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EXPERT SER IES

GENER AL SECRETARIAT OF THE COUNCIL

Climate Change

KEY TERMS

in 23 languages

MAY 2011

Notice This brochure is produced by the General Secretariat of the Council Directorate-General A - Personnel and Administration Directorate 3 - Translation and Document Production. This brochure is for information purposes only. For any information on the European Council and the Council, you can consult the following websites: www.european-council.europa.eu www.consilium.europa.eu or contact the Public Information Department of the General Secretariat of the Council at the following address: Rue de la Loi/Wetstraat 175 1048 Bruxelles/Brussel BELGIQUE/BELGI Tel: +32 22815650 Fax: +32 22814977 www.consilium.europa.eu/infopublic

More information on the European Union is available on the Internet (http://europa.eu). Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication. ISBN 978-92-824-2927-3 doi:10.2860/78767 European Union, 2011 Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged. Printed in Belgium PRINTED ON ELEMENTAL CHLORINE-FREE BLEACHED PAPER (ECF) Coverpage: Fotolia - Eray

Climate Change

KEY TERMS
in 23 languages

INTRODUCTION

A CLIMATE CHANGE GLOSSARY


Climate change is one of the major global challenges of our time. The concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased progressively as the result of human activity. Global average temperature has risen significantly, in particular since the middle of last century. Is there a causal link between these two developments? According to a very large majority of independent scientists, yes. Global warming has measurable effects on ice coverage, the sea level, wind patterns and the likelihood of extreme weather events such as floods, storms and drought. Climate change has become a highly political issue because it is interrelated with a variety of important policy choices, from the energy mix to modes of transport, from agricultural practices to the fight against poverty worldwide, from migration to conflict prevention and international security. The international political response to climate change began with the adoption of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992. In 1997, the Parties to the UNFCCC added the Kyoto Protocol which
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commits industrialised countries to achieving emission reduction targets. These commitments come to an end in 2012. Since 2007 international negotiations have intensified in order to establish an appropriate international regime for the fight against climate change beyond 2012. Today, it is important to ensure that in the future all major greenhouse gas emitters, including emerging economies, step up their efforts to curb emissions. The European Union has been a frontrunner and a driving force of climate action since the 1990s, both in terms of international positions and EU legislation. The Lisbon Treaty mentions the fight against climate change explicitly. Consequently, climate-related action features in EU political and regulatory texts. These texts contain concepts and notions which had not previously been used in official EU language. Very often, these concepts and notions have a relatively recent scientific background and exist primarily in English. But their meaning is not always reflected adequately in general English dictionaries. They have appeared in the context of the UN and other international fora and have slipped into the EUs vocabulary. For example, the notion of mitigation crucial in international climate
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negotiations puzzles many readers trying to familiarise themselves with this area. Mitigation is presented as a concept which is different from that of adaptation to climate change, though both are considered to be complementary to each other. The Oxford English Dictionary defines the verb to mitigate as to make less severe, violent or painful. But this does not really help. Only a slightly more advanced reader of climate texts would grasp that mitigation means bringing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions down, and not just softening the impact of climate change (which would be adaptation). Finally, the policy challenge of climate change is also a significant challenge for those who have to translate the underlying concepts and notions into all official languages in the Union. This glossary is not only a very good illustration of the degree of effort invested: it will also provide useful guidance for citizens who simply want to have a better understanding of what they hear and read in a language which is not their mother tongue. Wolfgang Ploch Head of Climate Change Unit General Secretariat of the Council of the European Union
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adaptation to climate change The process of preparing to cope with living in a changing climate, e.g. increased rainfall, higher temperatures, scarce water, or more frequent storms.

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pizpsobovn se zmn klimatu tilpasning til klimaforandringer Anpassung an den Klimawandel adaptacin al cambio climtico kliimamuutustega kohanemine ilmastonmuutokseen sopeutuminen adaptation au changement climatique oirin don athr aeride az ghajlatvltozshoz val alkalmazkods

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adattamento ai cambiamenti climatici prisitaikymas prie klimato kaitos pielgoans klimata prmaim adattament gat-tibdil fil-klima adaptatie aan klimaatverandering przystosowanie si do zmiany klimatu adaptao s alteraes climticas adaptare la schimbrile climatice adaptcia na zmenu klmy prilagajanje podnebnim spremembam anpassning till klimatfrndringarna

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carbon leakage The part of emission reductions in Annex B countries (countries that have their greenhouse gas emissions capped under the Kyoto Protocol) offset by an increase in emissions in non-constrained countries above their baseline levels.

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nik uhlku CO2-lkage Verlagerung von CO2-Emissionen fuga de carbono ssinikdioksiidi leke hiilivuoto fuite de carbone sceitheadh carbin kibocststhelyezs rilocalizzazione delle emissioni di carbonio

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anglies dioksido nutekjimas ogleka dioksda emisiju prvirze rilokazzjoni tal-emissjonijiet ta karbonju koolstoflekkage ucieczka emisji fuga de carbono relocarea emisiilor de dioxid de carbon nik uhlka selitev virov CO2 koldioxidlckage

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carbon market Trading system through which countries may buy or sell units of greenhouse gas emissions in an effort to meet their national limits on emissions, either under the Kyoto Protocol or under other agreements, such as that among Member States of the European Union.

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trh s uhlkem CO2-marked CO2-Markt mercado del carbono CO2-turg hiilimarkkinat march du carbone margadh carbin szn-dioxid-piac

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mercato del CO2 anglies dioksido rinka ogleka dioksda emisiju tirgus suq tal-karbonju koolstofmarkt rynek emisji mercado do carbono piaa carbonului trh s uhlkom trg ogljika koldioxidmarknad

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carbon offset A unit of carbon dioxide equivalent that is reduced, avoided, or sequestered to compensate for emissions occurring elsewhere.

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kompenzace za emise CO2 CO2-kompensation CO2-Gutschrift crdito de compensacin de emisiones de carbono ssinikdioksiidi kompensatsioon pstjen kompensointi crdit compensatoire de carbone citeamh carbin kibocstskompenzcis egysg credito di compensazione delle emissioni di CO2
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anglies dioksido kompensacinis vienetas ogleka dioksda emisiju izldzinanas vienba kreditu kumpensatorju tal-karbonju CO2-compensatiecredit kompensacja emisji crdito de compensao de carbono credit de compensare a emisiilor de CO2 kompenzcia emisi CO2 nadomestilo za (izpust) ogljik(-a) utslppskompensation

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certified emission reduction unit Unit generated from a Clean Development Mechanism project activity, certifying an emission reduction of one tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent.

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jednotka ovenho snen emis godkendt emissionsreduktionsenhed zertifizierte Emissionsreduktionseinheit unidad de reduccin certificada de emisiones tendatud heitkoguste vhendamise hik sertifioitu pstvhennys unit de rduction certifie des missions aonad an laghdaithe dheimhnithe ar astaochta igazolt kibocstscskkentsi egysg

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unit di riduzione certificata delle emissioni patvirtintas imetamj teral mainimo vienetas sertificta emisijas samazinanas vienba unit ta tnaqqis iertifikat talemissjonijiet gecertificeerde emissiereductie-eenheid jednostka powiadczonej redukcji emisji unidade de reduo certificada de emisses reducere de emisii certificat jednotka certifikovanho znenia emisi enota potrjenega zmanjanja emisij certifierad utslppsminskning

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Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Defined in Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol, a mechanism allowing a country with an emission reduction or emission limitation commitment under the Kyoto Protocol (Annex B Party) to implement an emission reduction project in developing countries.

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mechanismus istho rozvoje CDM-mekanismen Mechanismus fr umweltvertrgliche Entwicklung Mecanismo de Desarrollo Limpio puhta arengu mehhanism puhtaan kehityksen mekanismi mcanisme pour un dveloppement propre meicnocht glanfhorbraochta tiszta fejlesztsi mechanizmus

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meccanismo per lo sviluppo pulito varios pltros mechanizmas tras attstbas mehnisms mekkanimu gal vilupp nadif mechanisme voor schone ontwikkeling mechanizm czystego rozwoju Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo mecanism de dezvoltare nepoluant mechanizmus istho rozvoja mehanizem istega razvoja mekanism fr ren utveckling

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climate change A change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods.

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zmna klimatu klimandringer Klimawandel cambio climtico kliimamuutused ilmastonmuutos changement climatique an t-athr aeride ghajlatvltozs

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cambiamenti climatici klimato kaita klimata prmaias tibdil fil-klima klimaatverandering zmiana klimatu alteraes climticas schimbri climatice zmena klmy podnebne spremembe klimatfrndringar

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climate change mitigation Action to reduce the net amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere, and thus help to slow down the process of climate change resulting from human activities.

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zmrovn zmny klimatu modvirkning af klimandringer Klimaschutz Mitigation mitigacin del cambio climtico kliimamuutuste leevendamine ilmastonmuutoksen hillitseminen attnuation des changements climatiques maol ar an athr aeride az ghajlatvltozs mrsklse

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mitigazione dei cambiamenti climatici klimato kaitos velninimas klimata prmaiu seku mazinana mitigazzjoni tat-tibdil fil-klima mitigatie van klimaatverandering agodzenie zmiany klimatu mitigao das alteraes climticas atenuarea schimbrilor climatice zmiernenie zmeny klmy blaitev podnebnih sprememb begrnsning av klimatfrndringarna

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commitment period Five-year period in which the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol undertake to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

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kontroln obdob forpligtelsesperiode Verpflichtungszeitraum perodo de compromiso kohustusperiood velvoitekausi priode dengagement trimhse gealltanais ktelezettsgvllalsi idszak periodo di adempimento

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sipareigojim laikotarpis saistbu periods perijodu ta impenn verbintenisperiode okres rozliczeniowy perodo de compromisso perodo de cumprimento perioad de angajament zvzn obdobie ciljno obdobje tagandeperiod

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emission allowance Within the context of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS), the entitlement to emit a tonne of carbon dioxide or an amount of any other greenhouse gas with an equivalent global warming potential during a specified period.

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emisn povolenka emissionskvote Emissionszertifikat derechos de emisin saastekvoot pstoikeus quota dmission lamhltas astaochta kibocstsi egysg

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quota di emissione apyvartinis taros leidimas emisijas kvota kwota tal-emissjonijiet emissierecht uprawnienie do emisji licena de emisso certificat de emisii emisn kvta pravica do emisije utslppsrtt

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emission reduction unit (ERU) Unit generated from a Joint Implementation activity, certifying an emission reduction of one tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent.

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jednotka snen emis emissionsreduktionsenhed Emissionsreduktionseinheit unidad de reduccin de emisiones heitkoguste vhendamise hik pstvhennysyksikk unit de rduction des missions aonad an laghdaithe ar astaochta kibocstscskkentsi egysg

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unit di riduzione delle emissioni imetamj teral mainimo vienetas emisijas samazinanas vienba unit ta tnaqqis tal-emissjonijiet emissiereductie-eenheid jednostka redukcji emisji unidade de reduo de emisses unitate de reducere a emisiilor jednotka znenia emisi enota zmanjanja emisij utslppsminskningsenhet

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emissions reduction emissions abatement Reduction in emissions (e.g. of greenhouse gases).

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snen emis emissionsreduktion Emissionsminderung Emissionsreduktion reduccin de emisiones heitkoguste vhendamine pstvhennys rduction des missions laghd ar astaochta kibocstscskkents

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riduzione delle emissioni imetamj teral mainimas emisiju samazinana tnaqqis tal-emissjonijiet emissiereductie redukcja emisji reduo das emisses reducere a emisiilor zniovanie emisi zmanjanje emisij utslppsminskning

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emissions trading A market-based approach to achieving environmental objectives that allows those reducing e.g. greenhouse gas emissions below what is required to use or trade the excess reductions to offset emissions at another source inside or outside the country.

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obchodovn s emisemi emissionshandel Emissionszertifikatehandel comercio de derechos de emisin heitkogustega kauplemine pstkauppa change de droits dmission trdil astaochta kibocstskereskedelem

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scambio di quote di emissione prekyba apyvartiniais taros leidimais emisiju tirdzniecba skambju ta kwoti tal-emissjonijiet emissiehandel handel uprawnieniami do emisji comrcio de emisses comrcio de licenas de emisso comercializare a certificatelor de emisii obchodovanie s emisiami trgovanje z emisijami handel med utslppsrtter

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EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) Company-level cap-and-trade system of allowances for emitting carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, launched by the EU at the beginning of 2005.

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systm EU pro obchodovn s emisemi EUs emissionshandelssystem Emissionshandelssystem der EU rgimen de comercio de derechos de emisin de la Unin Europea ELi heitkogustega kauplemise ssteem EU:n pstkauppajrjestelm systme dchange de quotas dmission de gaz effet de serre de lUE Scim an AE maidir le Trdil Astaochta

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az EU kibocstskereskedelmi rendszere sistema di scambio di quote di emissione dellUE ES apyvartini taros leidim prekybos sistema ES emisiju kvotu tirdzniecbas sistma skema tal-UE gall-iskambju ta kwoti tal-emissjonijiet EU-regeling voor de emissiehandel unijny system handlu uprawnieniami do emisji Regime de Comrcio de Emisses da UE Regime de Comrcio de Licenas de Emisso da UE schema UE de comercializare a certificatelor de emisii systm E na obchodovanie s emisiami sistem EU za trgovanje z emisijami EU:s utslppshandelssystem

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Green Climate Fund Operating entity provided for under the Copenhagen Accord to support projects, programmes, policies and other activities in developing countries related to mitigation.

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Zelen fond pro zmnu klimatu Den Grnne Klimafond Globaler Klimaschutzfonds Fondo Verde para el Clima Roheline Kliimafond vihre ilmastorahasto Fonds vert pour le climat an Ciste Glas don Aerid ghajlat-vltozsi Alap

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Fondo verde per il clima Ekologinis klimato fondas Klimata prmaiu mazinanas fonds Fond ekoloiku gall-klima Groen Klimaatfonds ekofundusz klimatyczny Fundo Verde para o Clima Fondul verde pentru clim Zelen klimatick fond Zeleni podnebni sklad grn klimatfond

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greenhouse gas (GHG) A gas, such as water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), that absorbs and re-emits infrared radiation, warming the Earths surface and contributing to climate change.

BG CS DA DE EL ES ET FI FR GA HU

sklenkov plyn drivhusgas Treibhausgas gas de efecto invernadero kasvuhoonegaas kasvihuonekaasu gaz effet de serre gs ceaptha teasa veghzhatst okoz gz

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gas a effetto serra iltnamio efekt sukelianios dujos siltumncefekta gze gass serra broeikasgas gaz cieplarniany gs com efeito de estufa gaz cu efect de ser sklenkov plyn toplogredni plin vxthusgas

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Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) A scientific intergovernmental body established to provide decision-makers and others interested in climate change with an objective source of information about climate change.

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Mezivldn panel pro zmnu klimatu Det Mellemstatslige Panel om Klimandringer Zwischenstaatliche Sachverstndigengruppe fr Klimafragen Grupo Intergubernamental de Expertos sobre el Cambio Climtico valitsustevaheline kliimamuutuste rhm hallitustenvlinen ilmastonmuutospaneeli Groupe dexperts intergouvernemental sur lvolution du climat

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an Painal Idir-Rialtasach ar an Athr Aeride ghajlat-vltozsi Kormnykzi Testlet Gruppo intergovernativo di esperti sul cambiamento climatico Tarpvyriausybin klimato kaitos komisija Klimata prmaiu starpvaldbu padome Grupp Intergovernattiv ta Esperti dwar it-Tibdil fil-Klima Intergouvernementele Werkgroep inzake klimaatverandering Midzyrzdowy Zesp ds. Zmian Klimatu Painel Intergovernamental sobre as Alteraes Climticas Grupul interguvernamental privind schimbrile climatice Medzivldny panel o zmene klmy Medvladni odbor za podnebne spremembe FN:s forskningspanel i klimatfrgor

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Joint Implementation (JI) Mechanism defined in Article 6 of the Kyoto Protocol, which allows a country with an emission reduction or limitation commitment under the Kyoto Protocol (Annex B Party) to earn emission reduction units from an emission reduction or emission removal project in another Annex B Party, each equivalent to one tonne of carbon dioxide, which can be counted towards meeting its Kyoto target.

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spolen provdn flles gennemfrelse Gemeinsame Umsetzung aplicacin conjunta hisrakendus yhteistoteutus mise en uvre conjointe cur chun feidhme ar bhonn comhphirteach

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egyttes vgrehajts attuazione congiunta bendras gyvendinimas kopga stenoana implimentazzjoni konunta gezamenlijke uitvoering mechanizm wsplnego wdroenia Implementao Conjunta implementare n comun spolon plnenie skupno izvajanje gemensamt genomfrande

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Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Kyoto Protocol An international agreement, linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which commits industrialised countries to reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

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Kjtsk protokol k Rmcov mluv Organizace spojench nrod o zmn klimatu Kyotoprotokollen til De Forenede Nationers rammekonvention om klimandringer Protokoll von Kyoto zum Rahmenbereinkommen der Vereinten Nationen ber Klimanderungen - Protocolo de Kyoto de la Convencin Marco de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Cambio Climtico hinenud Rahvaste Organisatsiooni kliimamuutuste raamkonventsiooni Kyoto protokoll ilmastonmuutosta koskevan Yhdistyneiden Kansakuntien puitesopimuksen Kioton pytkirja Protocole de Kyoto la Convention-cadre des Nations unies sur les changements climatiques 42

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Prtacal Kyoto a ghabhann le CreatChoinbhinsin na Nisin Aontaithe ar an Athr Aeride Kioti Jegyzknyv az Egyeslt Nemzetek ghajlat-vltozsi Keretegyezmnyhez Protocollo di Kyoto alla convenzione quadro delle Nazioni Unite sui cambiamenti climatici Jungtini Taut bendrosios klimato kaitos konvencijos Kioto protokolas Apvienoto Nciju Organizcijas Visprjs konvencijas par klimata prmaim Kioto protokols Protokoll ta Kjoto gall-Konvenzjoni Qafas tan-Nazzjonijiet Uniti dwar it-Tibdil fil-Klima Protocol van Kyoto bij het Raamverdrag van de Verenigde Naties inzake klimaatverandering Protok z Kioto do Ramowej konwencji Narodw Zjednoczonych w sprawie zmian klimatu Protocolo de Quioto Conveno-Quadro das Naes Unidas sobre Alteraes Climticas Protocolul de la Kyoto la Convenia-cadru a Organizaiei Naiunilor Unite asupra schimbrilor climatice Kjtsky protokol k Rmcovmu dohovoru Organizcie Spojench nrodov o zmene klmy Kjotski protokol k Okvirni konvenciji Zdruenih narodov o spremembi podnebja Kyotoprotokollet till Frenta nationernas ramkonvention om klimatfrndringar 43

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low-carbon technology Technology which results in reduced emissions of carbon dioxide compared with conventional technology.

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nzkouhlkov technologie lav-CO2-teknologi CO2-arme Technologie Technologie mit geringem CO2-Aussto tecnologa de baja emisin de carbono vhese CO2-heitega tehnoloogia vhhiilinen teknologia technologie faible mission de carbone technologie sobre en carbone teicneolaocht sealcharbin alacsony szn-dioxid-kibocsts technolgia
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GA HU

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tecnologia a bassa emissione di CO2 mao anglies dioksido kiekio technologija zemas ogleka emisijas tehnoloija teknoloija bemissjoni baxxa ta karbonju koolstofarme technologie technologia niskoemisyjna tecnologia hipocarbnica tecnologia de baixo carbono tehnologie cu emisii reduse de dioxid de carbon nzkouhlkov technolgia nizkoogljina tehnologija koldioxidsnl teknik

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sink Any process, activity or mechanism which removes a greenhouse gas, an aerosol or a precursor of a greenhouse gas from the atmosphere.

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propad drn Senke sumidero siduja nielu puits linn nyel

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pozzo absorbentas piesaisttjs bir put pochaniacz sumidouro mijloc de absorbie zchyt ponor snka

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All terms in this brochure derive from our terminology database, IATE (InterActive Terminology for Europe). IATE is a live database, continually updated, with around 140 new terms added every working day! So, for the latest terminology please check:

http://iate.europa.eu
Questions? Feedback? Please contact us: iate@consilium.europa.eu

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General Secretariat of the Council Climate Change Key Terms in 23 languages 2011 48 p. 10.5 x 21cm ISBN 978-92-824-2927-3 doi:10.2860/78767

QC-32-11-695-EN-C

Rue de la Loi/Wetstraat 175 1048 Bruxelles/Brussel BELGIQUE/BELGI Tel. +32 22816111 www.european-council.europa.eu www.consilium.europa.eu

doi:10.2860/78767

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