Diesel-Water-Air Premixing Injector System In Burner System : A Literature Review

Muhammad Hasmadi Bin Hassim Tuan Muhammad Arfan Bin Tuan Ismail Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

ABSTRACT These reviews are conducted survey on research that related with topic development of diesel-waterair premixing injector system in burner system. The data from other journal have been reported and available in UTHM e-library. The review is divided in some element which is the performance, emissions, and characteristics from the system. The research data is carried out the advantages of using the system. The effect of water addition to fuel by emulsification on combustion and emission characteristics was investigated. Water addition elongates the combustible range to higher fuel equivalence ratio side by reduction of PM. The water addition also reduces NOx emission drastically. The reduction of NOx is caused by the reduction of locally high temperature region, the reduction of global flame temperature is not significant[1]. The injector mixes fuel rapidly with water inside the injector with support atomizing air. The mixture composed of three fluid injected as spray into flame stabilizer of burner.

Water addition is also effective to reduce PM emission especially in higher fuel equivalence ratio. Nox emission is strongly dependent on water flow rate[2]. This review also explained the investigation of emission performance of the injector that internally rapid mixing type of injector useful technique to introduce water into burner system.


Nowadays world are more serious towards the care environment where all the resulting technology or new technology that will be generated should emphasize the existence of the surrounding

environment. Thus the government sector call to create green technologies to protect the environment under the auspices of the ministry of energy, green technology and water. This can be seen in the increasingly widespread air pollution and it's

unhealthy impact on the country, which also causes global warming causes rising today. One of the obvious culprits is the result of using a diesel engine system that causes unhealthy emissions. Shortly after that a new idea is closely related to diesel engine

conceived with the idea of improvements on the engine combustion system in which the existing fuel is mixed with air and water introduced. This paper summarizes the literature describing of development of diesel water air premixing injector system in burner system the time period covered in this report dates to a similar review by other author with their journal related with this topic. By using a method which is mixture of water on the fuel injector system can prolong and increase the rate of combustion at high oil equilibrium ratio by reduction of particle release. It can also reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) that are produced by the engine. In addition, the use of this water can degrade the high temperature at which fuel NOx production factors[3]. The combustion chamber is also a spray cleaner that is mixed with the water than no water and it adds to the efficiency of the engine to operate. Furthermore, the addition of water will induce the hydro-gaseous reaction thus reduce the solid carbon or smoke[4]. Hence, water addition to the fuel is able to reduce both NOx and smoke simultenously[5]. In the present study, the combustion and emission characteristics were compared by using gas oil and water-emulsified gas oil with a burner system. Firstly, the combustible limit was investigated in wide range of equivalence ratio and atomizing air ratio, then the emissions in interesting region were intensively investigated[6]. The new injector that can use water directly in combustion field will be first developed. This injector is a type of fuel- water internally rapid mixing. Fuel is mixed with water inside of the injector supported by atomizing air. After mixing the, the mixture is injected to the outside. In this way, water is introduced directly into combustion field[7].

Comparison with existing injector will be investigated due to the performance and emission characteristics.

Fuel-water internally rapid mixing type of injector

The configuration of a newly developed injector will be explained first. Figure 1 shows detail of the injector in section and photographs. This study names this injector fuel-water internally rapid mixing type of injector. Fuel and water are separately supplied to a small mixing chamber inside of the injector. The mixing chamber has a capacity of 3.9cc. Fuel is supplied from a ring-shape slit with an outer-diameter of 5.5mm and slit-width of 0.45mm. Water is supplied from a centre hole with diameter of 2mm.The supplied fuel and water are rapidly mixed in the mixing chamber with support of atomizing air. The atomizing air is pressurized to about 0.2MPa and introduced into the mixing chamber through four slits of swirler shown in the picture. The air-flow forms swirl flow to improve mixing[8]. The well-mixed fluids; fuel, air and water are injected into combustion field from eight small holes with diameter of 1mm on the top of the chamber. The advantage of using this injector is that water can be available in combustion without emulsification process. Surfactant which is necessary for wateremulsified fuel becomes needless[9]. Further,

although water-emulsification sometimes increases fuel viscosity that has bad influence on combustion, this injector keeps fuel viscosity constant regardless of water content[10]. Another merit is that, unlike water-emulsified fuel, water content can be easily adjusted by changing water flow rate in response to combustion condition[11].

the same swirler as the above developed injector to form swirl flow of atomizing air. This injector needs emulsified fuel when water is introduced. Emission characteristics of this injector will be compared with that of the internally rapid mixing type of injector.

Figure 2 : External mixing type

Production and physical properties of water-emulsified fuel In this review study, water, fuel and small amount of additive were mixed to form wateremulsified fuel by using ultra-sonic mixer. The base Figure 1 : Fuel-water internally rapid mixing type fuel used in this study was JIS#2 diesel fuel (Gas Oil: GO). The major properties of the fuel and wateremulsified fuel are compared in Table 1. The obvious Figure 2 is an external mixing type of injector, which is generally used in burner. Fuel and air are separately injected from the injector. The injector has difference is found in viscosity of water-emulsified fuel as compared with the base material. The

Table 1 : Physical properties of base fuel and water-emulsified fuel

viscosity increases drastically as water added up to 30%, and it shows the water in oil (O/W) phase at this condition. Meanwhile, further addition of water changes the phase to the oil in water (W/O) and decreases the viscosity. Because GOW30 (30vol% of water and 70vol% of GO) has less physical stability for reliable experiment, the combustion

3mm. The holes are located at the base and lower part of the side face of the inner tube. Some of secondary air flow through crevice region between inner and outer tubes. The secondary air can supply oxygen to the flame upper of the flame stabilizer. The burner combustion is started by the ignition of LPG. When stable LPG flame is formed, fuel supply line is changed from LPG pass to the injector; then combustion of injected fuel commences. In the experiment, exhaust gas concentration was analysed.

characteristics of GOW50 were mainly investigated by comparing with those of pure GO fuel. METHODOLOGY

A part of exhaust gas was sampled by a water-cooled sampling probe with suction hole diameter of 0.5mm.

Experimental Setup Figure 2 shows schematic diagram of

The sampled gas was introduced into the portable gas analyser (HORIBA, PG-240). The concentration of NOx was measured by chemiluminescent method (CLD), CO and CO2 by non-dispersive infrared method (NDIR), O2 by zirconia method. Exhaust particulate matters (PM) was collected on Teflon filter. The PM concentration was determined by measuring the filter weight before and after sampling. PM was measured with two components, solid carbon (SOLID) and soluble organic fraction (SOF), by Soxhlet extraction method. SOLOID is the main component in smoke and SOF is mainly composed of unburned fuel components. The gas temperature, T700, was measure at 700mm downstream from the injector outlet.

experimental setup. The burner consists of an injector, flame stabilizer, pilot flame igniter and a chimney. The chimney has a height of 700mm. The flame stabilizer has two tubes as shown in the lower drawing. The inner tube has an inner-diameter of 96.4mm and height of 143mm from injector outlet. The outer tube has an inner-diameter of 120mm. Fuel, atomizing air and water supplied to the injector are mixed in the injector in the case of the internally rapid mixing type of injector. The fluids are further mixed in the flame stabilizer after injection. The secondary air is supplied into the flame stabilizer through some small holes with diameter of

Figure 3 : 1st Experimental apparatus

Another 2nd experiment that are same with related in this review study is like figure 4. shows the schematics of the experimental setup. The fuel was injected into the combustion area by the fuel injector shown in figure 4, which atomizes the fuel assisted by atomizing air. Secondary air was supplied into the combustion area to cover the shortage of the air introduced firstly as atomizing air. Thermocouple was installed at h=700mm from the fuel injector to measure the exhaust gas temperature. A sample gas suction probe was set at 600mm from the injector to measure the concentration of NOx, CO, CO2and Particulate Matter (PM) in exhaust gas. Teflon filter was used to collect the PM inside exhaust gas and the PM density was determined by measuring filter weight before and after sampling. PM can be divided into two major components, namely solid carbon (SOLID) and soluble organic fraction (SOF). SOLID is the main component in smoke, and SOF is the unburned fuel component. SOLID and SOF were measured individually by soxhlet extraction Figure 4 : Second experimental apparatus

method.The controllable parameter of the experiment was the fuel type (pure or water-emulsified fuel), and the flow rates of fuel Qf, atomizing air Qa, and

secondary air Q2. In the series of experiment, experimental results were analyzed by using two nondimensional parameters, those are fuel equivalence ratio φ and atomizing air ratio Qa/Qt, where Qt is the sum of Qa and Q2. For 3rd experiment is preparing biodiesel to see the effect of diesel fuel mixed water in engine performance and emission. To make Bio Water Diesel Fuel (BWDF), we prepared diesel fuel 75%, water 15% and additive 15% [5]. First, we blended all the ingredients not less than 15 minutes. The longer for blending the fuel, the results will become better. And the results, diesel fuel is mixed perfectly by water shown in figure 5.







specification is shown in table 2.

Table 2 : Engine specification

Table 3 : Operating condition in 17hours endurance test

Experiments were carried out following SAE Technical Series 942010 “Diesel Fuel Detergent Additive Performance and Assessment”. As

mentioned in that reference, experiments were done in diesel engine one cylinder with zero load, 45% load, 65% load and maximum load. The operating Figure 5 : Preparing for water, diesel fuel, and additives and blending all the materials. condition was in 1500 rpm and with zero load, 1 kW, 2 kW, 3kW and 4 kW (4kW=80%).

For this experiment that run for test engine. By using 1000cc single cylinder and direct injection are

DISCUSSION OF THE RESULT For 1st experiment in this review that gives the result with this criteria: Advantage of fuel-water internally rapid mixing type of injector In the experiment, emission characteristics of the two injectors were first investigated. Figure 6 compares emissions when pure soybean oil is used as fuel without water. The air condition of the burner; namely, mass flow ratio of atomizing air to total air, Qa/Qt, is kept constant of 0.26. In the figure, equivalence ratio φ is defined based on mass flow rate of fuel to total air including atomizing air and second air. As seen from the figure, NOx emission is almost same level with both injectors. Lower CO emission of internally rapid mixing than that of external mixing indicates that the former type nozzle has better combustion efficiency. At high load condition of φ>0.8, both injectors produce particulate matters (PM) that is mainly composed of SOLID. The internally rapid mixing type of injector emits less PM as compared with the external mixing type. Considering that the SOLID is produced by incomplete combustion, fuel- air mixing that supports combustion is promoted with the internally rapid mixing. Higher gas temperature of T700 proves higher heat generation in this case. Figure 7 is the same comparison as Fig.6 when water is introduced into combustion. The external mixing type of injector applies water-emulsified soybean oil as fuel, and internally rapid mixing type of injector blends soybean oil and water together with atomizing air inside of the injector. Water content is 50% in volume. As compared with Fig.3, NOx is reduced with the use of water in both water emulsified and water mixing; further, PM is reduced Both show smokeless combustion at wide range of equivalence ratio. Effects of water will be discussed below again. As compared with the two injectors, external mixing type that uses water-emulsified fuel Figure 7 : Comparison of emission between two types of injector (Fuel : Soybean with water-mixing or water-emulsified, water 50%) Figure 6 : Comparison of emission between two types of injector (Fuel : Soybean without water)

shows higher CO emission. This type also produces higher SOF emission than internally rapid mixing type. These results suggest that external mixing type has deterioration of combustion efficiency due to incomplete combustion. High flame height caused by inactive combustion leads to high gas temperature of T700 at φ=1.2 using external mixing type of injector. Figure 8 provides example of flame images at high load condition of φ=1.2 using gas oil as fuel. Considering that bright flame is mainly luminescence of soot, water addition by both emulsified and water mixing has strong effect on soot reduction. In particular, internally rapid mixing injector shows little luminous flame in the case of introducing water. These kinds of flame characteristics correspond to PM emissions shown in Figs.6 and 7.

Figure 9 : Emission maps as a function of equivalence ratio and atomizing air ratio. concentration in GO case becomes higher with the increment of Qa/Qt. This high NOx emission is Figure 8 : Comparison of flames (φ=1.2) resulted from promoted combustion by finer

atomization of fuel from increase of Qa/Qt. On the Emission Characteristics In 2nd experiment that we can compared is the emission characteristics when mixing diesel-waterair. Figure 9 shows NOx, PM, and CO emission maps as a function of equivalence ratio φ and atomization air ratio Qa/Qt. Figure 10 shows the emission characteristics as a function of fuel equivalence ratio φ with fixed Qa/Qt. As shown in Fig.9(a), NOx contrary, NOx emission in GOW50 case does not have significant emission peak as observed in GO case. By comparing the exhaust temperatures in all Qa/Qt cases in Fig.10, lower fuel equivalence ratio results lower temperature in GOW50 than GO, and higher φ yields higher temperature in GOW50. On the other hand, NOx emission in GOW50 is consistently lower than GO. This implies that global

temperature in combustion region, which is related with exhaust temperature, is not a key factor of the NOx reduction mechanism in GOW50. In Fig.10, the main component of PM in GOW50 is SOF in all cases of Qa/Qt. Furthermore SOLID component in PM is perfectly suppressed in GOW50. This indicates that water addition to the fuel suppresses the total amount of PM, but increases the SOF component. In the case of GOW50, there is a smoke limit island around φ=0.6, Qa/Qt=0.1 as shown in Fig.9(b). The island is also shown in Fig.10(a) as peaked PM emission characteristics. This is assumed to be caused by incomplete combustion as follows. Lower atomizing air flow rate deteriorates the fuel atomization, thus combustion itself also becomes inactive. Although combustion manages to be maintained at higher equivalence ratio (around φ=1), reduction of φ causes further degradation of

combustion and SOF once increased. Further reduction of φ results in incomplete combustion, which means the great part of fuel does not burn, resulting all of the emission decreased. Although there must be the same problem even in GO case, GOW50 shows much severer degradation of

atomization than GO case in lower Qa/Qt because the total volumetric injection rate of GOW50 is twice as much of the GO and GOW50 has higher viscosity. CO emission characteristics in both fuel types are similar to the characteristics of PM emissions. In Fig.9(c), the outer region of smoke limit corresponds with PM high emission region in Fig.9(b). However, only in GOW50 case, the high CO emission region exists even in inner region of combustible limit.

Figure 10 : Effect of fuel equivalence ratio and atomizing air ratio on emission characteristics

For experiment 3 here are the result based on emission test: NOx (Nitrogen Oxide)

Figure 13 : CO emission DF and BWDF after endurance test After endurance test in maximum load (80%) BWDF can reduce the CO emission up to 23.7% comparing to DF.

NO (Nitrogen Oxide)

Figure 11 : NOx emission DF and BWDF before(above) and after(below) endurance test After Endurance test, BWDF can reduce NOx emission in minimum and also in maximum loads. In maximum load(80%) BWDF can reduce NOx emission up to 42 %. CO (Carbon Oxide)

Figure 14 : NO emission DF and BWDF before(above) and after(below) endurance test

After endurance test, BWDF can reduce the NO emission from minimum to maximum load up to Figure 12 : CO emission DF and BWDF before endurance test 44.31%.


In figure 15, the opacity in BWDF in minimum to maximum is lower than DF. In minimum load, BWDF can cut down the opacity up to 3.2%. For all of these reasons, BWDF can take into account for its use in the future as a new alternative fuels, it can reduce emissions especially in big city such as Kuala Lumpur or other big cities in the world.

Figure 15 : Opacity DF and BWDF


Figure 16 : Fuel consumption in 17 hours running engine (1500 rpm – 4kW)

From figure 15, from one to 9 hours endurance test, BWDF has no advantages in fuel consumption compared to DF. In 10 hours running engine, DF and BWDF have similar in fuel consumption. But in 11 hours of running engine, BWDF is more efficient 5% than DF. In 17 hours of running engine, BWDF is the highest efficiency up to 15.85%.

CONCLUSION From this review paper study to develop dieselwater-air premixing injector in burner system that has some method to develops. Here we can devide by group into 3 experiment: 1 Experiment 1. The internally rapid mixing type of injector is useful technique to introduce water into burner combustion. The injector emits less PM at high load of equivalence ratio over 0.9 as compared with the external mixing type of injector. NOx emission is strongly dependent on water flow rate. 2. Combustion is promoted by water mixing; hence, high water content leads to low PM emissions as well as NOx emission at high load. 3. Three-fluids mixing can avoid the problem of the increase of fuel viscosity happened with water emulsification. 4. Although water-emulsified fuel shows high CO and SOF emissions at high load, the internally rapid mixing produces less CO and SOF in spite of using water. 5. Mixing inside of the flame stabilizer is important for PM reduction as well as in the mixing chamber of the injector. High speed spray has an effect on PM reduction.
nd st

2. NOx emission is drastically reduced by adding water. The reduction of NOx is originated from the reduction of local high temperature, which is active source of NOx production. However, reduction of global temperature is not significant, thus thermal penalty is negligible. 3. Water addition to the fuel is effective to reduce PM emission PM emission. The reduction of

local high temperature may cause the reduction of reaction rate, which has a possibility of affording a mixing time for better combustion for reducing PM. 3rd Experiment 1. BWDF can reduce emission such as NOx up to 42%,CO up to 23.7%, NO up to 44.31% 2. In 11 hours of running engine, BWDF is more efficient 5% than DF. In 17 hours of running engine, BWDF is the highest efficiency up to 15.85%. 3. BWDF can reduce the smog or opacity up to 3.2% compared to DF.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors would like to thank to Dr.Amir Khalid who are give the task for this review study, also thank you to Faculty of Mechanical and

2 Experiment 1. Water addition to the fuel extends the combustible limit especially in high fuel equivalence ratio and high atomizing air ratio side. Combustible limits in pure gas oil and water-emulsified gas oil are determined by smoke in high atomizing air ratio. In lower atomizing air ratio case, the combustible limits are determined by unstable combustion or smoke, because of the deterioration of atomization.

Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia for the course subject taken.

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