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CEU- 401

Environmental Engineering - II
Contents:
1. Activated Sludge Process - Design 2. Trickling filters Details & Design 3. Oxidation Pond - Design

Modification in the ASP


1.Tapered aeration process Higher air-supply at the inlet 45%, 30% & 25% @ each 1/3 lengths 2. Step aeration process Sewage introduced along the length Require uniform O2 throughout
Q Qr

Modification in the ASP


3. Contact Stabilization process shorter aeration in the recycle line 0.5 to 1.5 hours
Aeration tank Qr Stab. Tank Qw SST

Modification in the ASP


4. Complete Mix process Hourly variation high Biological instability problems occur Uniform supply & uniform with drawl
Qr Q

SST

Modification in the ASP


5. Extended Aeration Process PST is avoided Aeration ~ 12 to 24 hours BOD removal ~ 95 to 98% High MLSS concentration O2 required so high Sludge in endogenous respiration

Size & Volume of Aeration Tank


V Xt c = Qw X R

Qw X R = y Q (Yo YE ) ke Xt V
+ ke X t V = y Q (Yo YE )
Q Yo F = M V Xt

V Xt

+ ke ) X t V = y Q (Yo YE )

y Q (Yo YE ) c V Xt = (1 + ke c )

Gives, V for any assumed values of c & Xt

O2 Requirements of the Aeration Tank


O2 Reqd. for, Oxidation of influent organic matter Endogenous respiration of microbes
Q (Y0 YE ) O2 ( gm / d ) = 1.42 Qw X R f
f= BOD5 0.68 BODu

O2 Reqd. for nitrification = 4.56 kg O2/kg NH3-N

O2 Requirements of the Aeration Tank


Aerators provided to transfer O2 Under, T = 20C ; P = 760 mm Hg O2 transfer capacity (N) under field condition,
N s ( DS DL ) (1.024)T 20 N= 9.17

Ds DO saturation value for sewage DL Operation DO level in aeration tank - correction factor for O2 transfer for sewage (0.8- 0.85) Ns O2 @ std. condition 1.2 - 2.4 kg O2/kWh

Design of ASP
1.Compute daily sewage flow, YO and YE based on desired BOD removal 2. Find the F/M ratio and MLSS conc. from the std. table 3. From F/M, calculate V of the tank 4. Check the HRT (t = V/Q) & verify the value

Design of ASP
5. Check the SRT (c) to be maintained 6. Check the volumetric loading = Q YO/V 7. Check return sludge ratio (QR/Q) 0.25 to 0.50 8. Calculate tank dimensions, d 3-4.5 m; W 5 to 10 m & L 30 to 100 m

Design of ASP
9. Calculate the rate of air supply 100 m3 of O2/kg of BOD removed 10. Calculate no. of diffusers reqd. each length, 1.2 m3 O2/min/m2 11. Design the SST by assuming the surface loading rate; SST = 20 m3/d/m2 12. Finally design the sludge drying bed loading

Trickling Filters (TFs)


Conventional TFs High-rate TFs (improved form) o Also called as percolating or sprinkling filters o Components: Coarser filtering media Spray nozzle or rotary distributor Under drain system Microbial layer (attached layer slime layer)

Trickling Filters (TFs)


o o o o Innermost layer in anaerobic Deficit for OM & O2 Sloughing creates turbidity Sloughing is a function of Organic loading rate of metabolism Hydraulic loading creates shearing velocity o TFs constructed above GL o Rotation of arms 2 to 0.5 RPM o Diameter 30 to 60 m

Trickling Filters (TFs)


DT 1 to 3 min Filter media 2 to 3 m Honey combed well Under drains Flow velocity 0.9 m/sec

High-rate TF

Recirculation of sewage through the filters

Trickling Filter Merits & Demerits


o o o o o o o o High quality effluent Loading high 75% BOD removal & 85% SS removal Good at warm weather & Self cleansing also Head-loss high High construction cost Cant treat raw sewage More operational troubles : (1) Odour, (2) Ponding troubles and (3) Fly nuisance

Design of Trickling Filter


o Design of tank diameter and depth o Design of rotary distributor o Design of under-drainage system Design based on, Hydraulic-loading rate 22 to 44 ML /ha/day 110 to 330 ML/ha/day Organic loading rate 900-2200 kg BOD5/ha-m/day 6000-18000 kg BOD5/ha-m/day

Performance of Conventional TFs


o In conventional TF highly nitrified effluent with stabilized sludge o BOD reduction o Efficiency, (%) = o u 80 to 90%
100 1 + 0.0044 u

organic loading rate in kg/ha-m/day

o Higher loading provides lesser efficiency in the filters

Recirculation of Treated Sewage


o Essential in high-rate filters o Recirculation portion of treated or partially treated sewage o Single-stage or two-stage recirculation process o Recirculation given (1) continuous dosing, (2) equalizing, (3) longer contact and (4) influent remains fresh all the time o Higher influent flow o Loss of nitrates wash off the filter

Efficiency of High-rate TFs


o Depends on (1) volume of recirculated flow and (2) organic loading o Recirculation ration, = R/I R Vol. of sewage recirculated I Vol. of raw sewage o Recirculation factor, o Efficiency (%),
=
Y Total organic loading in kg/day V Filter volume in ha-m 1+

R I F = R [1 + 0 .1 ] 2 I
100

2nd stage Efficiency


=
100 0.0044 1+ 1 Y1 V 1 F1

Y 1 + 0.0044 VF

Types of High-rate TFs


1. Biofilters Shallow filters with 1.2 to 1.5 m deep Recirculation of portion of filter eff. to the PST 2. Accelo-Filters 1.8 to 2.4 m deep Direct recirculation of unsettled filter eff. to the distributor feed 3. Aero-Filters recirculation only during low sewage flow condition (depth 1.8 m) Recirculation of SST eff. to the distributor feed

Steps Involved in the Design of TFs


1.Calculate total BOD to be treated per day 2.Assume organic loading rate & find volume 3.Assume, depth and find the surface area 4.Calculate, the diameter of the TF 5.Check for hydraulic loading 6.Design the rotary distributors design for

peak flow (2.25 times average flow)

Steps Involved in the Design of TFs


7. Assume velocity of flow @ peak flow - 2 m/sec 8. Then find the surface Area 9. Design the arms rotary spray type

(a) Length of arm = (D/2) width of central column


(b) Assume no. of arms (c) Calculate area of arm by assuming, v = 1.2 m/sec (d) find, area of arm A = (Q/V)

Steps Involved in the Design of TFs


10. Design the orifice opening in the arm (no. of orifices in the arm) (a) Discharge in each orifice,
(b) Total no of orifices =

11. Design of under-drainage system


Area of channel =

Steps Involved in the Design of TFs


12. Assume, width of under-drain 0.25 m Assume, rectangular channel, then calculate depth 13. Find, slope of the channel (S)

14. Finally, design the laterals

Oxidation Ponds
o Open flow earthen basin o Longer detention period (few days to several days) o Stabilization ponds o O2 demand met by o Algae By aerobic bacteria algae and microbes

o Algal-photosynthesis or algal-symbiosis produce O2 during photosynthesis CO2, NH3 and phosphates below 0.5 m o End products o Very small depth

Oxidation Ponds
o Practically pure aerobic ponds are difficult to operate o Facultative ponds are used 1 to 1.5 m o Oxidation pond partially treated sewage is introduced as influent o Sewage Lagoon received raw sewage o Oxidation pond treatment reduced BOD/OM algae discharged along effluent

Oxidation Ponds
o Oxidation pond effluent not disposed in the U/S end of the dams/rivers o Oxidation Pond effluent used for land irrigation

Oxidation Pond - Design Criteria


o Surface area worked out assuming suitable organic loading rate o Hot tropical countries o Colder countries 300 to 150 kg/ha/day
Latitud (o N) 8 12 16 20 36 BOD5 loading 325 300 275 250 150

90 to 60 kg/ha/day

o L = 2 W & depth ~ 1 to 1.5 m o Detention time 20 to 30 days o Free board 1m o BOD5 loading rate depends on latitude

Oxidation Pond - Design Criteria


o Detention time (days) o o L o Y BOD of the effluent entering the pond BOD removed

o BOD removal - 90% & Coliform removal - 99% o Sludge accumulated in ponds 2 to 5 cm/year o Sludge removal required once in 6 years o Min liquid depth to be maintained 0.3 m

Advantages of Oxidation Pond


o Suitable for hot dry countries (> 200 days) o Suitable where large land available at low price o Very cheap in installation o Maintenance cost very less o No skilled supervision required o Flexible in operation o Nuisance due to mosquito breading o Odour problem Far from city

Design Problems
1. Design a conventional ASP to treat domestic sewage with diffused air aeration system, given the following data: Population 35,000; Ave. sewage flow 180 lpcd; BOD of sewage 220 mg/L; BOD removed in PST 30%; Overall BOD reduction desired 85%

2. Design suitable dimensions of a circular trickling filter units for treating 5 ML of sewage per day. The BOD of sewage is 150 mg/L. Also design suitable dimensions for its rotary distribution system, as well as under-drainage system.