudesna agreed to Sairandhrl for him, as he was fascinated by her beauty.

who was miserable at (iv) Draupadi consoled Sudesna the death of Klcaka. (M.B. Virata Parva, Chapter 16, Verse 48) from the (v) Sudesna asked Draupadi to go away
.

(M.B. Virata Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 6). Sudesna sent Kicaka to the house of Sairandhrl. (M.B. Virata Parva, Chapter 15).
(iii)

described

as follows

:

SUDARSANA

the blazing fire, the Sudar'ana rested on the hand of Visnu; turning round with a tremendous speed. Visnu threw it at the enemies with his powerful hand like that of the trunk of an elephant, with a view to cleave the city of the enemies into pieces. That weapon which was burning in great flames like a great fire spreading radiance, flew into the midst of the enemy's army and instantly every one near it fell dead. Thus it flew about among the asuras and burnt them to ashes. Then turning round and round in the air it drank the blood shed on the earth. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 19). XV. Indra had a chariot named

ing light and

The moment he thought of Sudargana, to destroy the power of the enemy, it made its appearance like the Sun in the Solar region. It was a fearful sight. Emanatradiance

from

named Ariga, Vanga, Kalinga, Pundra and Suhma were born to the hermit DIrghatamas by this queen Sudesna. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 98 30; Bhagavata, Skandha 9; Harivarhsa 1, 39) SUDESNA I. A son born to Sri Krsna by Rukmim. (See under Rukmim). SUDESNA II. A country in India, very famous, in the Puranas. (Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 4) SUDEVA I. A brahmin who was a favourite of the King of Vidarbha. It was this brahmin who was sent by the King of Vidarbha to search for Damayantl. (See under Damayantl). SUDEVA II. A captain of the army of King Ambarlsa. He was calm and fearless. Sudeva met with a heroic death in a battle and attained heaven. Indra gave him
:
. .

Uttara, Sudesna went to Upaplavya with Draupadi. (M.B. Virata Parva, Chapter 72, Verse 30). SUDESNA II. The wife of the King Bali. Five sons

palace. (M.B. Virata Parva, Chapter 24, Verse 3). (vi) In connection with the marriage of her daughter

Sudarsana. (Mahabharata, Virata Parva, Chapter 56,

was a yajna (sacrifice) and that due to this yajna Sudeva attained heaven. The King asked, when this

a suitable place. Later Ambarlsa died and came to heaven. There he saw his captain Sudeva and was amazed. He asked Indra how it was that Sudeva was given a place in heaven. Indra replied that to fight fearlessly in the battle-field and meet with heroic death,

SUDEVA
Sudeva

III

753
:

SUDEVA
I

III

took place. Indra continued "Once Ambarisa sent to subdue the asuras and giants. Sudeva entered the battlefield and looked at the vast army of the enemy. Finding that it was impossible to defeat the army of giants, he sat down and meditated on Siva, who appeared before him and encouraged him. A fierce battle followed in which Sudeva annihilated the army of the giants completely and he himself met with a heroic death. That is how he obtained heaven. (M.B. Daksinatyapatha, Santi Parva, Chapter 98). SUDEVA III. The son of Haryasva, the King of Ka^I. He was quite valiant and radiant. After the death of his father he was anointed as King of Kasi. As soon as he became King, the sons of King Vltahavya attacked Sudeva and captured him. After this Divodasa became the King of Ka'i. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter

Iksvaku and his army.

bravery, my love. It is because I could go to heaven if fight with the king valiantly and meet with heroic death", replied the hog. The wife tried her utmost to dissuade her husband from his attempt. The children also tried to stop him. They could not change his mind. So all of them decided to help him as much as they could in his fight. They got ready for a fight against
king's army saw the preparations of the hogs and their resolute stand. Struck with fear, they informed

The

SUDEVA

IV. A famous King. Nabhaga married Suprabha the daughter of this King Sudeva. The taken from Markandeya Purana following is a story stating how this Sudeva who was a Ksatriya by birth, became a Vaisya by the curse of hermit Pramati. Once Nala, the friend of Sudeva, and the relative of Dhumraksa, after having drunk too much liquor, tried to rape the wife of the hermit Pramati. All this happened while King Sudeva was standing silently near Nala. Pramati requested King Sudeva repeatedly to save his wife. Sudeva replied The Ksatriya who could help the needy, could save your wife also. But I am a the Vaisya." This arrogance of the King made hermit angry. "May you become a Vaisya." The hermit cursed the King. Sudeva repented and requested for liberation from the curse. "When a Ksatriya steals away your daughter you will recover
'
:

30, Verse 13).

Iksvaku about it. The king ordered the noble hog to be caught. Iksvaku and his wife mounted on horse and followed the army. All the hounds ran towards the hogs barking. The army sent a volley of arrows at the The hog and his wife stopped the arrows. The hogs. army could not defeat the hogs. At last the king himself killed the hog with a club. While the king was looking on, that noble hog was changed to a noble Gandharva with four hands and divine clothes and ornaments. Leaving his old body of hog on the earth he rose up into the sky like the Sun and went to heaven. Seeing this sight Sudeva was struck with fear. She got down from the chariot and called the wife of the hog towards her. The wife of the hog, wounded all over, came to the queen Sudeva. Sudeva asked her about the previous history of her dead husband. The hog's
wife said:
self."

about the previous

"Lady

!

If you feel
life

interested

of

my

I shall tell you dead husband and my-

SUDEVA

the lost feelings of Ksatriya." The hermit gave this liberation from the curse. Because of this curse Nabhaga stole away Suprabha the daughter of Sudeva and Sudeva got back the lost feelings of Ksatriya. I. daughter of the King of Aiiga named Ariha. The King Rksa was her son. (M.B. Adi Parva,

A

SUDEVA

Chapter 95, Verse 24)
II.

.

the dynasty of King Dasarha. of the Puru dynasty married Sudeva. The King Ajamldha was their son. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 36). SUDEVA III. The wife of Iksvaku who was the son of Manu. This Sudeva was the daughter of Devarata the King of Kasi. Iksvaku and Sudeva are said to be the incarnations of Visnu and Devi Laksmi respectively. While the couple were walking about in the forest, they saw a she-hog. That hog was the cursed form of a Brahmin woman named Sudeva. Sudeva, the wife of Iksvaku gave the merits she had earned in one year by her good deeds to Sudeva the she-hog and liberated her from her curse. This story occurs in Padma Purana Bhumikhanda, Chapter 42. The story is given below: Once King Iksvaku and his wife Sudeva were hunting on the banks of the Ganga. Then a big hog came there with his wife and children. The hog was afraid of Iksvaku. So he said to his wife: "Look! beloved! Iksvaku the valiant, the son of Manu, is come for hunting. I am going to fight with him." His wife said. "How did you get this bravery to fight with the king, you who "It is not always try to evade the forest-men ?"

princess born in Vikuntha, a King

A

"My dead husband was a Gandharva named Rankavidyadhara, in the previous birth. Once he sat in the shade of a tree near the hermitage of Pulastya and began to sing with accompaniment. As the singing caused disturbance to his solitude the hermit Pulastya came and requested the Gandharva to shift to some other place. Rankavidyadhara did not like to comply with the request of the hermit. At last Pulastya removed his hermitage to another place. Rankavidyadhara walked in search of Pulastya. saw Pulastya. Finally the Gandharva Seeing that he was alone, the Gandharva took the shape of a hog and entered the hermitage and began to wound with his tusk and to molest that radiant sage Pulastya. Thinking it to be a mere animal Pulastya suffered The hog continued its actions of it for a long time. It passed excrements in front of the sage, molestation. danced before him, played in front of him, fell down in the courtyard and rolled and did various other things. As it was an animal Pulastya forgave him. One day Rankavidyadhara entered the hermitage as a hog, roared aloud, laughed aloud, cried aloud, sang aloud and in various other ways tried to change the mind of the hermit.

was not a hog.
tinuously.
I

Seeing

all these,

animal.
thus:

This must be that wicked Gandharva."

"You tried to violate my penance in the shape of a hog. So you, great sinner; take the next birth as a hog." With grief the Gandharva ran to Indra and informed him of everything. Indra requested Pulastya
to liberate the

recognizing

Thus him Pulastya got angry and cursed him

Pulastya began to think that it will not try to molest one conforgave him thinking him to be a mere

"A hog

Gandharva from the curse. Accordingly gave him remission that he would regain his original form when he was killed by the hands of the immensely good king Iksvaku."
Pulastya

SUDEVA

III

754

SUDHANVA II
was leading a prosperous life. Mangala gave me food. Sivagarma asked me who I was. I told him my story. He remembered me, his former wife. Mangala also felt compassion for me. They gave me gold ornaments and made me stay there. But my conscience pricked me.

Sudeva. was

amazed on hearing this story of the dead hog, and asked her again. ''You hog You speak like a
!

human being. How is it /' The wife of the hog continued
in the city of Sripura
in

Kalinga. They named me Sudeva (Vasudeva). Because of the unlimited caressing and fondling of my father I grew up as an arrogant In the meanwhile a Brahmin youth named Sivagirl. sarma, who was well-versed in all the branches of knowledge, and whose parents were dead, came to my house. My father gave me to that brahmin. I lived with him in my father's house. Being proud of the wealth and prosperity of my parents I did not care to render the husband who was a services due to my husband. peaceful man bore every thing. By and by I became wicked. At last because of my wickedness and immorality my husband left the country. My father hated me and

have taken rebirth as a hog. In my previous birth I was the daughter of a Brahmin named Vasudatta ( Vasudeva)

the story.

"Lady

!

I also

Thus burning

My

After the suffering of a very long period, I took birth again as a Jackal. Then I became a dog, and then a snake. After that I passed through the births of a hen, a cat and a rat. Thus Brahma had put me in the wombs of all kinds of animals. Now I have taken the birth of a she-hog. Lady Your husband Iksvaku is the incarnation of Visnu in portion and yourIf you would give me self, that of Laksmi in portion. the merits you have earned for one day by your good deeds, I could leave off all these mean births and attain
soul
to hell.
!

My

went

internally

I

died.

heaven."

The

am. I am the rebirth of a powerful asura named Kalanemi. In ancient days Visnu killed me in a battle between the gods and asuras. I have entered into your womb for revenge. Mother you need not take the trouble to destroy me." Saying so, the infant stopped After ten years Padmavati gave birth to the speaking. mighty and strong Karhsa. He was killed by Sri Krsna and he attained heaven." Sudeva was struck with wonder at the story of Karhsa. She asked the she-hog to continue her own story. She continued her own story. "I have said that my father expelled me. Being shameless I walked away from there soon. Nobody helped me. Those who saw me scolded me. Days passed. Afflicted by a horrible disease, and I came to a big house. I travelling in this manner, entered the courtyard and begged for alms. It was the house of my husband SivaSarma. When I abandoned him he married another woman named Mangala and
I
!

Karhsa was born to Padmavati, the wife of Ugrasena, by her illegal connection with persons other than her husband." Hearing about the birth of Karhsa, Sudeva asked the she-hog to tell her about the circumstances which led to the illegal connections of Padmavati. The wife of the hog continued. "In days of old there was a king in Mathurapurl named Ugrasena, who married Padmavati the daughter of king Satyaketu of Vidarbha. While the couple were living happily in Mathurapurl Satyaketu wanted to see his daughter. He sent a messenger to Mathurapuri and brought Padmavati to Vidarbha. She walked along the vicinity of the palace in which she was born, enjoying the beauty of the scenery. She walked on and arrived on the mountain called Puspavan, and sat on the bank of a lake. At that time a Gandharva named Godila (Dramila) came there. He fell in love with her. He took the shape of Ugrasena and came near her and talked with her. Thinking that her husband had come from Mathura to see her she embraced him. After a while she understood that the visitor was not her husband. She began to curse him. The visitor admitted that he was Godila an attendant of VaiSravana. Godila went on his way. But she had become pregnant by that time. Her parents tried in various ways to destroy the child in her womb. One day the infant lying in her womb told her thus: "Mother you do not know who
to as
!

some calamity would happen

expelled

me

from the house.

My
me

father

feared

that

SUDHAMA

SUDHAMA II. A golden mountain in SUDHAMA
(M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter
III.

Vas avarttins. (Visnu Purana, Arhsa

of the third Manvantara was Uttama. The ruler of the devas was the Indra named Sus"anti. There were five groups or ganas of twelve devas each, called the Satyas, the Japas, the Pratardanas, Sudhamas and the
1,

eyes of Sudeva were full when she heard the story of the hog. She gave to the she-hog, the merits she had earned by good deeds for one year. The hog was changed to a divine woman of youth and beauty. Immediately a divine chariot came down from heaven and took her to heaven, while everybody was looking on. Iksvaku and Sudeva returned to their palace much pleased at the redemption of the she-hog. A group of Gods. The name of the Manu I.

Chapter
the

Kus a

3)

.

island.

One

12,

of the sons of

SUDHANUS
the son of Four sons

(Bhagavata, Skandha 5),

Verse 10). King Ghrtaprstha.

SUDHANUS

Arimejaya, were born to Kuru. 278).

A King of the Puru dynasty. He was I. King Kuru who had founded Kuruksetra. named Sudhanva, Sudhanus, Pariksit and
(Agni Purana, Chapter

SUDHANUS

II. King who was the son of Kuru and the father ol Suhotra. The King Uparicaravasu was a King of this dynasty. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9).

A

SUDHANVA

Drona Parva, Chapter
I.

III. warrior from Pancala who took the side of the Pandavas. This mighty warrior was the son of King Drupada and the brother of Viraketu. In the battle of Bharata, when Viraketu was killed, Sudhanus gathered his brothers and attacked Drona. In that fight Sudhanus was killed by Drona. (M.B.

A

guard of the ends of the quarters. In the beginning of creation Brahma made four guards of the four ends. They were Sudhanva in the East,
Saiikhapada
in
II.

A

98, Verses 37-40)

.

the South,

Ketuman

in the

West and

SUDHANVA

Hiranyaroma

in the North. (Agni

Purana, Chapter 19).

ation gathered

given below. There arose a contest between Sudhanva and (5) Virocana, the son of Prahlada for marrying the damsel KeSinl. (For detailed story see under KesinI V). (ii) This hermit visited Bhisma in his bed of arrows.
(iii)

Son of hermit Angiras. Some informfrom Rgveda and Mahabharata is

(M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 7). Sudhanva was the eighth son of Angiras.

SUDHANVA III
(iv)
It is stated

755

SUGATI
Videha. He was the son of Mahavlrya and of Dhrstaketu. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9). SUDINA. A holy place in Kuruksetra. It is
the father

Chapter 86,

Verse

Devas and the asuras. Sudhanva had three sons called Rbhu, Vibhva ( v) and Vaja. (Rgveda, Mandala 1, Anuvaka 16, Sukta
'

Subrahmanya

Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva, Sudhanva gave this 24, that a chariot, in the battle between the
in

mentioned

in Maha Bharata, Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 100, that by bathing in this holy tirtha one could attain the world of the Sun.

SUDHANVA III. A
killed

great warrior who fought against the Pandavas in the battle of Kuruksetra. He was

111).

SUDIVA.
(life

A

hermit

who had

SUDHANVA

Verse 42)

by Arjuna.
.

(M.B.

Drona Parva, Chapter

18,

and attained heaven. Mention is made about this hermit in Mahabharata, Santi Parva, Chapter 244,

in the forest) the third of the

observed only Vanaprastha four stages of life,

IV.

Drupada, is Chapter 23, Verse 44. This warrior sided with the Pandavas in the battle of Kuruksetra and fought against the Kauravas. When his brother Viraketu was killed, he and his brothers joined together and attacked Drona. In that fight Drona killed Sudhanva. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 122, Verse 45). SUDHANVA V. An ancient King of Bharata. A story

Sudhanva who was the son of mentioned in Mahabharata, Drona Parva,

A

StJDRA.

SUDHARMA

King Mandhata defeated this Sudhanva in battle, Maha Bharata, Drona Parva, Chapter 62 SUDHANVA VI. A King of Sarikasya. This King surrounded the city of Mithila and sent word that unless the bow of Siva and the princess Sita were given to him he would kill Janaka, who subsequently fought a battle with him. In this battle Sudhanva was killed. Sankasya, the kingdom of Sudhanva was given to Kusadhvaja by his brother Janaka. (Valmiki Ramayana, Bala Kanda, Sarga 71)
that

occurs in

have lived in the second century A.D. The drama "Mrcchakatika" has been discovered as his work. It is divided into ten Acts. It is believed to be the oldest Sanskrit drama. Some people think that Sudraka was a King. The authorship of another drama, "Padmaprabhrtakam" is also attributed to him. SUDRSTA. A country in Bharata, very famous in the Puranas. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 51 ). SUDYA. A King of the dynasty of Yayati. He was the of Carupada. grandson of Namasyu and the son Bahugava was the son of Sudya. ( Bhagavata, Skandha

_Verse 17. See under Caturvarnyam. SODRAKA. A Sanskrit dramatist.

He

is

believed

to

SUDYUMNA
full

9).

I.

A

son of

Manu

.

I.'

SUDHARMA

gods). (Bhagavata, Skandha 10). II. The great assembly

'The assembly hall of the Devas.
hall

(the

SUDYUMNA II.
woman and
woman,
under Ila
1 )

Caksusa (who was the Manu of the sixth Manvantara) by his wife Nadvala, the daughter of Prajapati Vairaja. (Visnu Purana, Arhsa 1, Chapter 13).
General information.
all in

of radiance,

including

Caksusa. Ten sons Sudyumna were born to

A

of the

then became a
the

King

who was born as man and then became
(

a
a

reported the matter there. This hall had the name 'Dasarhr also. This great hall was one yojana long and one yojana broad. It was in this hall that Sri Krsna received Indra. (M.B. Daksinatya Patha, Sabha

Yadavas. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 219, Verse 10, that at the time of the carrying away of Subhadra, the soldiers ran to Sudharma and

same

birth.

For detailed story see

I).

2) Other details. (i) This royal hermit stays in the court of Yama glorifying him. ( M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 8, Verse

SUDHARMA SUDHARMA
stated
in

Parva, Chapter 38).
III.

who was the Matali, mentioned in the Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 95, that a daughter named GunakesI was born to Matali by Sudharma.
Wife of
It
is

charioteer of Indra.

prince of the Vrsni dynasty. It is Bharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 18, that he was a member of the assembly of Yudhisthira and that he had learned archery from

IV.

Maha

A

SUGANDHA. A giant.
Srsti

While Sudyumna was the King, to do justice properly, both hands of the hermit Likhita were cut off. (For detailed story see under Likhita) (iii) Because he had executed the duties of the King properly and righteously, Sudyumna attained heaven. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 28, Verse 45).
(ii)
.

16).

It is

stated

in

Padma Purana,

SUDHARMA V. A King
Verse
the
5)
.

Arjuna.

of Dagarna. Bhimasena who was pleased at the good fighting of this King, appointed him as his captain. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 29,

Khanda, Chapter 75, that this giant was one of in the the seven, who were killed by Agni (Fire) battle between Hiranyaksa and the gods. SUGANDHA I. A celestial maid. Mention is made in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 122, Verse 63, that the birth festival of this celestial maid danced in

SUDHARMA VI. A warrior who
Pandavas
in

SUGANDHA
bharata,

had fought against
Kuruksetra.
.

the battle

of

Drona Parva, Chapter 18, Verse 20) SUDHlS. A group of Gods of Tamasa Manvantara. In four groups of devas this Manvantara there were (gods) called Suparas, Haris, Satyas and Sudhls. In
each of these groups there were twentyseven gods. under Manvantara).
(

(M.B.

A holy place. It is mentioned in MahaParva, Chapter 84, Verse 10, that by visiting this place one could obtain remission of sins and attain heaven.
II.

Arjuna.

Vana

SUGANDHl. One

A

of the

thirteen
to

son

named Pundra was born
Skandha

wives of Vasudeva. Vasudeva by his wife

See

SUGATI. A King
in Bhagavata,

Sugandhl.

(Vayu Purana, 96, 161).
of the Bharata dynasty. It
5, that
it mentioned he was one of the sons

SUDHRTI.

Another name of Satyadhrti, the King of

of Gaya.

SUGHOSA
SUGHOSA. The

756

SUHOTRA
who lives in Varuna's court wor(Sabha Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 13). SUHASTA. One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra. Bhimasena killed him in the great war. (Drona Parva, Chapter 157, Verse 19). SUHASTYA. A muni extolled in Rgveda. He was the son ofGhosa. (Rgveda, Mandala 1, Anuvaka 17, Sukta
asura

conch of Nakula, one of the Pandavas. (Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 25, Verse 16). SUGOPTA. An eternal Visvadeva (god concerned with offerings to the manes). (Mahabharata, AnuSasana Parva, Chapter 91, Verse 37). SUGRlVA I. Bali and Sugriva were brothers. Their mother was Aruna who once put the guise of a woman. At that time he was called by the name Arum. Bali was the son born to Indra by Arum and Sugriva was the son born to the Sun by Arum. Both of them were brought up in the hermitage of Gautama. When the King of Kiskindha Rksarajas died, Bali was anointed

SUHANU. An

shipping him.

SUHAVI. A King
the grandson of

born in the Bharata dynasty. He was emperor Bharata and son of Bhumanyu. His mother was called Puskarini. (Adi Parva, Chapter
94, Verse 24).
I.

120).

the king of Kiskindha. Sugriva lived with Bali, serving him. At this time Bali engaged in a battle with the asura Dundubhi. Bali chased Dundubhi into a cave. Placing Sugriva at the mouth of the cave, Bali went in. By the magic and sorcery of Dundubhi, it appeared to Sugriva that Bali was killed by Dundubhi. Sugriva returned to Kiskindha. Bali who came out, followed Sugriva to kill him due to misunderstanding. Bali chased Sugriva all over the world. It is mentioned in Valmlki Ramayana, Kiskindha Kanda, Sarga 46, that the knowledge of the lay-out of the various countries in the world that Sugriva got in this running, helped him later, in the search for Slta. At last Sugriva entered Rsyamukacala. Bali had been once cursed that if he entered this mountain his head would be broken into pieces. Hanuman became the minister of Sugriva. It was during this period that Sri Rama and Laksmana came by that way in search of Sita. Sugriva and Sri Rama entered into a treaty. Bali should be killed and Kiskindha should be given to Sugriva in place of which Rama should be helped to find out Slta and get her back. Sri Rama killed Bali and gave Kiskindha to Sugriva, who sent monkey-armies in all directions to find out Slta. Hanuman found out Slta and returned to Sri Rama, who fought a great battle with Ravana, in which battle Sugriva took a prominent part. It was Kumbha-

SUHMA

A

SUHMA
region
rata,

in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 1 1 2, Verse 29, that Pandu had conquered this country which was Bhimasena situated on the Eastern part of Bharata. also conquered this country during his regional conquest of the east. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 16). the mountainous II. country situated in

country famous in the Puranas.

It is stated

A

of North India.
this

It

is

mentioned

in

MahabhaArjuna

Sabha Parva, Chapter

27, Verse 21,

that

conquered

country during his regional conquest

SUHOTA.

of the North.
I.

SUHOTRA

See under Suhotra II. A son of the hermit Jamadagni. Five sons named Rumanvan, Suhotra, Vasu, Visvavasu and Paras urama were born to Jamadagni by his wifeRenuka (Brahmanda Purana, Chapter 58). SUHOTRA il. A son of emperor Bharata. (For genealogy, see under Bharata I) Five sons were born to Bharata, the son of Dusyanta. They were Suhotra, Suhota, Gaya, Garbha and Suketu. (Agni Purana, Chapter 278).
.

SUHOTRA

III.

karna,

who

he caught Sugriva, Kumbhakarna lost his ears and nose. Then he caught hold of the monkey warriors and Sri Rama cut off his hands with arrows. ( Agni Purana, Chapter 1 ) After the war, when Rama and others returned to Ayodhya, Sugriva also accompanied them. After that Sugriva returned to Kiskindha. After a few years Candragupta, the second son of Sahasramukha Ravana, carried away the daughter of Sugriva. Hearing this, Sri Rama confronted Sahasramukha Ravana, who was killed by the arrow of Slta. Sugriva participated in the horse-sacrifice performed by Sri Rama. The control of the army was in the hands of Sugriva, the financial affairs, with Vibhlsana and central powers, with Laksmana. When the sacrifice was completed, Sugriva returned to Kiskindha. SUGRlVA II. An asura. This asura was the minister of Sumbha, an asura-chief. (Devi Bhagavata). SUGRlVA III. A horse of Sri Krsna. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Drona Parva, Chapter 147, Verse 47,
.

oppressed

the

monkey army much. When

that he was the grandson of emperor Bharata and the son of the elder brother of Bhumanyu. Puskarini was the mother of this Suhotra. 2). Other details. This Suhotra got suzerainty over the entire earth. (i ) After this he conducted horse-sacrifice and several

king of the 1). General information. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Adi

A

Candra dynasty.
Parva,

94, Verse 24,

Chapter

other sacrifices.
25).
(

(

M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter

94,

Verse

Suhotra married Suvarna, a princess of the Iksvaku sons. Ajamldha, Sumldha and Purumldha were born to them. ( M. B. Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 30) Suhotra was a generous king. (M. B. Drona(iii)
ii )

dynasty. Three

.

Parva, Chapter 56). (iv) Being pleased at his hospitality, Indra showered a rain of gold in the country fora year. Rivers were full of golden water. Indra showered golden fishes also in these rivers. But the king divided all this gold among Brahmins. (M. B. Santi Parva, Chapter 29,

that five horses

SUGRlVl. A
from
this

and Valahaka were yoked
girl

Kamaga,

Saibya, Sugriva, Meghapuspa to the chariot of Sri Krsna.

Sugrlvl, that the horse, originated in the world for the

born to Kasyapa by Tamra. It was camel and donkey first time. (Matsya

IV. Son of Sahadeva, one of the Pandavas. Sahadeva married Vijaya, daughter of Dyutiman, the kingofMadra. The son Suhotra was born to them. (M. B. Adi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 80). SUHOTRA V. A hermit. This hermit honoured Yudhis^hira to a great extent. (Mahabharata, Vana Parva,' Chapter 26, Verse 24)

SUHOTRA

Verse 25)

.

SUHOTRA VI. A

.

Purana).

king of the Kuru dynasty. Once this king obstructed the way of Sibi, born in the family of

SUHOTRA
tion

VII
let Sibi

757

SUKA
not find

I

King Usinara. He

SUHOTRA VII. A
SUHU. A Yadava

Sibi). giant. This giant was one of those kings who had ruled over the entire earth and had to leave the place due to fate. (M. B. Santi Parva.

ofNarada. (See under

go only after

the

interven-

him
find

Chapter 277, Verse 51).
(Bhagavata, Skandha
king

who was
.

mental satisfaction. So his father sent him to Mithila. At that time there was none who equalled Janaka, the then King of Mithila. Before sending him away, Vyasa made his son promise that he would
return to his asrama, immediately after leaving Mithila. Suka started his journey to 4) Suka in Mithila. Mithila on foot. He passed through many lands and cities on his way. He visited many places inhabited by

happiness in that study either. Vyasa taught spiritual philosophy. Even then Suka could not

the

son

of Ugrasena.
dynasty.

SUHVA. (SUHMA)

A

9)

absence of sons, Bali approached the hermit Dirghatamas, by whom the queen gave birth to six sons. They were Ariga, Vanga, Kalinga, Suhva (or Suhma), Pundra and Adrupa. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9). SUjANU. A great saint. This hermit stopped Sri Krsna on his way to Hastinapura and conversed with him.

Suhva was the son of Bali, and grandson of Sutapas. Bali had no direct sons. Being miserable due to the

king of the Bharata

SUjATA I. One of the He attacked Bhimasena
Bhimasena
killed

(Mahabharata, Chapter 83)
.

Daksinatyapatha,

Udyoga

Parva,

hundred sons of Dhrtarastra. in the battle of Bharata and him. (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 26,

SUJATA
sons

Ve_rse 5)

.

II.

A
to
:

born Purana, 2

monkey King. Sujata was one of the Pulaha by his wife Sveta. (Brahmanda
180-181)
.

SUJATA.
and
1)

The daughter

7,

of the hermit Uddalaka.

(See

under Khagodara).

SUJYESTHA.

SUKA

The son of Vyasa. sage Vyasa once wished to have a son. So he began to worship Siva for the purpose. His desire was to have a son who would combine in him the essential qualities of fire, earth, water, air and ether He did tapas for a hundred years. Because of the austerity of his tapas, his locks of hair began to blaze like flames of fire. At last Siva appeared and blessed him to have a son according to his wish. After receiving his boon, Vyasa returned to his asrama. Soon after his arrival there, an Apsaras named GhrtacI came there in the form of a parrot. On seeing her beauty Vyasa had an involuntary emission of semen. Suka's birth was from this semen. (For further details
I.

A King who was the son of Agnimitra the father of Vasumitra. (Bhagavata, Skandha 12). (SUKADEVA)
The
.

Birth.

different classes of people like yogins, sages, mendicants, Saivas, Sauras, Vaikhanasas, Saktas, Pasupatas, Vaisnavas, etc. After taking two years to cross Mahamei u and one year for crossing Himalaya he reached Mithila. At the very sight of the land of Mithila with Sukaits inhabitants living in luxury and prosperity, deva was filled with wonder. One of the sentries at the palace gate who saw the dignified bearing and majestic figure of Suka, standing at the entrance, greeted him with joined palms and conducted him into the royal palace. From there, a minister took him to the interior of the palace, where a passage led him to a beautiful park full of flowering trees and swimming pools. After giving him a seat in the place. There, he was the park the minister left attended by women who were like celestial beauties. But Suka was not happy even in their company or attentions. He spent the whole night in deep meditation. The next morning King Janaka visited Suka. After the exchange of customary greetings, Janaka enquired of him the object of his visit. Suka answered that he came

On

"After Upanayana, this, Janaka said a Brahmana with the sacred thread) should study the Vedas. He should discharge his debts to the Devas and to his Pitrs by tapas, worship of the guru and Brahmacarya. After the study of the Vedas, after mastering the senses, he should give Gurudaksina

there to learn from directed by his father.

Janaka the way
:

to salvation, as

hearing

(investiture

see Para 2, under GhrtacI). It was Siva who performed the 2) Sukd's Boyhood. Upanayana (wearing the sacred thread) ceremony of Suka. Since he was born out of the semen which was the result of the fascination for a parrot, the boy was named "Suka". He was a divine boy. Soon after his birth, he grew up into an exceptionally brilliant boy.

with the permission of the Guru (preceptor). After reaching home he should begin grhasthasrama. After the birth of children, he should follow Vanaprasthasrama. In that asrama, a Brahmana should kindle fire in his soul. He should then renounce the dual state, rise above all desire and remain in Brahmasrama." After receiving Janaka 's advice, Suka returned to his
father.

(

fee to the teacher)

.

Then

the pupil

may

return

home

he told Suka that he was pleased with his stern resolve and allowed him to pursue his life as a Sannyasi, if he wished for it. From that time Sukadeva and Suta, the disciple of Vyasa began the study of Bhagavata. But Suka did

He went to Brhaspati and mastered all knowledge. for some years, he reAfter staying with Brhaspati turned to his father's aSrama. 3 ) In Vyasa' s hut. Vyasa was very happy at the arrival of his son after completing his education. In due course he thought of getting his son married to a suitable girl and to prepare him for an ideal Grhasthas'rama. But Suka did not fall in with his father's proposal. All the efforts of Vyasa to persuade him were in vain. At last

married the beautiful and thus began his Plvarl, daughter grhasthasrama in Vyasa's asrama. He had four sons named Krsna, Gauraprabha, Bhuri and Devas ruta and a daughter named Kirti, by Pivarl. KIrti was married
5) Domestic Life.

Sukadeva

of the

Pitrs

by Arm, the son of King Vibhraja. 1st Skandha)
.

(Devi Bhagavata,

6) Other
(i)

details.
it

Vyasa composed Bharata and taught
Verse 104).

to

Suka.

(M.B. Chapter 1, Sukadeva recited the Mahabhirata story containGandharvas, Yaksas and ing 14 lakhs of stanzas to Raksasas. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 106; Svargarohana Parva, Chapter 5, Verse 55).
(ii)
(iii)

Sukadeva taught them the

entire

Vedas and the

SUKA

II

758
story.

SUKESA
,

Mahabharata
Verse 89).

(M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 63,

Devarsis began to praise Sukadeva. His father Vyasa was in deep grief at his disappearance and left his asrama in search of Suka. After wandering in many places he came to Kailiisa where Suka had performed tapas and called him. Siva who saw him utterly tired and weak took pity on him and comforted him in the following words: "Did you not pray to me for a son who would combine in himself the essences of the Pancabhutas ? As a result of the tapas you have done and by my blessing, such a glorious son was bora to you. Suka has attained the highest position which is inaccessible to those who have not conquered their senses and difficult to attain even by the gods. Why do you worry about Suka? The glory acquired by your eminent son will continue undiminished as long as the mountains and oceans exist. I give you my blessing that an image exactly like your son will always accomas a second sun.

Yudhisthira's assembly. (iv) Suka attended (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 11). 7) The End. While Sukadeva was thus leading his family life, teaching the Vedas and reading the Purlnas, X.lrada happened to pay a visit to him. His conversation with Narada drew Sukadeva nearer to the path of Moksa. He left his father, Veda Vyasa and his own family, went to the peak of Kailasa and stayed there doing tapas to Paramasiva. At last he became a perfect Siddha and rising up to the Heavens shone there

kingdom and attained Moksa by doing tapas on Satasniga mountain. (Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Daksinatya Pa{ha, Chapter 123). SUKA V. Son of Subala, king of Gandhiira. He was slain by Iravan in the course of the Bharata Yuddha. (Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 90, Verse 26) SUKA VI. Son of the monkey Sarabha. Rksa was the son of Suka by Vyaghri. (Brahmanda Purana, 3, 8, 208). SUKA VII. A Maharsi who was the contemporary of Anuha of Daksina Pancala and of king Brahrnadatta. This sage lived before the time of the other Suka who was the son of Vyasa. This sage Suka had six sons, named Bhuris'ravas, Sambhu, Prabhu, Krsna, Saura (Sauraprabha) and Devasruta by his two wives Plvari and Ekasrnga. (Brahmanda Purana, 3-8-93: Vayu Purana, 70-84; D^vl Bhagavata, 1-14; Narada. 1-58). SUKALA. A woman who loved and honoured her husband.
his
.

III. A king of the Lunar dynasty. ( Bhagavata 9th Skandha). SUKA IV. A king of the Saryati dynasty. He was the son of Prsata. He had conquered all countries in the world and after performing many yagas, he renounced

SUKA

SUKAKSA. A

mountain.

It

is

mentioned

in

Maha-

Parva, Chapters 332 and 333; Devi Bhagavata, 1st Skandha). SUKA II. A messenger of Havana. This Suka had a friend named Sarana. These two persons were expert spies who used to gather secret and important pieces of information from the strongholds of Havana's friends and enemies and passed them on to Havana.

Just then, an image which closely resembled his son appeared before Vyasa who was filled with rapture. It is believed that even today if any one calls Siva at the place where Siva spoke to Vyasa in answer to his call, Siva would respond to the call. (M.B. Sand

pany you from today."

entered Lanka, Ravana sent Suka After taking a distant view of the surroundings, they entered the camp of Sri Rama in the form of monkeys. Taking care not to come within the observation of Vibhisana, they went about the military camps, gathering secret information. Just then they were met by Jambavan and Hanuman. After closely observing them for a considerable time, The they understood that they were enemy spies.

Soon after Sri and Sarana to

Rama
Sri

Rama's camp.

The II. The wife of the hermit Matarisva. hermit Mankanaka was the son born to MatarisVa by Sukanya. ( See under Mankanaka) SUKARA. A country celebrated in the Puranas. Krti, King of Sukara had presented thousands of Elephants at Yudhisthira's Rajasuya yaga. (M.B. Sabha Parva, 52, Verse 25). Chapter SUKARA. A hell. (See under Kala, the section 'Hell'). SOKARAMUKHA. A hell. (See under Kala, the section
.

Manivara byDevajani. ( Brahmanda Purana, 3. 7. 129). Raksasa on the side of Ravana. (Valmiki Ramayana, Sundara Kanda, Sarga 6) SUKANDAKA. A country in ancient India. (Mahabharata Bhisma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 53.) SUKANYA I. The wife of the hermit Cyavana. See under Cyavana, Para 3.

bharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 38, that this mountain, which is famous in the Puranas, stands on the western side of Dvaraka. SUKAMALA. A Yaksa. This Yaksa was the son born to

SUKANABHA. A

.

SUKANYA

SUKARMA I. One of the

'Hell').

SUKARMA

two followers given to SubraVidhata. Suvrata was the other follower. hmanya by (M.B. Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 42).
II.

One

monkey-heroes promptly seized them and produced them before Sugrlva. Confused and frightened under a shower of questions they sought the protection of Sri Rama. While Sri Rama was interrogating them, Vibhisana happened to come there. At his sight, Suka and Sarana were alarmed. Grasping the whole situation in an instant, Vibhisana kicked both of them when they assumed their former shapes as Raksasas. The The Raksasas begged monkey-leaders sprang at them. for pardon and prayed for Sri Rama's protection. Sri Rama forgave them and set them free. (Valmiki

under Pippalada I) SUKASA&GITI. A Gandharva. (For further under Pramohini).
see
.

This Sukarma, the son of Sutva, divided the Samaveda into a thousand branches. (See under Guruparampara.) SUKARMA III. A Brahmana who had earned merits of good deeds by serving his parents. (For further details
details

of the teacher priests of Samaveda.

see

SUKESA (SUKESI).

Ramayana, Yuddha Kanda; Kamba Ramayana, Yuddha Kanda)
.

1 General information A raksasa (giant) who was the ) son of Vidyutkesa and Salakatanka. When Brahma asked the Subjects to look after his creation those who said 'Raksamahe' became Raksasas (giants) and those who said 'Yaksamahe', the Yaksas (a clan of semi gods). Once two brothers named Heti and Praheti were born

SUKESA

759

SUKLA
hermits saw the Sun coming slowly to the earth. They "If you want to be well in falling, called out loudly. go and fall in Hariksetra." The sun called out, "What is Hariksetra?" "Hariksetra is Varanasi from Yogar'ayl to Kesavadarsana", the hermits replied. Hearing this the Sun fell in Varanasi. Then to lessen the heat the sun dipped and splashed in Asi tirtha and Varuna
tirtha.

in the clan of Raksasas. Praheti remained unmarried and entered the life of penance. Heti married Bhaya the sister of Kala. A son named Vidyutkesa was born to the couple. Vidyutkesa married Salakatanka, the daughter cf Sandhya. Salakatanka delivered a son. But wishing to enjoy the company of her husband, she abandoned the son and lived with her husband. The child which was as bright as the rising Sun, putting its folded fist in its mouth, cried aloud. Paramasiva and Parvati who were travelling along the sky mounted on the bull, heard the cry of the infant and looked at the spot from which the cry arose. On seeing the infant, Parvati took pity on it. Siva blessed the child, which instantly grew as old as its mother. Siva gave the Raksasa prince immortality and a city which could travel through the

Parvati said that Raksasa women would, in future sky. deliver the moment they became pregnant and that the child would grow equal to its mother in age, as soon as it was born. Sukes'a was the son of Vidyutkesa and Sa'akatanka. Sukes a was delighted at the boons he got, and travelled wherever he pleased, in his city. Sukesa married Devavati the daughter of Gramanl a Gandharva. Mall, Sumall and Malyavan were the sons of this couple. (Uttara Ramayana). 2) The city of Sukesa fell on the ground. Sukesa pleased Siva by penance. Siva made him invincible and gave him a city which travelled through the sky. Because of these boons, the Raksasa became righteous and pious. He lived in the city with other Raksasas. Once Sukes"a went to the forest Magadha and visited the hermits there. He asked them about the means to attain prosperity in this world and the other worlds. The hermits gave him long exhortations. They told him about the

Brahma, knew this, and informed Siva of it. Siva came to Varanasi and took the sun by his hands and gave him the name 'Lola' and sent him back in the chariot. After that Brahma went to Sukesa and sent his city with the Raksasas in it, back to the sky, and the Sun was fixed in the sky as before. (Vamana Purana, Chapter 1 5) SUKESI I (SUKESA). See under Sukef a. SUKESI II. The daughter of the king of Gandhara. This SukeSl was the wife of Sri Krsna. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, Chapter 38 that SriKrsna gave her a palace, the doors of which shone

SUKESI

as the gold of Jambunada. III. celestial

A

maid

of

mentioned in Mahabharata, Anu'asana Parva, Chapter in honour 19, Verse 45, that she performed a dance of the visit of Astavakra, in the palace of Kubera. SUKESI IV. The daughter of Ketuvirya the king of Magadha. She was married to Marutta (the third).

Alakapurl.

It

is

SUKETANA. A

king of the Bhrgu family. He was the son of Sum ta and the father of Dharmaketu. (Bhaga-

(Markandeya Purana,
Skandha
I.

128).

SUKETU SUKETU

vata,

various hells given to sinners. righteous-minded and saintly.

returned to his city and called together all the other Raksasas and spoke to them about what he had learned from the hermits. He said: "The hermits taught me the means to attain heaven. They are Non-killing, Truth, not stealing, cleanliness, control of all outward going enerkindness, forgiveness, abstinence, good my order that all of you observe these good things." The Raksasas were pleased at the words of Sukesa. They began to lead a righteous life.
gies,

He

Thus Sukesa became

king of the Solar dynasty. It is stated in Bhagavata, Skandha 9 that this king was the son of Nandivardhana and the father of Devarata. II. A. king of the Puru dynasty. He became famous under the name Viratha. He was one of the The five sons were Suhotra, five sons of Bharata. Suhota, Gaya, Garbha and Suketu. (Agni Purana,

A

9)

.

SUKETU
in

usages etc. So

liberality,

it is

In this way they got wealth and prosperity. Their radiance increased to such an extent that the Sun and the moon and the stars found it difficult to continue
their travels.

Thus the city of the Raksasa shone as the sun in the day and as the moon in the night. The progress of the Sun in the day became indiscernible. Due to its brightness
the Raksasa city seemed to be the moon and thinking that it was night, the lotus flowers folded in the day and bloomed in the night. Havoc was caused in the earth as well as in the world of the gods. The sun became unpopular. So he tried to find out the cause. At last he found out the cause. He became angry. He looked with fury at the city of the Raksasas. Hit by the look, the city lost its merits and began to sink down to the earth.

A king of ancient India. It is mentioned III. Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 185, Verse 9, that this Suketu and his son Sunama were present at the Svayamvara marriage of Draupadi. SUKETU IV. A son ofSisupala. He was killed in the battle of Bharata by Drona. (M.B. Karna Parva, Chapter 6, Verse 33). SUKETU V. A mighty king who stood on the side of the Pandavas and fought against the Kauravas in the Bharata-battle. Tl.is king who was the son of Citraketu, was killed by the arrow of the teacher Krpa. (M.B. Karna Parva, Chapter 54, Verse 21 ).

Chapter 278).

SUKETU
Tataka

Kamba Ramayana,

It is stated in father of Tataka. Balakanda, that this Suketu was the son of the Gandharva King Suraksaka. (See under

VI.

The

for further details)

.

SUKl. A daughter named Kraunci,
were born gave birth
eagles and
to to
kites

of

Kasyapa

BhasI,

When

the city fell down Sukesa called Siva and cried aloud. Siva looked round to see what happened to his devotee. He understood that the sun was the culprit. Siva looked at the sun with furious eyes. Instantly the sun was dropped from the Solar region to the air. The

Bhasas were born to BhasI and were born to SyenI. Dhrtarastri gave SukI gave birth to birth to swans and Cakravakas. Nata and Vinata was the daughter of Nata. (Valmlki Ramayana, Aranyakanda, Sarga 14). SUKLA. A warrior who fought on the side of the Pandavas. He was a native of Pancala country.
owls.

KaSyapa

Prajapati. Five daughters SyenI, Dhrtarastri and SukI by his wife Tamra. Kraunci

SUKRA

I

760

SUKRA

I

Mahabharata, Karna Parva, Chapter 56, Verse 45, mentions that he was slain by Kama during the Bharata

SUKRA (SUKRACARYA)
Birth.

battle.

I.

whether Sukra was the 1) son or grandson of Bhrgu. The Purfinas state that Puloma was the wife of Bhrgu. Sukra has another name, Kavya. Kavya means the son of Kavi. Some authorities say that Kavi was Bhrgu 's son, while others think Sukra's mother is rethat Kavi was Bhrgu himself. ferred to as "Kavyamata" in many places. Sukra is referred to as the strongest of the seven sons born to Bhrgu and Puloma. In the light of these references it is reasonable to consider Sukra as the son of the sage Bhrgu. "Kavi" must be supposed to be another name of Bhrgu. Usanas was another name for Sukra. Once the sage Bhrgu lived in the valley 2) Love story. of Mandara mountain, performing austere tapas. Sukra who was then a boy, used to attend on his father. One day when Bhrgu was absorbed in "Nirvikalpasamadhi" (deep meditation) the lonely Sukra was appreciating the beauty of the sky above him. There was no one At that time he happened to see an else by his side. exceptionally beautiful Apsara woman passing across the His heart was filled with delight at the sight. All sky. his thoughts were centred on her and he sat absorbed in her bewitching charm. In his imagination he followed Indra and reached Indraloka. Indra greeted him with honour. After that Sukra, attended by the heavenly beings went about sight-seeing in Heaven. There he unexpectedly came across the Apsara beauty whom he had seen earlier, in the midst of several other

Views

Preceptor of the Asuras.

differ

as

to

power of tapas and the holiness of the asYama, birds and animals did not eat the body. After 1,000 divyavatsaras, sage Bhrgu opened his eyes from his samadhi but he did not find his son near him. A famished and woin out body was lying before him. Within the wrinkles of the skin, small birds were nesting and frogs look refuge in the hollow of the stomach. Enraged at the premature death of his son, he was about to curse Yama, the god of Death.
:

devoured numerous Brahmandas. I have already swallowed Rudras and Visnudevas many times. All of you are my food. It is ordained by Fate. Even Brahma is not indestructible at the end of a Kalpa. Knowing all these facts, why do you think of cursing me ? Your son fell into this state because of his own act. While you were in a state of Samadhi your son's mind left its body and went up to Heaven. There he spent many years indulging
celestial

Coming to know of this Dharmaraja (Yama) appeared before him and said "We honour and adore you as a great tapasvl. You should not ruin your tapas. I have

in

sensual

in DaSarna country. In his next birth he became the King of Kosala. After that passing through many births in succession he is now performing tapas on the bank of the river Samariga as the son of a Brahmana, under the name, Vasudeva. Open your inner eye and

mana

beauty Vis vacl. Then he was born

pleasures in

the

company of
as

the

a

Brah-

see for yourself." After saying this Dharmaraja revived the body of Sukra who rose up and did obeisance to his father. (JfianaIt is seen that Sukra had several Domestic Life. wives and children. In Devi Bhagavata there is a story of Jayanti, daughter of Indra who was Sukra's wife for about ten years. (See under Jayanti II) Priyavrata, the brother of Uttanapada had a daughter named Urjjasvatl by his wife Surupa. In Devi Bhagavata, 8th Skandha it is stated that Sukracarya married Urjjasvatl and he had a daughter Devaya.nl by her. Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 65 mentions that Sukra was the acarya (preceptor) of the Asuras and his four sons were the had a daughter named priests of the Asuras. Sukra (3)
.

vasistha, Sthitiprakaranam)

.

women.
desire

The

Sukra enveloped the whole place

They

fell

in

love at

first

sight.

To

other

women

fulfil his in darkness.

left

approached Sukra and both of them entered a hut formed by the thick foliage of creeping plants and indulged in sensual pleasures. Since Sukra spent a period of eight Caturyugas like this in her company, he became weak in his virtue and descended to the earth. Then he became conscious of his physical being. His depraved soul was stopped at the moon. It reached the earth through mist and grew up as paddy plants. A Brahmana who was a native of Dasarna land ate the rice which was cooked from the ears of those paddy plants. Sukra's soul in the shape of Sukra entered the womb of the Brahmana's wife and in due course took his birth. Because of his close association with Munis, that boy grew up like a sage and spent a period of one Manvartara, leading an austere life in the valley of the Meru mountain. At that time his Apsara woman had been born as a female deer, as the result of a curse. By their connection in the previous birth, the Brahmana fell in love with that female deer and begot a human child by his union with her. With that the austerities of his life were at an end. All his thoughts were now directed towards the future glory of his son and he ignored even his spiritual duties. Not long after, he died of snake bite. Later, he was born as the son of the king of Madra and ruled the country for many years. After that he took birth in many other wombs and at last was born as the son of a Maharsi living on the bank of the river Ganga. Sukra's body which was by the side of

the place.

The apsara beauty

"Ara". (See under Ara).

Besides, Sukra

had another

wife

But no child was born to Sataparva. Devi, wife of Varuna's elder brother, was a daughter of Sukra. Urjjasvati was the most famous among Sukra's
wives.

named Sataparva.

See under Kavyamata. Jamadagni was restored to life. See the 8th para under Jamadagni. See under Ara. 6);$ukra cursed Danda. 7 ) Cursed Yayati. See the 4th Para under Devayani. 8 ) How Sukra lost his eye. Sukracarya lost one of his eyes Mahaduring the time of Mahabali, the Asura King. visnu incarnated as Vamana and begged three feet of earth from Mahabali. Since Sukra tried to obstruct it, Visnu put out one of Sukra's eyes with the point of a under a darbha (For more details see 3rd Para
4) Revived his mother.
5)
grass.
.

Mahabali)

invaded Kubera 9) Siva swallowed Sukra. Once Sukra and plundered all his wealth. The distressed Kubera informed Siva about it. Siva at once started up with
his weapon, shouting "Where is he?" Sukra appeared on the top of Siva's trident. Siva caught hold of him and swallowed him. Sukra who moved about in Siva's

Bhrgu dropped wind and sun

to the

earth after

for a long time.

being exposed But owing to Bhrgu's

to the

SUKRA I

761

SUKTIMATl
Bhrgukulodvaha, Kaviputra, Kavya and
given for Sukra. II. A son of Vasistha. Vasis^ha by his wife Urjja;

I

stomach found the excessive heat there, unbearable and soon became exhausted. In his helpless state he began to worship Siva for his mercy. At last Siva permitted him to escape through his penis and Sukra thus came out. (M.B. Sand Parva, Chapter 290).

Us anas are
to

SUKRA

Seven sons were born

Asiloma was the Prime Minister, Vidala was the Foreign Minister, Udarka was the Military Commander and Sukra was the Education Minister. (Devi Bhagavata, SthSkandha). (ii) Agni Purana, Chapter 51 states that Sukra should be installed in temples with his Kamandalu (a vessel for carrying water) and wearing his garland, Asuras. (iii ) At the time of the war between Devas and Sukra taught Surasa a mantra to destroy everything. (Skanda Purana, Asura Kanda) (iv) Sukra was Prahlada's Guru (preceptor). (Kamba Ramayana, Yuddha kanda). (v) Sukra worshipped Siva and received from him "Mrtasanjlvam Mantra" (Mantra having power to revive the dead) (Vamana Purana, Chapter 62). (vi) Sukra had prohibited drinking. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 76, Verse 57). (vii) He had shone in Indra's assembly. (M.B. Chapter 7, Verse 22, Sabha Parva) (viii) Sukra exists in Brahma's assembly in the form of a planet. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 29) (ix) Sukra resides with other Asuras on the top of the Meru mountain. All precious stones are in the possession
.
. .
.

Once Sukracarya had adorned the office of Education Minister of Mahisasura. At that time Ciksura was the War Minister, Tamra was Finance Minister,
(1)

10) Other

details.

they were, Rajas, Gotra, Urddhvabahu, Savana, Anagha, Sutapas and Sukra. All these seven persons were the Saptarsis of the third Manvantaram (Visnu Purana, Part 1, Chapter 10). In Agni Purana, Chapter 20 the names of the seven sons of Vasistha and Urjja are given as Rajas. Gatra,

SUKRA III. A

Urddhvabahu, Savana, Alaghu, Sukra and Sutapas.
king

SUKRATU. A King
SUKRSA. A
occurs in

in ancient India. When once Sanjaya talked in praise of the ancient Kings of fame in India, this King Sukratualso was mentioned. (M.B.

Antardhana and VadI were born to Prthu. Antardhana had a son named Havirdhana by wife Sikhandini. Havirdhana married Dhisana who was born in Agnikula. Six sons were born to them. They were, Pracinabarhis, Sukra, Gaya, Krsna, Vraja and Ajina. (Visnu Purana, Part 1, Chapter 14).

Emperor Prthu.

Two

who belonged
sons,

to

the dynasty

of

Adi Parva, Chapter

1,

235).

liberal hermit.

A

story

about

this

hermit

to test Sukrsa. So he came in the guise of a bird and requested for human flesh. Then the hermit called his sons and asked them to give their flesh to the bird. They were not prepared to do so. Sukrsa got angry and cursed his sons that they would be born as birds. Accordingly the sons of the hermit took birth in the Garuda family under the names

Once Indra wanted

Markandeya Purana.

of Sukra. Even Kubera ( the god of wealth) lives by borrowing one- fourth of Sukra's wealth. ( M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 6, Verse 22) (x) Sukra was among those who visited Bhisma as he lay on the bed of arrows. (M.B. Sand Parva, Chapter 47, Verse 8). (xi) Once Sukracarya was the priest of Emperor Prthu. (M.B. Sand Parva, Chapter 59, Verse 110). (xii) On another occasion Sukra sent Indra to Prahlada to obtain prosperity. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 124, Verse 27). xiii ) By his power of ( Yoga Sukra once grabbed all the wealth of Kubera. (M.B. Sand Parva, Chapter 289, Verse 9) (xiv) He got the name "Sukra" because he came out through "Sivalinga" (Siva's penis) and thereby became a son of Parvatl. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 289, Verse 32) Sahasranama (Thousand (xv) Sukra learnt Siva's names) from the sage Tandi and taught it to Gautama. (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 17, Verse 177). (xvi) Mahabharata, Anusasana Parva, Chapter 85, Verse 129, mentions that Bhrgu had seven sons-Cyavana, Vajraslrsa, Suci, Aurva, Sukra, Savana and Vibhu. (xvii) Once in answer to a question of Mahabali, Sukra referred to the importance of Puspadana (gift of flowers) (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 98). In his old age Sukra observed Vanaprastha and (xviii ) attained Heaven. (M.B. Santi Parva, Chapter 244, Verse 17). (xix) In Mahabharata, several other names like Bhar. .
. .

SUKSATRA. A

Dronaputra, Piiigaksa, Vibodha, Suputra and Sumukha. As a remission of the curse, the hermit said that even as birds they would be having wisdom and knowledge. After this, to keep his word, Sukrsa got ready to cut his own flesh for the bird. Then Indra appeared in his own form and blesssed the hermit.
heroic

gava,

Bhargavadayada,

Bhrgus'restha,

Bhrgudvaha,

Kuruksetra on the side of the Pandavas. He was the son of the King of Kosala. (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 23, Verse 57). SUKSMA. A notorious Danava, who was born to Prajapad Kasyapa by his wife Danu. The King Jayadratha, was the rebirth of this Danava. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 18) SUKSMAPRAKRTI. The cause which is indestructible, not clear and having always goodness as its form is Suksmaprakrti. That unspeakable nature has no base. Suksmaprakrd is immovable and indestructible. There is no sound or form or touch in it. This nature which has no beginning or end, which has only three attributes This entire universe is the root cause of the universe. was pervaded by this power from the beginning of the great deluge to the beginning of creation. Then there was no night or day, no earth or Sky, no light or darkness. Then there was only Brahman the union of Prakrti and Purusa which could not be perceived by sense organs or intelligence. ( See under Prakrti ) SUKSMASARlRA. See under Punarjanma. SUKTIMAN. A mountain which was subdued by Bhlmasena in the course of his conquest of the eastern country. ( M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 5) SUKTIMATl I. A river which used to flow by the side of Uparicaravasu's capital city. There is a story about tfcis river. Once the Kolahala mountain fell in love with this river and kept it within himself. Upari. .

warrior

who

fought in

the

.

SUKTIMATI

II

762

SUMADA
The poet was not able Sarga of Sri Krsna Vilasa. The sixtysixth stanza was the
Vilasa'.
to

SUKTIMATIII. The capital
of Cedi.
(

caravasu who came to know of this, gave a kick to the mountain. The kick produced a hole in the mountain and the river emerged through that hole. Suktimati had a son and a daughter by Kolahala mountain. The river presented them to the King. The King appointed the son as his military commander. Girika, the daughter of the river became the King's wife. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 63, Verse 34).

complete the twelfth

last

reached the earth after obtaining the Parijata flowers from the world of the gods. After having described the
to describe the natural beauty of 'Saptakoakanas' (the seven Konkana countries ) The story says that when he had sung the last line of that stanza his tongue was burnt and he could not proceed with the rest of the
.

Krsna was showing Satyabhama, the various countries and describing the prominence of each, when they had

one he sang.

Sri

Mahabharata,
I.

King Vana Parva, Chapter 22,

city of Dhrstaketu,

kingdoms of Pandya and Cola, the poet was beginning

SUKUMARA

Verse 50).

A

Sukumara. It is stated in Mahabharata, Sabha. Parva, Chapter 29, Verse 10, that King Sukumara was the son of King Sumitra. It is stated in some other Puranas that Sucitra was the father of Sukumara and that during his regional conquest of the east Bhimasena had defeated both. On another occasion Sahadeva, who had gone for the regional
capital of this

King was

Pulinda King.
also

The name of

the

SUKUMARA V.
ruler of

poem.

SUKUMARA VI. An ancient place.

Verse 26).

The son of King Bhavya who was the Saka Island. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 12,

of the south, also defeated both Sukumara and his father. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 31, Verse

conquest

SUKUMARA
SUKUMARl
is

was about to begin, battle of Bharata Sukumara, the King af Pulinda joined the side of the Pandavas. It is stated in Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 1 7 1 , Verse 1 5, that King Sukumara became one of the prominent chariot-fighters of the Pandava
the

When

4).

SUKUMARA II. A bUKUMARA
Two

naga (serpent) who was born in the family of Taksaka. This serpent was. burned to death in the sacrificial fire of Janamejaya. (M.B. Adi

army.

I. A river in the Saka Island. This river famous in the Puranas. (Mahabharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 1 1 Verse 3) SUKUMARl 1 1. Daughter of King Srnjaya. This Sukumari was a wife of Narada. (See under Parvata, Para 2) SUKU^DALA. One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra. (M.B. Xdi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 98).
,

under Sukumara III).

This place was near the mountain Jaladharagiri in the Saka Island. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 11, Stanza 21) VII. The capital city of the Pulindas. ( See
.

.'

.

SUKUSUMA. A

sons named Anarta and Sukumara were born to Vibhu. The King Satyaketu was the son of Sukumara. (Agni Purana, Chapter 278). SUKUMARA IV. A Sanskrit poet. There is a story about the devotion of Sukumara to his teacher. Though Sukumara was a dutiful student his teacher used to scold him always. Consequently Sukumara harboured malice in his heart against his teacher. One night Sukumara got on the upper attic of the house of the teacher with a big stone. His aim was to drop the stone on the head of the teacher. But that night the conversation of the teacher and his wife was about Sukumara. The wife asked the teacher why he was scolding his disciple so often, when he was so dutiful and righteous. The teacher said that he loved him most and that the chastisement was meant to make him better and better. When Sukumara heard this his heart was broken. With tears in his eyes, he got down with

Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 9). A King of the Puru dynasty. The III. father of this King was Vibhu, the son of Varsaketu.

Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 24). SUKUTA. An ancient country in India, very famous in the Puranas. The people of this country were called the Sukutas. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 16) SULABHA. A female ascetic (Sannyasini). She acquired
.

female attendant of Subrahmanya.

(M.B

several powers (Siddhis) by tapas. She had the power of giving up her body and receiving new bodies. Once she went to Mithila and held a learned discussion with Kingjanaka. She went to Mithila as a beggar woman. By her yogic powers she entered the mind of Janaka. She and Jariaka were thus in the same body when they carried on the discussion. After remaining in Janaka 's body for a day, she left the palace. (M.B. Santi Parva,

SULAKSAT^A. A king. It was this Mandavya maharsi to be pierced

Chapter 320).

king with

who ordered
a sula as a

SULAKSMI (LAKSMI). One
who

punishment for stealing a horse. Uttara Khanda, 121).

(Padma

Purana,

of the four divine women rose out of the Ksirabdhi (Sea of Milk). They were Sulaksmi, Varuni; Kamoda and Srestha. (Padma

kill his teacher ?" The teacher replied that he should die a slow death in the fire made by the husk of paddy. Instantly Sukumara made a pit and stood in it and filled the pit with husk up to his neck and set fire to the pile. When the teacher knew that the culprit was

the stone and disappeared in darkness. Next morning Sukumara had no peace of mind. He approached the teacher. He asked the teacher "What is the punishment destined for him who had tried to

SOLAPROTA. One
the section on

Purana, Bhumi Khanda, 119).

filled with grief. He tried his best to dissuade his beloved disciple from his attempt. But it was in vain. While he was slowly burning in the fire he composed and sang the great poem 'Sri Krsna

Sukumara, he was

Naraka under Kala) SULOCANA. One of the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra. Bhimasena killed him in battle of Kuruksetra. (MahaBharata, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 64, Verse 37) SUMADA. A muni who did penance at Vimala on the Hemakuta mountain. When twelve years had passed thus Indra got frightened and deputed Kamadeva to disturb the muni's penance. Many Deva women also accompanied Kamadeva. All their attempts failed to have any effect on the muni. Ultimately Devi appeared before him and asked him to choose his boon to which he answered thus: "I do penance to regain my kingdom
.

of the twentyeight Narakas.

(See

.

SUMAHA
lost to

763
I

SUMITRA
Vijaya,

III

king in Ahicchatra. After many years, in connection with Sri Rama's asvamedha, Satrughna with the yajnic horse reached Ahicchatra. Sumada welcomed Satrughna

you and finally attain salvation." Devi assured him recovery of his lost kingdom which he would rule till the sacrificial horse of Sii Rama in connection with the asvamedha yajiia came to his kingdom. Accordingly Sumada conquered his enemies and became
to

enemies. Also,

should develop eternal devotion

and

in

his

everything to Sri Rama. He then abdicated his throne in favour of his son and attained salvation. See under Ahicchatra. (Padma Purana, Patala Khanda, Chapter

company went

to

Ayodhya and

detailed

SUMANTU.
1)

Siddhartha. Arthasadhaka, As oka, Mantrapala and Sumantra and two priests called Vasistha and Vamadeva. (Valmiki Ramayana, Balakanda, Canto 7) Sumantra was the right-hand-man of Dafaratha in all It was Sumantra who brought down to his activities. the palace sage Rsyasrnga for the yajfia conducted by the king to have issues. According to chapter 12, Virata Parva of Mahabharata (Southern Text) Sumantra was Dasaratha's charioteer as well.
.

General.

A

SUMAHA. The
,
.

13

Vaisampayana, Sumantu and Jaimini were the chief disciples of Vyasa. (See under Guruparampara and
Bharata)
.

maharsi, disciple of Vyasa. Asita, Devala,

)'

charioteer of Paragurama.
.

SUMALl

thern Text, Virata Parva, Chapter 12) I. A Raksasa, who was Sukesa's son and brother of Mall. When Agastya cursed and transformed Tataka and her sons into Raksasas it was Sumali who put them up in Patala and Lanka. (See under Mali) SUMALl II. Ason of Patalaravana. After killing Patalaravana Sri Rama gave asylum to the rest of the Raksasas of Patala and crowned Sumall, the only son of Patalaravana king of Patala, subject to Vibhisana's
.

(M.B. Sou-

2) Other information.
(i)

Vyasa taught him

all

the

Vedas and the Maha-

bharata.
(ii)

He

(Adi Parva, Chapter 63, Verse 89). was a member in the court of Yudhisthira.

III. An asura, son of Praheti and a follower of Vrtra. (Brahmanda Purana, 3,7, 99). When the asuras milked the earth (the earth became a cow in the time of King Prthu) this asura acted as calf. ( Bhagavata, Skandha 6 ) SUMALLIKA. An urban area in ancient India famous in the Puranas. (Bhlsma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 55). SUMANA. Wife of Somasarman, a brahmin. (See under
.

SUMALl

control.

(Kamba Ramayana. Yuddha Kanda)

.

SUMANAS
Yama
loka.

SUMANAS

Verse 25)

kirata (forest tribe) king who flourished in Yudhisthira's court. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 4,
I.
.

Somasarman)

.

A

(Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 11). (iii) He was one of the munis who visited Bhfsma on his bed of arrows. (Sand Parva, Chapter 47, Verse 5). SUMANYU. A king in ancient India. He once presented to sage Sandilya an enormous quantity of food-grains mountain of food-grains) (a (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 137, Verse 22). SUMATI I. A Raksasa who lives in Varuna's court worshipping him. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 13). SUMATI II. A great maharsi who was one of the munis who visited Bhlsma on his bed of arrows. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 4) SUMATI III. A sister of Garuda and wife of King Sagara. (See under Sagara) SUMATI IV. A king, son of Kakutstha of solar dynasty. (Valmiki Ramayana, Balakanda, Canto 47, Verse 7). SUMATI V. A King, grandson of Rsabha and son of Bharata. (Visnu Purana, Part II, Chapter 1 ). He was
.

.

.

SUMANAS

Verse 13).

king in ancient India who worshipped in his court. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 9,
II.
III.

A

She

once held

A Kekaya
a

with Sandilidevi. (Anusasana Parva, Chapter 123). SUMANAS IV. A son of Puru in Dhruva's lineage. Puru

princess who lived in Devadiscussion on spiritual topics

SUMATI
Subala.

had

six

mightysonsby
Kratu,

his wifeAtri, viz. Aiiga,

Svati,

Angiras

and

Sumanas,
Purana,

Gaya.

(Agni

SUMANDA. A

king in ancient India. Arjuna, in the course of his triumphal tour of the northern kingdoms conquered him. (Salya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 32). SUMANGALA. A female attendant of Subrahmanya.

SUMAI^DALA. A

brother of king Dusyanta. Two sons, Santurodha and Pratiratha were born to king Matinara of Puru dynasty and to Santurodha were born three valiant sons called Dusyanta, Pravira and Sumanda. To Dusyanta was born of Sakuntala, Bharata. (Agni Purana, Chapter 278.)

Chapter 13).

Dyumatsena and father of (Bhagavata, Skandha 9) SUMBHA. An asura. (See under Nis"umbha) SUMBHA. An asura; the eldest of the three sons, more powerful than Indra, born to Kasyapaprajapati by his wife D&nu, the other two sons being Nisumbha, and
king, son of
. .

Bharata III) VI.

a righteous ruler. After ruling the country well for long and performing many yajnas his father Bharata crowned Sumati king and practising meditation in Salagrama temple he gave up his life. (See under
.

A

SUMEDHAS. A
yar).

Namuci. (For

details see

maharsi.

under Nisumbha). (See under Samadhi Chetti-

SUMERU. See under Mahameru. SUMlDHA. A son of Suhotra, the
Verse 30)
.

Solar King. He had wife Aiksvaki three sons called Sumldha, by his Ajamldha and Purumidha. (Adi Parva, Chapter 94,

SUMANI. One of the two attendants given to Subrahmanya by Moon the second one being Mani. (Salya
born in the Kasyapa dynasty. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 103, Verse 12V SUMANTRA. A minister of king Dasaratha of Ayodhya.

(Salya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 12)

.

I. A Yadava King, son of Vrsni and brother of Yudhajit. (Bhagavata, Skandha 10). SUMITRA II. A King in ancient India. (Adi Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 236).

SUMITRA

SUMANOMUKHA. A
The king had
eight

Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 32)

.

SUMITRA
mitra.

Naga

ministers

called Jayanta,

Dhrsti,

Sauvira King, also called DattaKrodhavaSa, the asura reborn as King. (Adi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 63) He was a partisan of the Pandavas and a member in Yudhisthira's court. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 25).
III.

He was

A

.

SUMITRA IV
SUMITRA
10).

764

SUNANDA
Gada and Samba. (Harivamsa)
IV.

II

IV. A maharsi who was a star-member in Yudhisjhira's court. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 4, Verse

daughters, Candravati and Gunavati were abducted by
divine mountain the presiding deity of which worships Kubera. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 32) A King of the Solar dynasty. In Bhagavata, I. 9th Skandha it is mentioned that he was the son of Krta and father of Vitihotra. II. Minister of Puranjaya, a King of Kaliyuga. In Bhagavata, 12th Skandha, there is a story
.

SUMITRA
SUMITRA

V.

A

son called Sukumara.

Parva, Chapter 220, Verse 12). SUMITRA VII. A charioteer of Abhimanyu. (Drona Parva, Chapter 35, Verse 31 ). SUMITRA VIII. A King of the Hehaya dynasty. He once went hunting and followed a deer for a long distance to no purpose. The sad King then entered a tapovana and conversed with the munis about the desires and attachments of man. Then the muni called Rsabha related to the King the stories of the munis, Viradyumna and Tanu and as a result of Rsabha's advice the King renounced all desires and turned to the path of salvation. (Santi Parva, Chapters 125,

Bhima in the course of his tour of the east defeated both the King and triumphal his son. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 29, Verse 10). VI. Son of Tapa, the Paiicajanyagni, one of the Agnis who causes hindrances to yajnas. (Vana

King of Kalindanagara. He had a

SUNABHA

A

.

SUNAKA

SUNAKA SUNAKA
life

that this

own

Sunaka murdered

his

son King.
III.

King and made

his

A

of the asura

named Candrahanta. This

Rajarsi.

He was born

Son of King Suratha. Considered to be the last King of the Iksvaku dynasty, Sumitra was a contemporary of Ksemaka of the Puru dynasty and Nanda of Magadha dynasty. Alexander conquered India during his period. Sumitra is called Sumalya also. (Bhagavata, Skandha 9). SUMITRA X. Son of Sri Krsna by Jambavatl. In the Yadava war he met with death. (Bhagavata, Skandha

SUMITRA IX.

126 and 127).

(passed away) atCandra tirtha. During his he received a sword from King Harinas'va and he presented it to another King Usinara. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 67 Vana Parva, Chapter 123; Sand Parva, Chapter 166). SUNAKA IV. A Maharsi. In the Puranas it is said that Suta read Puranas in an assembly at which Saunaka and others had been present in Naimisaranya. There are two inferences about this Saunaka. In Bhagavata, 9th Skandha we find that the sage Grtsamada who belonged to Bhrguvarhsa had a son named Sunaka and this Sunaka's son was named Saunaka. A son named Sunaka was born to King Ruru by his wife Pramadvara. Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 5 mentions that this Sunaka was an exceptionally brilliant
;

Samadhi

from a portion Rajarsi attained

SUMITRA SUMITRA
his wife

10).

I.
.

Consort of King Dasaratha.

(See

under

scholar in Vedas and Sastras and was the grandfather of Saunaka. Ruru's son, Sunaka was a member of Yudhisthira's assembly. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter
4,

Dasaratha)

II.

A

wife

of Sri Krsna.
'

SUMUKHA

Text, Sabha Parva, Chapter 38) I. A naga, son of KaSyapa
.'

(M.B. Southern

SUNAKSATRA. A King
in Bhagavata,

Verse 10).

Prajapati by Kadru. Sumukha was the grandson of the naga called Aryaka of the Airavata dynasty and his mother was the daughter of Varna. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 103, Verse 24). For the story about the marriage of Sumukha with Gunakesi, daughter of Matali see under

of Bharata dynasty. It is stated was the son of 9, that he Niramitra and the father of Brhatsena. SUNAMAl. Son of King Suketu. He was present at the wedding of Draupadi. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter

Skandha

SUNAMA II. SUNAMA
ren.

185, Verse 9).

Sunama was
III.

killed

SUMUKHA

Gunakesi.

Son of King Ugrasena. Brother of Karhsa. by Sri Krsna and Balabhadrarama.

King who made many presents to Yudhisthira. (Sabha Parva, Chapter 51). SUMUKHA III. A son of Garuda. ( Udyoga Parva,
II.

A

(Sabha Parva, Chapter

A

14,

son of

Garuda who had many
101, Verse

Verse 34).

child-

SUMUKHA
who

Chapter 101, Verse
IV.

SUNAMA

A

2)

.

bird in the

(Udyoga Parva, Chapter SUMUKHl I. Mother of
bana) of

SUMUKHl
SUNABHA

dwelt on the serpent-faced arrow (SarpamukhaKama in the battle of Kuruksetra. She got the name Sumukhl as she protected her son by her mukha (face) (Karna Parva, Chapter 90, Verse 42 )
. .

lineage of Garuda. 101, Verse 12) . the serpent called AsVasena

SUNANDA I. A Gopa. (See SUNANDA II. Son of King
The Maharsis, who
in Bhavisya

IV. A warrior of Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 59)
.

(Udyoga Parva, Chapter

2).

Subrahmanya. (Salya

under Ugratapas).

Purana

Pradyota. The epic story closes with the story of Sunanda. lived in Naimisa forest feared that

apsara woman of Alakapurl. She once danced at Kubera's court in honour of Astavakra muni. (Anus asana Parva, Chapter 19, Verse 45).
II.
I.

An

following the death of Sunanda, the world would become absolutely mean and base, and all of them, therefore, went to the Himalayas and there, at Visalanagara recited the Visnu Purana. (Bhavisya Purana,
Pratisarga Sarhhita)
I.
.

war by Bhima. (M.B. Southern Text, Bhisma Parva, Chapter 88; Adi Parva, Chapter 116). SUNABHA II. Minister of Varuna. He lives at Puskara tirtha with children and grandchildren in the worship of Varuna. (M.B. Sabha Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 28). SUNABHA III. A danava, brother of Vajranabha. His
killed in the great

sons of Dhrtarastra.

(PADMANABHA). One
He was

of the hundred

SUNANDA
by

sonjayatsena was born to this couple. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 16) SUNANDA II. Daughter of Sarvasena the King of Ka.'i. Bharata, the son of Dusyanta, married this Sunanda. It is mentioned in Mahabharata, Adi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 32, that a son named Bhumanyu, was born to the couple.
.

princess of Kekaya. She was married Sarvabhauma, a King of the Kuru dynasty. The

A

SUNANDA III SUNANDA
III. A princess of Sibi kingdom. She was married by King Pratipa of the lunar dynasty and the couple had three sons called Devapi, Santanu and Balhlka. (M.B. Adi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 44). SUNANDA IV. Sister of Subahu, King of Cedi. It was her whom the queen of Gedi appointed as companion of Damayanti, who lost her way and arrived at Cedi. She detected Damayanti conversing with the brahmin named Subahu, who came to Cedi in search of the latter and reported about their meeting to the queen mother. The name of the father of Sunanda and Subahu was Virabahu. (M.B. Vana Parva, Chapters 63, 68 and 69) SUNARTAKA NATA. The name Siva assumed when he appeared before ParvatI, in disguise. Parvatl was engaged in tapas then. (Siva-Stotrasataka, 34). SUNASSAKHA. Indra. Once Indra disguised himself as a Sannyasi and travelled in the company of a dog. At that time, he made an attempt to steal lotus flower from Brahmasaras in Kaugiki tirtha. Indra struck down at a single blow, YatudhanI, the woman guard of the saras, who opposed him. From this time when Indra went about in the company of the dog, he got the name "Sunassakha". (M.B. Anusasana Parva, Chapter 94). SUNASSEPHA (DEVARATA). The story of a Brahmana youth who was to be offered as human sacrifice and who was saved by Visvamitra, is famous in the Puranas. The name of the Brahmana youth was Sunassepha. But even in the Puranas there are two versions of this story. In one of them, Sunassepha is referred to as the son of Rclkamuni. In the other, it was Hariscandra who performed the yaga and Sunassepha who was brought for sacrifice, was the son of a Brahmana named Ajlgarta. After Vis vamitra saved the boy, he got another name, "Devarata". (For details of the two versions, see under Ambarlsa and the 4th Para under
.

765
to Vasistha's curse

SUNlTHA
Mahavisnu
later

he was born as a Raksasa whom on raised from his fallen state. (Skanda

SUNDARA

sacred place. He who bathes at a particular spot here called Sundarikakunda will become very handsome. (Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 56). SUNDARlVALLl. A daughter of Mahavisnu. Sundarivalli and Amrtavalll, another daughter of Mahavisnu once performed penance on the banks of Akasaganga

An Andhra monarch, son of Pulindasena II. and father of King Satakarni. (Visnu Purana, Part 4) SUNDARl. A Raksasa woman, the wife of Malyavan. The couple had seven sons called Vajramusti, Virupaksa, Durmukha, Suptaghna, Yajnakcsa, Matta and Unmatta. (See under Malyavan and Mall)
.
.

Purana)

.

SUNDARIKA. A

Subrahmanya as husband. (Skanda Purana, Sambhava Kanda). SUNDIKA. A town made famous in the Puranas, which
for securing

existed in

Vana

&UNDU. A King

SUNETRA

town was conquered by Karna. of the Puru dynasty. Manasyu was the son of King Pracinvan, the son of Janamejaya and grandson of Puru. Vltabhaya was the son of Manasyu. Sundu was Vltabhaya's son. Sundu's son was Bahuvidha. (Agni Purana, Chapter 278)
.

the eastern part of India. Mahabharata, Parva, Chapter 254, Verse 8 mentions that this

SUNETRA
ter 10,

of the sons of Dhrtarastra, the other sons being Kundaka, Hasti, Vitarka, Krfitha, Kundina, Havisravas, Bhumanyu, Pratipa, Dharmanetra, Sunetra and Aparajita. (Adi Parva, Chapter 94, Verses 58-60). A son of Garuda. (Udyoga Parva, ChapII.
I.

One

Verse 2).

U5lGA.
this

Sunassepha later became a Maharsi. He composed Rgveda, 1st Mandala, 1st Astaka. Besides in Rgveda, 1st Mandala, 6th Anuvaka, 30th Sukta it is stated that Indra had given a golden chariot to Sunnassepha. SUNAYA I. A King, son of the King of Pariplava and father of Medhavl. (.Bhagavata, 9th Skandha). Pramati was the high priest of Sunaya. (Markandeya Purana,

Vis vamitra)

.

SUNAYA

114).

II,

SUNDA. An

Parva, Chapter

and their father was Nisumbha alias Jharjha. Sunda and Upasunda were very cruel asuras. The two brothers performed tapas on the Vindhya mountain with the object of conquering the three worlds. All attempts made by Devas to break up their penance failed and ultimately Brahma appeared before them. They secured from Brahma a boon to the effect that they would not be killed by anyone else but only mutually by them. Swollen-headed by the boon the brothers conquered the three worlds and none cou