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ASSIGNMENT NICMAR/SODE OFFFICE 1. Course No 2. Course title 3. Assignment No 4. Date of dispatch 5. Last date of receipt of Assignment at SODE office : : : : : PGPM 13 Construction Personnel Management 03 15-03-2012
ASSIGNMENT You are a project manager on a site where work for 3 k.m. Long Tunnel has been undertaken. The site is remote and takes about 2 days travel to nearest town. Supervisors, Technicians & skilled workers are engaged in dangerous / hazardous work. Absenteeism due to sickness, quarrels, drinking are increasing. Management has urged to do something so that time target can be achieved. Discuss how will you tackle the problem and increase the output of the work.
INTRODUCTION: Tunnelling is one of the most dangerous works in the field of construction. It is been reported that around 18% of the total fatality in the field is caused by tunnelling. Thus it is clear that one has to be more precautious while working in tunnelling process. It is also noticeable that only due to the process of tunnelling the traffic is been controlled and as a results accidents are also minimised. Thus it is must but at the same time dangerous too.The task here is really the measures one can adopt to increase the output of work taking the problems into concerns hence several practicing plans are emphasized. Thus the main objective in this assignment is to put emphasis on the qualification and abilities of a project manager and his role in the field of construction. Project manager should know his duties & responsibilities & full knowledge of pros & cons of his decisions & activities. Thus the main objective of the project manager is not only to keep the work progress going on but at the same time minimise the risk factors and create a safe working condition.
SCOPE OF WORK: A personnel plan always revolves around personnel objectives of the company such as viability, success, growth & social responsibility. Objectives such as absenteeism, labour turnover, grievances, strikes, lockouts, etc can be highlighted in an quantitative manner rather than a qualitative. The project is to construct a tunnel of about 3km long. Thus the width of the tunnel may vary upto 7.5m. The project should also be completed as soon as possible. The site is located in a remote area so it is better to provide a good communication system among the site personnel. It is also mentioned that it takes 2 days to travel to the nearest town so as a project manager it is a must to provide necessary basic as well as the social needs for the men working around the site.
BASIC NEEDS OF A PERSON IN SITE Basic human needs, such as adequate and nutritious food, clothing, housing, clean water, and health services are very important aspects which are to be provided to the workers, technicians residing at the site premises. - A small dispensary or an aid of mobile dispensary periodically
could be made available to keep & monitor health issues of workers & there family. If possible a 24 hr emergency ambulance should be always kept on site in case of emergency or accident so as to rush at nearby hospital, if long then provision for a small hospital wherein minor & accidental surgeries could be done should be provided. - Ration system provision with cheaper rates of food, kerosene should be planned. -Small education centre or education camps should be encouraged for the families & children of workers which would also prevent child labor. - Shelter which is also very important aspect for workers, technicians as town is quiet far (2days) so arrangements on site for their habilitation temporary structures which could be easily dismantled & reused should be used at the same time as the site progresses its vicinity with respect to work area could be minimized & erection time is also small. Construction techniques for the erection process should be easier &
materials should be cost effective such as steel obtained from demolition or scraps if easily usable. Erection & dismantling should be such that any worker , labor must be able to do it.
Social needs of the person : Here a project manager should know the social parameters & aspects which are also important for their interest apart from his basic needs, which includes: -Recreation period -Informal interaction amongst workers -Festival celebration etc. -Encouragement programmes for workers & their family which would focus on there hobbies & interest. -Planning interactive games amongst workers & family. -Public reward functions to be organized for the merits on work, productivity & time frame of completion of the job. - All these steps will prove to divert mindsets of workers, labors away from alcohol.
KEY POINTS IN PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT PLAN If so ever there are any lacunas or reasons due to which technicians & skilled workers engaged in hazardous working conditions so are prone to absenteeism, sickness, quarrels, drinking etc. then leaders has to see whether the guiding principles of personnel management plan are exercised? This includes: a) Introduction to the job must be friendly, skilful & adequate. b) Appreciation of ones effort. c) Care & skill should be excercised in the selection of employees. d) Consideration should be given to the effect that each rule and instruction may have on the feelings of employees. e) Management should be absolutely fair in every policy and every practice. f) each employee should have have a sense of pride in the worthwhileness of his work & his company. g) Employee should take part in planning those things which affect their working conditions. h) Conditions should be such that working proves to be a satisfying social experience & a means of making livelihood.
ROLE OF A PROJECT MANAGER : The project manager has to be a good decision maker. He has to take a right decision at right time The project manager has to play a role of a leader in this particular project. He has to take the team along with him, give a feeling of belonging and the same time meet the date of completion. A manager performs three types of roles : 1) The interpersonal roles arise directly from authority and refer to the relationship between the manager and others. In this manager has a figurhead role as a symbol of organisation. 2) The second interpersonal role is called the leader role. In this role the manager uses his or her influence to motivate and encourage subordinates to accomplish organisational objectives. 3) In the third type of interpersonal role the manager undertakes a laiison role. This role recognizes the managers often spend more time interacting with others outside their unit than they do working with their own superiors and subordinates. As a project manager strong communicative & interpersonal skills, must become familiar with each line of organization & should have the general knowledge of the technology say for example modern methods of tunneling techniques which includes
QUALITIES OF A PROJECT MANAGER : a) Communication Keeping lines of communication open & unchoked. Making people understand what you want them to understand. Making people tell you what should be told & not what you want to hear. b) Disbursing punishment Disburse promptly & in private. With teaching what would have constituted good. After punishment assume a normal attitude towards employee. c) Giving appreciation. For specific job well done With a sense of pride & use of emotion d) Demonstrating effect Subordinates should know you can do better & faster than what they can do. e) Knowledge of Organization Structure, rules & regulations & technical process. f) Work of consensus Getting work done/ not doing it yourself Laying it yourself on the line is not the test of efficiency. How easily can you make subordinates do it.
FUNCTIONS OF A PROJECT MANAGER Thus for such a risk involving site a project manager should be able to count upon three major reasons namely 1. Manpower, 2. Job and 3. Site safety The importance and the fators on which the project manager has to keep an eye on are elaborately explained below
1. Organization of manpower : Manpower of the firm, company is a very important asset which plays a vital role in productivity or the work output, so it is essential to have a precise workforce with a right attitude. The manpower planning process involves the following steps: 1) Understanding condition, the projects in all its details contracts
construction methods & techniques, time frames. 2) Classifying & categorizing labour requirement & various jobs by level of skill, responsibility, nature of work. 3) Tentative plans for completion i.e - tendering of job , - updating information technical or administrative during execution stage. - Providing for grace period or lead time 4) Putting a price for each job - wage/ wage pay by considering following factors: - Level of skill required - Job knowledge required - Degree of responsibility - Nature of hazards/ unpleasantness in the job - Minimum wages law - Critical skills - Relative wage structure in the company. - Special attention areas - Career opportunities - Over/ under manning and - Gang labour.
2. Job description: Before hiring any individual may be a technicians, workers it
should be crystal clear about the nature of job, risks involved, job commitments, & wages which might not become a reason for
absenteeism, job frustration, invalid growth opportunities, hence standard formats for job description should be used for clarity, economy & efficiency of producing the job description. Writing a job description involves the following steps: State a title, designation & reporting relationship Prepare a list of all duties to be performed ( regularly, daily, weekly. Describe each duty in detail (avoid vague terms) What is most responsible duty?] Amount or Percentage of time spent on each duty or closely related groups of duties.
Job evaluation : Job evaluation is the process of determining the worth or pricing of a given job. For a typical job evaluation situation a worker employee, technician,
provides information about the job they are doing , there
experience, skills which is supposed to be mentioned which are essential for a recruiter to decide an suitable incentive plan for that employee. For a recruiter determining the worth of the job or evaluation is based on three points. - Classification plan - Point rating plan - Factor comparison plan.
Job Enrichment : a) Giving workers more freedom in planning work methods. b) Encouraging participation of subordinates & interaction between workers. c) Giving feedback on their job performance. d) Workers, skilled workers, technicians project managers, supervisors are welfare. e) It is important to analyze that how important money is for the technicians, workers etc. always wish their seniors truly concerned with there
3. Site Safety : Site safety is the most important thing a project manager has to take care about and make others aware of the hazards of unsafe sites. Based on the declared safety policy and supported by safety tool box the Project manager is required to conduct meetings periodically and all men under their control are made aware of all aspects of safety. Simultaneously all individual workers should be given pocket books highlighting the hazards of unsafe sites. Location of equipment must be marked prominently. Reporting procedures for accidents and updating statistical records should be adhered too. Body protection like a hard helmet and safety belts should be mandatory . Specific protection during work – 1. During excavation of tunnel: Warning signals should be provide Prevent water from accumulating in trench Inspection of shoring everyday Keep ladder or other means of emergency exit within 10m 2. During blasting of tunnel: Explosives and detonators should be transported separately & safely Installation of red flags around the area of blasting 3. During electrical installations in the tunnel: carried out by person having a valid license labourer should wear rubber gloves, boots, mats safety belts etc all wires and cables should be properly laid
FIRST AID: First aid on site is required timely and if not given on time could be life threatening. First aid is required on site for the following reasons – 1. Severe bleeding 2. Drowning 3. Electric shock 4. Asphyxiation. 5. Sunstroke. 6. Bruises and sprains. 7. Particles in eye 8. Broken bones 9. Heat exhaustion 10. Severe blow on head Hygiene Factors : Light weight common lavatories should be planned at strategic locations on site & near shelters for ladies/gents & proper bathing units should also be considered which could be moved easily. Site cleanliness which includes dumping of debris outside the residing places & regular checks on site. Toxic materials should be disposed soon from site.
RISK MANAGEMENT ACTIVITY FLOW: The risk management happens in three stages in the field of tunnelling namely
Phase I Phase II
Early design stages Tendering and contract negotiation Construction
Phase III :
RECOMMENDATIONS Knowledge of Modern tunneling techniques : Tunneling machines, sometimes called moles, make an initial cut into rock with a cutterhead. Individual disk-shaped cutters are set into the face of a powerful, rotating head, which may be more than 5.5 m (18 feet) in diameter. As the machine bores through rock, conveyor belts transport rock particles, muck, and any other refuse away from the head. Concrete segments are erected to line and protect the tunnel as each area is hollowed out. The building of a tunnel is known as driving a tunnel and involves advancing the passageway by blasting or boring and excavating.
Tunnels through mountains or underwater are usually worked from the two opposite ends, or faces, of the passage. In the construction of a very long tunnel, vertical shafts may be dug at convenient intervals to excavate from more than two points. Improved boring and drilling machinery now allow a tunnel to be driven four or five times faster than was possible with older techniques.
Maintenance of a risk assessment chart: The project manager should maintain a record of the risk involved in the areas of construction and the remedial measures used to nullify them. The project manager should update the record biweekly or once in a month and findout whether the remedial measaure involved is effective or not. If found not effective then it is a must to take an alternate step.
Risk assessment chart Project Name Prepared By Date Problem Area or Activity Risks Identified Descri ption Impact Intensity Existing Measures Mitigation Strategy Additional Measures
Probability Of Occurance
CONCLUSION Thus I do conclude by informing that accidents in site can be minimised by taking precautions at the maximum level of safety measures. On the other hand accidental occur only due to carelessness of onself so it is clear that one has to keep in mind about his personal safety so that all the accidentals can be minimised without any special supervision.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Papers on Management in Construction Industry by Prof. K.N.Vaid Project Construction Management by P.K.JOY. Building Construction By R. Chudley.
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