enjoyable.

The modern methods of selecting, grading and processing foods have removed the danger of poisoning from canned foods. In this way we are able to eat variety of foods through out the year. 5- We are generally less fearful than our ancestors were. What were our ancestors afraid of? What fears our ancestors had in past, and how have we overcome those fears? How has the scientific method enable us to get over the old fears? The scientific method has brought a great change in our attitude and way of our thinking. In past, our ancestors considered that epidemics and diseases were the punishment of God for their bad deeds. They did not try to understand the happenings in their surrounding. However, researches of science proved the real cause of most of the diseases. The magic and charms had a great influence over the lives of people. They were afraid of black cats, broken mirrors and number 13. Science has proved that all such beliefs are false. Science has proved that diseases or epidemics are not caused by evil spirits. In fact bad sanitary arrangements and lack of medical treatment caused the disease. Science has taught us that the star keep on revolving around the sun according to a set plan. The appearance or disappearances of a particular star has nothing to do with our lives of fate. Our ancestors were afraid of all such things but the cause and effect relation of science has proved that all such supernatural beliefs are just superstition. Now concepts like the above have very less space in society. People do not believe in such things and hence they are less fearful. 6- What part did astrology play in the lives of men and women in the past? Give examples. In past people were much superstitious. They blindly believed on supernatural elements. Diseases were thought to be caused due to evil spirits. Thunder, rain, epidemics and flooding was donated to gods and goddesses. Movement of stars, palmistry and other such studies were believed blindly to know about future. Signs, such as No. 13, black cats, rain at the beginning of some work and charms of good and bad luck were considered the basis for success and failure. Thus, the lives of people were surrounded by uncountable superstitious beliefs & supernatural elements. 7- In which ways of our life did the scientific method bring about a change? The scientific method has greatly helped us to have a better control of diseases. The use of scientific method has brought changes in the sanitary and drainage system of our cities. With the help of the scientific method, production of food is increased. Because of the scientific method, a major change in our attitude has occurred. 8- What were the possibilities of survival of newborn babies in past? About two hundred years ago what was the death rate in children? Just two hundred years ago, the chances of survival of a newborn baby were very low. One out of eight babies was expected to reach the age of one year. Mostly they became victim of some fatal disease. 9- What were the common infectious diseases in past? In past, due to lack of sanitary system, ill sewerage system and scattered garbage, various infectious diseases were common like yellow fever, malaria, typhoid, influenza, dysentery and diphtheria. 10- What was the main reason of infectious diseases in past? The main reason of infectious diseases in past was the untidy conditions of towns and cities. 11- What were the common diseases which were fatal both for children and adults? Diseases like small pox, whopping cough and scarlet fever were so deadly that they killed most of the children in their infancy. Yellow Fever, Malaria, Typhoid influenza, used to spread and had heavy toll on human lives. There were no remedies available. Now all these diseases have been controlled by the apt use of Scientific method. 12- Why there is much lesser chance of newborn babies to die in a very early age? Today, babies are born in hospitals. There it is little chance for a baby to get a disease because of hygienic conditions. Moreover, the advancement of medical science helps to protect babies. 13- What was the average life of people in the past? In past, due to unhygienic conditions, common infectious diseases and low quality of food, the average age of people was around thirty. 14- What was the reason of less average life of people in past? In past, due to unhygienic conditions, several infectious diseases were common. People got victim of one disease after another. 15- What is the expected average age of people today? What is the reason of higher ages today? Today, average age of people is expected around sixty years. The main reasons behind this increase are better hygienic conditions of towns due to proper sanitary and drainage systems, clean drinking water and better nutritious food with variety and in ample quantity. 16- How the people are protected from fatal diseases today? The advancement of medical science is the basis for protection of man against diseases. Today, vaccines are given to people from their childhood, so that they acquire immunity against infectious diseases. 17- What were the sanitary conditions of cities in past? In our near past, no sanitary or drainage system was developed in cities. Wastes of toilets were drained into wells from which water was obtained for drinking purpose. 18- What is the sanitary condition of cities today? Today, paved roads are maintained in our cities which do not let the rainwater stand in streets. Proper sanitary system is maintained through sealed pipes. Sewerage & drainage system is developed through which wasted water is taken to disposal plants. 19- How the thrifty housewives used to preserve food in past? How did the thrifty housewives preserve their home grown vegetables and fruits? When the scientific method was not implemented for preservation of food, house-wives used to preserve their home grown vegetables and fruits by canning, pickling or drying them. Meats were preserved by salting and drying or by freezing them in cold weather. 20- Why there is better variety and standard of food today? How the supply of food has changed by the use of the scientific method? Today, due to fast means of transportation, all type of foodstuff can reach the far-flung areas. With the help of preservation methods and cold storage, fresh food is available throughout the year. It not only provides variety in food but the preserved food is made more nutritious by mixing artificial vitamins

and other ingredients important for health. 21- What are the scientific techniques of preservation of food? How has scientific method helped us in the production and preservation of food? Today food is preserved by many ways. Quick-freezing method, Dehydration and Canning are the common techniques to preserve food for a longer duration. Besides, cold storages are used to keep the vegetables and fruits fresh throughout the year. The risk of poisoning has been obliterated. 22- In which ways all of us have been benefited by using the scientific method? The scientific method has helped us to increase production and preservation of food. The quality of food is also much improved. The construction of houses and communication facilities are positive outcome of science. 23- Why seafood is available far from seacoasts? Due to fast means of transportation, seafood can reach the far-flung area easily. Besides, with the help of preservation methods and cold storage, seafood is also sent to different area. Therefore, it is available throughout the year. 24- How the water was supplied to houses in olden times? Was that clean drinking water? What were the problems in the cities concerning water in the past? What was the common practice to obtain water a century ago? In past, there was no system of supply of water in towns and cities. Water was fetched from far-flung wells in buckets. The housekeepers used the water with great care so that minimum water might be used. The water was also dirty and unhygienic as wastes of houses & toilets were drained into the same wells from which this water was taken. Now, all these problems have been solved in a befitting manner. 25- How water is supplied to houses in cities today? How has the problems of water been solved with the help of scientific method? Today, there is a proper system of supply of water. The water is supplied to houses in sealed pipes, which is hygienic and clean. Sometimes, water heads to supply waters are miles away from the city but due to the water system applied, water remains clean. It is provided in ample quantity to houses to fulfill daily requirements. 26- What were the attitude of people in past? Why superstitious people do wore different types of charms? In past, people were much narrow-minded than today. They were too superstitious and had strong belief in charms, black magic, supernatural elements and signs of good and bad luck. 27- How the scientific method has changed the attitudes of people towards life. How has the use of scientific method changed the attitudes of people? Today, the scientific researches have greatly changed the way of thinking of people. The superstitious beliefs have lost their basis. Now disease is not caused by evil spirit but due to microorganisms.

3- Why Boys Fail in College (Herbert E. Hawkes)
1- According to the author, there are some boys who fail because they do not try. Who are they? Can we help them? According to the writer, the boys who fail in college just because they do not try are the intelligent students, They have the ability to work and perform well in their but they can not work due to some nervous habits. Basically, they cannot pay full attention to their work. When they open their books and instead of reading they spend their precious time in unimportant things such as mending pencils and cleaning their smoking pipes. Sometimes they feel it essential to sharpen their pencil and sometimes they have some other excuse to avoid study. In fact, the problem of such students is that they cannot pay full attention to their work and cannot concentrate on their work in the right way due to such nervous habits, They spent a lot of time before an open book but cannot achieve during studies as per their ability. No one can help or mend such student but the boy himself. He will have to deal with himself firmly and try to do work seriously. 2- How do mistaken ambition on the part of boys and their parents lead to the failure of the boys? As the writer discusses in the essay, ‘mistaken ambition’ either on the part of boys or on the part of parents is a major cause of the mass failure of students at college level. A boy, who, is forcefully admitted to study particular subjects, cannot show good results equivalent to his native ability. First, he loses interest in his studies because he cannot understand the subject, which is taught to him. Second, he is not interested In that particular field of work. Because if a boy wants to be a businessperson and he is compelled to study medicine or engineering, it is but natural that he will not pay full attention to his studies. Consequently, he would riot show good results and will fail in college examination. So the parents should consider the likings and capacities of their children while deciding about their professions. 3- There are some boys who have done well at school but fail to make their mark at college. Who are they? Do you have such boys in college in your country? Ans. The boys who had been performing well at school level but at college level their performance is not satisfactory, are the most pitiable students for the writer. According to him, these boys are very intelligent but all ability and intelligence is wasted because they think that they can pass through college with same ease and little efforts, as they had had during school studies. They do not know what the real effort is. They are always dependent of their ability to get the things done. Therefore, they do not try or make efforts and get fail. 4- How does financial pressure lead to the failure of students described in the lesson? Do you have similar cases in your country? The author tells that many intelligent boys anxious to study hard are unable to continue their studies because of financial pressure. According to him, some parents hold the position that the boy should earn his own to bear his educational expenses. As a result, to earn the entire expense of college, boys have to work long hours after their college. Even, some students are found going through transfusion of blood to take up the burden of their educational expenses. Consequently, they not only get a poor living but a poor education as well. The author does not support the idea of self support on the part of the boys. According to the writer, a boy shall be expected to earn a part of finance, if he is willing to share the burden of his parents. But to compel him to do so or to expect full-fledge earning on his part is not advisable because they are the parents, who brought him in this world but he did not ask them to give him birth. Hence, the boy is their responsibility and parents should provide enough money to their children for their studies. Pakistan is a developing country and poverty is one of the major social problems. So most of the really deserving boys cannot go to college & find petty jobs. As a result the poor student loses their health, fail in examinations or leave college forever.

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