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i( / . ^ / . ' Ai cession No =3 /.1 //r ^ / \>v ' .OSMANIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARY Call No. ^j__ _'/ last * r -"" This book shoul' returned on or ^ctore tli^date mirkcd below.^'/A//^" /:. <>' $ - > Authoi 1 lUc /.(. . .

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ANALYTIC GEOMETRY .

Consulting Editor Bardell and Spitzbart COLLEGE ALGEBRA Dadourian Davis Davis Fuller PLANE TRIGONOMETRY * MODERN COLLEGE GEOMETRY THE TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS ANALYTIC GEOMETRY LIMIT DISTRIBUTIONS FOR SUMS OF INDEPENDENT Gnedenko and Kolmogorov RANDOM VARIABLES Kaplan Kaplan ADVANCED CALCULUS A FIRST COURSE IN FUNCTJJONS OF A COMPLEX VARIABLE Mesewe MunroePerlis FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF ALGEBRA INTRODUCTION TO MEASURE AND INTEGRATION THEORY OF MATRICES Stabler AN INTRODUCTION TO MATHEMATICAL THOUGHT Struik DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY Struik ELEMENTARY ANALYTIC AND PROTECTIVE GEOMETRY CALCULUS Thomas Thomas CALCULUS AND ANALYTIC GEOMETRY Wade THE ALGEBRA OF VECTORS AND MATRICES Wilkes.ADDISON-WESLEY MATHEMATICS SERIES ERIC REISSNER. Wheeler. and Gill THE PREPARATION OF PROGRAMS FOR AN ELECTRONIC DIGITAL COMPUTER .

CAMBRIDGE 42. . MASS.ANALYTIC GEOMETRY (10RDOX FULLER Professor of Mathematics Texas Technological College 1954 ADDISON-WESLEY PUBLISHING COMPANY. INC.

Printed in the United States of America Inc. THIS BOOK. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 54-5724 . MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED IN ANY FORM WITHOUT WRITTEN PERMISSION OF THE PUBLISHERS. OR PARTS THEREOF.Co pi/right 1954 ADDISON-WESLEY PUBLISHING COMPANY. Library of Congress Catalog No.

There is a pressing need for a working knowledge of calculus as early as teachers are many making a freshman mathematics. Thus there is established a logical basis for investigating conies by means of the simple equations. topics omitted material. however. receives only incidental mention.PREFACE In recent years there has been a marked tendency in college mathematics programs toward an earlier and more intensive use of the methods This change is made in response to the fact that college of calculus. In order that this part shall go beyond a review of old material. however. Most students in algebra are told (without proof) that the graph of a linear equation in this situation. symmetry. The transformation of coordinates concept is introduced preceding a systematic study of conies. it two variables is a straight line. Principally they have dealt with the graphs of linear and cerHence it seenis well to let this be the starting tain quadratic equations. Although employing simple forms. and asymptotes are considered. excluded values. this is a difficult idea for the students. students are faced with more and more applications of mathematics in engineering. physics. the students may see that a general second degree equation can be reduced to a simple form. This terial and emphasis which will lay the best foundation calculus. the ideas of intercepts. Taking cognizance of appears logical to prove directly from the equation that the graph of A x + By + C = is a straight line. point. Having established this fact. Consequently possible. the equation can be altered in a straightforward procedure to yield various special forms. the second degree equation is introduced at variance with the traditional procedure. Students come to analytic geometry with a rather limited experience in graphing. As with the linear . The time saved by cutting traditional material provides opportunity for emphasizing the necessary basic principles and for introducing new concepts which point more directly toward the calculus. Taken early or late in the course. Accordingly. close scrutiny of the traditional topics of is done in an effort to determine the mafor the study of In the light of present needs. The are not included and certain others are treated with brevity. The normal form. consisting of an appreciable amount of the geometry of circles and a number of minor items. this analytic geometry is planned primarily With this end in mind. is not essential to the study of calculus. the first chapter deals with functions and graphs. By its early use. a few of the usual as a preparation for calculus. and other fields. chemistry.

with planes and lines. Professor Morris Kline. some students can classify the type of conic if point. 1954 . and some maxima and minima problems of a practical nature are considered. 12-7. there will be excess material for It is suggested that omissions 7 and 8. though brief. Tying in with this state of preparation. entire While an exceptionally well prepared group of students will be able to cover the book in a course of this length. may be made from Chapters is indebted to Professor B. The chapter on curve fitting applies the method of least squares in fitting a straight Many line to empirical data. and 12-8. Each of these men read the manuscript at various stages of its development and made numerous The author helpful suggestions for improvement. The equations then lend themselves to the establishment of various geometric properties. Vectors are introduced and applied in the study of planes and of vectors. ellipse. circle. and there is an abundance of problems.VI PREFACE seems logical to build on the previous instruction given to the In algebra they have drawn graphs of conies. the equation has no xy term. In harmony with the idea of laying a foundation for calculus. many classes. 9-8. This study is facilitated. a chapter is given to the use of the derivatives of polynomials and of negative integral powers of a variable. Sections 6-7. Gere. it equation. F. The words In parabola. are fully adequate to meet the needs which arise in the problems. Applications are made in constructing graphs. The book is written for a course of three semester hours. Hamilton College. students. and Professor Eric Reissner. of course. the conic may jiaturally and logically be defined analytically rather than as the locus of a moving fact. lines. New York University. H. numerical tables provided in the Appendix. and hyperbola are familiar to many of them. January. students come to calculus with little understanding of polar coor- dinates. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. G. The elements of solid analytic geometry are treated in two concluding The first of these takes up quadric surfaces and the second deals chapters. This order is chosen because a class which takes only one of the two chapters should preferably study the space illustrations of second degree equations. Answers to odd-numbered problems are bound in the book. by the use and a further advantage is gained by giving the students a brief encounter with this valuable concept. therefore polar coordinates are discussed quite fully. All of the six The answers are available in pamphlet form to teachers.

TRANSFORMATION OF COORDINATES 45 4-1 Introduction 4-2 Translation of axes 4-j$ Rotation of axes vj^? Simplification of second degree equations 45 45 49 ...CONTENTS CHAPTER 1. ^/C 56 56 57 58 59 64 65 68 70 71 Introduction 5-2 5-3 5-4 5-5 5-6 5-7 5-8 5-9 5-10 5-11 The simplified equations of conies The parabola The focus-directrix property of a parabola The ellipse The foci of an ellipse The eccentricity of an ellipse The hyperbola The asymptotes of a hyperbola Applications of conies Standard forms of second degree equations of ordinates (tt$ The addition 5-13 Identification of a conic vii 74 75 78 79 .-. 24 27 28 31 31 CHAPTER THE STRAIGHT LINE 3-1 Introduction 3-2 The locus of a first degree equation 3-3 Special forms of the first degree equation 3-4 The distance from a line to a point <<35>Families of lines 3-6 Family of lines through the intersection of two lines 31 32 37 40 41 CHAPTER 4. 51 CHAPTER 5-1 5. FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS AND FORMULAS 2-1 Directed lines and segments 2-2 The distance between two points 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 and slope of a line Angle between two lines The mid-point of a line segment Inclination 18 21 Analytic proofs of geometric theorems 3. FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS 1 1-1 Introduction 1 1 1-2 Rectangular coordinates 1-3 Variables and functions 1-4 Useful notation for functions 1-5 Graph of an equation 1-6 Aids in graphing 3 4 5 6 form 10 11 /'TT/The graph of an equation in factored ^1-8 Intersections of graphs 1-9 Asymptotes 13 17 17 CHAPTER 2. THE SECOND DEGREE EQUATION.

EQUATIONS OF CURVES AND CURVE FITTING 107 8-1 Equation of a given curve 8-2 Equation corresponding to empirical data 8-3 The method of least squares 107 109 110 113 114 117 8-4 Nonlinear fits 8-5 The power formula 8-6 The exponential and logarithmic formulas CHAPTER 9. CHAPTER SPACE COORDINATES AND SURFACES 151 151 11-1 Space coordinates 11-2 The locus of an equation 11-3 Cylindrical surfaces 11-4 The general linear equation 11-5 Second degree equations 11-6 Quadric surfaces 152 153 155 156 157 .Vlll CONTENTS 6. TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS 98 98 98 101 7-1 Introduction 7-2 The trigonometric curves 7-3 The inverse trigonometric functions 7-4 The exponential curves 7-5 Logarithmic curves 103 104 7-6 The graph of the sum of two functions 105 CHAPTER 8. PARAMETRIC EQUATIONS 141 10-1 Introduction 141 Parametric equations of the circle and ellipse 142 143 146 147 The graph of parametric equations The path of a projectile The cycloid 11. POLAR COORDINATES 120 120 120 121 124 126 130 133 138 9-1 Introduction 9-2 The polar coordinate system 9-3 Relations between rectangular and polar coordinates 9-4 Graphs of polar coordinate equations 9-5 9-6 9-7 9-8 Equations of lines and conies in polar coordinate forms Aids in graphing polar coordinate equations Special types of equations Intersections of polar coordinate curves CHAPTER 10-2 10-3 10-4 10-5 10. CHAPTER 6-1 THE SLOPE OF A CURVE 83 83 85 85 86 89 92 94 An example derivative 6-2 6-3 6-4 6-5 6-6 6-7 Limits The Derivative formulas The use of the derivative in graphing Maximum and minimum points Applications CHAPTER 7.

CONTENTS CHAPTER 12-2 12-3 12-4 12-5 12-6 12-7 12-8 12. IX VECTORS AND PLANES AND LINES 167 167 168 169 12-1 Vectors Operations on vectors Vectors in a rectangular coordinate plane Vectors in space The scalar product of two The equation of a plane The equations of a line vectors 172 174 178 181 Direction angles and direction cosines 184 187 APPENDIX ANSWERS TO PROBLEMS INDEX 195 202 .

CHAPTER

1

FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS
1-1 Introduction.
Previous to the seventeenth century, algebra and

geometry were largely distinct mathematical sciences, each having been developed independently of the other. In 1637, however, a French mathematician and philosopher, Ren6 Descartes, published his La Gtomttrie, which introduced a device for unifying these two branches of mathematics.

The

basic feature of this new process, now called analytic geometry, is the use of a coordinate system. By means of coordinate systems algebraic methods can be applied powerfully in the study of geometry, and perhaps of still greater importance is the advantage gained by algebra through the
pictorial representation of algebraic equations.

Since the time of Descartes

analytic geometry has had a tremendous impact on the development of mathematical knowledge. And today analytic methods enter vitally
into the diverse theoretical

and

practical applications of mathematics.

1-2 Rectangular coordinates. We shall describe the rectangular coordinate system which the student has previously met in elementary algebra and trigonometry. This is the most common coordinate system

and

is

sometimes called the rectangular Cartesian system

in

honor of

Descartes.

is

The point Draw two perpendicular lines meeting at (Fig. 1-1). the x-axis and called the origin and the lines are called the axes, the ?/-axis. The x-axis is usually drawn horizontally and is frequently

OX

OY

The axes

referred to as the horizontal axis, and the //-axis is called the vertical axis. divide their plane into four parts called quadrants. The quadrants are numbered I, II, III, and IV, as in Fig. 1-1. Next select any

convenient unit of length and lay
axes.

off

distances from the origin along the

distances to the right along the x-axis are defined as positive and those to the left are taken as negative. Similarly, distances upward

The

along the y-axis are defined as positive and those
negative.

downward

are called

position of any point P in the plane may be definitely indicated by is distances from the axes. The distance from the y-axis to giving called the abscissa of the point, and the distance from the x-axis is called

The

its

P

the ordinate of the point. The abscissa is positive if the point is to the right of the */-axis, and negative if the point is to the left of the g/-axis.

The ordinate
point
is

is

positive
of

if

the point

is

above the

x-axis,

and negative

if

the

below the

x-axis.

The

and the ordinate

a point on

abscissa of a point on the y-axis is zero the x-axis is zero. The two distances,
1

FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS

[CHAP.

1

FlGURE 1-1
abscissa

and ordinate, are

called the coordinates of the point.
first

The

coor-

dinates are indicated by writing the abscissa numbers by parentheses. For example, P( 2,3), 2 and whose ordinate is 3. for the point whose abscissa is To plot a point of given coordinates means to measure the proper distances from the axes and to mark the point thus determined. Points can be more readily and accurately plotted by the use of coordinate paper, that is, paper ruled off into small squares. It is easy to plot a point whose coordinates are distances from the axes to an intersection of two rulings. For other coordinate values the point is not at a corner of one of the small squares and its position within or on the side of the square must be estimated. If a coordinate is an irrational number, a decimal approximation
is

and enclosing both or just (2,3), stands

used in plotting the point. We assume that to any pair of real numbers (coordinates) there corresponds one definite point of the coordinate plane. Conversely, we assume that to each point of the plane there corresponds one definite pair of coordinates.
called

This relation of points in a plane and pairs of a one-to-one correspondence.
EXERCISE 1-1

real

numbers

is

1.

Plot the points whose coordinates are (4,3),

(4,

3),

(4,3),

(4,

3),

(5,0), (0,
2.

-2), and

(0,0).

Plot the points whose coordinates are (J,), (if), (V,-*), ftS), (^2,1), (\/3,V3), (V5,-\/I6). (See Table I in the Appendix to obtain square roots.)

1-3]
3.

VARIABLES AND FUNCTIONS

3
(2,

Draw

the triangles whose vertices are (a) (2,-l), (0,4), (5,1); (b)

-3),

(4,4),

(-2,3).
lie if

(b)

4. In which quadrant does a point both are negative?
5.

(a)

both coordinates are positive,
zero, (b) its abscissa is zero?

Where may a

point

lie if (a) its

ordinate

is

6. What points have their abscissas equal to 2? ordinates equal to 2? 7.

For what points are the
its

Where may a point be
is

if

(a) its abscissa is
its

equal to

ordinate, (b) its

abscissa

equal to the negative of

ordinate?

if

8. Draw the right triangle and find the lengths of the sides and hypotenuse the coordinates of the vertices are (a) (-1,1), (3,1), (3,-2); (b) (-5,3), (7,3),

(7,-2).
9.

Two

vertices of

an equilateral triangle are

(3,0)

and (3,0).

Find the

coordinates of the third vertex and the area of the triangle.
10. The points 4(0,0), B(5,l), and C(l,3) are vertices of a parallelogram. Find the coordinates of the fourth vertex (a) if EC is a diagonal, (b) if AB is a diagonal,
(c) if

AC

is

a diagonal.

1-3 Variables and functions.
bers, are used in

value.

A

Xumbers, and letters standing for nummathematics. The numbers, of course, are fixed in letter may stand for a fixed number which is unknown or un-

specified.

The numbers and

called constants.

letters standing for fixed quantities are Letters are also used as symbols which may assume

different numerical values.
is

When employed

for this purpose, the letter

said to

be a

variable.

For example, we may use the formula c = 2wr to find the circumference any circle of known radius. The letters c and r are variables; they play a different role from the fixed numbers 2 and IT. A quadratic expression in the variable x may be represented by
of

ax 2

+ bx + c,

where we regard

a, 6, and c as unspecified constants which assume fixed values in a particular problem or situation. Variable quantities are often related in such a way that one variable

depends on another
throughout the book.

for its values.

The

basic concept in mathematics,

and we

shall

relationship of variables is a be concerned with this idea

DEFINITION. // a definite value or set of values of a variable y is determined when a variable x takes any one of its values, then y is said to be a
function of
x.

Frequently the relation between two variables is expressed by an equation. The equation c = 2irr expresses the relation between the circumference and radius of a circle. When any positive value is assigned

FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS the value of c is [CHAP. giving the circumference of a circle as a function of the radius. we see that for each value given to y there are two corresponding values of x. Suppose that y . 1 determined. more simply. This requirement means that the independent variable can be assigned only those real values for which the corresponding values of the dependent We variable are also real. taking y as the independent variable. We notice from the equation y = y? + 2 that y takes only one value for each value given to x. Hence x is a y.x 2 .expresses a relation between the variables + x and be regarded as the independent variable. g(x). course. Hence c is also a function of the circumference. The radius is determined when c is given a value. The variable to which we assign values is called the independent variable. and h(x). the dependent variable. r and c take only Hence the range for each variable consists of all positive positive values. since r a function of r. of . other hand. 2 < x < 3. The permissible values of x are those from 3 to 3 with the exception of 2. and must be excluded because division by zero is not defined. we independent variable. The equation z-2 expresses y as a function of x. When expressed in the form x = consider y the independent variable.3x + 5. take. The value 2 would make the denominator zero. the equation is written as y(x) = s2 . The On the variable y therefore is said to be a single-valued function of x. we write the symbol y(x). or. Using this notation.4 to is r. than x. Restrictions are usually placed on the values which a variable may shall consider variables which have only real values. y of x. In a different functions of x we could designate them different letters such as f(x). 1-4 Useful notation for functions. Either may double-valued function of y. The equation x 2 . To indicate that y is a function of x. is The totality of values which a variable may take called the range of the variable. In the equation c 2*r. Letters other could stand for the independent variable. Solving for y. the equation becomes y x 2 + 2. and the other. This range of x may be written symbolically as -3 < x < 2. Usually we assign values to one variable and find the corresponding values of the other.y 2 . numbers. In this form we consider x the Vy 2.3z + 5. The symbol by y(x) is problem where there are read y function of x.

we find y = the corresponding values of y may be com7. g(x). Several values of x and had. find fc(20. 10. 9. h(t + 1). = x8 x 2 + 1. the .1. 2 F(x - 3). (c) x2 .and/(a). 2. If y(x) x. (Jive the range of x. show that/(-x) = 1-5 Graph of an equation./(-3). (b) xy = 5.3X ~ 3. an d 3 = x 1 and g(x) = x . by plotting each value of x and the corresponding value of y as the abscissa and ordinate of a point. t 0(s). 0( 1).tf = 9. +5 3. y If Consider the equation _ x2 . then y(2) means the value of the 2.3x -f 1. F(x) = x ^-r^^ x ~f~ 1 3x 4 find F(2x). setting x = -2. 4. and the curve is called the graph or locus of the equation. 5.1). If/(x) . and F (-) \x/ /(x). then y(2) - 22 3(2) (-l)-(-l)i-3(-l) 2 3s + 5. values are assigned to x. This process is called graphing equation. puted.3. (a) y . A better representation is Thus. if x and i/ are to have only real values: (a) (x-2)(x (b) x -4 Solve the equations in problems 2 and 3 for each variable in terms of the other. and = 2x 2 . Give the range of each variable and tell if each is a single-valued or double-valued function of the other. y (s) = s EXERCISE 1-2 1. 7. find/(x) = 2s + 3. If /(x) = + 2x - 10.x' If g(x) If /(x) If h(s) If i/(x) If 8. (a) x' 2 + 2 2/ = 9.1-5] GRAPH OF AN EQUATION stands for a function of t/. find 0(0). 3. find/(2). or when x is given the value of Thus if y(x) z2 - 3x + 5. the corresponding values of y are shown in the table. function. These pairs of values furnish a picture of the relation of x and y. (b) x1 + 2y* = 2. = 4x. and then drawing a smooth curve through the points thus obtained. however. find y(x . (c) y = x3 . 6.

The could be extended. To find the x-inter- an equation. . The exact graph satisfies the following definition. Similarly. DEFINITION. The point-by-point method of constructing the graph of an equation is tedious except for simple equations. The task can often be lightened. and also any number of intermediate points range could be located. the 2. graph the ^-intercepts may be found by setting x = and solving for y. however. is found to be 2/-intercept The graphs of some equations have no points in common with an axis. Thus = in the equation 2x 3y = 6. 1-2) are in the range -2 to 5 of z-values. i/-axis is called touches or crosses the cepts of the a y-intercept. we set y = and solve for x. The point setting y (3. Substituting x = 0. by first discovering certain characteristics of three the graph as revealed by the equation. The graph of an equation consists of all the points whose coordinates satisfy the given equation.FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS [CHAP. But the points plotted show about where the inter- The mediate points would lie. 1 Y FIGURE 1-2 plotted points (Fig. we can use the known points to draw a curve which is reasonably accurate. We ways by which the graphing may be facilitated. 1-6 Aids in graphing. The called the x-axis is an of abscissa of a point where a curve touches or crosses The ordinate of a point where a curve x-intercept. Hence.0) is on the graph and the z-intercept is 3. shall now discuss Intercepts. we find x = 3.

-y) on the curve. segment A a point respect to if each point of the curve is one of a pair of points symmetric with 0. In accordance with this definition. (See Fig.y) and (x. y) are symrespect to the coordinate axes. points is one of a pair of At present our interest is mainly in curves which are symmetric with The points (x. the equation is not altered.y) on the curve.y) on the curve. the 2 equation y = 4x + 6.y) of the curve there is also the point ( x. curve is symmetric with respect to A the x-axis if for each point (x. metric with respect to the x-axis. curve A symmetric with respect to a line if each of points symmetric with respect to the line. a curve is symmetric with respect to the y-axis for each point (x. the points (x. Consider.) points Two A and B mid-point of the line is the are symmetric with respect to a point if curve is symmetric with respect to AB. many prob- SYMMETRY.y) . if Similarly. 1-3. a is Two points A and B line if the line is the perpendicular bisector of the segment its are said to be symmetric with respect to AB. the corresponding values of x are the same. If y is replaced by t/.y) and ( x. Further. An equation can be easily tested to determine if its graph is symmetric with respect to either axis or the origin. This means that if y is given a value and then the negative of that value. and are of special significance in lems. Hence for each point (x.y) of the curve there is also the point (x. for example. a curve is symmetric with respect to the origin if for each point (x.1-6] AIDS IN GRAPHING Y FIGURE 1-3 be few or for other equations there may many intercepts. The intercepts are often easily determined.y) of the curve there is also the corresponding point (x. y) are symmetric with respect to the origin.

Only real values of x and y are used in graphing an equation. Hence no value may be assigned to either which would make the corresponding value of the other imaginary. values are readily determined by solving the equation for each variable in terms of the other. the i/-axis. Hence the graph is not symmetric with respect to the y-axis. The graph thereis symmetric with respect to the z-axis. _ 2y* _ x o. the definitions of symmetry we have the of the equation is 2. FIGURE 1-4 . On the other hand. its equation by nature On the other hand. From 1. illustrated These types of symmetry are y 4 by the equations 0. 1 fore of the graph there is also the point (z. Frequently the admissible. and therefore the excluded. Extent of a graph. then the graph of the equation is 3. and the origin. Replacing x by -x and y by -y in 3 a: the third equation gives y = which may be reduced to y = x 3 . is not symmetric with respect to the origin. the graph of the equation is correspondingly restricted in its extent. // an equation is the graph of the equation is unchanged when x is replaced by -x and y by -y. Some equations may have any real value assigned to either variable. Similarly. . an may place restrictions on the values of the variables. y. then symmetric with respect to the origin. If an equation is unchanged when y is replaced by symmetric with respect to the x-axis. x 2 - 4i/ +3 - y = x*.8 FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS [CHAP. Where there are certain excluded values. the assigning of numerically equal values of opposite signs to x leads to different corresponding values for y. // an equation is unchanged when x is replaced by symmetric with respect to the y-axis. it may be observed that the graph following tests. then the graph x.-i/) on the graph. The graphs of these equations are respectively symmetric with respect to the z-axis.

EXAMPLE Solution. greater than A brief table of values. y If we obtain and is imaginary. values of y numerically greater than 2 symbolically by must be excluded. Hence x cannot have a value numerically In other words. Setting ?/ = z. The graph therefore is symmetric with respect to both axes and the origin. and draw 0. The is part of the graph in the comes from the table the other drawn in first quadrant (Fig. neither is it changed when y is replaced by y. symmetry. Setting y setting x = 0. 2. Similarly. 9 EXAMPLE 2 equation 4x Using the ideas of intercepts. is sufficient for constructing the graph. y-axis. By = the y-intercepts are seen to be 2 and The equation is not changed when x is replaced by x. x replaced the equation unchanged. coupled with the preceding information. which is expressed 3 < x < 3. 3 and 3. 12 = 0. its graph. and extent. we find x = 3. Hence the z-intercepts are 2. Hence the admissible values for y are 2 < y < 2. and then x = is we find the ^-intercepts = 2\/3 and the If ^-intercept is is = by 3. 1-4) accordance with the known symmetry. A new equation results when y Hence the graph is symmetric with respect to the replaced by y. y 3. 2 Graph the equation x + 4y 0. but not with respect to the z-axis or the origin. Solving the equation for each variable in terms of the other. . x takes values from 3 to 3. discuss the 2 + 9t/ = 36. Solution. i i i\ i i i i o X FIGURE 1-5 . 9 x2 is negative.1-6] AIDS IN GRAPHING 1.

y = x = x3 . Equations sometimes appear with one member equal to zero and the other member expressed as the product of factors in terms of x and y. 9z/ 13. 1/2 Prove that a curve which symmetric with respect to both axes it-axis is sym- metric with respect to the origin. of the factors of the nonzero member = 0. 7.10 FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS Solving the equation in turn for x and y. 3 4z. 25z 2 + 9y2 = 225. 9z + - 4t/ . 16z = 144.*3 2 3 y = z y 2 . Only a part of the graph is indicated because the curve extends downward indefi- nitely. When an equation is in this form its graph can be more simply obtained by If the coordinates of first the factors equal to zero. the preceding facts and the table of values the graph is drawn in Fig. 10. Draw the graph of (3z - y - l)(y* - 9z) Setting each factor equal to zero. if any. a point make one setting each of of the the product equal to zero and therefore the other hand. 2 */ 5. factors equal to zero. 2 11. 2. z 4z 2 = 2 16. Solution. we have y 2 the equations 3z - y - 1 = and 9z = 0. 9. of each variable.4z. 9*/ = 36. y 2 16^ 4. excluded values. the coordinates of a point which make no factor equal to zero do not satisfy the equation. 2 i/ = 2 9z. they satisfy the given equation. [CHAP. . 4. 1-5. . Determine the (See Table 1 z2 z2 + = 2 2 i/ - 3.) 1. in the Appendix to obtain square roots. and draw the graph. equal to zero. 14. = 36. and the 1-7 The graph of an equation in factored form. EXERCISE 1-3 Discuss each equation with regard to intercepts and symmetry. Hence the graph of the given equation consists of the graphs of the equations make On formed by setting each EXAMPLE. Is the converse true? Prove that a curve which is origin is symmetric with respect to the symmetric with respect to the y-axis. 6. is 12. 8. 1 we obtain 12 - and y We see that From y must not be greater than 3. but x has no excluded values.

1-8] INTERSECTIONS OF GRAPHS 11 FIGURE 1-6 We shall see later 1 = The equation 3x is of the first degree in x and / y that the graph of any first degree equation in two variables is a straight line. results thus graphically by reading the coordinates If of their Because of the imperfections in the process. 4. y + 4) = 0. through two points whose coordinates satisfy is not linear. EXERCISE 1-4 Draw 1. then their graphs have the corresponding point in common. 6.4) = 0. the coordinates of the point satisfy each equation separately. y .6*/ = 0. 3. 8. 1-6.9t/ . the graphs of the following equations: 2. If the graphs of two equations in two variables have a point in common. . x*y x2 2 2 2 (x + l)(2x + y + 4) 0. . Hence the graph of a linear equation can be constructed by drawing a line the equation.0. the found are usually only approximate. Hence the point of intersection gives a pair of real numbers which is a simultaneous solution of the equations.4y = 0. then. 7. 5. . For this reason such equations are called linear. The second equation plotted in order to draw the graph.xy . from the definition of a graph. the graphs have no .^-1-0. 1-8 Intersections of graphs. and several points need to be The graph of the original equation comprises the two parts shown in Fig.0. if the two equations have a simultaneous real solution.0.if = 0. Hence simultaneous real solutions of two equations in two unknowns can be obtained points of intersection.2y + 3) (2* + (x z . .2) . Conversely. x(x* + if xy(x 2 + y .xy . .

79) and . the corresponding values for Hence the exact coordinates of the intersection rfc V2l)/6. of intersection. whence By x are found to be (5 points are 3y - 3 * 0. and estimate the coordinates of the points braically and compare results. These coordinates to two decimal places are (1. we estimate the coordinates of the intersection points to be (. Draw the graphs of the equations 3x - y 2 .8) and (1.8). Solve the system alge- These are the equations whose graphs are shown in Fig. EXAMPLE 1.79). 1 point of intersection. 3. y = 2 - x.6. there tions. _ I + V21) 6 _ 3 _ 2 (. In simple cases the soluand imaginary. \ \ FIGURE 1-7 . Solution. 1-6. To obtain the solutions algebraically.60. 0.12 FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS [CHAP. can be found exactly by algebraic processes.-. Thus . Refer- ring to this figure. both real is no real solution.9x = -1 = y 0. EXAMPLE 2. we solve the linear equation for x and substitute in the other equation.3.l.07. and 3=fc \/2f substituting these values in the linear equation. Find the points of intersection of the graphs of y = x3 .

1). If the distance of a point from a straight line approaches zero as the point moves indefinitely far from the origin along a (See Figs. z/ = 6x. = x3 y = 4x.y = 4. The graph is is that if either variable set equal to zero. EXAMPLE 1. 1-9 Asymptotes. furnish an additional aid in graphing. 2 i/ 8. or (x - l)(z 2 + x + 2) = 0. The following examples illustrate the procedure. usually easily found. = x2 . 3x + 3y = 4^ 6x. r 2 + 2 = 16. X2 + y2 = 13> 3z . ?/ . x of any points of + 2y = - 7. Eliminating y between the equations yields a* +x-2= 0. x x 4x. curve. there symmetric with respect to the origin.1-9] ASYMPTOTES The graphs (Fig. 7. Determine the asymptotes and draw the graph of the equation xy = 1. 1-7) intersect in one point whose coordinates are (1. x 2 + 2z/ 2 = 9. 5. x2 y 2 + + = = 16. 13 Solution. 1. x2 . 8.V^7\ 2 2 -\ 2 V^7 5 2 The graphical method gives only the real solution. real values of y are obtained from the linear equation. whence The corresponding tions. 4< 0. if any. ?/ y 3 1 = 0. 2x . 11. We next notice is no corresponding value of the . x 10. The solu- and imaginary. 2y = 5. EXERCISE 1-5 intersection. 2. 2x 5* X2 2 j/ _ = y = = = 3. At this stage we shall deal with curves whose asymptotes are either horizontal or vertical. 1-8.y 2 = 9. Graph each pair of equations and estimate the coordinates Check by obtaining the solutions algebraically. are ^7 5. 9.) asymptotes.2// = 0. 6. z/ 12. The asymptotes. 3. 2 = 8j. j/ ?/ + 2 4. Solution. x2 + 4x 2 - 4?/ = 25. lip = 8. 2. then the line is called an asymptote of the curve. In drawing the graph of an equation it is well to determine the 1-9.y = 0.r'.

4. There are no other excluded values.14 FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS [CHAP. Similarly. however. by taking x small enough. The cor- responding values of y are 1. 8. getting nearer and nearer to the z-axis. then y. 2. approaches zero. without is described by saying that as x approaches zero. the equation takes the form Suppose we give to x successively the values 1. the corresponding value of y can be made to exceed any chosen number. and also that zero is an excluded value for both variables. J. y increases Hence the curve extends upward indefinitely as the distances from points on the curve to the 2/-axis approach zero. is an asymptote of the curve. The y-axis is therefore an asymp- This relation limit. if we assign values to x which get large without limit. FIGURE 1-8 . This means that there is no intercept on either axis. i. the graph consists of the two parts drawn in Fig. Solving for y. tote of the curve. 16. In fact. being the reciprocal of x. 1-8. We see that as x is assigned values nearer and nearer zero. yet never touching it. Since there is symmetry with respect to the origin. 1 other variable which satisfies the equation. and so on. J. iV and so on. Hence the curve extends indefinitely to the The x-axis right. y becomes larger and larger.

Solving the equation for y gives may first be determined and then 8 y (1) 2 <x <2. the values of y are positive and Hence the line x = 2 is an asymptote of the curve both below and above the or-axis. Then the fraction. x approaches 2 through values greater than 2.1-9] ASYMPTOTES 2. there is obviously no value of x which will satisfy the equation. Further. 15 8. _J I I L FIGURE 1-9 . Notice the right member of the equation. But if we set y = 0. Hence there is no z-intercept. ing values of y can be made to increase numerically without limit. the denominator is near zero. If. We see that it is negative for and the graph in this range is below the z-axis. EXAMPLE Draw the graph of x*y 4y = Solution. if x has a value slightly less than 2. the correspondy. which is equal to has a numerically large value. The part of the graph to the right of the y-axis the other drawn by the use of symmetry. increase without limit. As x increases still closer to 2. The graph has symmetry with respect to the y-axis but not with respect to the x-axis. The i/-intercept is 2. however.

2/(s + 8) 2) 2 14. This shows that y = the excluded values of y. + 1 . X = In this form we see that as y approaches zero through positive values. 2 xy xy x*y - x = - 3. x* . equal to zero. 0. is The graph constructed in Fig. If the result is a fraction the whose denominator contains y. we get for a horizontal asymptote. x*y + 9y x* = 16.0. set each real linear factor of the denominator This gives the vertical asymptotes.0. This form also reveals without limit.9y + 16 . " 19 21. 6.x2 . - 8 = 0. 2 t/ y *= 4.16y + 9 . + xY + xY - + y+4 + 4x + 4 y * 2 0. 1) xy 3.16y + 9 = 0.0. x*y 16. + ~*~ 3t/ - 4 = 0. xy* 18. x 2?/ + - 3x 2 x 4 4 = 0. - 1. Since the radicand is not to be negative. sj/ 2 8. . 5. For equations which are thus readily solvable. (x + 1)(2/ 4. Solve the given equation for x in terms of y. + 3x 9 - 2y 0. *~' x 17. xY . x*y* 64. In each of the preceding problems the asymptotes are evident when the equation is solved for each variable in terms of the other.0. horizontal 1. x increases is an asymptote. Solve the given equation for y in terms of x.x* . we state the following rules. 2. 11. 12. If the result is a fraction whose denominator contains x. the values 2 < y < are excluded. 22. 10. This asymptote also becomes evident when y = the given equation is solved for x.16 FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS [CHAP. 0. . equal to zero. - = 13. 2. 8. x*y 24. xy* 10. x*u* 2 4?v2 20. = 4. 23.9i/2 + 16 . xy* 7. y*(x 15. Draw the and vertical asymptotes. 1. - 4. To examine come large without limit. 1 we notice equation (1) and let x beThe corresponding values of y approach zero. and is therefore an asymptote. Taking the positive roots. set each real linear factor of This gives the horizontal asymptotes. 4. 1-9. 0. + 4y* 2 x y . denominator EXERCISE 1-6 Discuss and sketch the graphs of each of the following equations. x*y 9.

2-1. Thus in Fig. AB B -BA.CHAPTER 2 FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS AND FORMULAS 2-1 Directed lines and segments. in referring to directed segments. is If there are 3 units of length A and B. BC. second and third equations can be found readily from the first. The x-axis and lines parallel to it are positive to the right. B. on between the other hand. The segment BA. In plane geometry the lengths of line segments are considered. between A and C. segments are often considered as having directions as well as lengths. line are not assigned to the segments. and BA stands for the segment from tion from A to B positive. The part of a line between two of its points is called a segment. and AC is obviously equal to the sum of the other two. and AC have the same The direction. since the direcagrees with the assigned positive direction of the line as The segment AB indicated negative. for example. Either direction along a given line may be chosen as positive. BA + AC = BC. we transpose BC and use the fact that BC = B is B A FIGURE 2-1 17 B FIGURE 2-2 . AB means B to A. A line on which one direction is defined as positive and the opposite direction as negative is called a directed line. then the directed segments determined by these points satisfy the equations If AB + BC = If AC. Thus tain the second. AC + CB = AB. the segment from A is to B. In analytic geometry important use is made of directed lines. Hence. the segments AB. by the arrowhead. A line not parallel to a coordinate either direction taken as when regarded as directed. however. upward. and C are three points of a directed line. then AB +3 and BA = 3. To obCB. but directions In analytic geometry. may have positive. A. Vertical lines have their positive direction chosen axis.

for the vertical segment QiQ2 . The distance is positive or negative according as the second point is to the right or left of the first point. vertical. QiQ2 . formulas for the lengths of these kinds of segments. RULE. In making the derivations we shall use the idea of directed segments.y) and P2 (z 2 . We shall classify a line segment as horizontal. without regard to direction.AP Z 1 Similarly.BQ. is the ordinate of the The length of a vertical segment joining two points upper point minus the ordinate of the lower point. we state a rule of segments. Inasmuch as the lengths often desired. Let P\(xi. We have AP . 2-3). . l Hence the directed distance from a zontal line is first point to a second point on a horiequal to the abscissa of the second point minus the abscissa of the first point. can be determined from the coordinates of the points. and let A be the point where the line cuts the y-axis (Fig. The distance between any two points.QiB . or the length of the line segment connecting them. 2 Y o FIGURE 2-3 2-2 The distance between two points. or slant and derive appropriate . A similar statement can be made relative to a vertical segment.2/) be two points on a horizontal line.BQ = 2/2 2/i.18 FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS AND FORMULAS [CHAP. are which gives results as positive quantities. of the point The length of a horizontal segment joining two points is the abscissa on the right minus the abscissa of the point on the left. In many problems the distance between two points of the coordinate plane is required. .

+5= 3. . 2-4. points be PI (1. Let the P2 Or 2 . Denoting the length of PiP by d. Draw a line through P\ parallel to the These two x-axis and a line through P 2 parallel to the y-axis (Fig. 1 CD = 6 - EF - - (-4) = 1+4 = 5.4) 0(6. By the Pythagorean theorem.0) H(3.45 = 5-1=4.4) Afl.-5) FIGURE 2-4 We apply this rule to find the lengths of the segments in Fig. o FIGURE 2-5 next consider two points which determine a slant line.*/2 ). 2-5). we have d = . We whose abscissa is x2 and whose ordinate is y\.-2) G(3.2-2] THE DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO POINTS 19 Y C( -2. Hence PiR = x2 - x\ and JBP2 = t/ 2 - y\.0) B(5. GH = -2 - (-2) = 6 (-5) = -2 + 2 = 8.2/1) and lines intersect at the point R.

2 The positive square root is chosen because we shall usually be interested state this distance formula in only in the magnitude of the segment.20 FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS AND FORMULAS [CHAP. -3).5) = 2 2 2 2 V65. To find the distance between two points. The distance formula yields the lengths other sides.-3).V(5 + 2) + (1 + 3) EC . and CB. add the square of the difference of the abscissas to the square of the difference of the ordinates and take the positive square root of the sum. find the directed distances AB. Then find the following directed and CB. (3. In employing the distance formula either point may be designated by This results from the fact that the two (1. sides of the triangle with the vertices The abscissas of A and C are the same. EC. 5(5. 2. 5(2. differences involved are squared. C(-2. The length of the vertical the difference of the ordinates. EXERCISE 2-1 and C(7.5).2/2).3/1) and the other by (0:2. We words. AC. . segments: AB. The lengths show that the triangle is isosceles. CA. The square of the difference of two numbers is unchanged when the order of the subtraction is reversed. and therefore side The other sides are slant segments.1). V65. Given the points A (2. Plot the points A(l. THEOREM.0). AC.5(5. Solution. and C(2. BC. BA.1). BA. CA.0). Find the lengths of the and C(-2. AC side is is of the AC = 5 .0).(-3) = 5 + 3 = 8. 1. Thus we get vertical.5) .1) FIGURE 2-6 EXAMPLE. A(-2.V(5 + 2) + (1 . AB .5).

2-3]
3.

INCLINATION AND SLOPE OF A LINE

21

Plot the points 4(-l,0), B(2,0), and C(5,0), and verify the following BC = AC] AC CB = 4B; equations by numerical substitutions: AB

+

+

BA + AC =
4. 6. 8.

BC.
in

Find the distance between the pairs of points
(1,3), (4,7).
5.

problems 4 through 9:

(-3,4),(2,-8).
(5,

(-2,-3),

ri,0).

7.

-12),

(0,0).

(0,-4), (3,0).

9.

(2,7),

(-1,4).

In each problem 10-13 draw the triangle with the given vertices and find the
lengths of the sides:
10.

4(1, -1), B(4,-l), C(4,3).

11.
13.

4(-l,l), B(2,3), C(0,4). 4(0,-3), B(3,0), C(0,-4).
is

12. 4(0,0),

B(2,-3), C(-2,5).

Draw
14.

the triangles in problems 14-17 and show that each
15.
17.

isosceles:

4(-2,l), B(2,-4), C(6,l).
B(l,-l), C(l,7).

4(-l,3), B(3,0), C(6,4). 4(-4,4), B(-3,-3), C(3,3).

16. 4(8,3),

Show

that the triangles 18-21 are right triangles:
19.

18. 4(1,3), B(10,5), C(2,l).

4(-3,l), B(4,-2), C(2,3).

20. 4(0,3),
22.

B(-3,-4), C(2,-2).

Show

that

4(- v/3,1),

4(4,-3), B(3,4), C(0,0). and C(2\/3,4) are vertices of an equiB(2\/3, -2),

21.

lateral triangle.

23.

Given the points 4(1,1), B(5,4), C(2,8), and D(-2,5), show that the quad-

rilateral

ABCD
if

has

all its sides

equal.
lie

Determine

the points in each problem 24-27

on a straight

line:

24. (3,0), (0,-2), (9,4).
26. (-4,0), (0,2), (9,7). 28. If the point (x,3) 29.
is

25. (2,1), (-1,2), (5,0).

equidistant from
*/-axis

(3,

Find the point on the

which

is

(-!,-!), (6,-4), (-11,8). -2) and (7,4), find x. equidistant from ( 5, 2) and (3,2).
If

27.

2-3 Inclination and slope of a
inclination of the line
is

line.

a

line intersects the x-axis, the

defined as the angle whose initial side extends to the right along the x-axis and whose terminal side is upward along the line.* is the initial side, In Fig. 2-7 the angle is the inclination of the line,

MX

and

ML
is

is

the terminal side.

The

inclination of a line parallel to the
is

x-axis

0.

The inclination
is

of a slant line

a positive angle less than 180.
its

The

slope of a line

defined as the tangent of

angle of inclination.

A
is

which leans to the right has a positive slope because the inclination an acute angle. The slopes of lines which lean to the left are negative.
line
*

When an
is

angle

side

called the initial side

ther, the angle is clockwise or a clockwise direction.

measured from the first side to the second side, the first and the second side is called the terminal side. Furor negative according as it is measured in a counterpositive
is

22

FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS AND FORMULAS

(CHAP. 2

Y
Y
I

M
FIGURE 2-7

The

slope of a horizontal line

is

zero.

Vertical lines

do not have a
%

slope,

however, since 90 has no tangent. If the inclination of a nonvertical line

is known, the slope can be determined by the use of a table of trigonometric functions. Conversely, if the slope of a line is known, its inclination can be found. In most prob-

lems, however, it is more convenient to deal with the slope of a line rather than with its inclination. The following theorem is a direct consequence of the definition of slope.

THEOREM.
are equal.

Two

nonvertical lines are parallel if

and only

if their slopes

the coordinates of two points on a line are known, we may find We now derive a slope of the line from the given coordinates.
If

tjhe

formula
J

for this purpose.

Pi(#i,2/i) ^2(^2,2/2) be the two given points, and indicate the m. Then, referring to Fig. 2-8, we have slope by

Let

and

m = tan & =

PiR

FIGURE 2-8

2-3]

INCLINATION AND SLOPE OP A LINE

23

Y

x
FIGURE 2-9

If

the line slants to the

left,

as in Fig. 2-9,

m = tanfl= _^LJ/? = ^lU. -"
Xz
X\
2

X\

Hence the
the
left or

slope is determined in the to the right.

same way

for lines slanting either to

THEOREM.
P\(xi,yi)

The slope

m

and

PZ(XZ,UZ) is

of a line passing through two given points equal to the difference of the ordinates divided by

the difference of the abscissas taken in the

same

order; that is

mt
This formula yields the slope if the two points determine a slant line. denominator is zero. Hence a slope is not defined for a vertical line. Conversely, if the denominator is equal to zero, the points are on a vertical line. We observe, further, that either of the points may be regarded as Pi(x\,y\) and the other as Pi(xi y^ since
If the line is vertical, the
}

y

3/2

-

-

1/2

EXAMPLE.
that

Given the points A(-2,-l),
parallelogram.

(4,0), C(3,3),

and Z>(-3,2), show

ABCD is a

Solution.

We

determine from the slopes of the sides

if

the figure

is

a parallelo-

gram.
Slope of
slope of

AB
CD

-,
,

slope of

DA -

__

= -3.

The

opposite sides have equal slopes, and therefore

ABCD is

a parallelogram.

24

FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS AND FORMULAS

[CHAP. 2

2-4 Angle between two lines. Two intersecting lines form four angles. There are two pairs of equal angles, and an angle of one pair is the supplement of an angle of the other pair. We shall show how to find a measure of each angle in terms of the slopes of the lines. Noticing Fig. 2-10 and recalling that an exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the two remote interior angles, we see that
<t>

+ 0i -

02

or

<t>

=

62

-

0i.

Using the formula for the tangent of the difference of two angles, we find
tan

<t>

tan

(02

-

tan
0i)
1

2

-

tan

0i
2

+ tan 0i

tan

If

we

let

mi - tan

2

and m\ = tan
tan
<(>

0i,

then

we have

initial side,

where and
<t>

m
is

2

the slope of the terminal side, m\ is the slope of the measured in a counterclockwise direction.
is
\l/

The

angle

is

the supplement of

<t>,

and therefore
7?l2

tan ^

= -tan

<t>

This formula for tan ^ is the same as that for tan except that the terms in the numerator are reversed. We observe from the diagram,
<

however, that the terminal side of ^
initial side of

is
</>,

the

initial side of

<t>

and that the

by the counterclockwise arrows. Hence, in terms of the slopes of initial and terminal sides, the tangent of either angle may be found by the same rule. We state ^
is

the terminal side of

as indicated

this conclusion as a theorem.

FIGURE 2-10

since a slope not defined for a vertical line. clude that the lines are perpendicular when. w 2 is the slope of the terminal side and m\ is the slope of the initial is This formula will not apply if either of the lines is vertical. the problem would be that of finding the angle. -5) FIGURE 2-11 . the slope THEOREM. or function of the angle. and only when. (See formula (1). 2-11. Find the tangents of the angles of the triangle whose vertices are Find each angle to the nearest degree. Table II of the Appendix. Hence no new formula is necessary. lines. then is an angle. the lines are not perpendicular.) Solution.2-4] ANGLE BETWEEN TWO LINES // <t> 25 THEOREM. The relation 1 + m\m* = may be <t>. The slopes we get of the sides are indicated in Fig. if the formula Hence we conyields a definite number. For this case. and C(5. -5). of one is the slant lines are perpendicular if.3) C(5. #(8. Two if.3). For any two slant lines which are not perpendicular formula (1) will yield a definite number as the value of tan Conversely. the denominator of the formula is equal to zero. between two where side. Substituting in A( -2.4) 5(8. written in the form 7^2 = mi > which expresses one slope as the negative reciprocal of the other slope. and only negative reciprocal of the slope of the other. measured counterclockwise.4). 4 (-2. EXAMPLE. which a line of known slope makes with the vertical.

9).l). (4. (5. (8.1). (4. lie (e) (3. (1. (-8. determine which of the following sets of three points (0.2). (3.0).4). 13. (-4.1).l).7).3) and (-6. (d) (f) (-1. (8. (7. A(-3.4). (-1.B(-3.-l).2).-l). (3.0).-3).2).3).C(7. A(-3. (9. (-1.-4). (0.12). (5.-2). A(0.5). (b) (d) (2.7).-7). A(-l. Give the slopes for the inclinations line passing (a) 45. (0.8). (c) 60.0) A(0.7). (-3. (2.l). 11.1).2). (6.0).-4). Find the tangents of the angles of the triangle Find the angles to the nearest degrees.2). (4.0).3).-7). fl(4.-4).3).6).-2). 14.-4).5). (5. Find the intersection angles. (-1. (6.3). (-2.-2).7).5).1). by showing that the : Verify that each triangle with the given points as vertices is a right triangle slope of one of the sides is the negative reciprocal of the slope of another side (a) (c) (5.3).0).-3). on a straight line: (a) (3.-3). 4.C(-l.l).5). 0(1. -2). (3. A(-2. (-1. -13).0). (2. (b) (-1.-3). D(8. 15.0). The line through the points (4.9).4).6). (6.-2). (b) 0. 5. : Find the slope of the 2. (-3. (5.l). (2.0) and (1. (8. (7. -2). Show that each of the following sets of four points are vertices of a parallelo- gram ABCD: (a) A(2. 2 B=33 C - - 100'. (1.1). through the two points in each problem 2-7 3.3). (e) 10.0). 7. (0.3).4). (0. intersects the line through .-7). A(-3.3).-5). (7(12.4). (-4. C(2.-2). (l.-7).-2). C(4.B(3.4).0). (2. Using slopes. (d) 120. (9. (1. (17. B(4. EXERCISE 2-2 1. 8.2). (3.-9). (6. 12. D(-4. D(0. B(6. sets. (0.2).-1). (5.0). (1.7). (7(7. (-4.8).7). (3.8). (e) 135.C(2.4).26 FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS AND FORMULAS [CHAP.0).2).0).-!). In each of the following : show that the four points are (b) (d) (f) vertices of a rectangle (a) (c) (-6. 5(4. (3. 6.5). (-11. 16. (0. C(4. (b) (c) (d) 9. (20.-2). (0. B(5.2).0).3). (-2.S(2. (0. (c) (9. ABC in each problem 12-15. (-5.

2-12). the ordinate is half the sum of the ordinates. This theorem may be generalized by letting P(x. We shall derive formulas which give the coordinates of the point midway between two points of given coordinates. yi ) o FIGURE 2-12 . and let be the mid-point of PiP2. Thus if PiP = then r. we have PiP Hence PJf MP -4- PlN X2 - and Z] NP _ " y^ MP = 2 2/2 y-yi . THE MID-POINT OP A LINE SEGMENT 27 If Two lines passing is 2.2-5] 17.y) be any division point of the segment PiP2. From similar triangles (Fig. find the slope of the other. Two What angle does a line of slope make with a vertical line? 2-5 The mid-point of a line segment.?/I) and P^(x^y^ be the extremities of a line segment. Problems in geometry make much use of the mid-points of line segments. the slope of one of the lines 18. through (2. 2*2 x and N(x 2 .3) make an angle of 45.z/) PI(ZI. solutions. The abscissa of the mid-point of a line segment is half the sum of the abscissas of the end points. Let P(x.y\ Solving for x and y gives +y 2 2 THEOREM.

Solution.6) and P 2 (5.0) pl(flf O) FIGURE 2-13 . following example. If P is on PiP2 extended through P2 then r is greater than 1. If P is between PI and P2 as in Fig. and the value of their ratio r is positive and less than 1. EXAMPLE. Solution. Therefore we choose a vertex as the origin and a coordinate axis along a side of the parallelogram (Fig.l). the value of r is negative.xi) = -3 + (5 + 3) = -2/0=6 + f(l . tem. By the use of a coordinate many of the theorems of elementary geometry can be proved with We illustrate the procedure in the surprising simplicity and directness. We first draw a parallelogram and then introduce a coordinate sysA judicious location of the axes relative to the figure makes the writing of Then we write the the coordinates of the vertices easier and also simplifies the algebraic operations involved in making the proof. 2 These equations give x = Xi + r(x2 - Xi) and y = yi + r(y 2 - tfi). the segments P L P and PiP2 have the same direction. P 2 of the segment X _ +x 2 2 _ -3 +5_ - 22 . . If P is on the segment extended through Pi. For the trisection point we use xi yi r 2 = x y = = + r(x + r(y 2 . 2-13). (0. Prove that the diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. EXAMPLE.28 FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS AND FORMULAS [CHAP.6) = f } . Find the mid-point and the trisection point nearer determined by Pi(-3. The converse of each of these statements is true. 2-12. . f system 2-6 Analytic proofs of geometric theorems.

The points 4(2.5) are vertices of a triangle.2).8) are vertices of the line quadrilateral connecting the mid-points of opposite sides.) A(-4.6). 5(-l.6). = ~ ' a is ( |)' tne theorem is proved. A(-7 f 12). In making a proof by this method it is essential that a general figure be For example. 2. Find the 3. The points PI.-6). -3) is extended through each end by a length equal to its original length. Pi(a.-3). A(-5.0). 6. The points 4(2. is a line segment joining a vertex and the mid-point of the opposite side.-7). EXERCISE 2-3 1. segment joining A( 4.6) is doubled in length by Find the coordinates of the new ends.2) and 5(5. 5(3. 5(7. and making the abscissa of P 3 exceed the abscissa of P 2 by a. 1) and 5(3. Find 10. The vertices of a triangle are 4(7.-7). P2 and P are on a straight line in each problem 12-15.: x Since the mid-point of each diagonal Note. 5(7. essential that the coordinates of P 2 (6. and (7(10. The line segment joining A (-3.1). 7. and D(-5.6). #(-3.8) are vertices of a triangle. Find the mid-point of (a) (c) AB in each of the following: (b) (d) X(-2. A(-l.c). The line having half its length . 5(11. X(7. Find r. It is P2 and P This is achieved by parallel to OPi. Deter8.0). To show that OP 3 and PiP 2 bisect each other.10). 5. Find the coordinates of the new ends.0).0). the ratio of PiP to PiP 2 . A BCD.1). 5(6.5).-4). -3). 5(9. The points A(-l. we find the coordinates mid-point of each diagonal. 9.6). coordinates of the mid-points of the sides.0).3). . and C(3. used. mine if the medians are concurrent by finding the point on each median which (A median of a triangle js J of the way from the vertex to the other extremity. 5(4. and P 3 (a + 6. A(-9. added at each end. special case would not constitute a general proof. 11. 5(4. and C(4.9). 5(6.0).6).0).-3). C(5. 5(8.2). Find the coordinates of the mid-point of each segment Find the trisection points of the segment AB: 4. A(0. the trisection point on each median which is nearer the opposite side. neither a rectangle nor a rhombus (a parallelogram with all A proof of a theorem based on a sides equal) should be used for a parallelogram.2-6] ANALYTIC PROOFS OP GEOMETRIC THEOREMS 29 coordinates of the vertices as 0(0.c). express the fact that P 2 P 3 is equal and making the ordinates of P2 and Pa the same 3 of the Mid-point of OP 3 : x = ^ y = = Mid-point of PiP.

PAlXPA-l). The mid-point of the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equidistant from the three vertices.3). PA1). [Hint: Notice that the (0. Give analytic proofs 16. The line segment joining the mid-points of two sides of a triangle to the third side and equal to half of it. drawn from a vertex of a parallelogram to the mid-points of the opposite sides trisect a diagonal. taken in order. form a parallelogram.] and 20.] 17.0). 23.0). 18. The medians of a triangle meet in a point which from each vertex to the mid-point of the opposite side.3). (a.0). 15.c). of the squares of the sides of a parallelogram is 24.5).-3). if 21. 25. 22. 26. (0. The sum The lines equal to the sum of the squares of the diagonals.6). The diagonals of a rhombus are perpendicular and bisect each other. lies two-thirds of the way .30 12. (a. [Suggestion: Choose the axes so that the vertices of the rectangle are (0.l). FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS AND FORMULAS Pi(-l. f f 14. axes may (a be placed so that the coordinates of the vertices are 6.0). of the following theorems: diagonals of the rectangle are equal.6). P2 (6. 13.c). The segments which join the mid-points of the sides of any quadrilateral. P(9. The P(-l.-l). The line segments which join the mid-points of the opposite sides of a quadrilateral bisect each other. The segment is parallel joining the mid-points of the nonparallel sides of a trapezoid to and equal to half the sum of the parallel sides. The diagonals of an isosceles trapezoid are equal. and (a. 2 P 2 (5. [CHAP. P (-4 2) P l l f 1 (l l -2) P(ll -10). (6. P(2. is parallel 19.

(1) Ax where + By +C= not both zero. is a general prove that the locus.2/i) is any other point of the is -(A/B). (a) (b) subtraction. these equations yield and if B 7* 0. is a straight line. we have locus. a vital concept of mathematics and enters Despite into our daily experiences in numerous interesting and useful ways. The straight line is its simplicity. satisfy the given equation (1).2/2) be any two points of the graph. the line Furthermore. A /?. we shall now establish that statement. To determine if the graph consists of all points of this line. Let PI(XI. or graph. . on a line. that l is. forms such that each reveals useful information concerning the location of the line which it represents. the slope of the segment PiP 3 is also -(A/B). we shall write linear equations in different 3-2 The locus of a first degree equation. In Section 1 -7 we stated that the graph of a first degree equation in x and y 3-1 Introduction. we need to show that the coordinates of any other point of the line Denoting a point of the line by P4 (x 4> 2/4). P 2 and P 3 and hence all points of the of the graph . and C are constants with degree. 0. of these slopes we conclude that Pi. lie 2/4 -y\ _ _ A z4 - x\ B 31 . y\ - y* = _A x\The last xi B equation shows that the slope of a line passing through two points Therefore if Ps(xi.CHAPTER 3 THE STRAIGHT LINE is the simplest geometric curve.T/I) and P 2 (^2. From the equality locus. The equation 0. Ax + Ax2 + By Byi By* +C+C- 0. A and B equation of the first We shall tion. of this equation is a straight line by showing that all points of the locus lie on a line and that the coordinates of all points of the line satisfy the equa.

the equation of a line of given slope and be written at once by substituting the proper values for m and 6. Solving for y gives. we y This is SB mx + b. (0. B. is 0.5) is Ax + By . If a straight line. 3-3 Special forms of the first degree equation. is the slope of the line. where B 7* 0. From equation (a). (2) called the slope-intercept form of the equation of a line.32 THE STRAIGHT LINE clearing of fractions [CHAP. where A. Illustration. we obtain the simpler form 0. -C + -C ^ + ^-1 " lj or * -C/A + . as C m we have seen. 0. except for the case in which For this value of This completes the proof B equation (1) reduces to _ ~ . and hence 0. B= 0. Substituting for the slope and b for the ^-intercept. The coordinates of all points. equation A The x coefficient of x. having the abscissa is a line parallel to the THEOREM. The equation of the line of slope -2 and passing through y = -2x + 5.1/4) satisfies the given equation. -Axi - C._ _ C _ A . and only those (C/A) satisfy this equation. otherwise the slope is (A/B). 3 By and transposing terms. this equation takes the form Ax* + By* By\ Axi - Byi - 0. By setting notice that the constant term is the ^-intercept. We shall now convert (1) to other forms and interpret the coefficients geometrically. Ax* + By* + C = 5= f X The point (4. the line is vertical. The locus of the equation and C are constants with A and B not Ax + By + C = both zero. 2/-intercept may Conversely. points. We next express equation (1) in a form which gives prominence to the We have x-intercept and the y-intercept. y Cl X * -C/B . Hence the locus 2/-axis and located (C/A) units from the axis.-C. An equa- tion in this form makes evident the slope and the y-intercept of the line which it represents.

This form is called the two-point form of the equation of a straight line. and equation (4) applies. Substituting for b gives = mx + yi - mx\. This is called the intercept form of the equation of a straight line.6). y = y\ mx\. Equation (2) represents a line passing through (0. (3. if any point of the a vertical line through (xi. then and we have y It - yi = ^-E"7J (* - *>) ^ can readily be seen that the graph of this equation passes through the points (xiii/i) and (0*2.1/2). If the line passes through y\ (21.yi) has Of course. The equations (2)-(5) do not apply when the line is vertical.yi) has the abscissa x\ for line is all known.1/1). however. the ordinates are all the same on a horizontal line. and neither could we substitute properly for the The equation of a vertical line can intercepts in the forms (2) and (3).1/2). the line of equation (4) passes through the point (#2. Hence the equation is X = X\. horizontal line through (x\. and hence y Equation If - yi = m(x - x. (4) (4) is called the point-slope form of the equation of a line. = 0. Thus points of the line. be written immediately. we have the equation i + f-I. In this case m is not defined.). and we could A m write the equation directly as y == yi* . It may be used when the intercepts are different from zero. we have and 6 = mxi + 6. The equation may be altered slightly to focus attention on any other point of the line.3-3] SPECIAL FORMS OP THE FIRST DEGREE EQUATION 33 The denominator of x in the last equation is the z-intercept and the denominator of y is the ^-intercept. If we let a and b stand for the intercepts.

we have V or - 3 . or if they inter- We Ax + By + C = sect obliquely. The have seen that the slope of the line corresponding to the equation Q is -(A/B). We shall show two ways for finding the required equation. of the line 5* -3s/ = 15. EXAMPLE is parallel 1. Hence a point other than the origin is necessary. 3 3 and the ^-intercept a line cuts the coordinate axes so that the x-intercept is -5. two points are sufficient for constructing the graph. Since the locus is a straight line. its equation by formula (3) is or 1+^=1. The inverse problem. Lines are parallel if their slopes are equal. For this case the intercepts a and b are both zero. . is likewise simple. The equation slope form.-3). simplifying. 1y _ 35 = . perpendicular. To obtain the equation of the line through (3.-|(a + 5. Find the equation of the line to 4x + 3y = which passes through (-1.34 Illustrations. we find the intercepts of the equation 3x - 4i/ = 12 to be a = 4 and b = -3.5) and (4.4) with slope 3 or is. For example. by the point- y - 4 = 3(x + 1). For this purpose the intercepts on the axes are usually the most convenient. and have Whence.3) and 2. and (0. that of drawing the graph of a linear equation in x and y. 3x - y +7 = 0. the slope is seen to be Substituting this slope ($).1). value and the coordinates of the given point in the point-slope formula. Solution. we substi- tute in formula (5). is THE STRAIGHT LINE If [CHAP.4X - 12. First. and we recall that two lines are perpendicular if the slope of one is the negative of the reciprocal of the slope of the other.0) intercepts are not sufficient for drawing a line which passes through the origin. Hence the graph is the line drawn through (4. equations of lines which pass through two given points quickly illustrations The or through one known point with a given slope. and simply. from the given equation. 1). show that formulas (2) -(5) can be employed to write. or 4x + 7y = 23. represented by two equations are parallel. through (1. 4x + 3y = . That is. the slope is obtained from the equation by dividing the coefficient of x by the coefficient of y and reversHence we can readily determine if the lines ing the sign of the result.

We could also obtain this EXERCISE 3-1 By solving for //. 6z + 3y = 5. and we need to determine Substituting. and to the segment and passing through its mid-point. 6 = 3. 30.4). x 11. x +y+ 3y 4 = 10 0. 6* 7x - 20. 13. 6. 4x y - 14. m = . 27. m = 0. 9. 36. = 0. m = -4. By using 5 for D. The required equation. 26. = 0. 2.36.-2. 21. + y = 6. 1. m = 6 . 12. substitute these coordinates for x and y and obtain />. 2.3).4y = x 15. 5x 10. 6 = -8. = $ 6 = -6. 3* . write x + 2y = This equation has the proper slope. . x + 3y = 7. 6 = -6. 3. give the slope tions 13-24. x + 7y = 11. 4x + 9y .by = 10. 29. 25. 2x Sx + + 3y 3/y = = 14.6 = 1. In each and the value of the y-intercept b. To determine + 3y = = D is parallel to the given line for ( D so that the line shall pass through 1. lly = = 9. The required slope is AB D. b = -4. write the equation of the line determined by the slope m and the ^-intercept 6.6). AB . 0. b = 0. Find the equation of its locus. 28. m = 3. b = -2. b = 5. = 0. 23. 7. D so that the line shall pass through (4. 19. therefore. 2x + 2y + 4 + 7y = 0. In each problem 25-36. 17. Draw the case give the value of the slope m lines. 3x . 24.3-3] SPECIAL FORMS OP THE FIRST DEGREE EQUATION 35 any we Alternatively. = -1. + 3z/ + 3* + 3y = 6 1. 0. 4. -5.6 = 0. 32.4). 34. 18. 16. write each equation 1-12 in the slope-intercept form.8/y = 5. EXAMPLE A moves so that equally distant from the two points A (3. .8// = 4. we have again point the equation 4x it is + 3z/ = 5.3// = 0. 35. we get x + 2y = 4 + 2(4) + = = 12. m = -J. by equa- By inspection. 7x = 12. m m m m m = 2. 5.2y = 3. we notice that 4x real value of D. 12. is 2. . is x 2y equation by using the point-slope form (4). 31. + y = 6. From plane geometry we know that the locus is the line perpendicular Solution. m 33.2) and (5. . 3x - y - 3 x 4x 8. The slope of Hence we the coordinates of the mid-point are (4. . . . 6 = 0.y = 7. = 12. . 4x x . and intercepts of each line represented 22. 3x 4. 4(-l) + 3(3) or D= 5. = 0.

5). 40. Sx - y = 3 0. 4(3. 81.-2. 4(5. 49. .0) x . 4(-2. 82.-f 4 and B in each prob- Find the equation of the line determined by the points lem 61-72. 3 which has the ^-intercept a and the ^-intercept 6 38. 59. 1. 52.5). B(3. . 4(-l. 53. A(0. o THE STRAIGHT LINE line [CHAP. 4(1. 4(3.3).-3).1) . 4(-4. -f.0). 64. 0. 4(4. B(4. = . -4. m m=f 4(0. 62. 6 7. one parallel and the other perpendicular to the line corresponding to the given equation. 4(0.0).-3). 6 .5). 4(-3.-6). a = 3. 75.1). 66. 57. Check the answers by substitutions. 4(2.b = f . 68. J3(3. 74. 4(3.-6).-7). a = = = = 5.0) 4z + 3y = 3.l). m = = 0.-2). a 45. ro = 1. In each problem 75-84 find the equations of two lines through 4. a in each 41. 76. x . - 0.36 Write the equation of the problem 37-48.0). -1.-l). o 46.4) . 4(3. m = 0.B(3. 2x Ix +5= + 5y + 4 Zy - 0. 50. = 6 = i = -y. 54. B(-4. 6 = -y. 78.6). Show that the graphs of the equations Ax Ax are (a) the + By + By = D!. m = 4(-3. 77.1). 72. m = 2. 56.7). m = -f 4(0. . 4(*. 4(3. 2x . 60. 4(0. b . B(i-2). m = -6.-l). f. -2).-4).f). 65. 4(-2. 63. 2x - 2y 1. Draw the lines.-5).0).2. b = 6 1.2). -5. 4(^. y . a 42. m = -f 4(-5. m 4(5. = 1. 55. 84. 4(3. 80.0). 4(7. b = -2.B(0. 71. 61.-.y = 3. 4(-l. 69.4).0). m . Ay = Z) 2 are equations of perpen- dicular lines. 51. (4. 6 = -2. 0. B(-l. a 48. 67. 79. 6 $.. 4(0. . B(4. 6 = -3. 4(0. 4(0. 4(0. a 44. 58. (-2. =f the point In each equation 49-60. write the equation of the line which passes through A with the slope m. = D 2 same if D\ = D2 .0). 4(3. -y= 4(-l.1). Draw the lines.0). 83. (b) parallel lines if Z) A ^D 2.1). a 43. -1.0) 9z +y- = 0. a 47. Show that Ax + By = DI and Bx B(-2. = 4. -3).-). 4(9.3). 70.l).5).5). 37. 73.2). a 39.

(d) the equations of the perpendicular bisectors of the sides and the coordinates of their 86. Since the line is a slant Consider now the line through PI parallel to the given line. Q.3). common point. The simultaneous (3) give (2) and solutions of equations (1) and the intersection points (3). THE DISTANCE PROM A LINE TO A POINT The vertices of a triangle are A(l. ing: the equations of the sides. the distance from a vertical line to a point is immediately obtainable by taking the difference of the abscissa of the point and the z-intercept of the line. equations respectively are Ax + By + C Bx .C') 2 (C ( + B*) A +B 2 2 ' and C-C' . (1) be any point not on the line. 3-4 The distance from a line to a point. Let the equation of a slant line be written in the form Ax + By + C = and let Pi(x\. -6).2). 37 Find the follow- and C(3. Find the equations of the lines and the coordinates of the points pertaining to this triangle The vertices of a triangle are which are called for in problem 85. (b) the equations of the medians and the coordinates of their (c) the equations of the altitudes and the coordinates of their (a) common common point. 0. The distance from a line to a point can be found from the equation of the line and the coordinates of the We shall derive a formula for this purpose. 5(6.Ay = 1 0. where P and Q are the intersection points of the perpendicular line and the parallel lines.3-4] 85.yi) line. Hence no additional formula is needed for this case. whose B ^ 0.6). point. Thus for the distance between two points to find the (C I -t- ~ C/)2 *2 _ (C . and the line through the origin perpendicular to the given line. and equations -BC \ -AC' -BC' We employ the formula length of PQ.0). 5(9. (2) (3) The required distance d (Fig. and (7(8.C'?(A* (A* +B) 2 2 ^ 2 + fi2)2 . 3-1) is equal to the segment PQ.0). We observe first that point. A (-2.

the sign of the denominator is selected so that the coefficient of y\ is positive. we get an exThe expression is positive if y\ > y$ pression which is not equal to zero. if .ri. A consequence of this choice of signs may be found by referring to the figure again. to the The directed distance from the slant line Ax + By + C = point Pi (#1. we have Byi. the expression for d is positive if PI is if above the line and negative if PI is below the line. We may therefore regard the distance from a line to a point as a directed distance. The preceding discussion establishes the following theorem : THEOREM.I/I). and negative if y\ < y<>. Axi + Byi + C' = C". In other words. Since P is a point on the line. and negative if P\ is below the line. substituting for d = Ax^ 4- #wi 4- C To remove the ambiguity as to sign. 0. we agree to give the radical in the denominator the sign of B.2/1) is given by the formula * ^ + *" + C (4) where the denominator the point PI is is given the sign of B. where P Pi is parallel to the i/-axis and P (. 3 FIGURE 3-1 Since the line of equation (2) passes through PI(ZI.2/o) is a point of the given line. we have Now we replace t/ by yi in the left side of this equation. That is.38 THE STRAIGHT LINU [CHAP. The distance is positive above the line. and C' = -Axi - Hence.

0) FIGURE 3-2 If equation (1) is divided by VA* + B2 Ax + By + C _ . To minimize Thus 15(0) the computations. This is is called the normal in the equation point is given by substituting the coordinates of the point in the left member of the equation. is When an form of the equation of a line. Find the distance from the line I2y 5x - 26 to each of the points Pi(3. is positive sign is used in the denominators because the coefficient of y is posiThe signs of the results show that PI and PS are below the line and that Pz line (Fig. The 5x write the equation in the form I2y Hence in formula (4).l). or normal.-5). 3-2). each line to the origin. _ -51 _ ^ __ . the form VA*+B* is obtained.3-4] THE DISTANCE FROM A LINE TO A POINT 39 Y -4. above the EXAMPLE and 15z Find the distance between the 0. distance can be found to a particular point. By substituting the coordinates of the origin. 2. and P 3 (9. the constant term origin. the distance from the line to a seen to be the perpendicular. P 2 (-4. Solution. + 12(1) 13 13' d3== -5(9) + 12(0) + 26 19 13' 13 The tive. by computing the distance from each line we find the distance from A - 8(0) - 51 . -5(3) + 12(-5) + 26 + 26 _ 58 49 -5(-4) . 26 = 0. required distances are then found by making substitutions We + + .0). - parallel lines 15x Sy 51 =0 Sy + 68 = The Solution.1) ^3(9. distance to the EXAMPLE 1. normal form.

determine other lines. 3 _ 15(0) - 8(0) + 68 TIT first line 68 :=T7 _ ~A ~ 4 * The origin is 3 units above the and 4 units below the second line. of course.5) is on the second first and using this point . Among lines.5) - 51 -119 _ . Thus the quantities m and 6 are fixed for any particular line but change from line to line. alternate method for this of the lines to a particular point problem would be to find the distance from one on the other. The point (0. THE STRAIGHT LINE [CHAP. 8.40 d2 . When definite values are assigned to these letters. 3-5 Families of forms. We have expressed equations of lines in various these are the equations y = mx + 6 and M- 1- Each of these equations has cance. An line. These letters are called parameters. Hence the lines are 7 units apart. The constants of the first equation are two constants which have geometrical signifim and b. FIGURE 3-3 . Other values for these. and the 15(0) equation. we find _ - 8(8. a line is completely determined. In the second equation a and 6 are the parameters.

Write the equation of the system of lines which are parallel to 5x 7 = 0. The collection of lines defined by a linear equation with one parameter is called a family. (1) .3-6] FAMILY OF LINES THROUGH INTERSECTION OF TWO LINES 41 linear equation with only one parameter is obtained if the other parameter is replaced by a fixed value. infinitely many lines in the family. a line of the family passes through each point of the coordinate plane. through 2). or system. The resulting equation represents all lines with a particular property if the remaining parameter is A Each value assumed by the parameter yields an equawhich represents a definite line. Using the formula for the distance from a line to a point.1). one line for each value of b. EXAMPLE 1 . We wish to find values of C 5(2) + 17 12(1) +C _ 61. In fact. EXAMPLE 2. Find the members of the family which are 3 units distant 12/y from the point (2. (b) y + 2 = m(x - 5). having the product of the intercepts equal to Solutions. Write the equation of the system of lines defined by each of the following conditions: (a) parallel to 3x (b) passing (c) - 2y (5. 3 5(2) ' + 13 12(1) 13 + C _ ~* - The roots are C = 5* and + \2y C= + 17 = Hence the required equations are and 5z + I2y 61 0. tion y = 3z + b.1). of course. = 5. 1. + + Solution. a + j^= or 4* + oty-4n. (a) (c) The 2y following equations are easily verified to be those required. Each member of the family 5x -f 12// 4- C = is parallel to the which will yield lines 3 units from the point (2. Figure 3-3 shows a few lines of the family corresponding to the indicated values of the parameter b. 3x - - = D. For example. if m = 3. 3-6 Family of lines through the intersection of two lines. There are. we obtain the equations given line. 4. To illustrate. one passing above and the other below the point. of lines. the point-slope equation becomes allowed to vary. we consider the two intersecting lines From the left members (2* of these equations we form 11) the equation - 30 + 5) + fc(4x + y - - 0. This equation represents the family of lines of slope 3. The equation of the family of lines passing through the intersection of two given lines can be written readily.

and 9x 3y k 7 = = 2. . The equation is of the system of 3) lines passing through the intersection of the given lines (x or. EXAMPLE. lines passing through the intersection of the given lines. Then. terms. EXERCISE 3-2 Find the distance from the 1. The given lines intersect verify this statement by actual substitution. 3 where for is a parameter.3).2). collecting - 7y + + k(4x + 2y - 5) = 0. Find the member of the family which and 4z 2y + has the slope Solution. (1 + 4fc)z + (-7 + 2k)y + 3 - 5* = 0. Then the equation 2) (A& + To Biy + Ci) + k(A& + B*y + C = represents a system of lines through the intersection of the given lines. (3.0. verify this statement. More generally.3) regardless of the value of k. This equation it is of the first degree in x and y represents a system of lines. is ^ Equating this fraction to the required slope gives = 3. using these values for x and t/.42 THE STRAIGHT LINE fc [CHAP. we first observe that the equation is linear for any value of A. line to the point in 2. The slope of each member of this system. This result demonstrates that equation (1) is satisfied by the coordinates Hence the equation defines a family of (2. each problem 1-6. The member of the system for k * 2 is 0. = 0.5 . 5x + I2y + 60 = 0. let the equations C2 = define two intersecting lines. Next we notice that the coordinates of the intersection point reduce each of the parts in parentheses to zero. Furthermore. 4x - 3y = 15. except for the vertical line. + fc(0) . of k. any value Hence We at (2. of x - 7y + 3 = Write the equation of the system of lines through the intersection . and hence satisfy the equation for any value of k. we get (4-9 + 5) + fc(8 + 3- 11) =0.1).0. each line of the family goes through the intersection of the given lines. 3. (4.

13. 51 = 0.4).m(x - 25. y 22. x . y = 2x 4 + b. 28. 6. In the preceding problems 19-26 determine the line of the passes through (3. - + 0. m = 0. and two intersection of the pair of lines 29.2 .2 . 5. 2ar-i/-5 1 The sides of a triangle are x +y+3 = 0. 9x + 2y - k.3 . 0. x + i/-4 = 0. 32. x . sum of the intercepts equal to 10. +y+ -0. 14. through (5. (3. 3y 4. 21. 3x In each problem 29-34 find the equation of the line which passes through the and satisfies the other given condition. 18. -8).5). + y- - Write the equation of the system of lines possessing the given property in each problem 11-18. -2x + 5y + 7 = 0. and 5x - 4y - on the lines defined by 2x 0.5 = 0. 4z 15x 3z/ 8y 24 0. 20. system which find the 27. (-3. + y .0). 26. lines of slope 3.2y = 3. all Tell possessed by the lines of each system in problems 19-26. + 2 = 0. 17.0). (6.y . Passing through (-3. (4.3-6) 3. 10. x 6s . intercepts are equal. Having the x-intercept twice the y-mtercept. members passing 5 Write the equation of the family of units from the origin. (4* +y+ 1) + fc(3x + ly) = 0. parallel lines in 4x - 9 = 13.0. (4x 7y - 7) + ky = 0. . Parallel to 12. In each case assign three values to the parameter and draw the corresponding lines. 7x - 4y = 3.2). + . 4. 3x + 4y + = 0. 30. Forming with the coordinate axes a what geometric property is triangle of area 16. a vertical line. 34. 9. 15. each problem 7-10. 8.-!). Perpendicular to 2z 5y + 3 = 0.0. 0. = 7. 3). passing through (0. Determine the distance between the pair of 7. 11.5y = 4. y = mx + = 4. 33.0. FAMILY OF LINES THROUGH INTERSECTION OF TWO LINES x 43 + y .4y . 19. 8# 7 34 = z 0.4 = 0.2 =0.0). x + by . Without solving for the 20 3y + 4 = 0. vertices. m = -3. 3s + y . . 35. 3x . Through the intersection of x - 2y + 7 = and 5x - ly - 3 = 0. 5z -f 3y 31. find the equations of the altitudes. Having the y-intercept equal to Having the 16. 12z 15z x + - 5y = 12x + 5i/ = 11 104. 3* y + y - 10.lit/ = 0.

44 36.60 = 0.and 5x .12 . 3 Find the equations of the bisectors of the angles formed by the lines .I2y . origin to the line. where w is the inclination of the perpendicular segment drawn from the 38.2 = 0. 3 * lines + this in normal form. [Suggestion: Let P(x.y) be a point 3# on a bisector and use the fact that each point of a bisector is equally distant from 4x + the sides. Show that in Write the equation Ax + By + C = form the coefficient of x is equal to cos w and the coefficient of y is equal to sin w. THE STRAIGHT LINE [CHAP. . x + 2y Find the equations of the bisectors of the angles formed by the and 2x + y .] 37.

The coordinates of each point of the plane are changed under a translation of axes. and similarly directed. We shall find in tion process. To see how the coordinates of a point are changed by a translation of The new axes O'X' and O'Y' are parallel respecaxes. The new equation will depend on the original equation and the location of the new axes. Hence * = *' + /. 4-1. the equation of a curve referred to the original axes and the equation of the same curve referred to the new axes are. Suppose that we have a curve in the coordinate plane and the equation which represents the curve. where the 45 new origin 0' is any chosen . y = y' + fc. and OF. = NP = MO' + QP = k + y'.OM + O'Q .h + x'. is Chapter 5 that considerable advantage is gained by the transformaThere the study of second degree equations and their loci greatly simplified by the proper location of the coordinate axes. (1) These formulas give the relations hold for all of the old and new coordinates. for the coordinates of any point when referred to the old axes and let P x and It is 1 be the coordinates of the point evident from the figure that y' P when referred to the new axes.. not the same.k). 4-2 Translation of axes. x y . The process of changing from one pair of axes to another is called a transformation of coordinates. many of a practical nature. Thus the new axes can be obtained by shifting the old axes h units horizontally and fc units Let x and y stand vertically while keeping their directions unchanged. The coordinates of the new origin 0' tively to the old axes OX referred to the original axes are denoted by (h. Consequently. Numerous problems. the transformation is called a translation of axes. ON . We wish to take another pair of axes in the plane and find the equation of the same curve with respect to the new axes. notice Fig. When the new axes are parallel to the original axes. can be conveniently begun with the coordinate axes in a certain position and carried forward more easily by using axes in another position.CHAPTER 4 TRANSFORMATION OF COORDINATES 4-1 Introduction. in general. The device of transforming coordinates is a powerful and much used procedure. They points of the plane.

Making these substitutions in the given equation.3(x' . Holding for all points of the plane. 4-2.3*' + 6 + 2y' + 6 1 12 12 x'y -6 = = 0. The transformed equation has no first degree terms. is translated to the point 2. Here h = x 2 and k = 3. Hence the y translation equations (1) are = x' - 2 and - y' + get 3. 0. Solution.46 TRANSFORMATION OF COORDINATES [CHAP. the substituf f tions x h for x. Both sets of axes and the graph are drawn in Fig. Translate the axes so that the equation 2z 2 is + 3# 2 - 10* + ISy + 26 - transformed to a simpler form. 0. the formulas apply in particular to the points of a curve.6 .3). EXAMPLE 2. EXAMPLE 1. Consequently. Thus we have Hence we use the translation formulas with h and k unknown. We do not know in advance what the translation should be. and y k for y in the equation of a curve referred to + + the original axes yield the equation of the same curve referred to the translated axes. The origin of the new axes is 2 units to the left of the old origin and 3 units upward. 4 y X' point of the plane. The graph is more easily constructed by use of this equation and the new axes. r we (x x'y' - + 3z' - 2)Q/' + 3) 2y' . Find the transformed equation xy of - 3x + 2y ( 12 = if the origin Solution.2) + 2(y' + 3) . .

Thus we obtain.5x + (25/4)] + 3(y + 6y + 9) = . In this form we observe that the transformation equations x = x' 5/2 and = y' 3 will yield an equation free of first degree terms. 4z 6y' + + EXAMPLE 3. 0.3) FIGURE 4-2 2(x' 2x' 2 -f 3i/ 2 + 0.10(x' + + . (4/i + 3(y' + k)* . By a translation of axes. 2 -26 27/2. k = 3. . or 4x' 2 -h /2 6i/ = 27. This simplification can also be made by completing the squares in the x and y Using this plan. find a simplification of the equation x2 - 6x - 6y - 15 = 0. These values and 10 = This gives 4h for h and k reduce equation (2) to 2x' 2 + 2 3?/' - (27/2) - 0.4-2] TRANSLATION OF AXES Y' 47 0' (-2. + (25/2) + 27.(5/2)]' + 3(y + 3)' 2[x -fa 2 ) ) -26. we have from the original equation 2[x 2 = + 3(# + 6y . as y /2 2 = 27. before.10)*' + (6* + 18)//' + 2fc + 3* + h)* fc) 2 2 W + + 26 lOfc + 18* + 26 = ft) 0. + 18 = and hence h = 5/2. (2) We 6& set the coefficients of x' and y' equal to zero. terms.

1. 9. By translating the origin to (3.15) = A. + 3) + (y + 5) . this equation of axes and the graph are drawn in Fig. and may not be by eliminating the x' term and the constant terms. -3). This result can also be obtained by completing the square in the x terms. 6(*-3). (-3. Thus the given equation yields selecting the translation x2 - 6x (x - +9 2 3) - 60 6(y + 15 + + 4). becomes x 12 = Both sets EXERCISE 4-1 Determine the new equation in each problem 1-8 the given point. We can achieve a Thus k.6/1 . however. x .4).6y' + (h* .6(z' + h) . solving the equations simultaneously tion 2^-6 = gives h = 3.(2. 5. eliminated.25. 2 . 2 2. 0. we have (x' x' 2 x'* + 2Ax' + (2h + h)* .6).48 TRANSFORMATION OP COORDINATES [CHAP.) 0.6X . 4).-5).0.0.3). (2/-2)' (x = = 6.15 = 15 = Qk + h Qx . if the origin is translated to 3x + 2y 2 3. These values for h and k lead 2 - 6i/' - 0. 4-3.Qk .' 2 and i/' terms have coefficients independent of h and simplification. and which will eliminate the x' term and the constant terms. (4.6(i/' + . (-6. (2.Sy + 48 . 2 f 6/z> 6t/'' The a. x* + y* + I2x . Applying the translation formulas. 0. - 15 = to the equa- = x' 4. 4 Y FIGURE 4-3 -X' Solution. 5x - 4y +3- 0.ly + 46 .4* . 4. 6. (1.2). and k A2 - 6h - 6A.

y' sin MP = MR + RP = NS + RP = x' sin + y' cos 0. We shall derive transformation formulas. 15.2x .RS = x' cos .10 = 0. 2x2 x 2 + + 2 2// Sx 8x + Qy 5 = 3 0. That is. the new axes may be obtained by rotating the original axes through an angle about the origin. = 0. + 4// + I2x + 8y +4 = 0. ROTATION OP AXES xy 49 - x - x-8* . x2 xy 2x + 2 if 11. When the hew axes have the same origin but directions different from the original axes.?/') when referred to the new axes OX' and OF'.y) referred to the original axes and OF. 2 z/ first degree 17.-2). 0. for a rotation through an angle 0.MN = O. 2 y* 2 + 8y + 0.1). 9. (1. 4-4 the coordinates of the point P are (x. + lOx + 4y + 24 = 0. x' = to the x-axis and NS OS and is y' = SP. In Fig. - 2x 4t/ - 8i/ 1 15 = 0. Hence we have = O.4-3] 7. . 6</ - 16. x2 2 i/ 18.(l.3// -8 = 2 4 0.V . y In each problem 9-14 give the point to which the origin must be translated in order that the transformed equation shall have no first degree term. 10.y + 3. 12. 2 i/ + 4x + 5 = 0. The parallel to the y-axis. the transformation is called a rotation of axes. and are (*'. . which express the old coordinates in terms of the new coordinates. 13.4y 2x . OX We notice that x = OM segment RS is drawn x y parallel and y = A/P. 14. z + = 4-3 Rotation of axes. 8. Find also the new equation. 0. = 0.V . + 3r. 9x 4y - = In each problem 15-18 eliminate the constant term and one of the terms.

are [CHAP. _ yL V2 V2 y ~ = JL_ \/2 ]L \/2* We make the substitutions in the given equation and have 2x'y' +9= 0. Solution. therefore. 4 The = y = x x' cos 9 *' sin +y . FIGURE 4-5 . A proof that the formulas hold generally could be made by observing the proper conventions as to the sign of and the signs of all distances involved. The graph and both sets of axes are constructed in Fig. 4-5.y f f sin 0. X the rotation formulas (1) are = ~~ JL. The formulas hold.2 cos 9 J (1) We have derived these formulas for the special case in which 6 is an acute angle and the point P is in the first quadrant of both sets of axes.50 TRANSFORMATION OF COORDINATES rotation formulas. for any and for all positions of P. 1. Transform the equation x* y* 9 = by rotating the axes Using = 45. however. EXAMPLE through 45.

0. 1. 2 2 y cos 6) f We perform the indicated multiplications. . V3x .3xy + 4y + 7 = 2 10. x 2 + TV + y 2 = 1 .V3xy + 2*/ = 2. 2 2 = 30. like terms. cos2 0)y' 2 = 8. We employ the rotation formulas ?/. (2) Since the x'y' term is to vanish. r> + if = a z .4v/ 5y = 0. whence tan 20 = \/3.y = 4. arc tan v/3. =60. 3xy x 2 11. = 2 2 - .2 . Substituting for x and 2(z' cos we f get - y' sin 6)* + ^(x cos 6 . 12.y' sin 6)(x' sin 6 + + (x' sin 6 + y' cos BY = 8.0. equation 9. it will be desirable to have equations in their simplest forms. we set its coefficient equal to zero. 2 2 Thus we have -2 sin 6 cos 6 + V3(cos . x 6. X y = 4. 51 EXAMPLE tion of 2x 2 + V3xy _Find the acute angle of rotation such that the transformed equa= 8 will have no x'y' term. + 3xy - +y= In the two preceding Simplification of second degree equations. = 45. z2 + V&ry + 4?/ 8\/5x + 2y = 3. = arc tan J. 2 . + y = 6. = 60. x 2 - 4xt/ 8. in problems 1-8 when the axes are rotated through the 3. 4. plest forms of second degree equations. reduces equation (2) to A rotation of 30 eliminates the x'y' term. in order to find the required angle 6. = 40. 7. . = 30. sections we used transformations which led to simpler forms of various first In the next chapter we shall study second degree equations systematically. the equation -sin 20+ V3cos20 = 20 0. We now consider the sim- and second degree equations. collect and obtain 2 (2 cos 6 + V3 sin 6 cos + sin 0)z' + . To facilitate this study. 0. Find the angle of rotation in each problem 9-12 such that the transformed will have no x'y' term. = 45. x2 j 2 - xy + 5 x 0. = 45.\/3 sin B)x'y' + (2 sin 2 (-2 6 sin cos + cos \/3 cos2 2 - >/3 sin + 0. + y . 5. 2. y* + Solution.sin 6) = 2 Using the identities sin 26 = 2 sin 6 cos and cos 28 = cos takes the form sin 2 0. This value of EXERCISE 4-2 Find the new equation given angle.4-4] SIMPLIFICATION OF SECOND DEGREE EQUATIONS 2.

Hence 6 must satisfy the equation B' If =B is cos 26 - (A - C) sin 26 = 0. and C must be different from zero in order for the equation to be of the second degree. an essential part of the simplification consists in obtaining a transformed equation lacking the product term x'y'. Thus we see that an equation of the form (1) with an xy term can be transformed into an equation free of the product term x'y'. that not all the coefficients of terms involving one of the variables is zero. and A and C are both different from zero. E' = E cos 6 . B. C' = A sin 2 6 . Section 4-2. A' B' .C) sin 26. If B= 0. 2 6.52 TRANSFORMATION OP COORDINATES [CHAP. both x and y appear in the equation.D sin 6. which will reduce the equation one of the forms By + D'x' = or A V + E'y' = 2 0. We shall show how to determine immediately an angle of rotation which will serve for this purpose.D cos 6 + E sin 6. the equation C'y'* A V + B'x'y' + where the new coefficients are + D'x' + E'y' + F' - 0.A cos + B sin cos + C sin 2 . the solution tan 26 B * A-C This formula yields the angle of rotation except when A = C. the coefficient of x'y' is B cos 26. We assume. equation in x and y sented by Ax* repre- + Bxy + Cy* + Dx + Ey + F = 0. F' -F. (1) At least one of the constants A.B sin 6 cos 6 + C cos 2 D' . we may find the translation.B cos 26. If B ^ 0. A 76 C. as in (1) to Example 2 Section 4-2. 4 is The general second degree. after collecting like terms. is If B and one of the coefficients 3.(A. Then the term vanishes by giving 6 the value 45. . too. That is. The x y term f f will vanish only if its coefficient is zero. 6. or quadratic. Then it is easy to find the translation which will reduce the equation to the form AV + 2 C'y' 2 + F' = 0. as in Example 2. we may complete the squares in the x and y terms. In equation (1) we substitute the right members of the rotation formulas for x and 2 y. A and C also zero. If A = C. This gives.

73^-52- _ -24 7 ' whence cos2*Hence . The rotation These functions can be obformulas. one of these forms can be obtained by a rotation and a translation (if necessary). second degree equation 53 We summarize THEOREM. we shall restrict 6 EXAMPLE. 0. Solution. we have tan ofl _ 20- B -7 T5 __ -72 J^Tc. = 46. A in which B= can be transformed by a translation into one of A'x'* the forms + +F= + E'y' = cy + D'X' = C'y'* 2 0. find the angle of rotation. tained from the trigonometric identities sin 6 = *//I cos 26 ^ a cos 6 = ll A/ + cos 26 The positive sign is selected before each radical because to an acute angle. The angle of rotation 6 (chosen acute) is obtained from the equation tan2g = B A r C > if A * C. however. By this if A = C. A!*'* (2) // B j& 0.4-4] SIMPLIFICATION OF SECOND DEGREE EQUATIONS the preceding results in the following theorem. anc| ^ = 4x' . . theorem we see how to find the value of tan 26. cos 6 = /I ' + cos 26 3 5 5 \ 2 The rotation formulas are then 3z' x 4t/' ^ ^ . o. Reduce the equation 73jr2 - 72xy + 2 52// + lOOr - 200// + 100 = to one of the forms (2). contain sin 6 and cos 6. We To first transform the equation so that the product term x'y' will be lacking. HB sin 6 A/ /A 4 -cos20 = 2 and . . .

4-6. EXERCISE 4-3 Translate the axes so that the constant term axes and the graph: 1.1) yields the desired form x "2 It is + "2 42/ -4 = 0. The graph and this equation than by using the original the three sets of axes are constructed in Fig. Finally. Draw both sets of 3z - 4y = 6.7y . 8V2t. x' or the y' term is elimi- 3x - 4t/ = 6.2vHy .1602/ + 400 = 7x + 4Sxy . Completing the squares in the x' and y terms. 2. 2 2 2xy + y* = 3x 2 2 2/ 0.2x . a translation to the point (2. z' 2 we get + 2 4i/' - 4x' f - Sy' +4= 0. 0. 73* .72xy + My* + 380x .16 = 0. x +y= 0. 4 FIGURE 4-6 By substituting for x and y in the given equation and simplifying. of the equations 5-8 to one of the simplified forms (2). is eliminated. 2 2 .0. Reduce each 5.150z . -8 + 2V3xy + .54 TRANSFORMATION OP COORDINATES [CHAP. 4. Rotate the axes through an acute angle such that the nated: 3. 7. 8. x = 6. much easier to draw the graph from equation. 2 2 this equation becomes Cr'-2) +4(2/'- 1) -4=0. x 6.5Qy + 100 .

z2 x 2 13. positive. .6 = 0. Write the factors. z 14. + x + = 0. 11. 1 Work out equation all the steps of the rotation transformation which Section 4-4. SIMPLIFICATION OF SECOND DEGREE EQUATIONS 55 Show that the is Ax2 + Dx + F = fies graph of the quadratic equation in one variable one line. two parallel lines.4-4] 9. according as the discriminant 4AF is zero. is applied to . 10. z2 2 - x 12.1 = 0. +x (1). or negative. + 6z + 9 = 0. left Draw members of the following equations as the product of two linear the graphs corresponding to the real factors. or that no real value of x satisZ) 2 the equation. .

by numerous important been found. is The fixed point called an element. theoretical and practical applications which have Obviously. this reason. 5-1). The is the vertex and the generating line in any position vertex separates the cone into two parts called nappes. and those having loci represent different Our principal interest. The plane may cut both nappes and make a section of two parts. two variables is called a conic This designation comes from the fact that the locus or curve can be obtained as the intersection of a right circular cone and a plane. not all second degree locus. * A right circular cone is the surface generated by a line which passes through a fixed point on a fixed line and moves so that it makes a constant angle with the fixed line.CHAPTER 5 THE SECOND DEGREE EQUATION In this chapter equations in two variables. Any linear equation in two variables has a In contrast. or in Ax2 + Bxy The study + <V + Dx + Ey + F = (1) of this kind of equation in some respects is less simple than the case of the linear equation. The section consisting of two intersecting lines approaches two parallel lines if the cone is made For to approach a cylinder by letting the vertex recede indefinitely far. will types of be in equations which have section or. An intersection of this kind is sometimes called a degenerate conic. however. Today the interest in conic sections is enhanced The locus of a quadratic equation in more simply. In addition pass through the vertex of the cone and determine a point. Various properties of conies were discovered and this phase of geometry received much emphasis. may cut all the elements of one nappe and make a closed curve If the plane is parallel to an element. quadratic. The general quadratic equation 0.* Conic sections were investigated. not passing through the vertex of a cone. loci. (Fig. we shall study second degree. loci. a line. and the locus is a straight line. equations have curves. long before analytic methods were introduced. or two intersecting lines. a conic. 56 . different kinds of conic sections are possible. x and y may be expressed in the form 6-1 Introduction. with each extending indefinitely far along to these sections the plane may a nappe. particularly by Greek mathematicians. A plane. two parallel lines are classed with the degenerate conies. the intersection extends indefinitely far along one nappe but does not cut the other.

in Section 4-4. depending on the values of the coefficients. only the coordinates of the origin satisfy the equation. however. Equation (2) has no locus if A. If F = 0. C. and A and C have the same sign. but we do notice them. and F are all of the same sign. Selections of values for the coefficients may be variously made so that equation (2) represents two intersecting . 0. tional cases are not our main interest.5-2] THE SIMPLIFIED EQUATIONS OF CONICS 57 FIGURE 5-1 metric 5-2 The simplified equations of conies. equations (2)-(4) represent conies. second degree equations rather than as the intersections In our study we shall take advantage of the simpli- equations A* + Cy 2 2 2 Cy Xx which were obtained +F= + Dx = + Ey = 0. for then there are no real values of x and y for which the terms of the left member add to zero. Normally. Despite the interesting geoway in which conies first became known. There are exceptional The excepcases. ' (2) (3) (4) 0. we shall approach their loci of study as of planes fied and cones.

but may have no negative value. through the origin and is symmetric with respect to the x-axis. 6-3 The parabola. and and (4).58 lines. 5 An equation of the form (3) or (4) parallel lines. the values of y increase numerically. or FIGURE 5-2 . we shall discover that equations of the form (2) represent different types of curves. We shall consider first equations (3) one second degree term. depending on the relative values of A and C. The graph passes observe at once certain characteristics of its locus. The point and line loci of second degree equations are called degenerate conies. The equations (3) and (4) are not essentially different so This statement may be justified by noting far as their loci are concerned. that a rotation of 90 will transform either equation into one having the form of the other. but the locus is a line if the coefficient of the first degree always term is zero. x may have any positive value or zero. and (c) A and C have opposite signs. (b) A and C have the same sign but are unequal. which -can be reduced to one of these forms. has a locus. Each of these equations has only in this respect is simpler than equation (2). Aside from the exceptional cases. We shall consider the cases in which (a) A = C. THE SECOND DEGREE EQUATION two [CHAP. the equations to the forms By division and transposition we reduce (5) (6) which be found more convenient. is called a Restricting our attention for the moment to equation (5). Hence the graph will The locus of an equation of either of these forms. as was previously noted. As x increases. If a > 0. or one line. we parabola.

the graph of equation (6) passes through the origin and is symmetric with respect to the #-axis. 6-4 The focus-directrix property of a parabola. If a < 0. Similarly.a) + ?/ x2 + 2ax + a (x + a) 2 . Keeping distances in mind. 5-2).5-4] THE FOCUS-DIRECTRIX PROPERTY OF A PARABOLA 59 Y O FIGURE 5-3 extends indefinitely far into the first and fourth quadrants (Fig. The parabola opens upward or downward depending on whether a is positive or negative. we look see that the left member of y* formation. then x may assume only zero and negative values. tain obvious properties of a parabola. we inquire if the equation may be The right altered so that both sides represent like powers of distances. Taking positive square roots. Having observed cer- more closely for further in- = 4ax represents the square and the right member is a constant times the first power of a distance. . The intersection of the axis and the parabola is called the vertex. and the graph extends into the second and third quadrants. 2 . we obtain (x + a). . With this suggestion. The left side now appears to need a first degree term in x. 2 i/ 2 2 2ax 2 : x 2 - 2ax (x +a +y . member may be regarded as the middle term of the square of a binomial. we return to the original equation and introduce a first degree term in the Thus \ve have left member by transposing from the right member. The line of symmetry of a parabola is called the axis of the parabola. This changes and it becomes a perfect square by the addition of x 2 + 4a2 the left side to x 2 + 4a 2 + ?/ 2 which is not a perfect square. We of a distance. .

The state and the fixed line the directrix. Hence we conclude that all points of the line x - This equation a parabola are equally distant from a fixed point and a fixed fixed point is named the focus this result as a theorem. a. The length of the latus parabola rectum can be determined from the coordinates of its end points. line. Each point of a parabola point (focus) and a fixed line (directrix).a) and the directrix is the line y the focus and perpendicular to the axis of a latus rectum. We THEOREM. 2a) and (a. The focus of The focus is equally distant from a fixed = 4az 2 = 4ay of x y* is is F(a. we find 2a.0). member is to be chosen so that (x + a) is posi- subject to a ready interpretation in terms of disThe left member is the distance between any point (x.60 THE SECOND DEGREE EQUATION in the right is [CHAP.y) of the tances. F(0.2a). parabola and the point F(a. however. The vertex and the extremities of the latus rectum are sufficient for making a rough sketch of the parabola. The right member is the distance from a to the point (x. A few additional points.0) and the directrix is the line x = = a. 5 where the sign tive. This makes the length equal to the numerical value of 4a. By is The chord drawn through given the Latin name 2 substituting a for x in the equation y = 4ox. 4a2 and y = Hence the end points of the latus rectum are (a. .y).

Summarizing.0). (5) represents The parabola opens negative. (6) (6) x 2 = Equation (a. we make the following remarks regarding the equations 2 y = 4.a). 4ay. if a is a parabola with vertex at the origin and focus at to the right if a is positive and to the left if Equation (6) represents a parabola with vertex at the origin and downward a is The parabola opens upward if a is The numerical value of a is the negative. constructed rr parabolas corresponding Figures 5-4 to 5-7 show carefully to the equations y 2 = 4ax and 2 = 4ai/. positive distance FIGURE 5-7 .5-4] THE FOCUS-DIRECTRIX PROPERTY OF A PARABOLA 61 would greatly improve the accuracy. and focus at (0.

Solution. Substituting this value for we get x 2 - 16*/. and its sign tells in which direction to measure this distance. and passes through the point (3.6). The length of the latus rectum is equal to the absolute value of 4a. and the given required equation is y = point is the upper end of the latus rectum. The graph of an equation in one of these forms can be quickly drawn. and 4a = -12. The focus is at (3. = 4. */ the value of The equation of the parabola is of the form 2 = 4ax. the vertex and ends of the latus rectum being sufficient for a The forms which examples. EXAMPLE 2. A parabola has its vertex at the origin. Find its equation.4). We illustrate their use in some EXAMPLE 1 . Solution. rough sketch.62 THE SECOND DEGREE EQUATION [CHAP. (5) and (6) can be applied to find the equations of parabolas satisfy certain specified conditions. The graph is constructed in Fig. To determine a. Write the equation of the parabola with vertex at the origin and the focus at (0. Equation and hence a (6) applies here. The 2 I2x. 5-8. we substitute the coordinates of the given point in this equation. 5 between the vertex and the focus. The distance from the vertex to the a. FIGURE 5-8 . focus is 4. 36 Thus we obtain = 4o(-3).0). its axis along the x-axis.

0). Focus at (-4. 15. 5-9. 2 // 4. Find the coordinates of the focus. Directrix is - 4 = 0. 6) and (3.) Solution. x + 6 = 0. y 2 = -16*. 12. and passes through Latus rectum 12. and in this case is 6. 7. is 8. 16. is focus EXERCISE 5-1 Find the coordinates of the focus. x 2 - = 0. Focus on the ?y-axis. From the = 3/2. 3'2) and the directrix is y = 3 '2. Therefore the coordinates of the focus 6. (2. x* 6. the equation of the directrix. For more accurate graphing a few additional points could be plotted. The length of the latus rectum is numerically equal to 4a. each curve. and the equation of the directrix of each parabola in problems 1-6. y* + = 0. Hence the on the negative //-axis and the parabola opens downward. Opens to the right. and passes through ( and the length of the 1. Axis along the Ends of latus and passes through (4. = -10#. ?/-axis. we find a equation 4a = are (0. 14. By \2y. Focus at Directrix (3. y 9. 2. (See Fig. Opens to the left. 1). latus rectum . 1.0). rectum are (3. the coordinates of the ends of the latus Sketch rectum. and opens downward. 5. is 16. 3* 3.6).8). 13. The latus rectum extends 3 units to the left and 3 units to the right of the focus. The equation of a parabola is j* 2 = 6#. FIGURE 5-0 EXAMPLE 3.5-4) THE FOCUS-DIRECTRIX PROPERTY OF A PARABOLA 63 y (-' I). The equation is of the form (6). and the length of the latus rectum. The graph may be sketched by drawing through the vertex and the ends of the latus rectum. Write the equation of the parabola with vertex at the origin and which satisfies the given conditions in each problem 7-16. 11. where a is negative. 3). * = = 4x. 10.

we find the squares of the intercepts on the axes to be 2 2 Using a = -F/A and 6 = -F/C. find its equation. Indicating the radius by r. or an equation reducible to this defined as an ellipse. we have the more suggestive form x* If + 3.y) from the origin. Find the width of the cable of problem 17 at a height 50 feet above the lowest point. We shall regard a and b as positive. equation (2) becomes F/A and F/C. b* (8) The and intercepts are thus brought into prominence. 6-5 The ellipse. 5 17. we may write the equation as x2 + y 2 = F/A.64 THE SECOND DEGREE EQUATION [CHAP. A cable suspended from supports which are at the same height and 400 feet apart has a sag of 100 feet. If the cable hangs in the form of a parabola. Hence the locus is a circle and the right member is the square of the radius. (2) A and C have the same sign and F has the opposite sign. taking the origin at the lowest point.2 = r 2. We notice first that the graph of equation (8) to both coordinate axes. We next consider the equation Ax* where + Cy* + F = 0. The left member is the square of the distance of any point (x. (7 ) A is 9* form. Solving for x and y in turn. is a > 6. the locus of equation (2). C. for definiteness take and for still other reasons this form will be convenient. symmetric with respect we have and FIGURE 5-10 . If A = C. By setting x and y in turn equal to zero. 18.

and B'B(= 26) The of the major axis are called vertices. called foci. fixed points. first (The letter in FIGURE 5-11 The graph of (9) is drawn in Fig. The ends called the major axis of the ellipse. The ellipses represented by equations (8) and (9) are alike except for their positions relative to the coordinate axes.0). are on the major shall prove this property of center.5-6] THE FOCI OF AN ELLIPSE 62 . 65 These equations show that y2 must not exceed 2 . An fact that the sum of the distances important property of the ellipse is the from each point of the ellipse to two fixed points is constant.6). and cuts the y-axis at B'(0. The segment F'7 (= is 2a) is the minor axis.) major and minor axes is the center of the and V comes from the by V ellipse.0) and F(a. The graph (Fig.-6) and B(0. 6-6 The foci of an ellipse. We the . and z2 must not exceed a In other words. The axis and equidistant from the ellipse. the permissible values of the variables are given by < x < a and -6 < y < b. 5-10) cuts the z-axis at the -a points V'(-a. 5-11. intersection of the designation of the vertices the word vertex.

which shows equation of the ellipse. The 2 2 2a2 # 2 . Hence we have FIGURE 5-12 .0) and undetermined.2z2 + If 2if + 2c + 2 Vx . where for the moment c the vertex V we have F'V + FV = F'V + V'F' stant 2a is [CHAP. F(c. relation and the equation equal to 2a. 2 4 4 S2 . ?/) the signs of each of the terms 2a 2 6 2 2a 2 ?/ 2 and 26V are reversed. An examination of this expression reveals that (a 2 equal to +6 -z 2 2 . 2 // 2 + 4 ?/ .2cV + c + 2xV + 2c 6 2 the radicand . squaring and + c) + 2 2 i/ + \/(x - 2 c) + y*. (8). (b) we 2 replace c 2 by a 4 becomes 2a2 ?/ 2 a4 + 6 + x + ?/ 4 2a2 6 2 . (a) collecting like terms. 2a. each of these segments must have a length equal to a. the relation c .2a2 6 2 = 0. + that the signs of the three terms may be reversed without changing the value of the radicand.0) denote the foci. from the right triangle OFfi. is we next show that F'P + FP this is any point of the ellipse. Hence ellipse to the foci is the value of c equal to 2a. For = the sum of the distances we need to show that the sum of the distances from the vertex to from any point on the Thus the conthe foci. yields 26 x if . where P(x. may be determined.y) by S. By considering next the special point B.THE SECOND DEGREE EQUATION Figure 5-12 shows the graph of equation (8).2aV + + 26V it is 2 2b*y* + 2x*if. This 2 = 62 a2 Using this gives. In order that F'B FB should be + equal to 2a. 5 The is points F'(~c. Denoting sum S = V(x Whence. we have of the ellipse.

0).0) and (r. The chord through a to be the ends of one latus rectum. Y 5-13 . We state the result as . The sum of the distances from each point of an ellipse to two fixed points (foci) of the major axis is constant and equal to the length of the major foci axis.6 2 'a) are found using the relation c = a . THEOREM. The c2 of b2 . We notice that a2 + 6 2 > x 2 + ?/ 2 and hence a2 + b 2 2 x2 > 0. a theorem. This is necessary because the radical is the product of the two positive radicals of equation (a). . where = a2 - b\ focus and perpendicular to the major axis is called a latus rectum. It is necessary also to select the positive square root of 7/ 2 4a since S is the sum of two positive quantities. The ellipse and each latus in Fig. -^ +| = 2 1 the points ( r.c). where - a2 - The still c foci 2 of 2 -f . b 2 a) and (r. c) and (0. Substituting x = c in the equation of the ellipse (8) and 2 2 2 fo the points (e.5-6] 2 THE FOCI OF AN ELLIPSE 67 rr + 2a 2 2b 2 + 2(a + b 2 2 2 ?/ 2 ) = 4a2 and We chose the positive square root of the radical of equation (b). is Hence the length rectum are drawn of the latus rectum 26 2 /a. That we chose the positive square root may be observed from the figure. 5-13. = 2 1 are the points (0.

The location of the foci shows that the center of the ellipse is at the origin. Hence the required equation is . For example.6. becomes narrow. If e = 0. makes a = 6.) Find the equation of the ellipse with foci at (0. As e approaches 1. and 6 approaches 0. starting as a circle. Thus the ellipse. Using the relation b 2 = a2 c2 we find b 2 = 20. 2 greater than the denominator of y the major axis . c approaches a. suppose that we visualize an ellipse in which the major axis remains constant. Sketch the ellipse 9z 2 + 25y = 225. 36 + 20 = L 2 EXAMPLE Solution. EXAMPLE (at 0. The ratio c/a is called the eccenthe ellipse.4) and a vertex Solution. while e starts at zero and ap2 2 2 c show that proaches unity. that the equation is of the form (9). 2. each receding from ellipse is a circle. with all its points near the major axis. The two foci are then coincident at the origin and the c As e increases. the equations e = c/a and b = a = and a = 6. The given vertex. 1. and 6 decreases. the foci separate. The shape of the ellipse depends on the value of its eccentricity. 5 6-7 The eccentricity of an ellipse. tricity e of the origin. antf that c = 4.68 THE SECOND DEGREE EQUATION [CHAP. Dividing by 225 gives the form 25 Since the denominator of x 2 is + 9 = L . 6 units from the center.

(0. The perimeter of a triangle is 30. minor axis 4. We see also that a2 Hence the vertices are at points indicated. From the ends of the axes. + if = 4.0). 2 *' ?/ 25 *' *' 3 +x 9~~ ' ?y * 1 } ' 169 1 IB 4-^-1 + 25" J2 lu + T69M44" r2 * i 4 4> a 8 y * 25 r2 * + i ~ i l 1 ' 16 "2 ?v R 5 + -49 25.V2) and (v/6. Passing through (3. of the vertices. 9. line A 24.5) are two is 8.0). 11. . 2 + r *' -98. 16.5) and (7. Vertex (4. Show 23.r 2 + 4// = 100. A axes. 20.0). 4. Show rod of length b moves with its ends in contact with the coordinate that the point at a distance a from the end in contact with the z-axis if a+ ^ describes an ellipse a 6. 2 2 2 2 axes. and the ends of each this information sketch the curves. Passing through (3.0) and (3. is a positive number different from dinate axes. 12.5/3). 5) and (0.3). Figure 5-14 shows the curve with several important along the z-axis. 14. end of minor axis (0. End of minor axis (5. and the The length of a latus rectum is 26 2 /a = 18/5. length of latus rectum 9. (3. 4). x + 4*/ = 9. Write the equations of the ellipses whose axes coincide with the coordinate and which satisfy the conditions given in problems 11-18.0) Find the equation of 21.2). Find the locus of the third vertex. 19. 18. The ordinates of a curve are k times the ordinates of the circle x 2 is + 1 2 ?/ . length of latus rectum f$. 17. 22. The locations of foci at (4. the ends of the axes and the ends of each latus rectum are sufficient for making a sketch of the ellipse. vertex (9.0). b2 = 9. 2J + 3?/ = 12.0). in contact with the x-axis.5-7] is THE ECCENTRICITY OF AN ELLIPSE 69 = 25. Minor Focus axis 12. (5.3). and the points (0.0). circle 2 path. 1 lm foci. and c = Vo2 62 = 4.0). the ends of the minor axis at (0. 13. EXERCISE 5-2 Find the coordinates of the latus rectum in problems 1-10. Find the equation of the locus of the mid-points of the ordinates of the a: + 2 /y = 36. vertex (5. A point moves so that the sum its of its distances from (3. 15. 10.r 2 =L 25 !/ /v 2 i 7. is segment of length 12 moves with its ends always touching the coorFind the equation of the locus of the point on the segment which 4 units from the end. that the curve an ellipse if A. Focus Focus (2.0). = a2 .

The proof of this property of the hyperbola may be made almost exactly as in the case of the ellipse. the equation convenient form for study : C We regard a and b as positive but make no restriction as to their comparative values.0).-6 2 /a) and (c. = c in equation (10) and using a2 + 6 2 the points (c. curve.70 THE SECOND DEGREE EQUATION [CHAP. it has an important relation to the The intersection of the axes is called the center. The earth's orbit is an ellipse with the sun at one focus. Thus we get axes. and is left for the reader. but the segment from B'(0. The segment V'V is the transverse axis. The hyperbola has associated with it two fixed points called the foci.0167. may be written in a more are to be of unlike signs.000. focus and perpendicular to the transverse axis substituting x is By . We A return to the equation Ax 2 + Cy* + F = and now specify that and this case is called a hyperbola. as we shall see. separate parts. and from the second that x may have any real value except those for which x 2 < a2 Hence the hyperbola extends indefinitely far from the axes in each quadrant. These are the greatest and least distances from the earth to the sun.b) is called the conjugate axis. There is no ?/-mtercept. . the relation c2 It is important to note that the relation among the three quantities . This means that the hyperbola consists of two . Hence its length is 26 2 /a.-b) to B(Q.000 miles and the eccentricity is 0.0) and 2 2 2 The difference of the distances from each point F(c. The graph of equation (10) is symmetric with respect to the coordinate The permissible values for x and y become evident when each is expressed in terms of the other.b 2 /a) are found to be the extremities of a latus rectum.0). But there is no part of the graph between the lines x = a and x = a. where c = a + 6 of the hyperbola to the foci is a constant. The chord through a called a latus rectum. The length of the major axis is 186. or branches (Fig. While the conjugate axis has no point in common with the hyperbola. 5-15). The foci of the hyperbola defined by equation (10) are F'(-c. x = | Vb* +y 2 and y = ^ Vz 2 a2 . The graph for If F has the same sign as C. 6-8 The hyperbola. We see from the first of these equations that y may have any real value. Find the distances from the ends of the major axis to the sun. and are called vertices. 5 25. The x-intercept points are V'(-aff) and V(a.

Find the equation of the hyperbola with foci at (0. The hyperbola b2 has its vertices (11) at F'(0. desired equation is . used in connection with the hyperbola is not the same as for ellipse we chose a > b and defined c by the equation 2 for the hyperbola c is defined by c2 = a2 4. 6.5) and a The Using c = 5 and a location of the foci shows that the equation is of the form (11).a).b and no restric- For the tion placed on the relative values of a and b. In this connection the quantity b. where still c = a2 +6 EXAMPLE. To draw the asymptotes. and c as the c 2 = a2 is ellipse. ._. = 3 in the relation c2 = a2 fr2 we find 62 = 16. and the 2 . Solution. the hyperbola has associated with it two lines which are its asymptotes. vertex at (0.-a) 2 and F(0. which seems to have no immediate geometrical interpretation. foci are at F'(0. Hence the + . 62 . Unlike the other conic sections.5-9] THE ASYMPTOTES OF A HYPERBOLA 71 Y FIGURE 5-lf> a. becomes significant.3)._ 25 16 1 6-9 The asymptotes of a hyperbola.-c) and F(0.c).

Thus by subtracting and changing the form.Vx* a a2 ) = b(x . Since the perpendicular distance from a point of the hyperbola to creases as x increases.6). ordinate of the a the ordinate of the hyperbola is less than the however. zero. From symmetry we conclude that the ex- tended diagonals are asymptotes to the hyperbola in each of the four quadrants. and We see that for any x line.Vx* a(x a2 )(s 2 + Vx* . This may be seen more convincingly by examining the difference of the two ordinates. b) and (0. The denominator large as we please by taking x Therefore the difference of the ordinates approaches sufficiently large.a2 ) a 2 ab + Vx is ) x + Vrr 2 - a2 in- The numerator of the last fraction constant. asymptotes. of the hyperbola equations of the diagonal and this and the part y --x > If. Similarly. respectively. 5 we first construct the rectangle (Fig. the cor- responding ordinates are almost equal.72 THE SECOND DEGREE EQUATION [CHAP. totes of the hyperbola of equation (10). the considerations of line is an asymptote of the curve. The part of the hyperbola are. The equation of the other diagonal is of course y = -(b/d)x. 5-16) with a pair of sidei through the vertices perpendicular to the transverse axis and the other sides through The extended diagonals of this rectangle are the asymp(0. and can be made as the line is less than the difference in ^-values. b(x we get . x is many times as large as a. the equations of the asymptotes of the hyperbola (11) are FIGURE 5-16 . we first consider the diagonal To show that these lines are extending into the first quadrant.

If a = 6. Since c is greater than a. Then the a pair of small angles. And the angles can be made near 90 by taking large values for e. however. the branches are enclosed by larger angles. If c increases. and therefore the shape of the hyperbola. For this case the hyperbola is called equilateral because its axes are equal. = a2 + asymptotes make b2 shows that b is small compared with a. by plotting the end points of each latus rectum. so that e is near 1. The branches FIGURE 5-17 . The asymptotes are helpful in sketching a hyperbola. If c is just slightly greater than a. The angle of intersection of the asymptotes. the value of e is greater than relation c2 1. or is named rectangular because its asymptotes intersect at right angles. The ratio c/a is called the eccentricity e of the hyperbola.6-9] THE ASYMPTOTES OP A HYPERBOLA and a I' 73 We may observe that for each of the hyperbolas (10) and (11) the asymptotes be obtained by factoring the left member and equating each factor to zero. enclosed by small angles. The accuracy may be improved considerably. A rough drawing can be made from the associated rectangle and its extended diagonals. the of the hyperbola. depends on the value of e. diverge slowly. the associated rectangle is a square and the asymptotes are perpendicular to each other.

the length and the equations of the asymptotes.2). A projectile. Vertex (4. Many examples of conies have been discovered in natural phenomena.L ~ 4 4 _ x ~ l 25 j 16 I IB 9" _ - l! 21 _ " = i 6 8. 10. Solution. and which 9. through (6. A comparatively recent application of parabolic metal . Passes 16.74 THE SECOND DEGREE EQUATION EXAMPLE. Latus rectum End of conjugate axis (3. [CHAP. 11. vertex (7.0) and the (10. conjugate axis 4. as a ball or bullet. Dividing by 2304 reduces the given equation to the form - _^! = 36 1 64 Here a are = 8. This kind of surface is used in headlights. - 2 */ 49. and important applications of them abound in engineering and industry. 14. focus (3. Passes through (3. using the asymptotes. * 20 z2 " = i *' 4 7. also satisfy the conditions given in problems 9-16. Focus Focus (6. Write the equations of the hyperbolas whose axes are on the coordinate axes.0). Cables of some suspension bridges hang in the form generated by revolving a parabola about its revolution.0). and from foci are c2 = a2 +6 (8. of each latus rectum. travels in a path which is approximately a parabola.0).5).0).\/2) and (2^.! _t= 9 1 1 9 36 V* ' ^= 64 1 16 3 f. (0. 6-10 Applications of conies. The surface of a parabola. 5-17).0).3). 2 we find c = 10.2Vl5). 5. b = 6. axis is called a paraboloid of light A reflecting surface in this is form has the property that telescopes. Sketch each curve.0). . in some and in devices to re- sound waves. 6t 9 * 5< 2f -*. 1 _?. ?/ x2 36. end of conjugate axis (0. From this EXERCISE 5-3 For each hyperbola 1-8 find the coordinates of the vertices and foci. The vertices therefore Each latus rectum has a length of 9 units.0).5) and (8. emanating flect at the focus reflected in the direction of the axis. The paths of some comets are nearly parabolic. 13. 5 Sketch the curve 36x2 - 64i/ 2 = 2304. vertex (4. length of latus rectum 10. The equations of the + 4y = 0. 12. Conjugate axis 6. 15. and 3x 4y = asymptotes are 3x information the hyperbola can be drawn (Fig.

to the vertex. The rotation which removes the product term in the equation of a conic orients the coordinate axes in the directions of the axes of a central conic (ellipse and hyperbola) or. tion to remove the first Having eliminated the product term. as we learned in Section 4-4. The this chapter are of great simplified forms of the equations of conies which we have used in advantage in drawing the graphs and studying . In this case the plane receives radio signals from three stations of known locations. as of a gun. Much use is made of semi-elliptic springs and elliptic-shaped gears. The position of the post. emanates. the difference between the distances of the posts from the gun can be determined. The surfaces reflect radio waves same way that light is reflected. A surface of the form made by revolving an ellipse about its major axis is so shaped that sound waves emanating at one focus are focus. makes one axis parallel to the conies thus far axis of the parabola. in the case of a parabola. are on the coordinate axes and the center and origin therefore coincide. Any conic. of locating the place very interesting and important application of the hyperbola is that from which a sound. brings the origin of coordinates to the center of the central conic and. Then. In the case of the parabola the axis is on one of the coordinate axes and the vertex and origin coincide. directing outgoing The planets have elliptic paths with the sun at a focus. in the case of the parabola. or one first degree term and the con- stant term. In view of this information concerning conies and the coordinate axes. The 6-11 Standard forms of second degree equations. principle used in finding the location of a gun is also employed by a radar-equipped airplane to determine its location. reflected to arrive at the other This principle is illustrated in whispering galleries and other buildings. knowing the distance between the posts.5-11) STANDARD FORMS OF SECOND DEGREE EQUATIONS is 75 surfaces in the found in radar equipment. can be represented by one of these special equations if the coordinate axes are located properly with respect to the curve. and are used in beams and also in receiving waves from other stations. In our study of we have dealt with simple forms of the second degree equation. Hence the gun is at the intersection of the two branches. From the difference in the times at which the sound reaches two listening posts. the gun is located on a branch of a hyperbola of which the posts are foci. A gun on this curve can be found by the use of a third listening Either of the two posts and the third are foci of a branch of another hyperbola on which the gun is located. we can interpret geometrically the transformations by which second degree equations are reduced to the simple forms. We now know the location of the axes with respect to the conies which are represented by the simple equations (5)For the central conies (ellipse and hyperbola) the axes of the conic (11). the transladegree terms.

(y (x - 2 ft) = = 4a(x 4a(y - h).6 2 If a = 6. We begin with equations which have no xy term. represents an ellipse with its center at the point (A. where c = a2 . (! These equations are said to be in standard forms. it is necessary in many situations to deal more complicated forms.k).fc). each reduces to one of the simple forms. which represents a circle of radius a with its center at (h. for example. The known quantities in a given problem may lead to a second degree equation which at first is not obtainable in simplified form. For example. the original information concerning a body moving along a parabola may not give the location of the vertex or the direction of the axis. To start the investigation the coorfit dinate axes would need to be chosen to the known quantities.fc). The major axis has a length of 2a and is parallel to the s-axis. a single problem directions may involve two conies whose axes are not in the of conies same which are not in the simplest forms. with equations in THE SECOND DEGREE EQUATION [CHAP. In this case a translation of axes would reduce an equation to one of the simple forms. (13) (16) (x - 2 ft) + (y - 2 ft) = a2 . of . 5 However. i * (16) (* - ^ W (v - 2 ft) P _ - (a) (il) fl^ffi. The distance from the center to a focus is c. By translating the The origin to the point (fe.76 their properties. we next consider equations whose forms are more general. Equation (14). a and b are unchanged in meaning.i. equation (14) reduces to the form (16). . Also. Hence we consider equations which would be reduced to the simple forms by a translation of the origin to a point (ft. We obtain h and y by these equations from the simple forms by replacing x by x Since it is and whose centers do not coincide. sometimes necessary to deal with equations y - k. (12) h)* ft).fc).fc^ffi. Constructing the graph quantities an equation in one of these standard forms presents no greater difficulty than drawing the graph of the corresponding simple form.

We may now conclude that a quadratic function of x has either a greatest or a least value. In Chapter 6 we shall develop a general method for finding the maximum and minimum points of the graphs of quadratic and certain other functions of a variable.3). EXAMPLE 1 . 2. FIGURE 5-18 . 5-18. Hence an equation of the form (13) displays the coordinates of the maximum or the minimum point of the graph of a quadratic function of x. Sketch the graph of the equation 2 t/ + Sx - 6</ + 25 = 0. Thus 2 - 60 (y - +9= 3) 2 -8x . = + 2).25 -8(jr + 9. that the latus rectum extends 4 units above the focus and 4 units is The below. numerically equal to 4a. Since 4a = 8 and a = the focus is 2 units to the vertex.5-11] STANDARD FORMS OF SECOND DEGREE EQUATIONS 77 Equation (13) represents a parabola with a vertical axis and has only one i/-value for each value of x. since the graph is a parabola with a vertical axis. The graph constructed in Fig. The the is 8. vertex left of is at (2. The graph if we first reduce the equation to standard form. Thus we obtain an equation y of the form Ax* + Dx + F. This means length of the latus rectum. We may be more readily drawn recognize the equation as representing a parabola. This fact is also evident when the equation is solved for y. Here y is expressed as a quadratic function of x. Solution.

The utility of the method depends on the ease with which the separate graphs are obtained. Preparing a table of corresponding values of the variables is tedious since. The center. The presence of an zy-term in the equation of a conic usually makes the construction of the graph much more difficult. 2) f and a vertex at Solution. 2).3 and a foci is 6 and the given vertex = 5. 2) and (10.78 THE SECOND DEGREE EQUATION EXAMPLE 2. is at (7. 25 7)* ^ (y + 2)* 16 6-12 The addition of ordinates. Then = (x a2 c 2 = 16.10) D FIGURE 5-19 . ellipse with foci at (4. involved in this process is that the graph of the sum of two funcprinciple tions can be obtained by adding the ordinates of the separate graphs of the functions. in general. this makes Hence the desired equation is 1. The distance between the c . But rotation transformations are not short and usually the process is complicated by cumbersome radicals in the rotation formulas. 5 units from the center. 5 Find the equation of the (12. (4. 2). axes and use the new equation and the new axes to draw the graph. [CHAP. For some equa- The tions the addition of ordinates method can be used advantageously. a quadratic equation with irrational roots needs Another plan would be to rotate the to be solved for each pair of values. midway between 62 the is foci.

In the following section we show that this conclusion can be drawn immediately from the equation itself. we rotate the axes through an angle B (Section 4-4) and obtain A'z' 2 + B'x'ij' + C'y'* + D'x' + E'y' + F' C sin 2 - 0. For this reason the expression . The graph. obtained from a second degree equation.C) sin 26. From the shape we conclude that the given equation represents an ellipse.(A . To express y as the sum of as a quadratic in y.A cos2 B + B sin cos 6 + B' =$cos 26 . A 6 We now draw the graphs of the y equations = x + 6 and y = V4x x2 . By squaring and then completing the 2 2 = The 4. is by definition a conic. 6-13 Identification of a conic. equation of the form The kind of conic represented by an Ax* + Bxy + Cy* + Dx + Ey + F - can be determined immediately from the coefficients of the second degree If terms. where A' . we treat the equation + (-2* - 12)y + (2r> + 8* + 36) 36) = 0. 5-19. Draw the graph of the equation 2x* - 2xy + 2 i/ + 8z - I2y + 36 = 0. the second equation becomes (x is a circle of radius 2 and center at (2. The line and circle are drawn in graph + the ordinates is obtained by adding extended by a length equal to AB.4A / C" is computed. C' If 6. is This relation among the coefficients of the original equation and the transformed equation holds for any rotation. the result. =A sin 2 6 -B sin B cos +C cos2 0. B 7* 0. Solution. The locus of the first equation is a line. + . The point AB D on the graph and AC. 2) j/ square in the z-terms. B' 2 . Thus we have 2 /y two functions of x. of the given equation AC is MN drawn. when simplified. Thus tive and the point Q is found by measuring downward from P so that PQ = MN. is negaThe addition of ordinates for this purpose must be algebraic. and solving y for y gives = 2* + 12 db V(-2x -12)2_ 4(2x* + 8s + = a. By plotting a sufficient number of points in this manner the desired graph can be Fig.0).5-13] IDENTIFICATION OF A CONIC 79 EXAMPLE. That is. We already know how to identify the type of conic if B = 0.

radius is The segment The segment joining A(0.8y + 4 = 0. . 2. . two parallel lines. can be determined from the signs of A' and C". THEOREM. positive. The conic is an ellipse if A' and C" have like signs. problems 11-14. in Vertex (-2.1AC. 1. 6. Center (0. It must be remembered that in this theorem th. axis vertical. or a parabola according as F= 0. radius Center (0. hyperbola or two intersecting 2 0.-6). In each find the coordinates of the center. radius 4. Center (-2. 14.3).0). 0. y 4x 2 2 - I2x + I2x .3). If either A' or C' is zero. 7. (0.16i/ + 41 = 8. With B 1 the kind of conic represented and therefore the original equation. Sketch each curve. passes through (0.80 THE SECOND DEGREE EQUATION is [CHAP. 5 B . or zero. radius 3. the foci. These relations of A' and C". and the ends of the minor axis. 5. 6) joining A( 5. is The graph of Ax2 + Bxy + Cy* + Dx + Ey + an ellipse. in each case Reduce the equations 7-10 to standard forms. focus (-2. circle which satisfies the given Center (2. would make ~4A'C" negative.0) and B(8.-!).1).4AC > B . the vertices. 12.e degenerate conies are included. or zero.1) and #(7. These exceptional cases are indicated in the following or an isolated point. is a diameter. line. ellipse 0. Hence we have the following important theorem. Reduce equations 15-18 to standard forms. 4. and a hyperbola if the signs are different. it exists.2).5) a diameter.1). 11. Ix + 21 = 0.4 AC < B . axis horizontal. the conic is a parabola. Sketch the graph by the use of the vertex and the ends of the latus rectum. 7.-4). focus (5.44 C = 2 2 0. y* - + 36 = 0.4).4 AC 2 called an invariant. when is B 2 4 AC negative. 9. hyperbola. 13. or one EXERCISE 5-4 In each problem 1-4 write the equation of the conditions. Vertex Vertex (2. in the order named.0). r6sum6: B . length of latus rectum 16. lines. parabola. z2 + I2x - 4. we have -44'C' = B2 . 3. positive. Find the equations of the parabolas determined by the conditions given Sketch each parabola. By selecting the particular rotation for which B' = 0. by the transformed equation. Vertex (-2. 5.y 10.

30.32z = 99. x .3) and (5.1). 1) (1. Sketch each ellipse. + 2i/ .32z/ . 25. Vertices (1. Qx 32.3) and (4. + 8z/ + 4x + 24y .3).0).16*/ 2 . 21. 26. 3x + Gxy + 3?/ . 24.63 = 0. 2 Determine whether the equation x lines + xy + x . x* .1).x + y = 4xy 2 2 - 0.13 = 0. 2 0.3). 2 2 2 Write the equations of the hyperbolas which satisfy the conditions given in problems 27-30.3x . 17. foci Vertex (-4. 27. Solve the equation z2 2x ?/ 2xy 2y + 1 = terms of the other.30. represents xy 2y = 2y* + x 38. 2 2 2 0. 6.160z . focus (-1. Reduce equations 23-26 to standard forms.24x + I2y + 60 = 0. * 2 = = x 2x Vj. Vertices minor axis (-1. satisfies the conditions in each prob- Center (5. Is the locus a parabola or a degenerate conic? + + . ?/ V4 . 23.if + 4 = 0.64 = 2 4j . 45. 2jy-* + y-3 = 0. vertex (4. (-4. I? 2 conic. 43.54 x . 2// 9* 2 2 2 0.-4).4).4*/ + 84r . z + 5xy + 15i/ = 1. 21x . Describe the locus of each equation.3) and (5.2xy + y* + 3x = 0.8y + fa .1). 5?/ . (1.2xy + if - -z 4x . the vertices.1 = 6 - x 2 . length of conjugate axis Sketch the graph of each equation 31-36 by the addition of ordinates method. end of conjugate axis (-5.2) and (-l. 28.3). Ends of 22.1).6-13] 15.2(% + 400 = + 25?/ . y 35.y . Vertex (6.2).3). length of minor axis 4.z . and (3. 41. and the foci. In each find the coordinates of the center. 31. 42. by treating the equation as a quadratic in x 2 for one variable in 46. 0. classify 4 A C. 36.189 = 0.12 = 2 . y = 2 V5 + .3). Ends of conjugate axis (3. 44.0). Center (1. . 18.5).0) and (1. 40. 16.4 = 0. 2 Write the equation of the ellipse which lem 19-22.3). 34. 29.toy + + 13 = 0.36z .2xy + 2. 19. 2* 2 39. 0. 20.1 = 0. 4z . vertex (5. IDENTIFICATION OF A CONIC 16x 2 81 9z 2 3* 2 4z 2 + 25i/ . y 33. 2* 2 + 2xy + if + Sx + 4y +4= Assuming that each equation 37-42 represents a nondegenerate each by computing 37. 3z 2 2 2 2 2 2 t/ a hyperbola or two intersecting and solving for x in terms of y.r . foci end of minor axis (3. focus (1. + 8y* + 7 = 0.

49. . B" - 4A'C" * B . Draw the graph and estimate the zeros 48.1000).82 47. C. and reaches C. and point C is 2000 feet east of B. A.4AC. B. 5 also that + C" = A+ the steps in showing that C. 5 - 7x + 4. it taneously one second after The sound of a gun reaches A and B simulShow that the coordinates of the gun's position are approximately (860. 2 Show Find the greatest or least value of each function 48 and 49. Assume that sound travels 1100 feet and the origin is midway between B per second. Listening posts are at Point A 2x is - 2x\ 2000 feet north of point B. THE SECOND DEGREE EQUATION Work A' out all [CHAP. 50. where the z-axis passes through B and C and C. x 2 of the function.

h. This value is avoided because division by zero any is not permissible. A line through P and Q can be obtained which near coincidence with L. and have not be zero. Agreeing that h ^ 0. This situation is described by sayarbitrarily ing that as h approaches zero (or as Q approaches P) the line L is the limit- and denote the is FIGURE 6-1 83 . Consider now the line through to take a position as P with the slope 2 line by L.l) of the graph and a neighboring point Q of the graph with abscissa 1 + h.h) - . The ordinate of Q. it may be as near zero as we please. Suppose through the point P(l. that we draw a line slope of the line is given by m (14. value except zero.CHAPTER 6 THE SLOPE OF A CURVE The graph of y = x* is shown in Fig. \ The The quantity h may be assigned is thus expressed in terms of h.h)*. A value of h near zero makes the slope of the line through P and Q near 2. Hence the 6-1 An example. and also because P and Q would then be the same point and would not determine a line. In fact. obtained by replacing x by 1 + h in the equation. We see also that m when h is small Q is near P. the slope can be brought arbitrarily near 2 by taking h small enough. While h must h/h in the expression for the slope. we substitute 1 slope for = 2 4. is (1 -I. and it can be made close to P as we please. 6-1.

the corresponding ordinate is (x + h) 2 . 6-2) is Hence. This (x . slope 2 called the In accordance with this definition.y) stand for any point of the curve. A line such as L is of and is given a name in the following paragraph. The steepness of the curve is a measure of the rate of numerically. please if h /* 0. This means that the curve has negative slopes to the left of the origin. revolve about P and approach a limiting position as Q is brought arbiis The limiting position of the secant line trarily close to P. The slope of the line through P and Q (Fig. The curve is also said to have slope 2 at P. The secant line will. More generally. P made as near 2x as we we say that the line through curve at P. h slope can be A) ' . + K) . in the curves which we shall study. 6 ing position of the line determined special significance by P and Q. If we take x + h as the abscissa of another point Q of the Still . zero slope at the origin. the slope of a curve at any point is defined to be equal to the slope of the tangent at the point. and positive slopes to the see also that the curve gets steeper as x increases right of the origin. at any point is twice the abscissa of the point. the line through P (Fig. 6-1) with is tangent to the curve. Therefore with slope 2x is the tangent to the slope of the tangent.84 THE SLOPE OF A CURVE [CHAP. h by taking h small enough. FIGURE 6-2 . Keeping P fixed. Let P and Q be two points of a curve. The line through P and Q is called a secant line. Thus we see that the We change of the ordinate relative to a change in the value of the abscissa. 2 using the equation y = rr we next let P(x. and also the slope of the curve. let Q move along the curve and approach P.x m = 2x + h. curve. tangent to the curve at the point P.

In this chapter istics of we shall make use of the slope in studying the character- the graph of a function. 6-2 Limits. Although h approaches zero. Let P and Q be two points of the graph of the equation which have abscissas x and x + h. Here the is limit can easily be found. We state this fact symbolically as lim (2x A-+O + h) \ h = 2x. we find the limit of (x + h)* h result if x3 as h approaches zero.6-3] THE DERIVATIVE of the slope expression 85 By means we gain considerable information about the graph. Hence the slope of the line through P and Q (Fig. Consider now the more general equation -/(*>. we specify that it is not to be given the value zero. but can be made as close as we please to 2x by choosing h small enough. The corresponding ordinates are f(x) and f(x + h). The first cube the binomial. The expression 2x is said to be the limit of the original expression as h approaches zero. As a further illustration. however. where the right member is some function of x. Thus we have n 6-3 The derivative. This is a fundamental and powerful concept of mathematics. we not immediately evident. 6-3) is f(x + h)-f(x) -x (x + K) _f(x + h)-f(x) The line through P with slope equal to . In the preceding example we observed that (2x + h)h/h can be made arbitrarily close to 2x by taking h small. This means that (2x + h)h/h is not equal to 2x.

That is. 6-4 Derivative formulas. we expand (x h) by the binomial theorem. and - dx The derivative is a fundamental concept in calculus and has numerous important applications. is The slope of the curve at P is The name derivative is given to the limit just mentioned. defined to be the slope of the tangent. Other notations for the derivative of f(x) ' in y = f(x) are dx y'. where a is a constant and n derivative. 6 FIGURE 6-3 called the tangent to the curve at P. From the definition of ~ D xax n = . and D xf(x) is one notation for the limit or derivative.86 THE SLOPE OF A CURVE [CHAP.-+ h) n i ax n n evaluate the limit. We shall make use of the derivative in the study of a very restricted class of functions. Thus To a(x -+ h) n ax n + af a h \ x nx =a . a positive integer. and divide the numerator and denominator by h. lim a(x . We is first work out the derivative of ax n . collect like terms.. A preliminary task in this connection is the derivation of formulas by which the derivative of a function may be written at sight.

is + an . The question then the sum of the derivatives of the This separate terms is equal to the derivative of the sum of the terms. (1) Notice that this formula permits us to write at once the derivative of a constant times a positive integral power of x. We shall make the assumption. as h approaches zero.(-2x 4 ) = -8z 3 D*z 5 = 5x 4 . as would be expected. We multiply by the expo- nent and decrease the power of x by one unit. This means that f(x) has the same value for all values of x. In terms of slope. . omitting the may proof. not to assume the value zero. Hence the limit. That is. Hence h h Since h approaches zero but is 0/ft is zero for all permissible values of h.y) the slope nax n ~ If n = 1. where the degree. D ax = x ar = a. formula (1) becomes l . The is derivative for this case is constant. The limit of the sum of these terms is also zero. of each term after the first is zero. C. We next find the derivative of a constant. = ax a straight line with the slope Illustrations. since y a. and therefore f(x + h) h = C. . (2) derivative is is in agreement with what we would expect. because the the slope of the graph of the function.6-4] DERIVATIVE FORMULAS 87 The last expression has A as a factor in all terms except the first. . Hence we have Dxax n = nax n ~l .5z 3 = 15x 2 D. D. the quantity We therefore conclude that DX C = This result is 0. this means that the graph of y = ax n has at any point (x. The graph of f(x) = C a line parallel to the #-axis and the slope is zero at all its points. we let where C is a constant. a's are constants with a ^ a polynomial in x of the nth We now know how to write the derivative of each term of a arises if polynomial. An expression of the form n a<>x + aix n ~ + a l 2:r n -2 H-----h a n -ix 0. be proved to be true. Dx 3.

Iim 2(x + + y-**.J + x. In calculus shall use the is proved to hold for any real number formula for positive and negative integral exponents. Thus Dx y = The slope Hence the at the point desired slope is 3z 2 - 6z. Ii( -i-. 6s. EXAMPLE Solution. limits indicated in . 6 We have established formula (1) the formula for any positive integer n. /(*) 6.88 THE SLOPE OP A CURVE [CHAP. lim(z'-4). 8. 4 and change the fractional terms to This gives 5ar 3 and x~ l and apply formu- Dz(3ar - 5or 3 + or . - 3^4 + 3. (1) to To find the derivative. Write the equation of the tangent at We obtain the derivative (or slope expression) by using formulas (1) and (2). P is is 27 obtained by substituting 3 for x in the derivative.-IHxl h A-O \x + h /(x) 9. each term containing 3x2 x and formula (2) to the constant term Hence 20z 4 3z 4 +x 3 7x + 5) = 1 12z 3 + a: - 7. h Find/'(z) in each problem 7-20. Write the derivative of 3or 4 --H--or x 3. x-\ i- = - 5 . f(x) 3x 2 4*. Find the derivative of the polynomial x* Solution. 13. /(*) 14. z 3 . /(x) 16. x-*2 -x->0 X + I 3. 18 = 9. n. problems 1-6. 2. we apply formula 5. las (1) 2.-12*-' + l&r 4 x" 2 - 1. at the point P(3.x 1 3) . . We EXAMPLE 1.4) with slope 9 9x - y - 23 = 0.3 _ 7a . Find the slope of the curve y = x3 - 3z 2 + 4 this point.4). 7. The equation of the line through (3. + 5. Solution. 15. The proof for a negative integral exponent could be made by starting with the definition of derivative and proceeding somewhat as in the case of a positive integral exponent. EXERCISE 6-1 Find the 1. We (2). . 12. 11. EXAMPLE 3. lim(2x-l). = /(*) = f(x) /() = /(x) - 2x - 4. 10. 5*3 z8 - 4x2 + 5x. 4. We omit the proof. however.

T/ = = = x 3 2 6x 2 + 8x. t/ = = . is a positive number. we look for the We meaning of the sign of the derivative at a point of the curve.0). is zero at B and D. D x y. Here the slope of the curve. (\ and D. We conclude that a positive rising and falling portions of the curve. (x = -1). (1. y = = = x 2 4 x 4 4x. f(x) ~ Dz y and the equation of the tangent at the given In each equation 21-30 find point. derivative at a point indicates that the point is on a portion of the curve which rises toward the right. (1. the function increases as x iny increases as x increases.-4). (x = 2). 21. 6-5 The use of the derivative in graphing.4 the function f(x) is an increasing funcy is a decreasing function. 23.0). (0. 22. tion. moving point of . 30. and tangents are drawn at the indi// graph f(x) cated points A B.(0. is The shown in Fig.3). 26. 4x x 2 . we notice that the moving point would be rising At points on the curve where the at some positions and falling at others. . If we think of a point as moving along the curve from left to right. ?/ (2. = is. The points B and D separate also the derivative. 25. Before examining particular functions. At . At points where the moving point is falling.(2.3). and tion is decreasing at f. .6-5) THE USE OF THE DERIVATIVE IN GRAPHING 89 17. y 27. and the derivative is negative. ?/ x~ + 4 . 0-4. That is. 3. we say that y is an increasing Junction of x. That is rising. y + + |. (x = -2). ~ x 19.1). 2x~ 1 + ? 3x. 18. now consider the derivative as an aid in studying the behavior of functions and in constructing their graphs. however. The funcThe slope. 28. 29. = = 3or 4 - 5or 2 + 2. y 24.

Noticing the derivative 2(2 x) further. We let y stand for the function and write y = 5 + 4* - x\ For the derivative. ?/. 2. Since the derivative expression gives the slope of the graph of the function. zero slope. 0. see that the graph has positive slopes to the left of x . 6 A negative derivative indicates a decreasing function. zero slope at x = 2. indicating that the curve is steep. 2. 2.9) is the function. That Dx y > Dxy 0. Substituting 2 for x in the given Hence the point (2. This tells us that the curve is rising 2 and falling at points to the right of x = 2. and 9 is the greatest value of the given function. = 0. we observe that at a point far to the left of x = 2 the derivative is a large number. EXAMPLE Find the values of x for which the graph of 5 + 4z x 2 has positive slopes. the curve right. when x = x x x positive for x < 2.9) FIGURE 6-5 . right of x and negative slopes to the at points to the left of x = 2. toward the 1. The steepSimilarly. Hence the graph has its greatest height at x 2. negative for x > 2. falls THE SLOPE OF A CURVE [CHAP. ness of the curve gives a measure of the rate of change in y relative to an increase in x.90 creases. we have Dx y = We and note that the derivative is 4 - 2x = 2(2 - z). = peak point of the graph.2. we find the functional value. Dx y < we when when when < = > 2. the curve gets steeper and steeper as x increases beyond 2. or negative slopes. B(2. is is equal to zero is. to be 9. Solution.

< = x 3. Letting y stand for the function. is positive. 2. x 1 is positive and x 3 is a negative product. negative at points between x = 1 FIGURE 6-6 . The derivative is zero at x = 1 and this point separates rising and falling portions of the < . Dx y = 3(+)(+ > ) 0. when when when when x 1 = 1. < 3. Dx y = 3(+)(-) < Dx y = 0. The positive for x negative derivative at points between 1 and 3 signify a falling curve. we first notice the signs of the factors 1 and x 1 is negative if x < I and x 3 of the derivative. Since the derivative 1 the curve to the left of x = 1 is rising toward the right. Both factors are negative to the left of x = 1.6-5] THE USE OP THE DERIVATIVE IN GRAPHING is 91 helpful in This examination of the derivative furnishes information which drawing the graph (Fig. 6-5). when x 1 and when x = 3. To find the intervals of positive and negative slopes. giving write 3. Examine the function x* 6x 2 + 9z 1 and construct its graph. 3. Both factors are positive to the right of x this information in the following symbolic form.3) Similarly. EXAMPLE Solution. curve. = negative. we have y = x9 6z 2 + 9x 1 and then Dx y We - I2x is + 9 - 3). For x between 1 and 3. The factor x for values of x > 1 The factor x 3 is negative for x < 3 and positive positive if x > 3. The corresponding ordinate is 3. We Dx y = 0. and therefore the point A (1. the derivative is a peak point. 0. and hence their product see at once that the derivative zero . x x > We now is interpret this information relative to the graph. . just to is Hence the graph is higher at x = 1 than at points to the left or at points the right.

function y = f(x) is said to have a relative maximum at x = a if the value of f(x) is greater when x = a than when x has values slightly less or slightly more than a. Each of these of the curves where the slope is zero. each is a high or low point compared with 6-6 Maximum and minimum we found those nearby. also positive to the right. More specifically. 1) of the graph is lower than those immediately to the left and lower than those to the right. 6 = y 3. since a part of the curve extends higher than A. f(x) has a maximum at x = a if A f(a)>f(a for all negative + h) . positive A minimum point is shown at JB. The word relative is used to indicate that the ordinate of a maximum point is considered relative to the ordinates of neighboring points. In other words. The location of these points helped tremendously in drawLater we shall see that the points which separate rising and falling portions of the problems. . the function pictured an absolute maximum at the point B. With the preceding information and just a few plotted points a good graph 3. 6-5 has <f(a + h) for all values of h close enough to zero. 6-7 by the point A The value of the function at its the point left A is greater than and right. We wish now curve are of special significance in applied to give names to points of this kind and to out- line a procedure for finding them. = 3. The curve gets steeper and steeper as points are taken farther and farther to the left of A. but this is neither a maximum nor a minimum notice that the slope immediately to the left is positive and Hence the tangent at C cuts through the curve and the slope does not change in sign as x increases through this point. The value at A . ing the graphs. = = can be constructed (Fig. For example. and is positive at points to the right of x = 3. and the steepness also increases as x increases beyond 3. is zero at x 1. The function f(x) has a relative minimum at x = a if /(a) in Fig. In the two preceding problems points. The point B is a transition point from negative to positive slopes. values at neighboring points both to the however. This situapositive values of h sufficiently near zero. At C the is point. The greatest of all values which a function has in its range is sometimes called an absolute maximum. We slope is zero. is not the greatest of all values of the function. and tion is pictured in Fig. If the inequality holds for all and negative values of ft. When hence the point 5(3. 6-6). the minimum is an absolute minimum.92 and x x THE SLOPE OP A CURVE [CHAP. Here the slope of the curve is zero. points marks the transition from positive to negative or negative to posipoints tive slopes.

intuitively at any finding the maximum and minimum points of the graph of a procedure for a function. \L/ B FIGURE 6-7 rate. 2.a. If the sign does not change. If the sign changes from .a. The maximum or negative to positive. to the right.6-6] MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM POINTS 93 Y \ From 1. and for values of x slightly less than a 3. Suppose atx-a.a. 6-7 we may. function has a FIGURE 6-8 FIGURE 6-9 . the function has a minimum at x . minimum is the value of the function when x the function has neither a maximum nor a minimum at x . left // the sign changes from positive to negative in passing from the maximum at x = a. outline Fig. Set the derivative equal to zero to find the abscissas of points where the the slope is zero slope is zero. the the sign for values slightly Determine the sign of the derivative more than a.

y 3 2 . 1. and make a rough sketch x4 x 4 of y y = 3x4 - 4x3 3 . 12. = x 4 T - 2x T + x 2 2 2 + . Draw the curves. is 13. 13. 6 Show that the slope of y = x3 + x is everywhere positive.x2 = -x = Jx . Figure 6-8 shows the graph. involve There are many practical problems whose solutions maximum and minimum values of functions. The factor (x 2 I) EXERCISE 6-2 Find the coordinates of points of zero slope in problems 1-14. + . 4. [CHAP. y = - 2x 2 + 1. y y y 11. ^ 10 y - T x4 - x2 2 3 +* y - x8 +x + 1. 7. .ix x + 3x. 20. therefore. slope. does not change The tangent line (Fig. found by substituting for all values of x except 1. 19. y y y y 3 . 15.14). The 1. 2.4x. We notice that the derivative is nega2 and positive for values of x slightly greater than The minimum 2.6x + 9x 2x 3 3 2 3. = 1 + 6x . 2 . 6. + 3x - x3 . 2 . Find the coordinates of the points of zero the graph in problems 15-22. = x4 -6x + 2 8x + 2) 11. = is positive slope of the curve. = 2x + 3x = x . _ ". 1 1. 16. We find Dx y The derivative 2. sign in passing through x graph at (1. 9. 2 The slope is zero at x = tive for values of x less than 2. Tell in each case if the point is a maximum or minimum point. values the points of EXAMPLE zero slope of Find and test for maximum and minimum y Solution. Taking the derivative. 3x 2 2 - x3 . slopes. 2x 2 1 - 2x. is 3x2 + positive for all real values of x. 5. we 4x 3 find Dx y = - 12x + 8 = 4(x 3 - 3x + = 4(x + 2)(x - I) 2 . x . y y y y 3. y 3 14. Hence the function has a minimum value when x = 2 for value.x2 + x. . y = = = = = = = x2 . and x = 1.3x2 + 4. Give the intervals of positive and negative 1. 6-9) cuts through the x. The following illustrate the examples procedure for handling some problems of this kind. 1. y = + 2x " x 3 2 . 8. 6-7 Applications. = 2-x = x2 . 3 10.94 THE SLOPE OP A CURVE EXAMPLE Solution.

we set DA = Z and solve for x. We note that by choosing the //-dimension near 300 the x-dimension would be near zero. Hence we suspect that the area is greatest for jc somewhere between the area.4 indicates we have A = It is xy. Substituting for ?/. Solution. By letting x increase from near zero to a length near 200. and A = 15.000 square rods.2y is the total length of 3x the fence. 6-10). 3r 4. Hence we next between x and //. Therefore + 2// = 600. From the figure. y = 150. we have A = To x (300 makes y) A a = 300* - 2 I x . This may be verified by noting that the derivative is positive for x less than 100 and negative for x greater than 100.6-7] APPLICATIONS 95 y FIGURE 6-10 EXAMPLE 1. desirable to obtain find a relation A in terms of one variable. Find the dimensions of the pasture if the area is to be a maxi- mum. He wishes to enclose a rec- tangular pasture and divide the area into two equal parts by a fence parallel to two opposite sides. If . we surmise that the area is a maximum for these dimensions. either x or ?/. Thus Dt A = 300 300 - 3*. A farmer has 600 rods of fencing. The function 300x - fx 2 is a complete parabola if x is not restricted in value. and x = 100. and y = 300 - $x. When x = 100. From the nature of the problem. - 3x = 0. . find the value of x which maximum. giving a very narrow rectangle of little area. Wo let x and // stand for the dimensions (Fig. and 200. the shape of the rectangle would vary and again become quite narrow. with the //-dimension near zero.

In our problem. The EXAMPLE cubic inches. The corresponding value of when the radius is 10 inches and the height required \j also 10 inches. 6-11. in S in terms of one variable. y for the height. when x = is least amount of material The is 10. What dimensions will require the least amount of fencing? No fence is used along the river. We have wty = and hence 20007T 10007T. 4. we have S = To express Trz 2 + 2*xy. 2. A cylindrical can without a top is to have a capacity of lOOOir Find the radius and height if the amount of material is to be a we let minimum. What is the largest rectangular area which can be enclosed with 400 yards of fence? 2. and S for the cylin- drical area plus the area of the circular bottom. If x stand for the radius. x may take only the values between graph for this range of x is drawn in Fig. rds. 3. however.96 THE SLOPE OP A CURVE [CHAP. . Solution. 6 FIGURE 6-11 100 200 and 200. A rectangular pasture is to be fenced along four sides and divided into three equal parts by two fences parallel to one of the sides. and y = ^. we substitute the value of y terms of x. 1000 DZ S 0. Find the greatest area if 800 yards of fence are to be used. EXERCISE 6-3 1. - DX S = We see that 2wx 10.) and to be fenced off along a straight river bank. Divide the number 8 into two parts such that the sum of their squares is a minimum. A rectangular plot is to contain 5 acres (800 sq.

is a square. The combined What is be sent by parcel post? . Find the radius and height in order for the volume to be a maximum. foot. amount of tin to be a minimum? What A window is perimeter of 12 1 1 . box with a square base and open top is to be made from 27 square Find the dimensions if the volume is to be a maximum. For what depth will the volume of the box be a maximum? 6. 7. length and girth of a parcel post package must not exceed the volume of the largest box with a square base that can 100 inches. formed by a rectangle surmounted by a semicircle and has a Find the dimensions to admit the most light. find the dimen- sions for a S. minimum amount closed cylindrical can is to be made from 24ir square inches of sheet tin. 0. rectangular water tank of sheet copper. A A closed cylindrical can is to be should bo the radius and height for the 10. is feet An uncovered is the tank to hold 108 cubic feet of water and the base If to be lined with sheet copper. A of material. made to contain 16?r cubic inches. A rectangular box is to be made from a sheet of tin 8 inches by 12 inches by cutting square pieces from each corner and then turning up the sides.6-7] APPLICATIONS 97 5.

The most common transcendental functions. they probability. Thus the values of the This recurrence does not sine of an angle recur in intervals of 2w radians. and cosecant of an tion. then this part of the graph can be reproduced in other intervals to the right and left. for example. A function f(x) is said to be periodic if there is a constant p such that for all values of x /(*)-/(* + ?). secant. these functions we have the identities tan x = tan (x + TT) and cot x = cot (x + IT). The period of the tangent and cotangent of an angle is TT. The smallest positive value of p for which this is true is called the period. where x is any angle in radians and n is an integer. In this chapter we shall take up functions which are not algebraic. the values of the function corresponding to values of the angle can be had from a table of trigonometric functions (see Appendix). the exThese functions are of treponential. mendous importance. The sine function. 7-2 The trigonometric curves. are the trigonometric. and the logarithmic functions. satisfies the equations sin x = sin (x + 2-ir) = sin (x + 2n?r). The trigonometric functions are periodic. the inverse trigonometric. In drawing the graph of a trigonometric function. 98 . studied are algebraic. and those which we shall study. is an algebraic equation in x and y. To plot points for drawing the curve over an interval of one period. advantage should be taken of its periodic nature. are used extensively in physics. and hence 2ir is the period of the sine funcThis is also the period of the cosine. cendental. Functions which are not algebraic are classed as trans.CHAPTER 7 TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS 7-1 Introduction. For angle. Before constructing the graphs of the trigonometric functions we shall point out a certain property which these functions possess. An equation in which all terms are of the form ax my n where a is a constant and each exponent is a positive integer or Either variable may be regarded zero. and statistics. If the graph is obtained for an interval equal to its period. take place in smaller intervals. The functions which we have as an algebraic function of the other. engineering.

7-2] THE TRIGONOMETRIC CURVES Y IT 2 y= sin x 7-1 FIGURE y= cos x FIGURE 7-2 FIGURE 7-3 .

after every TT radians of z-values. Amplitude The The asymptotes occur We a Since the extreme values of sin bx are sin bx are next consider the function a sin bx. 1 and 1. 1 is is not defined for the tangent. To find the period. radians of re-values. 7-3) crosses the avaxis at integral multiples of radians and has asymptotes at odd integral multiples of T radians. we determine how much x changes in producing a O y = sec x FIGURE 7-4 y= 3 sin 2x FIGURE 7-5 . and the constant v called the amplitude. Each The to 1. 7-4) has no x-intercepts. The amplitude is equal to the absolute value of a.100 TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS [CHAP. The tangent curve (Fig. secant curve (Fig. where a and b are constants. 7 Figures 7-1 and 7-2 show the graphs of y ordinates of each vary from 1 = sin of these curves crosses the x-axis after every IT x and y = cos x. These are called the extreme values. the extreme values of a and a.

y change of 2v in the angle to 2ir. 7-5. As an illusThe graph of tration. for example. recall that the To draw the graph of y = arc sin z. increases from 7-3 The inverse trigonometric functions. 3 sin 2x has an amplitude of 3 and a period of TT. = 3 sin 2x is drawn in Fig.arc sin x y arc cos x FIGURE 7-6 FIGURE 7-7 . we equations y arc sin x and x = sin y y . The graphs of the inverse trigonometric functions may be obtained readily from the graphs of the direct functions.7-3] THE INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 101 bx. the angle bx Hence the period of sin bx is 2-ir/b. As x varies from to 2ir/6.

sinjz. Hence the graphs two equations must coincide. 8. 7-1) winds the or-axis. SCOSTTX. 7. The graphs Give the amplitudes of the sine and cosSx. 12. Figures 7-7 and 7-8 show the graphs of y = arc cos x and y = arc tan x. cot is. 9. 2 cos 4x. 1. cosine functions. 3. 5. The graph of sin T/. The graph of y = sin x (Fig. tan 5x. sinjx. that the graph of x = sin y along is a curve of the same form winding along the ?/-axis.102 TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS [CHAP 7 Y STT FIGURE 7-8 express the same relation between x and y. 6. x = or y = of arc sin x. cos7x. tanfz. sec (is + . We conclude. EXERCISE 7-1 Find the period of each function 1-12. each of the other inverse functions can be found similarly from the graph of the direct function by reversing the roles of x and y. 7-6. 11. is shown in Fig. 4. 2. secGx. therefore. The equations x of these = sin y and y = sin x have x and y interchanged. 10.

15. 19. J arc cos ^x.71828. The equations and = 10' Each could be made are simple exponential equations. y 28. An equation in which a variable or a function of a variable is an exponent is called an exponential equation. y 24. // the graphs of the inverse trigonometric equations 25-30. arc tan 2x. 27. IS. // tan Jx. Draw 25. The corresponding graph is known as an exponential curve. y y tan 2x. 17. // = = = = 2 sin x. 23. 26. second equation stands for an irrational number This number is of great importance in FIGURE 7-9 . y + 4 sin = fa. 14.. the exponent by a less simple function of x. // u // 22. 16. 4 tan esc x. replacing more general by The letter c in the approximately equal to 2. ?/ 3 arc sin %x. 21. 7-4 The exponential curves. = = sin 3z.7-4] THE EXPONENTIAL CURVES 103 Sketch the graph of each equation 13-24. 29. 13. j. // = = = = 3 cos x. y cos2x. cot a:. y 20. 3 sin x. 30. 5 sin 4z. // // = = = 2 arc cos 2 arc tan X. x. y = = = 3 arc sin x.

7 advanced mathematics. Figure 7-9 has the graph of the three equations drawn in the same coordinate system for purposes of comparison. it appears that logarithmic and exponential curves must be closely related. Now the equations x = av and y = a* Hence their graphs must are alike except that x and y play reverse roles. 7-5 Logarithmic curves. To determine other pairs of values a table of logarithms can be used. The first is in exponential form and the second in logarithmic form. Since a logarithmic equation can be changed to an exponential equation. . Since the base a is v Hence we shall consider the logapositive. express the same relation the numbers and y. Corresponding values of y in the equations y = 2 J and y = 10 X are simply obtained when x is an integer. To see the relation. x = av . /7\ 2345678 FIGURE 7-10 . a also has a positive value. The graph of y = e* can be drawn by using the table (see Appendix) to find values of y for assigned values of or. and therefore has the same graph as. in the equation a v a positive number different from 1 and = z. we note that the logarithmic equation y = logfl x is equivalent to. and exponential functions involving e as a base have wide applications in both theory and practice. have the same form but different positions relative to the coordinate axes. Thus the two equations a* =x among = log a x a.104 TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS [CHAP. rithms of positive numbers only. y is If a is any real number a. then y is called the logarithm symbolically as y of x to the base This relation may be written and y = log a x.

The addition of ordinates method can sometimes be efficiently applied to draw the graph of the sum The process is of two functions in which one or both are transcendental. 7. (c) 9 years. are The graphs drawn in Fig.. 17. Iog 10 // (:r - 3). x 2 can be obtained by doubling each ordi- nate of = 20. EXERCISE 7-2 Sketch the graphs of the following equations: 1. We first draw the graphs y of Vx. e 2 2. If S100 lated amount invested at per year compounded continuously. Sketch the graph of the equation y = Vx + sin x. 8. 7-6 The graph of the sum of two functions... and = sin x. 2 3. Iog 10 (-. that the graph of cally a distance of log. 18. log.. logc (-j). (>'**. These should be verified by referring to the tables in the Appendix. // // 14. 2 2 *-'. 11. 15. the at the end of x years is given by the equation 2% accumu- y = lOOe 002 *. // = = = = = = = 4'. a2 .*.7-6] THE GRAPH OF THE SUM OF TWO FUNCTIONS 105 The most frequently used A table of logarithms can be used for drawing the bases for logarithms are the numbers 10 and e. 6. Show = log a bx is the graph of = log a x shifted verti- Show ?/ that the graph of log a j. y y y 2* ~*. // = = = = 2 log. // 9. are*. b. curve corresponding to a logarithmic equation employing either of these bases.r). y Solution. y y // 4. // 16. x are here tabulated with the logarithmic values rounded off to one decimal place. 3 logm x. EXAMPLE 1. log. (b) 6 years. y // *. 7-10. 12.r. y y // logo j. . 13. 4. exactly that used in Section 5-12 and is illustrated by the following example involving a transcendental function. 5. is // // = log. = = = 2e*. 10. c r '. y = = = 4-'. 19. Estimate also the time required for the original investment to double. Sketch the graph of this equation and from the graph estimate the accumulated amount at the end of (a) 3 years. Corresponding values of x and y for the equations y = log x and y = log.

. 10. y 2 sin x + cos x. AC is extended by a length equal to AB. By plotting a sufficient number of points in way the desired graph can be drawn. and the second tion yields the sine curve. 1. + logio x. 6. 7-11. = Vx + cos x. That is. y y = = = = x sin x cos x. 3. = sin x + cos 2ar. 5. y y x e' 9. 7 FIGURE 7-11 The locus of the first of these equations is the upper half of the parabola 2 ?/ = x. y y = = x + logic x. The point D on the graph of the given equaobtained by adding the ordinates AB and AC. both are familiar and easily sketched. The two curves are shown is in Fig. EXERCISE 7-2 Sketch the graph of each of the following equations by the addition of ordinates method. y y y = x + sin a-. i(e* + e~ x ). 2. Thus MN is negative and the point Q is found by measuring down- ward from this P so that PQ = MN. 4.TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS [CHAP. The addition of ordinates for this purpose must be algebraic. 7. 8. = + e*. + sin 2x.

(x - 2)* -f //' by simplification. of equations. EXAMPLE 1. We select a typical point P of the path (Fig. A point moves so that its distance from the fixed point F(2. 8-1). this relation is Solution. which belong to the given curve. ing In the latter part of this chapter we shall consider the problem of findthe equation when the original information locates certain points (usually a few) but does not establish any particular curve. Find the equation of the locus of the moving point.CHAPTER 8 EQUATIONS OF CURVES AND CURVE FITTING 8-1 Equation of a given curve. The graph of the resulting equation should be in exact agreement with the given curve. the equation of a curve is a relation between x and y which is satisfied by the coordinates of all points. Then 2FI> = the required relation between the distances. In terms of the coordinates expresses jc and // of the variable point P. This is the equation of an ellipse. it is Having obtained curves as the graphs natural to surmise that a curve in a plane has a corresponding equation. Y D O F(2.0) FIGURE 8-1 107 .r 2 and //- have unequal coefficients of the same sign.Q) divided by its distance from the //-axis is always equal to J. DP 2\ or. We shall first consider the problem of writing the equation of a curve all of whose points are definitely fixed by certain given geometric conditions. 4y/' - Iftr + 16 = 0. In other words. since . and only those points.

3) as from (3. P is the vertex of a right triangle whose hypotenuse is the segment joining (5. P is three times as far from (1. Hence we substitute for x and y the coordinates of these points.0) as from the y-axis. say (fc. The angle APB = 45. Take the y-axis along the fixed line and the z-axis through the fixed point. This gives the system 4 25 + 4 _ 2D .1) as from (3. Find the equation of the path of the moving point. and F so that this equation is satisfied by the coordinates of the given points. 1. P is equidistant from (8. The equation s* of the circle can be written in the form + y* + Dx + Ey + F = 0.4).2). 13. is 50. 3). P is twice as far from (5.-3).1) 7. A point moves so that its distance from a fixed point divided by its disis tance from a fixed line always equal to a constant Suggestion: e. + e) and k/(l - Show that for e * 1 the z-intercepts (vertices) Where is the center of the conic? Divide the dis- . The difference of the distances from P to 5.-2). F = 4.0).-3) and to (0. The solution of these equations is D= 3x 3.3). Our problem is to find values for D.l). 10. E= 4 5.y) which satisfies the given condition. The sum of the squares of the distances between P and the points (4. 9.3) is 10. P is equidistant from (2. E. The abscissa of P is equal to its distance from the point (3.108 EQUATIONS OF CURVES AND CURVE FITTING 2. 4. 0. 8 EXAMPLE Find the equation of the circle which passes through the points (-2. P is on the circle with center at (3. ati ellipse if e is between zero and 1. 2) and which passes through (6.2E + F + 9 + 5D . and 0. 11. P is twice as far from the x-axis as from (0. (-5. and a hyperbola are k/(\ if e is greater than e). P is twice as far from (0.1) and the ly-axis. 8. P is 5 units from the fixed point (2.0) and (1. 5.0) and to (5.0) and 6.0). From the resulting equation observe that the path is a parabola if e = 1. Solution. [cHAP. 0.3E + F 4+l + 2D + + P is = = = 0.2).2) and (-3. 12. 3. 15. where A and B are the points (-1. 1. 8. 2.0).and(2. (5. Therefore the required equation x* + y* - + 5y - = EXERCISE 8-1 In each problem 1-14 find the equation of the locus of P(x. The sum of the distances from P to (0.0). -4) and (-1.5).0) is numerically ( equal to 14.

or an approximate relation. (5.5). a beam supported produced by the load. The equation can then be used difficult different and more aspect of the to compute corresponding values of the variables other than those obtained by measurement. That is.0).0). or an approximate relation. that various loads are placed at the mid-point of at its ends.1). Suppose. Find the equation of the parabola y = ax 2 + bx + c which passes through which passes through 19.and(-l.6). deflection is points lie almost in a straight line. between the load and the deflection. and (3.0). We are then faced with the problem of selecting a particular linear equation. Find the equation of the parabola y (-1. The equation is called an empirical equation. Here the problem is not primarily of geometric interest but one in which analytic geometry is fruitful in aiding the scientist. Taking the loads as abscissas and the deflections as ordinates.-l).3). Experimental scientists make observations and measurements of various kinds of natural phenomena.6). for example. the pairs of values are plotted as points in Fig. Measurements in an investigation often represent two variable quantities which are funcIn many situations the study can be advanced through tionally related. (4. The table gives readings where x stands for the load in pounds and y the deflection in inches. It is de- .0).2). and the process employed is called curve fitting. an equation of the form The y = mx +b gives the relation. 8-2. of the circle 17. eccentricity? 16. 18. an equation which expresses the relation. 8-2 Equation corresponding We now take up a much problem of finding equations representing known information. to empirical data. A line could be drawn by sight so that it passes quite close to each point. Do you conclude that by the distance between the center and one (A.ax2 + bx + c (l.0) 109 tance between the center and of the z-intercept points.2). and (-2.. (0. Since the points are not exactly in a straight line. Find the equation of the circle which passes through (0. If for each load the deflection of the beam at its mid-point is measured.8-2] EQUATION CORRESPONDING TO EMPIRICAL DATA (fc. (0. Find the equation and (0. . between the two variables in question. no linear equation can be satisfied by all pairs of the readings. then a series of corresponding values are obOne value of each pair is the load and the other the deflection tained.0) is a focus and e is the which passes through the points (3. and suggest that the a linear function of the load.

(#2.2/n). We of the point totality of residuals minus the ordinate of the curve for the same z-value. Since some of the residuals could be positive and others negatheir sum might be near zero for a curve which is a poor fit to the tive. We shall deal with the second part of the problem by employing a process called the method of least squares. . will be considered later. 8 Y 100 150 200 250 FIGURE 8-2 sirable. The most common nonlinear func- tions are the polynomial. however. namely. and logarithmic functions. A one of these functions or a combination of them. Thus the first step in a curve fitting problem is the selection of some type of function. The first step. a linear equation will not express well the relation between the variables. the choice of a type. (#n. The may be examined to determine if the curve is a good fit to the points. define the residual of each of the points relative to a curve as the ordinate . the points representing a set of data are not approximately in a straight line. Suppose that we have given n points in a plane whose coordinates are (zi. A curve is considered a good fit if each of the residuals is small.2/i). trigonometric. The second step is the determination of some particular function of the type selected which will furnish a satisfactory representation of the data. line. 8-3 The method of least squares.2/2). exponenset of data might be represented by tial. to follow some procedure which will locate a definite In the next section we shall discuss a method of determining a line is which If called the best fitting line for a set of data.110 EQUATIONS OP CURVES AND CURVE FITTING [CHAP. It would then be necessary to use some nonlinear relation in looking for a satisfactory equation. inverse trigonometric.

b so that the where values are to be found for of the residuals of the n points (ri. is not negative. ?/ . we use J2//2 H-----H XnUn- Denoting the sum of the squares of the residuals by /?. we have n6 2 . stands for the For example. The expression for R contains the first and second powers of both m and b.(mx n + 6). the following notation. R = iy .. The best fitting curve of a given type is the one for which the sum of the squares of the residuals a minimum. 2 // 2 - 2/WJ2//2 - 2//2& + w?W + +m 2 2m. Our problem now is to determine values for m and b which make R a minimum. then R is a quadratic function of m.Vi) m a and sum of the squares is minimum. Hence the graph of the function is a parabola. If the sum of the squares of the residuals is small. and their squares are 2 /i ?/ 2 - (tt?:r 2 + 6).2mx n ijn - 2// n 6 x n2 + 2mx n + b 2 . sum of the squares of the ordinates of the n fixed points. The parabola opens upward because /?. We write the linear equation ?/ = mx + 6. To express the sum of these expressions in a convenient form. 2 //n . thus avoiding negative quantities. Choosing the m-axis as horizontal and treating b as an unspecified constant. are fixed except m and b. The quantity y\ is the ordinate of the point. we would know that the curve passes close to each of the n points. the parabola has a vertical axis and extends upward.2m2xy - 2b2y + m*2x 2 + 2mb2x + We notice 2 that all quantities in it /? 2/y is not a variable. the ordinate of the line when x = XL Hence the residuals of the points are + 6).8-3] THE METHOD OF LEAST SQUARES Hence the sum of the 111 reliable points. of the same type is the one for which the is For this reason we shall deal with the The better fitting of two curves sum of the squares of the residuals is smaller. If 6 is assigned any value whatever. . would not furnish a measure accuracy squares of the residuals. of the residuals of fit. .r 2 6 +6 fc 2 . Starting with the simplest situation. we shall show how to determine the best fitting line to the n given points. being the sum of squared expressions. The residual of the point is //i and (mx\ + b) is (mx\ + fo).

the reader might Next. 8-2. + 200(. Solution. . b Solving these equations simultaneously for m and 6. We is also learned.048 = + 1. First. by the procedure of Section 6-6.95. function of 6. obtain D bR. 8-2. substituted in formulas (1) f or 900(3.112 EQUATIONS OF CURVES AND CURVE FITTING [CHAP. is y = 0.000 ' _ " 142.000.80) fc.0041(400) 0. These derivatives. and computing the required sums appear- ing in formulas (1).95) m and 171 yield 6(621) 6(142. This equation gives approximately the relation between the load and deflection and holds for loads which do not bend the beam beyond its elastic limits. are to be equated to zero. treating 6 as constant.80 + 0. simultaneous solution of these equations yields formulas for to find the coordinates of the vertex In Section 5-11 we learned how of m a parabola. Thus we have DmR = -22xy + 2m2z + 262x = D R = -227/ + 2m2z + 2nb = 0. an exercise. work through the alternative method. 8 the ordinate of the vertex. 2 0.0041s + 0. where m is considered constant. 100(. For these data n 6.55) + 140(. The deflection produced by a load of 400 pounds. as we shall satisfied in order that R shall be a minimum. for example. 2z2 = 1002 + 120 2 + 1402 + 1602 + 180 2 + 200 2 = 142.95) - 900(621) _ ~ U U48< ' 42. The data and the line are shown graphically in Fig.048. The differpoints of a graph.85 = 3. In a similar way. we differentiate to we find D m R. - 900 2 u u 42. These results.000) .45) + 120(. we obtain 2z = 100 + 120 + 140 + 160 + 180 + 200 = 900. a second relation between m and 6 may be obtained. involves both m and b.000 Using these values for m and 6.70) + 180(.45 + 0. fit to Find the line of best fit to the data plotted in Fig.85) = 621.69 inches. If we a relation is obtained which must be This equation. that differentiation may be applied to find entiation process maximum and minimum As employed below.60) + - 160(.55 + 0. We illustrate their use in an example.70 + 0. Zy = 0. EXAMPLE.60 + 0. in Chapter 6. the equation of the line of best fit to the data is y = 0. we have 2 - (2x) 2 ' n2x2 - (2x) These formulas enable us to compute m and b for the line of best a set of given points.000(3. considering R a quadratic see. The and b. Consequently the least value of R is set ra equal to its value at the vertex.

1). Plot the points and draw the (1.8). Predict the at the end of the 6th decade.000 $15. (11.(1.000 9. 2.V of a city at the end of each decade t for 5 decades is shown in the table. 3.5).-5). for these data.8). population Determine the best linear fit t 1 X 6. (4.3). x 10 20 30 iix) 40 13^9 "j 4. under various loads x (Ib) are recorded in the table. T between the total amount of heat // in a pound of saturated Determine m and b for the best is // = mT + b.0). The lengths // (inches) of a coiled spring line of best fit. be obtained for any set of However. iTo 12J A business showed net profits at the end of each year for 4 years as follows: Year Profit 1234 $12 000 T $10.-10). (2. (9.2). 2. if the points depart considerably from a straight would be crude and perhaps far from satisfactory. For a best linear fit A may situation of this kind the scientist needs to decide on some nonlinear rela- There are. of course.8).!/). the fit fits.100 11.000 and predict the profit for the 5th year.400 8. tion. 623 632 636 line. for these measurements. Find the line of best fit. 5.1 load is 17 pounds. T 50 70 627 90 110 ~U 8-4 Nonlinear points Or. (4. The population . Use the resulting equation to find the length of the spring when the 50 15. (8.5). . 2345 10. (5. y = a log x + b. (0. deal only with the forms many y nonlinear functional forms.700 The fit relation steam at linear degrees centigrade to these data. We shall = ax\ 6 y = a 10 *. problem 1 and problem 1.000 13. Find the y = mx + 6.000 $13.8-4) NONLINEAR PITS EXERCISE 8-2 113 Find the equation of the in line of best fit to the sets of points in line. (-2. X = mt + 6.

16 3. log y). This suggests the is expressed as a linear function of log x.6561 . logF logp .4518 .5263 1. a power function can be made quickly by the use of logarithmic coordinate paper. log 4.4771 . mately on a line. fined gas is The between the pressure p and the volume V of a con- given by p = aV\ Determine a and b for the data when the gas neither receives nor loses heat.114 EQUATIONS OF CURVES AND CURVE FITTING [CHAP.53 4.83 18 6 9 12 The given data are plotted on logarithmic paper in Fig. the power function is applicable to the set of data. Numerous 8-5 The power formula. Logarithmic coordinate paper has its horizontal and vertical rulings placed at distances log 2. T(cuft) p (lb/in 2 ) 9. contained in the table.9542 1. from the origin. We consider .7782 . log 3. We now replace each value in the table by its common logarithm. log T/). The Solution.8274 . Here log y y = axb gives a best power fit to the data. The new data. and because the constants a and b are easily determined. The procedure then is to determine a and b for the best linear fit to the points The substitution of the values thus found in the equation (log x.6191 . To for obtain the best linear fit to the first x and log p for y.1761 . we employ formulas (1). The following example illustrates the method for the power function and the use of the special coordinate paper. first the relation b y = ax The logarithms of the members log y of the equation yield b log = x + log a. If the points so obtained lie approxiplotting of the points (log #. using log V of the formulas yields the coefficient of log V and . The original data plotted on this kind of test of the applicability of A paper are equivalent to plotting the logarithms on the usual coordinate paper. 8 physical relations approximately obey one of these types of These equations are advantageous because of their simplicity equations.72 4.0792 1. relation EXAMPLE.36 15 2. 8-3. and therefore indicate that an equation of the power type is suitable for representing the data. points are approximately in a straight line.9912 .80 3 6.2553 The equation corresponding to this transformed data log is p b log V+ log a. and so on.

9619) -(4.0719(3.5971) = 6. we have = 84.7201) -84. 2 (log we 5 I') />) 2(log r)(log get = = 2. . Substituting these values and n 6(3.0719(5.0719.9610.9620(5. 8-4. 3. a.8-5] THE POWER FORMULA 115 the second the constant term lop.6.0719)* 2. - 4.5961) - original data are a = Making these substitutions for a and p 6.7201) "6(2.6 V- 1 - 43 The graph of this equation and the points representing the shown in Fig.7201.5971. - 4. We have the following sums: 2 log log 2 V = = /> 4. 5.

8 P 20 15 FIGURE 8-4 10 8 10 V EXERCISE 8-3 In problems best fit. 10 applicable to the measurements in the 20 30 40 120 50 180 R 24 65 . t as b is applicable to the. 2. If R is the air resistance in pounds against an automobile traveling at V miles is = aV b per hour.51 . 1 and 2 assume the form y = ax b and determine a and b for the 1.24 36 1.49 t . 3. Show that the form fit. A body falls s feet in t seconds. show that the form R table and find a and b for the best fit. recorded data and determine a and 10 6 for the best 16 1.01 25 1.79 4.116 EQUATIONS OF CURVES AND CURVE FITTING [CHAP.

104 2. 8-5). If these are about in a straight line. The equation expresses // y = a log x +b Here we would consider the as a linear function of log x. We saw in the preceding section that the power form can be reduced to a linear form.204 We compute the following sums: 2t = 15. 2*(logW) = = 55. yield points almost This indicates that the data can be approximated by an Hence we transform the given data by taking the loga- rithm of each A t r . The given collinear (Fig. plotted on semilogarithmic paper.log y) are in close proximity to a this is the case.y). exponential formula. then a and b should points (log x.V 70 88 111 127 160 Solution. per unit volume in a culture after t hours Show that A" = a 10 6/ may represent 1 .045 2.845 1. V p 9 5 5 10 2. the procedure is to determine a and + is the best linear fit To determine the exponential function to the set of points (:r.4 2. of bacteria EXAMPLE. Corresponding measurements of the volume and pressure of steam are given Find the best fit of the form p = aV n to these data. . is adequate to represent the given data. Hence the exponential formula is the points (x. t t. somilogarithmic paper may be used.8-6] 5. 2* 2 2 = log N 10. Similarly. This paper has the usual scale along the x-axis. b so that bx Where log a if J. a linear function of if applicable to a set of data straight line. By taking the common logarithms of both y members the equation = a bx 10 6* becomes Here log y is log y + log a. the exponential and logarithmic forms are reducible to linear forms.945 2. data.306. and the scale along the positive z/-axis is logarithmic. is The number A T given by the table for several values of the data and find values for a and 6. 1 log AT 1. THE EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC FORMULAS 117 in the table.1 1 30 40 100 8-6 The exponential and logarithmic formulas.log y). be found for a linear fit to the points. The values thus obtained should be substituted in the logarithmic equation.143. 31.

8 150 100 50 2 3 5 t FIGURE 8-6 .118 EQUATIONS OF CURVES AND CURVE FITTING [CHAP.

nft?7 0877 ' L = '--^ 1.8 1.0 2.V per unit in the table.15(31. 8-0. -3-1 0.8~6] THE EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC FORMULAS in 119 Using these values formulas (1).306) ^ 15(10. Find an exponential formula of best fit for T in terms of t. volume in a certain culture at the end of t hours T was estimated as f 02468 16 Find the best relation of the form A = a 10*'.143) 4. A = r 58.3 10 00877 '. 1 3 4.7 y = a - 10 6 * y = a log x + b 4.3. The bacteria count . fit to the data of the form V = a log P + P 4000 13 7000 14 12000 15 ~V .766.0 ~~P 7.143) ^ 58. h 5 10 15 20 7.V 10 25 40 63 5.15* . log a 55(10.385 = ' "50" . t 012345 79 63 T 100 50 40 32 6. iTe 12! un &A The horsepower P recorded in the table.306) - 5(65) . ^ a = We obtain the equation in Fig.9 9. . The graph and the given data are shown EXERCISE 8-4 In problems 1 3 find best fits of the type indicated. we get 6 = = 5(31.5 2. Find the best 2000 12 required for the speeds V in knots for a certain ship are b. The atmospheric pressure /) in pounds per square inch at a height h in thousands of feet is shown in the table. The temperature T (degrees C) of a cooling body at time t (min) was measured as recorded. = . Express p exponentially in terms of h.

The coordinates of P are is then written as It is (p. one of the two is preferable.0). This is evident. example. The position of any point P in the plane The definitely determined by the distance OP and the angle A OP. since the vectorial angle may have 360 added or subtracted repeatedly without changing the point represented. The coordinates given in this way are The proper choice of a coordinate system deon the nature of the problem at hand.30) determine one particular point. called polar coordinates. the coordinates (2. denoted by 0. And in some situations it is advantageous to use both systems. shifting from one to the other. The vectorial angle. is referred to as the radius vector. A While (Fig. 9-2) and then lay off two units along the terminal this pair of coordinates defines a particular point. we first draw the terminal side of a 30 angle measured counterclockwise from side. the angle A OP. 9-1 a half-line is represented by OA. The reference frame in the polar coordinate system is a half-line drawn from some point in the plane. customary to regard polar coordinates as signed quantities. axis. segment OP. however. as in trigonometry. For given pair of polar coordinates definitely locates a point. usually. In it a point is located by its distances from two perpendicular We shall introduce in this chapter a coordinate system in which lines. 9-2 The polar coordinate system. or pole and OA is the polar axis. denoted by p. To plot the point. there are OA other coordinate values which define this same point. In The point is called the origin Fig. For some problems either pends the rectangular or the polar system may be satisfactory. is called the vectorial angle.CHAPTER 9 POLAR COORDINATES 9-1 Introduction. Additional coordinates of the point nate. There are various types of coordinate systems. is defined as positive or negative according as it is measured counterclockwise or clockwise from the polar The p-coordinate is defined as positive if measured from the pole the terminal side 'of 6 and negative if measured along the terminal along side extended through the pole. the coordinates of a point in a plane are its distance from a fixed point and its direction from a fixed line. may be had also by using a negative value for the distance coordiRestricting the vectorial angles to values numerically less than 120 . The rectangular system with which we have been dealing is probably the most important.

-225). the following coordinates define the same point (2.9-3] RELATIONS BETWEEN RECTANGULAR AND POLAR COORDINATES 121 'P(M) V FIGURE 9-1 A FIGURE 9-2 300. For many purposes. numerically. EXERCISE 9-1 1. Plot the points: (3. = -90? 4. = TT? 9-3 Relations between rectangular and polar coordinates.0). -180). This paper has concentric circles and equally spaced radial lines through the center. Plot the points: (5. (6. : (2. . The plotting of points in polar coordinates can be done more accurately by the use of polar coordinate paper.60). sufficient accuracy is obtained by estimating the angles and distances by sight.0). (c) 6 = 45. (b) 8 = 0. where the numerical values of the vectoriai angles 3.-150). restricting the vectoriai angles to values not exceeding 360 2. Give three other sets of coordinates for each of the points.30). so that the origins coincide and the polar axis lies along the positive placed Then a point P has the coordinates (x. where 6 may be any angle. however. -30).180). 9-3 the two systems are tangular coordinates. For this purpose we shall derive transformation formulas which express polar coordinates in terms of recIn Fig.-330). (b) p = (c) 6 4.10). (-2. (-2. x-axis. (-3.210). are Where the points for which (a) p = 4.210). (<1) do not exceed 360. (-2. (4. Where are the points for which (a) p = 0. (-0. and vice versa. Noticing the triangle OAfP. (1) (2) sin 0. Give three other sets of coordinates for each of the points. it is often advantageous in the course of a problem to shift from one coordinate system to another. As we have mentioned.0). cos 6 we have x p = and sin B = ?/ -> P and hence = p y = p x cos 0.y) and (p. The coordinates of the origin are (0. (0. (2.135).

9-4. The Hence it is ^-coordinate as given by formula (4) is not single-valued. and therefore the equation of a locus. Find the rectangular coordinates of the point defined by the (See Fig. Hence the pair of coordinates (2 V2. 9 y (p. 3\/3. This is illustrated in Example 2. 2) in terms of polar Here the formulae (3) and and (4) give p = Vx 2 + y* = 2\/2 8 = arc tan - = x arc tan 1. . we write = x2 + and 8. y* and tan 6 = x .122 POLAR COORDINATES [CHAP. Solution.) (2). 3. Whence. EXAMPLE coordinates. Solution. necessary to select a proper value for 6 when applying the formula to find this coordinate of a point.e) M FIGURE 9-3 -X To obtain p and 6 in terms of x and p 2 y. Using the formulas (1) and x y we have = = p cos0 p s in 6 ( = = 6 cos 120 6 sin 120 = = -3.225) is a polar representation of the given point. solving for p (3) = arc tan - (4) These four formulas enable us to transform the coordinates of a point. EXAMPLE 1. we select 6 = 225. The required coordinates are 2. from one system to the other.120). Since the point is in the third quadrant. polar coordinates (6. Express the rectangular coordinates (2.3 Vs).

0). 3.3). (0. EXAMPLE Solution. we substitute in the given equation and get V* + 2 v* v/z 2 2 */ + y 2 or *2 + = 40. - Since p = Vz 2 + 2 ?/ and sin 6 = ====. 5.0).45). x = 2 3. p 39. 3x a- +y + if y 2 J2 = = = 0. 9. Find the polar coordinate equation corresponding to 2x 3y = 5. 2x - y = 3. Transform the following equations into the corresponding polar coordinate equations. p sin 26 = a2 . 2 2 ?/ ) Transform the following equations to the corresponding rectangular coordinate equations. 4. 18. (4V2. . 17. a2 . 32. 1.\/2). (-4. (7. (0.1 2.-4). 22. 15. 6.270). p = 4. 23. 16. 10.-60). 43. . 28. 4. 44. 42. p 2 cos 26 = a 2 .180). 31. 123 EXAMPLE Solution.0). p 37. 29. 6 = 45. circle. p 40.9-3] RELATIONS BETWEEN RECTANGULAR AND POLAR COORDINATES 3. (3. 24 27.-5). 20. p cos = 3 6. 11. (-8. 2 sin + 6. 34.-135). 21. = 8 cos = = 2 6 sin 8 sin 41. p sin 6 = 6. 7.2). 2x + 2y = 0. 16. y = a2 j?/ 2 = 4j. p 36.-12).12). 38. 26. The required equation is seen to represent a EXERCISE 9-2 Find the rectangular coordinates of the following points. x 2 33. 6 = 0.0).3).. (-2\/3. (5. (4. .v + + Or + 2 i/ By = D. y 25.150). Substituting for x and y gives 2(p cos 6) -3(p sin 6) = 5 or p(2 cos 6 -3 sin 6) = 5. (6. 14. = -4 = x. (3x^2. Ax 2 30. 13. 2 cos 0. (\/2. Find non-negative polar coordinates of the following points. (0.90). (0. 8. (-1. Transform the equation p = = 4 sin 6 to rectangular coordinates. 35. 19. (-5. 4 cos 0. SO ). (9. (ev^-e). 12. (3. (-1.

essentially DEFINITION. p = 3 sin + 4 cos 6 49. 120' 60 ISO / 30 210' .124 POLAR COORDINATES [CHAP. Later we shall discuss certain aids by which the curve tracing can be facilitated. 9 47. p 2 sin cos 6 9-4 Graphs of polar coordinate equations. in polar coordinates The definition of a graph the same as that of and the technique of its construction are an equation in rectangular coordinates. p= 1 - 2 cos 6 5 48. points We shall first consider comparatively simple equations and obtain their graphs by preparing tables of corresponding values of the variables. all the The graph of an equation in polar coordinates consists of which have coordinates satisfying the equation.

We assign certain values to the following table. B = - 5.5. 2) -f if equation to rectangular coordinates. 9-6. the point (3.210) is on the graph.5. FIGURE 9-6 EXAMPLE Solution. Solution. p = 120. 125 EXAMPLE Draw the graph of p 3 + sin 0. 2. We did not extend the table to include values of 6 in the interval 180 to 360.5 -4 This table yields the graph in Fig. We first 30 prepare a table of corresponding values of p and 6. since values of in this range would merely repeat the graph already obtained. p 4. In the equations involving trigonometric functions. For example. = = -5. The transformed equation is (j EXERCISE 9-3 Draw the graphs of the following equations. This surmise is verified by transforming the 2 = 4. 6 - cos 0. The graph appears to be a circle. with a few exceptions. but this point is also defined by the coordinates (3. 1.8 -3. 2. points plotted at 30 intervals will suffice. 9-5 obtained. = 1 . . 5.sin 6.9-4] GRAPHS OF POLAR COORDINATE EQUATIONS 1. Draw the graph of p = 4 cos 6. p p 180. B ~~p 45 2^8 60 2X) 75 90 120 135 150 180 4 3J5 To" -2.0 -2. 6. 1 3.30). in the interval to 360 and prepare By plotting these points and drawing a curve through them is the graph of Fig.

0). the equation could be derived for the line L in any other position and not passing through the origin. If (6) This equation holds for all points of the line. POLAR COORDINATES p [CHAP. 23. In Fig. 9-7 the segment OR is drawn perpendicular to the line L. 0. 0) equal to (0 w). 9 10. 4 sin - 4 cos 6. p = 8 sin 6 + 6 cos 6. 9-5 Equations of lines and conies in polar coordinate forms. The equations can also be derived directly. V FIGURE 9-7 . p = = 10 sin 2 0. The equations of lines and conies can be obtained in polar coordinates by transforming the rectangular coordinate equations of these loci. we do have cos (co + 2w In a similar way. we have (p.0). We denote the length of this segment by p and the angle which it makes with the polar axis by w. We shall derive the polar coordinate equation of a line in general position and the equations of the conic sections in special positions.= cos p (6 - w) or p cos (9 - o>) = p. chosen below OA. Although this angle is not is P = cos (w 0) = cos (0 w). p = = = 2 + cos 0. then the angle ROP is equal to (w + 2w . . p 22. 2a cos 13 p sin0' 19.126 7. The coordinates of a variable point on the line are From the right triangle ORP.

0i). (11) .8) FIGURE 9-8 next write the equation of a circle of radius r with center at (pi. Substituting these values lines parallel to the polar axis for co. we have p cos (6 co) = 0.9-5] EQUATIONS OF LINES AND CONICS 127 line. we get the equation of the circle in the form We p If 2 + 2 p! - 2pp! cos ($ - tfi) = r 2 . 6 = through the origin can be written immediworth noting that equation (8) is a special case of = in equation (8). Formula (5) is called the polar normal form of the equation of a straight For lines perpendicular to the polar axis co = or 180. Noticing Fig. co) By 0. (8) equation cos (0 (5). the equation becomes p = 2r sin 9. of a line a. (6) psin = (7) The origin. and = JTT + co = a.0).90). 9-8 and applying the law of cosines to the triangle ORP. then pi = r and 0i = fl. and for = 90 or 270. ^-coordinate is Hence the equation constant for points on a line passing through the of a line through the origin with inclination a is = Although the equation ately in this form. co it is P(p. and the equation reduces to (10) p = 2r cos If the center is at (r. we have the special forms P COS and s= p p. setting p = i?r. (9) the center is at (r.

and a hyperbola if e is greater than 1. (15) depending on whether the directrix is p units above or below the pole. we get + OR (12) P = 1 - ep e cos directrix is When the focus is at the pole is and the p units to the right of the pole. But the numerator OP = p. 1 -f e cos 9 If (13) parallel to the polar axis. 9-9 the directrix parallel or perpendicular to the polar axis. the focus is is at the pole and the directrix is the equation P ~ or 1 + sin B (14) P = 1 e sin 9 __. These . and the length of DO by p. and solving for p. an ellipse if e is between and 1.e) D P FIGURE 9-9 R use the focus-directrix property of conies (Exercise 8-1. we have for any point P(p. Having observed the type of conic from the value of e. perpendicular to the polar axis and to the left of O. The equations can be obtained in simple forms if the focus and origin coincide and the directrix is is We In Fig. The graph in any case can be sketched immediately.0) OP EP e. 9 E P(p. and the denominator EP = DR = DO = p + p cos 6. If we indicate the DE eccentricity of the conic by e. An equation in any of the forms (12) -(15) represents a parabola if e = 1.128 POLAR COORDINATES [CHAP. the next step is to find the points where the curve cuts the polar axis. the extension of the axis through 0. the equation . Hence p/(p + p cos 6) = e. and the line through the pole perpendicular to the polar axis. problem 15) to derive their equations in polar coordinates.

and 90.0). (3. Hence 52 = fl2 _ C2 = 81 _ 36 = 45> an(j b = 3v/5. 9-10. (5. 180.0). Solution. few additional points should be plotted. The points (15. This gives P = 1 - (2/3) cos 6 In this form we observe that tuting e 2/3. 180) 'are vertices and the other intercept points are the ends of a latus rectum. By axis and (a) Compare use of a figure find the equation of the line perpendicular to the polar 3 units to the right of the pole. and 270 in succession for in the original equation. is at (6. the inter- cept points are found to be (15.180). and 270 for 6. The interFor increased accuracy a cept points are sufficient for a rough graph.0) and (3. midway between the vertices. three of these values can be used for a parabola.9-5] EQUATIONS OF LINES AND CONICS 129 are called the intercept points. 90. and hence the graph is an ellipse. These points are plotted in Fig. (b) 3 units to the left of the pole. The length of the major axis 2a = 18.180. The distance between the center and the focus at is c = 6. since one of them would make a denominator zero.270).90). EXERCISE 9-4 1. FIGURE 9-10 EXAMPLE. 180. . Only may be obtained by using the values 0. and (5. The center. your results with formula (6). and a = 9. (3. Substi- 0. Sketch the graph of p = 15/(3 2 cos 6). nator of the right The equation takes the form (12) when the numerator and denomimember are divided by 3.

Many which p varies as increases is evident. (b) 3 unite above the axis. for tion from an equation and thus economy of time. by p 9 11 . p= -4cos0. to wrest useful informa- keep at a minimum the tedious point-by- shall discuss and illustrate cerpoint plotting in sketching a graph. It is better. tain simple devices in polar curve tracing. 9 and use of a figure find the equation of the line parallel to the polar axis 3 units below the axis. Sketch the conies defined by equations 12-23.0). p = 6 sin 0. = -10 sin 0.1 14 ' P - o. (9) 8. draw the line represented + 2 sin 6. In the same way. the way in equations are sufficiently simple so that Usually a range of However. (b) with center at (4. By (a) 3. 7.130 2.o a' 2cos0 12 9 1C 15 H 3 -3sin0 12 2 - _ ^ 2 cos0 + sin0 5 -4sin0 10 wt oo " 1 -2cos0 15 01 21. ' 2 cos B - sin 6 p = 2 cos -3 + 5 sin circle defined Give the coordinates of the center and the radius of each equations 7-10. 10. we shall .0). " ~' p = 2 + 3cos0 18 ft P = 3 + 90 5sin0 ' A p = 3-4sin0' 9-6 Aids in graphing polar coordinate equations. p = 8 cos 0. (c) with center at (2.90). and (a) Use formula and write the equation of the circle of radius 2 with center at (4. Check your results with formula (7). Show that formula (5) can be reduced to the form p Plot two points and = C Acosd + BsmB' by each equation H 4-6. We Variation of p with 0. 0-values from to 360\yields the complete graph. certain features of a graph in polar coordinates are often discovered by an analysis of its equation. We have seen that an examination of an equation in rectangular coordinates may reveal short-cuts to the construction of its graph. 13 - +sin0 10 ' 1. POLAR COORDINATES [CHAP.

then be made with a few pencil strokes. The graph (Fig. lines at the origin. If p takes a fixed value then the lino shrinks to zero as 6 approaches and 6 n is tangent to the curve at the Intuitively. it can be proved. By use the equation p = 3(1 + sin 0). 0<. In FIGURE 9-11 . this statement seems correct. To illustrate this situation. By is starting at 6 = and increasing the angle in 90 steps to 360. 9-11) Tangent origin. increase through may we observing the equation and letting A rough sketch its range. it is a simple matter to see how p varies in each 90 interval. the graph ran be visualized.9-6] AIDS IN GRAPHING POLAR COORDINATE EQUATIONS 131 find exceptions to this rule. is This variation a heart-shaped represented in the diagram. curve called the cardioid.

9-12. Hence the curve the value of p diminishes to zero is tangent to the vertical line at the origin (Fig. the graph is symmetric with respect to the pole. For example. This does not establish symmetry with respect to the pole. This is unlike the analogous situation in rectangular coordinates and is a consequence of the fact that a point has more than one polar coordinate representation.i80+e) FIGURE 9-12 . is replaced by 0. // the equation is unchanged when metric with respect to the polar axis.O) (-P. (p. On the other hand.180-6) (P. 3. 270. 0. the polar axis. replacing p by p. p as increases to POLAR COORDINATES [CHAP. = in the equation Symmetry. sin 26. the graph These tests will be found helpful. // the equation is unchanged when p is replaced by p or when 6 180 4. replaced by 1. 9-11). which proves the symmetry with respect to the (P. the following tests are evident. When any one is satisfied in an equation the symmetry is certain. Noticing Fig. the equation p = sin 26 becomes p = sin 26. tuting 180 + $ for 6 yields p But substi- = sin 2(180 + 0) = sin(360 + 26) = pole.6. set p and solve for the corresponding values of 6. and the vertical line 8 = 90.132 the preceding equation. 9 = 3(1 + sin 0). To find the tangents to a curve at the origin. is 2. the graph is sym- is // the equation is unchanged when 6 is replaced by 180 symmetric with respect to the vertical line 6 = 90. We shall give tests for symmetry with respect to the pole. the failure of a test does not disprove the symmetry in question.

Having completed the graph (Fig. and therefore conclude that the graph is tangent to the polar axis and the vertical line at the origin. symmetric with respect to the 9-7 Special types of equations. 9-13). since origin. curve consists of equally spaced closed loops extending from the origin. rose. move The curve extends the graph is into the third and fourth quadrants. The graphs of equations of the forms p = a sin n0 and p =a cos n0. and then to complete the drawing by the symmetry with respect to the pole. For example. it is seen that it has the values of all three types of symmetry. There are several types of polar coordinate equations whose graphs have been given special names. Since we have a trigonometric it it is function of 20. We consider a few of these equations. But it is sufficient to obtain from to 180. the graph is called a indicate how a point would in tracing the curve as increases from to 300. p2 = a 2 sin places restrictions on both p and 0. we see that the graph for known does not satisfy tests 2 and 3. The diagram From we see FIGURE 9-13 corresponding to the zero value of p. Excluded values. where n The graph of a rose is a positive integer. in steps of convenient to consider the variation of p as indicates this variation. however. Because of its four-leaved The barbs and numbers shape. since p is imaginary for these values. 6 increases it 45. and cannot have a value between 180 and 300. Frequently equations are met in which certain values of the variables are excluded. The values of p are in the range a to a. are called rose curves.9-7] SPECIAL TYPES OP EQUATIONS 133 Continuing with the equation p = sin 20. .

cos0 90 6 90 120 -* 120 -i 2 180 - -l 0-+-2 FIGURE 9-14 . 240. to 180. Replacing by is Hence there gives leaves the equation unchanged. Setting p = 0. like shape. The shape of the graph depends on the relative If a = 6.134 POLAR COORDINATES of loops. since cos (0) = cos symmetry with respect to the polar axis. a four-leaved rose. Figure 9-13 pictures even. An interesting feature is introduced in the graph when a is numerically To show this. if [CHAP. The curve then has an inner loop. The diagram indicates the variation of p as increases from The graph is shown in Fig. 9-11. 9 The number there are n leaves. there are 2n leaves. as illustrated in Fig. the lower half of the large loop and the upper half of the small loop were drawn by the use of symmetry. 9-5). The lines = 120 and = 240 are tangent to the curve at the origin. If the numerical value of b is a. = J. the limagon is called a cardioid from its heartvalues of a and b. n is depends on the integer n. greater than that of draw the graph of p = 2 + 4 cos e. of the The graph of an equation form p = = 6 + a sin + a cos or p is b called a limagon. or leaves. If n is odd. the graph is a curve surrounding the origin (Fig. 2 +4 cos cos = 0. we greater than b. = 120. 9-14.

p 2 = a 2 cos 28 FIGURK 9-15 FIGURE 9-10 .9-7] SPECIAL TYPES OP EQUATIONS of the equations 135 The graphs p 2 = a2 sin 28 and a2 cos 20 are Icmniscates. values of 6 which first In each of these equations p ranges from a to a and make the right member negative are excluded. In the equation may not take a value between 90 and 180 or between 270 and 300. In the second the excluded intervals are 45 < 6 < 135 and 225 < 9 < 315.

Hence this interval for gives rise to the upper half of the right and the lower half of the left loop of the graph (Fig. and p = aO. the polar to 45. 9-17 to 9-19. Their graphs for a > and > are shown in FIGURE 9-17 LOGARITHMIC SPIRAL FIGURE 9-18 RECIPROCAL SPIRAL . 9 Discussing further the equation p 2 = a2 cos 20. the equations p = e *. and the vertical line Finally. observe that its graph axis. are examples of spirals. Either loop of these half loops combined with the known symmetries is sufficient for completing the graph. Figs. As increases from and the negative values from a the positive values of p vary from a to to 0. we is symmetric with respect to the pole. p6 = a.136 POLAR COORDINATES [CHAP. 9-15). through the pole.

p . 26. 16. 8. . 12.a (Parabolic p = cos0. 3sin0. p = a sin 40. 0. 7.3 sin 0. 21. p p = 20. 18. p p = 6 sin 30. p0 2 = a (Lituus). p = 4 p = 4 + 8 cos 0. 22. = 6(1 . . - 3.0) and ( 6) are symmetric with respect to the p. 6. First examine the equaWhere the literal tion to find properties which are helpful in tracing the graph. 8 cos 0. p = 6 sec p Spiral).sin 0). 32. 14. p p = a sin 20.0) and ( = 90. 2 2 p . 10. 27. 15. 11. p . 28. 29.5 cos 0. = 4(1 cos0).3 sec -f 4. p = 4 cos 30. 2 2 p = a cos 0. constant a occurs. Observe that (p. 2 = -a2 sin 20.180 0) are symmetric with respect to the line p.6. Sketch the graph of each of the following equations.2 sin 0.9-7] SPECIAL TYPES OF EQUATIONS 137 FIGURE 9-19 SPIRAL OF ARCHIMEDES EXERCISE 9-5 1. 19. p = 6 p = 6 4. and that (p. p = 10 = 8 cos 20. 9. 2 p = 16 sin 20. polar axis. In the spirals 25-29 use radian measure for 2. 5. assign to it a convenient positive value. p = e*. = 4. = a(l -f cos0). 17. 2 p = 9 cos 20. 2 2 p = -a cos 20. p = 5 = 8 -f 4 cos 0. 24. 13. 33. 25. On the basis of this information. p = a cos 40. . 31. p 4. Apply the tests to the equation p = sin 26. 30. p p = sin 0. p = 2 cos 50. state two tests for the symmetry of the graph of an equation. 23. p = 2 sin 50. 20.

= (3v/2. usual process of solving two equations simultaneously does not yield an intersection point of this kind. Conversely. determine the same point. this converse statement does not always hold. the coordinates of a point of intersection yield a simultaneous solution. EXAMPLE 1 .1 + sin 6 and the two pairs of coordinates (2. A simultaneous real solutwo equations in rectangular coordinates represents a point of intersection of their graphs. consider the equations p = -2.270). The graphs of the equations. of course.90). this point. however. 9 9-8 Intersections of polar coordinate curves. we have 6 sin 6 = 6 cos 1._225. In polar coordinates. 45) FIGURE 9-20 . Equating the right members of the equations. (-2. The show all intersections. As an illustration. 0.138 POLAR COORDINATES [CHAP. The p 2 is satisfied by the second pair of coordinates but not equation p = tion of by the The equation p = 1 + sin is satisfied by the first pair of coordinates but not by the second. The two pairs of coordinates. however. no pair of coordinates of the point satisfies both equations. Solution. Although the two curves pass through first. . This difference in the two systems is a consequence of the fact that a point has more than one pair of polar coordinates. Solve simultaneously and sketch the graphs of p = 6 sin 6 and p = 6 cos 0. tan0 = p = 45.

but the origin has no pair of coordinates which satisfies both equations.45) and (-3V2. Solve simultaneously and draw the graphs of p = 4 sin 6 and p = 4 cos 20.sin - 1 smB - I)(sin0 + 1) sin0 = 0. coordinates (0. = 0. -1.225) (Fig. 150. 2.9-8] INTERSECTIONS OF POLAR COORDINATE CURVES 139 The coordinates (3V2. 1- p = 4 sin P- p-2.30).0) satisfy the first equation and (0. and (-4. Eliminating p and using the trigonometric identity cos 2012 sin 2 0. ing process. p = 2cos0. 4. show this point. EXERCISE 9-6 In each of the following problems solve the equations simultaneously and Extraneous solutions are sometimes introduced in the solv- sketch their graphs. 9-20) origin. P= The -4.270). . = i. equations. 1. we obtain 4sin0 = 2 sin (2 2 4(1 - 2sin 2 0).150). and show define the same point. 2.90) satisfy the But the origin has no pair of coordinates which satisfies both FIGURE 0-21 EXAMPLE 2. (2. solutions are (2. Solution. For this reason all results should be checked. 270. The graphs also that both curves pass through the The second equation. 2. = 30. Figure 9-21 shows that the curves also cross at the origin.

. p=l. POLAR COORDINATES p [CHAP. + cos g 0. cos0). = 60. 2 p = a sjn 20.aV2 cos 0. 1 1 p 7. p pcos = 1. 19. 9 = = 2 6 cos 0. p sin + 2 cos 0* : 1 - cos0' . sin 0.cos 0. p = 4 = 3. 2a p a(l o(l + cos 0). 10 - p p 4-3COS0' 3p cos 11.140 3. p = 4 + cos 0. = 3. 2 p = sin 0. p = 2 sin J0. 17. p . 14. sin p 2 2 2 20. = 3 cos 0. 3.sin 0. 1. pcos0 = p 2. = 2sin0 + 1. 15. p . p p p cos 6 5. p 4 cos 8.sin 0. 6. p 13. p = 1 = cos 20. 4. pcos0 = = 2cos0 + 1. 18. 16. p p 9 ' + sin 0. = = = = a(l + sin 0). 12. p . p = 2 sin 0. 0. p = cos 0. p " T = 2.

The equafor example. determined for x and ?/. are parametric equations and t is the parameter. and solve the resulting equation Hence the parametric equations x for y. x equations = t* + log t and y = ^ 4- tan t illustrate this statement. The complete locus consists of the points determined in this way as t The relation between x and y is expressed varies through all its values.CHAPTER 10 PARAMETRIC EQUATIONS 10-1 Introduction. Another way of defining a relation between x and y is through the use of two equations in which each variable is expressed separately in terms of a third variable. 141 . This procedure is since x may be equated to any function of t. the parabola defined by x2 + 2x + y - 4. If y we =4 substitute 2t for x 4J 4* 2 . which are the coordinates of a point of the locus. If a value is assigned to t. Consider. Thus solving either t between the two equations. corresponding values are tions define a locus. It is in sometimes helpful in the course of a problem to change an equation x and y to parametric form. directly by eliminating of these equations for t and substituting x 2y = in the other. 8. Equations of this kind are of considerable importance. this process is not easy or The possible because the parameter is involved in a complicated way. Relations between x and y up to this point have been expressed by equations involving these variables. obtained. we get tain a direct relation. to obSometimes. Often the parameter can be eliminated.4? It is evident that other representations could be represent the parabola. we get = 2t and y = 4 - 4* . the mathematical treatment of many problems is facilitated by their use. however. The third variable is called a parameter and the equations are called parametric equations. The equations x = 2t and y = t 4. as we have here done. for example.

a cos If 6 and y =a sin 6. the equations become increase from x = a cos kt and of the y =a sin kt.y).0) letting to 360. equations as Writing the a = cos 6 and = sin 6. 10-1. The equations x = a cos 6 and y = b sin 6 represent an statement can be verified by eliminating the parameter 0. we let tions. FIGURE 10-1 .142 PARAMETRIC EQUATIONS [CHAP. the parameter in a linear equation in x and y gives rise to a family A line is determined by each value assigned to the of curves (lines). To find a parametric representation of the circle of radius a and center at the origin. ellipse. defined by these equaand moves counterclockwise around the circle. The This constant. the point (x. In contrast. By change directly with the time / so that = kt. 10-2 Parametric equations of the circle and ellipse. and a curve is determined by letting the parameter vary through its range. These equations give the location speed of the point is moving point at any time. we select for the parameter the angle 8 indicated in Fig. We have at once x . Here the parameter is a variable. parameter. 10 inconvenient or perhaps impossible in equations which contain both variables in an involved way. The parameter as here used plays a different role from the parameter which we discussed in Section 3-5. starts at (a.

Hence point as 6 varies.y) for drawing the graph. An alternate procedure is to eliminate . The A intersection of the vertical line through A B gives a point of the ellipse. line through x = y = OM = OA cos B = a cos MP = NB = OB sin 6 = b sin moves along an If 0. and B. To obtain the graph of two parametric equations. we first assign to the parameter a set of values and compute the corresponding values of x and y.10-3] THE GRAPH OF PARAMETRIC EQUATIONS 143 get squaring both members of each equation. we From this result we see that the parametric equations represent an ellipse. FIGURE 10-2 10-3 The graph of parametric equations. letting 6 vary through 360. and we are able to interpret the quantities a and The geometric The concentric circles are of significance of 6 can be seen in Fig. (a. b. For this and the horizontal point P. we have 6. 10-2. and adding. P ellipse. We then use the plotted points (x.0) starts at ellipse in The ellipse is traced by and increases to 360. The terminal side of cuts the circles at radii a and b. the P starts at and traces the a counterclockwise direction.

y) as determined by the table. FIGURE 10-3 . By easily obtained the test of Section 5-13 the graph is a parabola. The table is the result of assigning to t the indicated values and Solution. EXAMPLE 1. The graph is probably more from the parametric equations than from the rectangular equation. Then substituting x obtain y for t in either of the given equations and simplifying. which gives x y =* t. we x* 2xy + y* - 4x + 5y = 0. Sketch the graph of x = 5t -P and y - 4* - P. 10-3) is the curve finding the corresponding values of x and y. drawn through the points (x.144 PARAMETRIC EQUATIONS [CHAP. 10 some the parameter and construct the graph of the resulting equation. In cases. however. The graph (Fig. the graph of the parametric equations is only a part of the graph of the rectangular equation. To eliminate the parameter between the preceding equations we subtract the second equation from the first. Example 2 illustrates this case.

that the graph of the paraThis results from the fact that the values EXERCISE 10-1 Sketch the curve represented by each pair of equations 1-10. 8. 4*. y = cos 8 + sin 0. We note. x x 15. a: *. x x x 14. x x / 2 . 4f e 3 . 5. The graph is the line in Fig. Sketch the curve. x = 2 sin 0. By x or r + + y = = 2 2(sin 6 + cos 2 0) y 2. = sec 0. 4. = 2 + 5 sin y = 2 - 3 cos 0. 18. 10-4. 5 sin y 5 cos 2 sin 0. x = 2 -/. */ *. metric equations is the segment AB. 13. we obtain relation. T. 2 + - sin * = sec 2 0. Check the graph by use of the rectangular equation obtained by eliminating the parameter. 6. 16. The graph is more easily obtained from the direct adding the parametric equations. = J2 + 3*. using either the parametric equations or the rectangular equation.?/ = St. 2. J . Eliminate the parameter from each pair of equations in problems 1 1-20.cos 0. 8. 1. ?/ = = 0. 17. 7. x x x 3. x x = = = = f 2 . x = 4* . = er y = = 3<. cos 20. x = cos 0. /y=l~ = 4 cos 0. 0. = sin ^ t/ + cos 0. = tan 0. ^' 10. y = cos2 0. = r y = -r 1 1 . to 2. of x and y are restricted to the range however. y o X J. W _ 2* r . 0. 12.10-3] THE GRAPH OP PARAMETRIC EQUATIONS 145 Y \ O FIGURE 10-4 \ and y EXAMPLE 2. = = = tan 2 J 0. 11. Solution. y . Construct the graph of x = 2 sin 2 6 = 2 cos 2 6. y = 3 sin 1 . 2 ^ .

t cos t. this is one of the principal uses of parametric equations. 10-5 with the origin of coordinates at the point where the projectile is fired. 10-4 The path of a projectile. x = sin cos 0. 23. we see that the velocity in the re-direction is VQ cos a. y = + = sin y = cos t. first the path of a projectile in air. Notice that the parametric equa- tions are preferable for this purpose. Sketch the graph. for the parameter in each problem 21-26 and sketch the 2ir. This means that there Noticing Fig. Then the feet. In In the fact. Suppose that a body is given an initial upward velocity of VQ feet per second in a direction which makes an angle a with the horizontal. Now a distance traveled horizontally at the end of t seconds is (v cos a)t the projectile is started with a vertical component of velocity feet per second. t in the interval sin ty to t. 20. The equations of certain curves can be determined more readily by the use of a parameter than otherwise. = ?/ sin lOe* t ?/ = sin t. 25. Assuming that the resistance and We consider of the air is small and can be neglected without great error. This velocity would cause the projectile to But the effect of to a height of (t. remainder of this chapter parametric equations of curves are required. According to a formula of physics of VQ sin rise upward FIGURE 10-5 . These curves have interesting properties and also have important practical theoretical applications. cos 22. y = tan 6 + cot 0. 24. Show that 3* y 1 3 yield z +y 3 3z</ = 0. x x a: < J + sin 1 . to change the speed in the horizontal direction. 27. the object moves subject to the is no horizontal force vertical force of gravity.146 19. the pull of gravity lessens this distance. y = sin 0. Use radian measure curve for 21 . t. PARAMETRIC EQUATIONS x [CHAP. 10 = tan cot 0. sin t. = Ae* = t cos v . x x z t + y = J. sin a)t feet in t seconds. t . 26.

and P In the position drawn.r-axis and take the origin at a position where the tracing point .r sTxT This last equation. the circle has rolled so that is the tracing CP makes an (radians) with the vertical. and the rectangular equation IJ ~ x ~" . Noticing the right triangle . we select the line as the . form are 0). and the arc segment angle OB PR OB = arc PB = aB. 200). where g is a constant and approxiHence the parametric equations of the path are = (i/o cos OL)t> y = (VQ sin oc)t - %g(*. reduced to standard form. Hence the stone the highest point reached by the stone. which is of the second degroe represents a parabola. In Fig. we may write 0.10-5] THE CYCLOID to be subtracted 147 the amount mately equal to 32.r y = = PDC. In order to derive the equation of the cycloid.4 =OB-PD = ae-a sin 0.r-axis. is in contact with the point. // = SO\ 2 /: J/ - 16f 2 . a = 45. is = we find j = SOO. (1) If we solve the first equation for t and we get the equation of the path in the substitute the result in the second. Having rolled without slipping.2v /** . the Hence are of equal length. and g = 32 in equations (1) and (2). 10-5 The cycloid.0). x is \gP. The // vertex. A stone is an angle of -If) with the horizontal. Setting strikes the ground at the point (S00. 10-0 the radius of the rolling circle is a. y = a(l . (400. ' 2 2 Q cos in a first v (2) ' This equation. KXAMPLK. The equations of the cycloid in parametric x = a(0 - sin 9). at 0.DC = a . rectangular form y = (tan v a)x .a cos 6. thrown upward with a velocity of 100 feet per second Write the equations of the path in para- We substitute r = j 100. The path traced by a given point on the circumference of a circle which rolls along a lino is called a cycloid. becomes (j - 100)- = -S00(// - 200). AP = BC .cos . at x and the degree in ?/. Solution. This gives the parametric equations = S0\ : j/. metric and rectangular forms.

Sketch the curve of the equations in problem Sketch the curve if a = 4 and 6 = 6. y = a b cos 6 if The curve 5. show that the path is represented by the equations x = ad 6 sin if 0. Write the parametric equations of its path. A circle of radius 4 rolls A point. the center. Paralleling the derivation in Section 10-5. path of a projectile which is fired horizontally with a velocity of If the projectile is fired horizontally from a building 64 feet high. A point on a radius. of the feet per second. is called a curtate cycloid 6 < a and a prolate cycloid 4. 10 FIGURE 10-6 The result of eliminating from these equations =fc is the complicated equation y*. both in parametric and rectangular forms. 6. how far away. (b) velocity of 160 feet per second at an Find the coordinates of its position at the end 3 seconds. assuming the ground level. At what times is the projectile upward with a 64 above the starting point? 3. (c) 5 seconds. moves from the center to the cir- cumference along the radius at a rate of 2 feet per second. Find the equations . taking a = 4 and 6 = 3. vertical radius. 6 units from 4. second. feet t. x = a arc cos V2 ay - EXERCISE 10-2 1. does it strike the ground? 2. Write the equations. describes a path. Find also the rectangular equation of the path. 6 > a. A circle of radius a roils along a line. A ball is an angle of using g the ball ascend and thrown upward with an initial velocity of 80 feet per second at 45 with the horizontal.148 PARAMETRIC EQUATIONS [CHAP. of the path of the point. A 1 projectile is fired angle of 30 of (a) with the horizontal. starting downward on a along a line and makes a revolution in 2 seconds. find how far downward and how far horizontally it travels in 2 seconds. How high does 32.

as it is unwound Use tautly a path called the involute of the to show that the parametric equations of the involute are from the circle describes circle. are x This curve is = 2a tan 0. kept in the plane of a circle.-8 a circle of radius a is tangent to the two parallel lines line OC cuts the circle at B. The locus of P t as C moves along the upper tangent. and In Fig. The end of a thread. 10. OX AC. y = 2a cos 2 that 0. Fig. and P(x. 10-7 x 8.y) is the intersection of a horizontal Show that the equations of the line through B and a vertical line through C.10-5] 149 FIGURE 10-7 7. = a(cos + Q sin 6). Show its rectangular equation is O FIGURE 10-8 . called the witch of Agncsi. y = a(sin 6 6 cos 0).

Show that the equations of the circle. y = 2a sin 2 tan 0. y - a sin 3 6. OP = AB. Use Fig. The curve is called the dssoid of Diodes. Jtt The path traced by a given it rolls point on the circumference of a circle of radius as inside and along a circle of radius a is called a hypocydoid of four cusps. 10-10 to obtain the parametric equations x - a cos 3 0. The rectangular equation is 10. 10 FIGURE 10-9 9.150 PARAMETRIC EQUATIONS [CHAP. In Fig. are path traced by P. as A moves around the x = 2o sin 2 6. 10-9. Y FIGURE 10-10 .

coordinates positive is called the first octant. and are designated The coordinate respectively the . In this drawing. For this purpose our coordinate extended to three dimensions. The axes.r//-plane. and the //z-plane. the . The positive direcby arrows in Fig. The 2-axis may be regarded as vertical and the others as horizontal. tions of the axes are indicated and others which we shall page. called octants.rz-plane. Let OA". the //-axis.r-axis. and OZ be three mutually perpendicular lines. in pairs. These are called coordinate planes. XOZ. and have pictured equations in a plane coordinate system.and 2-axes are in the plane of the mutually perpendicular planes. and the //-axis is to be visualized as perpendicular to the page. 'O X I FIGURE 11-1 151 . the j. and YOZ. When we introduce a third variable a plane will not suffice for the illustration of system an equation. The octant with all planes divide space into eight regions. make. These is lines constitute the . 01". In our study thus far wo have dealt with equations in two variables.CHAPTER 11 SPACE COORDINATES AND SURFACES 11-1 Space coordinates. we shall not refer to any of the other octants bv number. 11-1. XOY. determine the three and the 2-axis.

the cube and the plotted points in Fig. we shall make unit distances on the x.and z-axes equal.-2) FIGURE 11-2 Having selected a unit of measurement.2. the distance from the zz-plane is called the y-coordinate. In the two-dimensional system we found lines and curves as the loci In three dimensions the locus of an equation is a surface. 11-2. example. Notice. 11 z -(0.z).2) (-1. The y-axis will be drawn at an angle of 135 with the z-axis. the given equation. and only those points. dimensional system system.152 SPACE COORDINATES AND SURFACES [CHAP. for 11-2 The locus of an equation.0. The coordinates of a point are written in the form (x. Similarly. .0) *(2. A unit distance on the */-axis will be represented by an actual length of about 0.0.7 of a unit. The distance of a point P from the f/z-plane is called the x-coordinatc of the point. whose coordinates satisfy of equations.-1. is The locus of an equation in the three- defined exactly as in the case of a two-dimensional The locus of an equation consists of all the points.5.] (3.y. In plotting points and drawing figures.1.2) f (0. and the distance from the rr?/-plane the z-coordinate. This position of the //-axis and the foreshortening in the ^-direction aid in visualizing space figures. the position of a point is determined by its distances from the coordinate planes.

Hence the coordinates of the point satisfy the given equation. 11-3 Cylindrical surfaces. is obviously the plane parallel to the Passing now to a linear equation in two variables. 153 There are equations whose in three dimensions. Consider now a plane through this line and parallel to the x-axis (Fig. FIGURE 11-3 . we choose for illus- tration the equation 2y + 3z = 6. is We conclude.and ^-coordinates. that some two-dimensional equations have no loci. therefore. we sidering equations in one and two variables. are space curves are excluding space curves from consideration. 4. have noticed. that the plane the locus of the equation. Any point on this plane has a corresponding point on the line with the same //. of course. shall use equations of only the first and second degrees. shall begin our study of loci by conAs a further restriction. and that others consist of one or more isolated points. 11-3). The loci of equations of this class are comparatively easy to determine.11-3] CYLINDRICAL SURFACES loci. To find the locus of the equation We we notice that the equation is satisfied by giving x the value Since the equation does not contain ?/ or z. there are exceptional cases in a three-dimensional system. We We HowSimilarly. Hence the locus consists of all points which have the for example. (curves not lying in a plane). we shall be interested in equations whose loci exist and are surfaces. In the ^-plane this equation represents a line. ^-coordinate equal to 4. ever. no restrictions are placed on these variables. The locus ?/2-plane and 4 units to the right.

2/. Let be the coordinates of any point of the circle. apply to equations even without restriction to the degree. The each missing variable. Hence the locus of each of the three equations which in we have considered is a cylinder. and the generating line any position called an element the directrix In accordance with this definition. In the xy-plane the locus of this equation is a circle of radius 2 and with the center on the ar-axis 2 units to the right of the origin (Fig.y.154 SPACE COORDINATES AND SURFACES [CHAP. of the cylinder. may be a straight line. Then the point Thus we see (x. 11 The two examples indicate the correctness of the following statement: is The locus of a first degree equation in one or two variables plane is parallel to the axis of a plane. It is easy to generalize the preceding discussion to two variables. 11-4). a plane is a special case of a cylinder. . where z is any real number. and establish the following theorem. that the locus of the given equation is a surface generated by a line which (z.0) moves so that it stays parallel to the z-axis and intersects the circle. in The curve is is called the directrix. surface generated by a line which moves so that it stays parallel to a fixed line and intersects a fixed curve in a plane is called a cylindrical sur- A face or cylinder. The locus of an equation in two variables to the is a cylinder whose elements are parallel axis of the missing variable. Take now the equation (x - 2 2) + y* - 4. satisfies the equation. THEOREM.z).

-!. -1). // a sketch x 2 S.3) as the ends of a diagonal. r = 92. Consider the equation 4x + 3y + 6z = 12. and reserve the proof for the locus.-2). = -5. The Ax + where A. J 2 + - 4j - 6// + 9 = 0. f>.0. IS. 10. 5.0. + - = = = 12. Draw (0. //(2. 24.5. (3. the edges of a box which has four of its vertices located at the points and (0. face makes with the coordinate planes. 2x j.0. 2 = 2// + 2 -2 = 3// // 7. BI/ + CZ +D= 0. in three dimensions.4. In rectangular coordinates of two dimensions we found that a linear equation. + 2 4// = 4. set y = in the given equation and have 4jr + 6* - 12 . 4x* + 9// 2 = 36.0. 4. in one. Write the coordinates of the other corners.2. represents a line.0. (. j- 1. in either one or two variables. two. 0. x -+ 2 = 0. Describe the surface corresponding to each equation 5-24 and of the surface.0). The Hence we trace of the locus on the arc-plane has the ^-coordinate equal to zero.2. In our three-dimensional system we might. 3-r 14. At this point. 7?. is a plane. C(2. howtype.l. 5(0.2). as well as the intersections which any surplanes. are called traces. (3.0).2 // 15. 22 21. 2.2. The location of a plane represented by a linear equation can be determined by finding the lines in which the plane intersects the coordinate These intersections. surfaces of the ever.0. = 0.4* . 17.3.4).11-4] THE GENERAL LINEAR EQUATION EXERCISE 11-1 155 1. Write the coordinates of the other vertices.0.0). state the fact as a theorem. = = 0.0). \z 11. ^(-2. of the equation next chapter. THKORKM. 2 + = V 2 (// 20. Draw Draw the coordinate axes and plot the points: 4(0. z 19. (0. make 0. or three variables. If).4).0) and (4. 5. represent same we merely The surmise is correct. 2 23.2). by analogy.0). Draw the rectangular parallelepiped which has three of its faces in the coordinate planes and the points (0.4) as opposite corners. 2 = 0. 3.0). . 9. 6.32y/ = 64.r - 2) 2) 2 +2 = = %. i + 2 11-4 The general linear equation. Write the coordinates of the vertices. a cube which has the origin and the point (4. 22. 12. <?(-!. ir 42. . and C are not all zero. surmise that linear equations. D(2. 13.4x = S. 4.

When z is below the zt/-plane. This is evident if we substitute planes parallel surface is values must not be assigned to z. whose loci are equation. parallel to them. device in examining the locus of an equation consists in obthe intersections of the surface by the coordinate planes and planes serving The idea of symmetry. These segments form a triangle 11-6 Second degree equations. x to the xy-plane are circles. on the xy. The main can be used to advantage.and rrz-planes. . which Figure 11-5 shows segments of the traces. Negative This tells us that no part of the surface = = and y = 0. there is statements apply for the other variables and coordinate planes. We more easily studied.0.2) 3y + 62 = 12 FIGURE 11-5 as the equation of the trace on the zz-plane. Sections made by 0.and i/z-planes are The equations of the traces 4z + 3y = 12 and 3y + 62 = 12. is The locus of a second degree equation In general it is not easy to determine the called a quadric surface. 11 z C(0. characteristics and location of a quadric surface corresponding to an shall use equations of simple type. we examine the equation x can be replaced by x without changing symmetry with respect to the $/2-plane. may be used to picture the plane.156 SPACE COORDINATES AND SURFACES [CHAP. however. as in a two-dimensional system. The symmetric with respect to the yz. To illustrate the method. the equation. Similar If X2 + 2 7/ = Z.

for example. furnish information and experience which will prove helpful in other mathematical situations. or quadratic.11-6] QUADRIC SURFACES 157 FIGURE 11-6 a positive value for the circle z. the ?/ equation reduces to = 4( - 4). The plane 2 z = ?/ 1. particularly in the calculus. Figure 11-6 11-6 Quadric surfaces. taken We next substitute y = and get the equation a: 2 = 4z. the trace in the = We now have sufficient information face. Similarly. cuts the surface in r + farther = 4. though. Hence the trace t/z-plane is 2 // in the zz-plane is a parabola. of the surface in the first octant. The ellipsoid. for example. The shows a sketch coordinates of the vertex of this parabola are (4. Taking x = 4. equations We shall now discuss a in number of second de- which are said to be standard forms.4). The locus of the equation . gree. A. to form a mental picture of the sur- As a matter of interest.0. though presently of only geometric interest. The study of these equations and their loci. we observe that sections parallel to the xz. is Circles of greater radii are obtained as the intersecting plane and farther from the zt/-plane. 4z.and #z-planes are parabolas.

158 SPACE COORDINATES AND SURFACES [CHAP. 11 ELLIPSOID HYPERBOLOID OF ONE SHEET .

the elliptic sections decrease in size as the inter- When the moving plane secting plane moves farther from the /ye-plane. 2 52 C2 FIGURE 1 1-7 . Further. the equation of the section becomes No part of the ellipsoid is to intersection. is a point. Elliptic sections are obtained for and the values of z between By the ellipsoid b and 6. we find the trace equations to be The x = traces are 0*0.11-6] is QUADRIC SURFACES an ellipsoid. reaches a distance a from the //z-plane. 11-7). Next we assign to x a and write the given equation as definite nonzero value. By setting one of the variables at a time equal to zero. 159 is called We see at once that the surface symmetric with respect to each coordinate plane. and for values of y between method of sections we obtain a clear mental picture of the and a guide for making a sketch (Fig. therefore. b2 ' c 2 This equation shows that sections made by planes parallel to the ?/-plane are ellipses. all ellipses. the right of the plane jc = a or to the left of the plane -r = a. r and r. A similar discussion could be made with respect to sections parallel to each of the other coordinate planes.

the ellipsoid is a sphere. the sections parallel to one of the coordinate planes are circles. if a = b = c. A surface generated by revolving a curve about a straight line is a surface of revolution.or the i/2-trace about the z-axis. we get . The surface represented by the equation *! "" a2 is + 2 l!. The hyperboloid of one sheet. 11 If two of the three quantities a. Finally. 2 & _*! = 2 c i called a hyperboloid of one sheet. The ellipsoid for this case could be generated by revolving the xz.160 SPACE COORDINATES AND SURFACES [CHAP. Taking a = b and choosing a permissible value ZQ for 2. we have the equation Thus we see that planes parallel to the zy-plane cut the surface in circles. B. 6. and c are equal. Setting z = 0.

the second the r-axis. the sections are circles. we get the equations a2 62 C2 FIGURE 11-9 . If a = 6. By setting each variable in turn equal to zero. and the surface is a surface of revolution. C. The first encloses the #-axis and The hypcrholoid of two sheets. The Each sections parallel to the xzof the equations and 7/z-planes are likewise hyperbolas. by This equation shows that sections parallel to the zt/-plane are ellipses and that the sections increase in size as the intersecting plane z .zo recedes from the origin. ?'_?/! a2 62 + 5? =] c2 and represents a hyperboloid of one sheet. If we a fixed value z we obtain the equation . The traces in the xz- and * c 2 i/z-planes are respectively the hyperbolas 2 i * -ia2 2 -5 2 = 1 j and 2/ o2 =- *= -^ c2 i 1. The c2 surface represented i by _ a2 is !_ !b2 called a hyperboloid of (wo sheets.11-6] QUADRIC SURFACES replace z in the given equation 161 Hence the xy-trace is an ellipse.

162 SPACE COORDINATES AND SURFACES [CHAP. 11 HYPERBOLOID OF Two SHEETS ELLIPTIC PARABOLOID .

Hyporboloids of two sheets are also represented by the equations r. The sections made by the plane x = XQ is given by the equation This equation represents a point or an ellipse according as the numerical value of J is equal to or greater than a. If b the hyperboloid of two sheets is a surface of revolution. is readily visualized. The third tells us there is no trace in the 7/z-plane. = a- 0- cz a2 62 c D.11-6] QUADRIC SURFACES x l a2 163 . T/jf elliptic paraboloid.and From this information the surface (Fig.1 ?!-!=! -^ The first two equations show that the xy.and zz-traces are hyperbolas. The locus of the equation FIGURE 11-10 . Sections parallel to the xz.. 11-9) r/y-planes are hyperbolas.

FIGURE 11-11 . Planes parallel to and above the :rt/-plane make elliptic sections which increase in size as the plane recedes from the origin. 11-10. sections made by the plane z = z is the hyperbola 2 -. is the origin. The If surface is sketched in Fig.y-plane because there are no real values for x and y corresponding to a negative z. The locus of the equation ^ is - ^ = C2 z called a hyperbolic paraboloid. 11 called an elliptic paraboloid. The hyperbolic paraboloid. the surface is obtainable by rotating either the xz.164 is SPACE COORDINATES AND SURFACES [CHAP. part of the surface lies No The traces in the xz- and *" i/z-planes are respectively the parabolas a2 ~~7j c z and ~7~n ~ o2 c z.2 The The hyperbola has its transverse axis parallel to the x-axis when z is positive and parallel to the i/-axis when z is negative. below the z. a = Elliptic paraboloids are also represented by the equations E. For this case bj the sections parallel to the zz/-plane are circles. ~~" The I xy-tr&cQ r is given by the equation v ~~o =" jTiz a Or o |" 1 1 \a o/ \a u This equation represents a pair of lines intersecting at the origin. obtained by setting z = 0. Sections by planes parallel to the zz-plane and the t/z-plane are parabolas.or i/z-trace about the z-axis.. The zy-trace.

by each of the equations^ yl F. The locus of the equation FIGURE 11-12 . 11-11. The elliptic cone.11-6] QUADRIC SURFACES 165 HYPERBOLIC PARABOLOID Further aid in visualizing the surface may 7/2 A hyperbolic paraboloid /2 ~2 is also represented be had from Fig.

4 24 ^' 4 2 5l +^=l ^9 4 16 ^+ 4 ?- 4 . 2 ~ y* = 4z.z = 16. 2 x + 2x 2x 2x - 4.* . 9 23 ' ' 4' 2 . Sections parallel to the #z/-plane are ellipses.166 is SPACE COORDINATES AND SURFACES elliptic cone. a. Identify and sketch each quadric surface. t/ x = 0. by the equations is EXERCISE 11-2 Draw 1. [CHAP. 10. 5. El _ t . and z in turn equal to zero. i z2 4 - y 2 - z2 2 = 16. If preferred. 6. make the sketch in the first octant only and state the symmetry with respect to the coordinate planes: 9. + 3y + 4z = 12. x2 + 2 z/ +2 2 = 16. 13. a. we have the trace equations 3/2 a2 ~6 2 ~U ?!-?! ' a2 c2 ' ^^5! 2 62 c ' These equations reveal that the other traces is x?/-trace is the origin. x 4?/ + z = 0. = 4. y* + z* = ~ 16 4x. 20. 1 16 9 4 16 ' ^_f_L _ ~ 9 9 L 19. the traces on the coordinate planes: 2. 15 1S< + y . 11 an Setting a? " i z.L ~ 2 z 1 14. the cone Elliptic cones are also represented a right circular cone. For the case in which a = 6. + y + 2z = + -z= 3f/ ?/ 4. ?/. and those parallel to the other coordinate planes are hyperbolas. and that each of the a pair of lines intersecting at the origin. 3. 6.

A quantity which has magnitude only is called a scalar. Our immediate by objective in the introduction of vectors. One kind has magnitude only. velocities. vectors are of great importance in physics and engineering. however. and the other has magnitude and direction. There are two special kinds of physical quantities which are dealt with extensively in physics and in mathematics. time. The length of the arrow represents the magnitude of the vector and the arrow is pointed in the assigned direction. If same B in a vector has the same magnitude as A and points A.CHAPTER 12 VECTORS AND PLANES AND LINES 12-1 Vectors. the application of the vector concept. could be represented graphically by an arrow pointing in the direction in which the force acts and having a length (in a convenient unit) equal to the magnitude of the force. 167 . is their use in dealing facilitated with planes and lines To pursue this study. to consider certain operations on vectors. and accelerations are examples of vectors. in particular. pure mathematics. in space. They are also used to much advantage in Fig. and point the same way. Two magnitude vectors are said to be equal if they are parallel. is a scalar. These quantities have direction as well as magnitude. A quantity which has both magnitude and direction is called a rector. it is denoted by As might be inferred from the definition.* in the opposite direction. The length of an object. Thus a force. and density are other illustrations of scalars. it is necessary first FIGURE 12-1 * The bold-faced type indicates that the letter represents a vector. have the The vectors A and (length). A vector is customarily represented by an arrow. Forces. is The study of solid analytic geometry. 12-1 are equal. for example. expressed in terms of a chosen unit of length. Mass.

(B independent of the order of addition. B. A + B = B + A. That is. 12-3 that the sum of two vectors is independent of the order in which they are added. is A + B. The sum of A and B is then defined as the vector drawn from the origin of A to the head of B (Fig. or the opposite. We To find the sum of two vectors A and B. To obtain the sum or the difference of two such vectors. B from the vector A. vectors It is easy to and C may be obtained by adding C to show geometrically that the sum of three or more For example. Then the vector extending from the end of B to the end of A and pointing toward the end of A is defined as the To subtract the vector . A+B+C = This is (A + B) + C . The sum of three vectors A. 12-2). we have applied the usual method of adding now define the sum and difand subtracting algebraic quantities. we draw from the head of A a vector equal to B. called the associative law of addition. In numerous places we have added and subtracted directed line segments.168 VECTORS AND PLANES AND LINES [CHAP. ference of two vectors where there is no restriction as to their directions. In all these cases the vectors have had the same.A + + C). we first draw the vectors from a common origin (Fig. it be seen from Fig. Hence vectors are said to be commutative with respect to addition. directions. 12 A+B 12-2 Operations on vectors. 12-4). It may be observed that a directed line segment (Section 2-1) is a vector. may Since the opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal and parallel.

12-2). the is sum of wA and wA is a vector m+ n times as long as A. and the If m = 0. the product is -A. = -1. written as V= ai + 6j. and has the direction of A if m is positive. and m(A + B) form a similar triangle. ?wB. (A A B. expressed by a vector m times as long as A. 12-5. and A shows that B+ That is. Equations (1) and (2) show that vectors and scalars obey the law of multiplication. opposite direction if m is negative.) If m If m and n are scalars. This expressed by nA = (m The If + n)A.B) - A. .0) and (0. is The product of a scalar m and a vector A.1) Any vector in the plane can be expressed as the sum of a respectively. sent vectors of unit length from the origin to the points (1. (See Fig. Vectors are conveniently dealt with when they are expressed as the sum of vectors parallel The letters i and j are usually employed to repreto the coordinate axes. . ??iA. the product is a zero vector. The triangle formed by the vectors B. (1) vectors A and B and A + B is form the sides of a triangle (Fig. (2) distributive 12-3 Vectors in a rectangular coordinate plane. A B is the vector which added to B gives A. then wA. 12-0) may be scalar times i and a scalar times j. and hence w(A + B) = wA + wB. each of these vectors multiplied by a scalar m.12-3] VECTORS IN A RECTANGULAR COORDINATE PLANE 169 A-B FIGURE 12-5 difference A B. Thus the vector V (Fig.

5). lengths of V. 1 -V 2 =(a 1 -o )i+(& -6 )j. by the Pythagorean theorem. 2) and Indicating these vectors by OA = A and OB = B * 4i B.and ^/-components are the sums and ^-components respectively of the two given vectors. Find the vector from the origin to the point of the way from A(l 3)toB<4.B. Similarly. A -B = EXAMPLE f 2i 7j.0) FIGURE 12-6 The vectors ai and bj are called the components of V. satisfy the relation A quotient of V and |V| is a vector of unit length in the direction of V. 2. 2 1 2 Vectors are drawn from the origin to the points A (3. ai. find A + B and A . ai is the z-component and bj is the ^/-component.-3). and bj are denoted respectively by the symbols The |V|. 1. 12-7) are A = Their 3i - 2j. Solution. These quantities.170 VECTORS AND PLANES AND LINES [CHAP. vector is called a unit vector if its length is unity. Indicating the vectors from the origin to A and B by A and B respectively. The required vector is equal to the vector from the origin to A plus $ Solution. we have V EXAMPLE 5(1. of the vector from the point A to the point B. If Vi and V2 are vectors in terms of their components The i - aii + (01 a2i + + 6i)j. of the then V +V t 2 + ai)i + (61 Thus the sum x- is a vector whose x. 12 y i. The vector and |6|.1) * (1. we have . i + 5j. 1(0. sum is A+B = and their difference is + - 3j. The vectors (Fig. |a|.

Draw all vectors.8).3) FIGURE 12-7 A = B = -A = B Hence the required vector i + 4i 3i - 3j. from the origin to the given points. B(-5. 4 (3. 17. + 2j. 3i each problem 5-8. 16.-5). 8.7). Also subtract the second vector from the 1. 2i + 2j. i (3i - 6j) EXERCISE 12-1 In problems 1-4 find the sum of the vectors first. 5i + 12j.3).4). -i 3j. 2.(3.8) and P 2 (5. Oi + + j. 10..j. 3. 12. i 14. i - 12j. of the vector PiP2 join- .5). 13. 6. -3i + 3j. 15. 3j. 4(5. V is V = + 3j + = 3i . #(-4. i+Oj. 6j. 4(6. -2).-4). 11. .0). 5(0. 4i + 3j. 3i 9. B(-i. Determine a unit vector having the direction of the vector 5. in 7. 12i + - 4j. 3j. - 5j.4(2. 4. Find the vector from the origin to the mid-point ing P. Find the length of each vector 9-12 and the cosine of the angle which the vector makes with the positive z-axis.12-3] VECTORS IN A RECTANGULAR COORDINATE PLANE 171 Y (4.

j.(OZ>) 2 + (DC) 2 = a2 + 2 + c2 fc . Fig. be expressed in terms of these unit vectors.-5).b.1) are denoted respectively by i.c) is OA = A The The vectors ai. VECTORS AND PLANES AND LINES [CHAP. length of the vector A may be obtained by using the lengths of the From the Pythagsides of the right triangles OCA and ODC (Fig.0. ai + 6j + ck. and k. 12-4 Vectors in space. (7/2 ~ Pi(xi.4) and P 2 (12. (0. - xi)i + (yt - i/OJ + (* - zi)k. is FIGURE 12-8 . bj. and z-components of the vector A.172 18. + (CAY Hence the length of A is 62 +c 2 . and Any vector in space can (0. t/-.0). (22 P^x^y^z^ in Hence it 2i)k. 12-8).1. 12-9 has the is compo- expressed by P\Pt = (*. or the distance d between the points Pi and P 2 . The vector from nents (x<t Xi)i.(OC) 2 + (CAY . 12 Find the vectors from the origin to the trisection points of the vector PiP 2 joining the points Pi(-3. The length of the vector PiP2 . (OAY . orean relation.0). we have and ck are the x-. Thus the vector from the origin to the point A (a. In the three-dimensional rectangular coordinate system the unit vectors from the origin to the points (1.y i9 zi) to 2/1) j.0.

4.2.0).2).4(1. 5(6.-5).4(3.l). Determine In each problem 5-8 the given points are the vertices of a triangle. Express The Solution. BC = C . the vectors AB.-4i .l. 5(-2. 2 2 + (-6) 2 =11. points .-2).l). #(-4. A and B 2. The vectors from the origin to the given points are OA = A = OB = B = OC = C = The i - 2j + 3k.0).l). 2 = 2 EXERCISE 12-2 Find the distance between the points 1.5. B(l f -l -2).2).-4. sides. CA and the lengths of these vectors.-3.2. are AB = B . .8. .C(0.3k.-4. in each problem 1-4.6). )*+ (-9>-h3 = Vl06.(0. f 3.9j -f 3k. #(6. + 7j. A(5. triangle.A = -5i -f 7j 4.4(4.C .7. -2. A(-3.0) are vertices of a the sides as vectors and find the length of each side.3). and 5.4.12-4] VECTORS IN SPACE 173 FIGURE 12-0 EXAMPLE. -4i 5i + 5j -f 6k. .4). BC.6k.1. CA = A . The lengths of the vectors are \AB\ \Bc\ = \CA\ = V(-5yr+~7 ~+l? = v'S3.B = 9i + 2j . A(6.7. expressed as vectors. and 0(5.

Find the vector from the origin to the intersection of the medians of the 5.1. 2i 12. C(l. denoted by A B. equal parts. i 4j + 4k. M FIGURE 12-10 . . A(3. The name scalar used because the product is a scalar quantity.1). shall define one of these products and make some applications to geometry. since the product is indicated by placing a dot between the two vectors.8. It between the vectors when drawn from a common makes no difference whether 6 is taken as positive or negative. Find the coordinates of the points which divide the line segment (4. 8(4.3k.7). B(6.5. + + k. 6i each problem 9-12. 2). 2i 13. C(-2.5). 16. in Determine a unit vector having the direction of the vector 9. What are the coordinates of the terminal 3.0). The each end. 8.2.3.l).5) into four 17.4. ( 1. So far we have not defined a product of two vectors.3. 2. is defined A-B= where 6 is the angle |A||B|cos0. (7. is = cos (-6). line segment (3. 10.174 6.6k. Find the equation of a sphere of radius 5 and center at (1.2. VECTORS AND PLANES AND LINES [CHAP. range from direction. 11. 12 7.5).j . 12-10). its own length through 12-5 The scalar product of two vectors.3). (2.5). j - Find the vectors from the origin to the mid-point and the trisection points of the line segment (1.3. This product is also called the dot product.6). origin (Fig.0) is produced by Find the coordinates of the new ends. + 3J . triangle whose vertices are 4(4. The angle 6 is However.4.-2.7). Actually there are two kinds of products of two vectors which have arisen in physics and are extensively used. and C(4. 15.-l).5). points of these vectors? 14. we shall restrict B to the if A and B point in the same and is equal to 180 if they point oppositely. J5( 3.7. Find the center and radius of the sphere x* + ?/ 2 + z 2 + 4x 2y + fa = 0.3).5. 18.1(2. since cos 6 to 180. . We The scalar product by the equation of two vectors A and B.

we have also (B + C) A = B A + C - - A. 12-1 1) that the sum of the scalar projections of B and C on A is We the same as the scalar projection of (B |A|(6 -4- C) on A. the dot product may be interpreted geometrically as B M | A-B = = |A| |B|cos0 (length of A) times (the scalar projection of B on A). |A|c.12-51 THE SCALAR PRODUCT OF TWO VECTORS 175 In the figure the point M is drawn from the point projection of of B. (2) (2) expresses the distributive law for the multiplication of vecSince the dot product is commutative [equation (1)]. next establish the distributive law from the scalar multiplication of If we let /> and c stand for the scalar projections of B and C on A. The sign of the scalar projection depends on cos 0. (3) sums (3) it maybe seen that the scalar product of two be carried out as in multiplying two algebraic exThus. Hence + c) = + C) |A|b + and A Equation tors. each of which consists of more than one term. from to point oppositely. The vector projection and A point in the same since is an acute angle. vectors. then A and the vector direction. we see (Fig. We the scalar projection of It could also say that the dot product of A on B. The scalar projection of B on A is defined as |B cos B. A and B is the length of B times follows immediately from the definition of scalar product that A-B = B-A. B Ob c FIGURE 12-11 . Hence the dot product of (1) two vectors is said to be commutative. (2) From equations of vectors and may example. (B * A B +A C. Using the idea of scalar projection of one vector on another. If 9 exceeds 90. for pressions. The the foot of the perpendicular to the vector A to is called the vector vector from M on A.

we first determine the dot products of the unit vectors and k.2) EXAMPLE B( .176 If VECTORS AND PLANES AND LINES [CHAP.jfrfi-T6 = cos. Vectors are drawn from the origin to the points 4(6. We have l-i-J-J-k-k-i. 3i + - 4j 7j 4i - 8k. vector on itself is the square of the length of the vector. j. 2j 3 2j 3 A and B. |B| 3 A and B are |A| = + 1 \/36 + + 4 = \/4 + = -11. ( 4) Equation (4) shows that the dot product is obtained by the simple process of adding the products of the corresponding coefficients of i. and Find the angle AOB. The dot product That is. we write 3j + 2k.2. the scalar product A and B be expressed as A= B= To obtain the dot product of i. it is evident that the scalar product of Since cos 90 = and cos two perpendicular vectors is zero.1 = 122 (nearest degree). The product of in the left member 9 is A B = -12 7. 2k The scalar product - is A B = Since this product is 12 - 28 + 16 = 0. of a A A= EXAMPLE 1. and the scalar product of two vectors in the same direction is the product of their lengths. j. Determine whether the vectors A= B = are perpendicular. j. 2 |A| . Hence 4 -. zero. Let the vectors aii and k. OA by A and OB A = 6i B = -2i by B. 12 two vectors are expressed in terms of i. = 1. the vectors are perpendicular. we substitute in both members of the equation A B = - |A| |B| cos 6. can be found in a simple way. 3. i-j-j-k-k-i-O. j To find the angle. M+6 + a + a k. + 6 k. Indicating Solution. Hence we obtain A B= aibi + 02&2 + a 6 3 3.2) . and k. 1 . The lengths + 4 = 3. . Solution. + + 2k. 2.

Find the angle which a diagonal of a cube makes with one of edges. and cos 7. find cos a. 10.0. 11. where is the angle between the vectors.1).12-5] THE SCALAR PRODUCT OP TWO VECTORS 3. and y denote the angles which the vector A makes with the positive a>.k. its 7. #.2). 2i - 3j . 4i - 8j - k. From a are drawn.-5). = + j + 2k. it follows that f Since the scalar projection is positive. A B A B = = = = 4i 2i .k on A = B on 3i - 6j + 2k. Using the equation A B = we have |A||B|cos0. 4. A B A B = 5i . Let a. j 1 2. (l. The cosines of a.7.l).-l. 5(1. = oi i. Hence the vector projection of B on A is EXERCISE 12-3 Find the dot product of the vectors in each problem 1-4. unit vector is A divided by its length. 3. lOi + 2j + Ik. 177 EXAMPLE Find the scalar projection and the vector projection of B = Solution. lOi - llj + 2k. A = B = 3i i - + 3j 2j - + k. Similarly. A(-2. 9. The vector projection is therefore the product of the scalar projection and a unit vector in the direction of A. + cos 2 ft + cos 2 y = .-3. the cube Find the angle thus formed. and z-axes respectively. 8. find the other interior angles of the triangle. Show that cos 2 a. Using A k. A = B = i - j - k. + 2j . 2k. 4(3. /?.+ cSk. + 6 + ck j A A j.3j + 2k. = -i + 7j + 13k. cos #. Find the angle between these vectors. The points in problems 9 and 10 are vertices of a triangle.3. = Si + 4j + k. and y are tion cosines of the vector A.4. the projection of B on A is 22 l vector projection is in the direction of A. a diagonal of a face and a diagonal of. In each determine the vector from A to B and the vector from A to C. C(0. y-. i of B In each problem 5 and G find the scalar projection and the vector projection on A. 5. Since A B = 6 + 18 - 2 = 22 and ]A| = V9 + 36 + 4 = 7.l). and called the direc1. Find also the cosine of the angle between the vectors. C(-2. 6. The scalar projection of A is |B| cos 0. 1.-2). This The scalar '. vertex of a cube.

y. we can find a point Pi(ari. A(x which is xi) (2). (3) Conversely. 12 12-6 The equation of a plane. is D Ax + By + Cz + D = 0. Substituting for perpendicular to the vector N we write the equation in the form the constant Ax\_ By\ Czi.i) whose coordinates satisfy it. Starting with this equation. of the form pendicular to the vector N= Hence equation Ai + Bj + Ck. Then we have Axi + Byi + Czi + D = (3) yield. the locus of a linear equation is a plane. Any plane can be represented by a linear equation. perpendicular to Setting the scalar product of these vectors equal to zero. + B(y 1/1) + C(z (3) 21) = 0.) + B(y - + C(z - *) = 0. This equation and equation by subtraction. 0. (2) the equation of the plane which passes through Pi(x\. We have discovered (Section 11-3) that a linear equation in one or two variables represents a plane. We shall now prove that the locus of a linear equation.178 VECTORS AND PLANES AND LINES [CHAP. or normal. Suppose that a point PI(XI. or three variables. two. any linear equation of the form (3) represents a plane. we obtain plane if and only if the vector PP t the equation N or PJ> = yO 0.y\.z\) and = Ai + B] + Ck. represents in one. 12-12). FIGURE 12-12 .T/I. we stated without proof that a linear equation a plane. point P(x. Con- versely.I) is in a given plane and that a nonzero vector N= is Ai + Bj + Ck A is perpendicular. (1) A(xThis is x. is a plane. to the plane (Fig. represents a plane per- THEOREM.2/i. In Section 11in three variables also 4.z) will lie in the given N.

B. Thus N N These equations give 7V> 2 = - 3.1 -1 /V'a = + 2B +B-T 50 = = 0. j. N = 2i - 3j + 5k. we write 3i i is normal PJ\ = /V = J 3 N = The coefficients . is perpendicular to each of the other vectors. For any value vector. EXAMPLE 2x -f 3/y 3. of D 8 this equation represents a plane perpendicular to the given will The equation be satisfied by the coordinates of the given point 10 if +9+ + is D = 0.k.12-6] THE EQUATION OF A PLANE I. EXAMPLE 2. = The required equation therefore 2x - 3// + 62 - 27 0. or D = -27. and z and write the equation 2x - 3// + 5* +D= 0.(4.6). + 2j . Ai + B) + Ok.and/> 3 (2. 179 EXAMPLE Write the equation of the plane which contains the point is Pi (4. -3. j and T ( are to be found so that N 0. we have A = %C and B = = is normal to N. We and k as the coefficients of x. FIGURE 12-13 . perpendicular to the vector use the coefficients of i. A vector which is to the plane of the triangle. Solution. 1) to the plane = 0. Find the equation of the plane determined by the points Pi(l. Hence through the given points if 1) N = 3i 2j 4.4. ?/. and passes The plane 3* 2// -f z + /> we have 5. P.3.1.r - 2// +z- 5 = 0.4. + . 3.l).5k.f>).2. 2C. Choosing 0=1. To perpendicular to two sides of the triangle find such a vector. - 6* - Find the distance d from the point 2 7^(6.2) and Solution.k.

= 112. and Choosing the smaller angle. 12 tion of the vector distance. and using this point for R. is 2z +3= % 2 + 5 = and Solution. 12-14). N2 FIGURE 12-14 EXAMPLE x 4. Hence We choose the ambiguous sign + in order to have a positive result. making a a second pair equal to 68.k and passes through the origin.=t 2i + 3j 5i Either of the vectors 6k ? is a unit vector normal to the plane. N . 12-13). The angle between two planes The vectors equal to the angle between their w N!- 4i - 8j J -k 1 w = + N i 2 2j- - 2k are unit vectors normal to the given planes. Thus we get d = 4. R be any HP on a point of the plane (Fig.2). + 2y - Find the angle 6 between the planes 4x 0. The dot product and yields cos = N! N = - 2 -tf.0) is in the plane. The point (1.1.j . .180 Solution.0. The planes intersect. 1. we have RP = + 4j k. The scalar projec- vector perpendicular to the plane gives the required This scalar projection is obtained by taking the dot product of RP and a unit vector normal to the plane. N = 3i . Perpendicular to (1. normals (Fig. pair of angles equal (approximately) to 112. VECTORS AND PLANES AND LINES Let [CHAP. the planes as 68.2j + 5k and passes through the point Perpendicular to N = 4i . satisfies the given conditions in each 2. we give the angle between EXERCISE 12-4 Write the equation of the plane which problem 1-8.

6. Find the distance from the given point to the given plane 9. Passes through the points (2.yi.6).12-7] 3.0). x . 11. in each 7. 2x . 14.y + 2z + 3 = 0.3 = 0.$z + 4 = 0.-2. the point is P on the line L. (-3. 2x .1). Pi(opi.2).3).4) and (5.9 = 0. problem 9-12.1.5 = 0. + 2z = 4 are perpendicular. (2.2. perpendicular to the line through 3.6. Hence P on L if and only a scalar t such that or (x - xi)i +(y- 2/i)j + (* ~ zi)k .?/ 2 /y + dz + + r* + 2 D. 15.2y + z .3).4z + 3 = 0.8// + 4 . (-1.7 = 0.2y + z . = = if and only if jMj + IS.0). 12-15).3. Show that the planes A are perpendicular } * . (2. (3.0. problems 13-16. 8.-l). 16.2) at its mid-point.0. is if then the vector PiP there is parallel to is V (Fig.3). (0. (4.2. 3y 4z = 5 and passes through (0. 2x + + 2z 3j . in Find the cosine of the acute angle between each pair of planes 13.0. (2.4.2y + 2-2 = 0. THE EQUATIONS OF A LINE the plane 2x 181 (1.y^z\) line. 4x. (4. 3x. Passes through the origin and is 8.3). (1) . 6x + 2y .0). is if line. 3). P\P parallel to V.4y5z 12.3). Passes through the points (0. D.*i) Ax + /?// Use vectors to show that the distance d from is -f Tz + D = to the plane 12-7 The equations of a given point Pi(xi. 4j + 2y .AA + Btj + CQn. 5.0.2). 2jr + y + * + 3 = 0.y. Parallel to 4. -1.3y + Qz + 5 = 0. Perpendicular to the line segment (4. .3y . (1. Passes through (0.0).1). = 0.3z + 2 = 0. Determine the value of C the planes 2x 6i/ -f Cz = 5 and x 3v 19.4 2:t + + B. -4.1.1. BA + fA = so that 0. j . 10. (5. is and L be a line which passes through a to a given nonzero vector parallel Let If P(x. // 17. 2z.z) is a point on the Conversely.1.

182

VECTORS AND PLANES AND LINES

[CHAP. 12

FIGURE 12-15

Equating corresponding
x
or,

coefficients of

i,

j,

and

k,

we
z\

obtain the equations
Ct,

-

Xi

=

At,

y

-

y^

=

Bt,

z-

=

transposing,
At,
(2)

When

given any real value, equations (2) determine the coordinates Also there is a value of / corresponding to (x,y,z) of a point on the line L. any point of the line. Equations (2) are called parametric equations of
is

the

line.

By solving each
values,

of the parametric equations for

t

and equating the equal

we

get

x

-

xi

y

-

t/i

z-z\

B

a

(3)

These are called the symmetric equations of the line. The planes which contain a line and are perpendicular to the coordinate
planes are called projecting planes. Equations (3) represent three projecting planes. when we write the equations as

This becomes evident

x-xi^y-y^
B
These equations, each

x-xi

z-z\

y-yi_z-z\ B

in two variables, represent planes perpendicular reto the xy-, xz-, and i/2-planes. These equations represent a spectively line, and hence the line is the intersection of the planes. Any two of the

We notice also that any one of line. the equations can be obtained from the other two. A line in space may be defined by two planes which pass through the
equations, of course, determine the

12-7)
line.

THE EQUATIONS OF A LINE
Hence there are
infinitely

183

many ways

of defining a line, since in-

finitely many planes pass through a line. However, it is usually convenient to deal with the projecting planes. If a line is parallel to a coordinate plane, one of the quantities A, B, and C in equations (3) is zero, and conversely. In this case, one member of the equation would have zero in the denominator and could not be used.

are not zero, then the line passing = Bj Ck. Hence the line through parallel to the vector V the xy-plane and consequently the plane x = Xi contains is parallel to are zero, say A = B = 0, then the line is the line. If two of X, B, and
If,

for example,

A =

and

B

and

C

Pi(xi,i/i,2i) is

+

parallel to the z-axis.

x =

x\

and y =

y\.

Hence the line is the intersection of the planes Thus we see that when a denominator of a member of
numerator equated to zero repre-

equations (3)

is

zero, the corresponding

sents a plane through the line in question.

EXAMPLE
to the vector
Solution.

1

.

Write the equations of the

line

through

(2,

1,3)

which

is

parallel

V=

-2i

+

4j

+

f)k.

The equations

of the line in the
JT

symmetric form
z

(3) are

- 2 -2

?/

+J
4

= "

6

3

These equations

in the

parametric form (2) are
2

x

=

-

2/,

?/

= -

1

+

4<,

2

=

3

+

6f.

EXAMPLE
its

2.

A

line passes

through the points Pi(2,

4,5),

P (~ 1,3,1).
2

Write

equations.
Solution.

The vector from P 2

to

P

lt

/V>,
is

=

3i

-

7j

+

4k,

parallel to the line.

Hence we
x

get

3

2

y

+
-7

4

=

z

4

5

Had we

used the vector PiP instead of

P

2 Pi,

the signs would be reversed in

all

the denominators.

EXAMPLE

3.

Find a symmetric form of the equations
x

+

y

-

*

-

7

-

0,

x

+

5/y

+

5a

+

5

=

0.

Solution.

to eliminate

z.

We multiply the first equation by 5 and We subtract the first equation from
6z

add

to the second equation the second to eliminate x.

This gives the equations

+

10y

-

30 ^=

and

4y

+

fa

+

12

=

0.

184

VECTORS AND PLANES AND LINES
y,

[CHAP. 12

By

solving each of these for

If-

--3z

we obtain

+

15
>

j

y-

-32 - 6
2
3,

--

Combining these equations and dividing by
tions

we obtain the symmetric equa2

x

5

5

_j/_

+ -32'
2

EXAMPLE 4.

Write the equations of the line passing through the points PI (2,6,4)

andP2 (3,-2,4).
Solution.

The vector from PI

to

P

2

is

Hence the required
line.
first

line is parallel to the o#-plane.

The plane

2

=

This plane

is

two members we have the defining equations

perpendicular to two of equations (3) to get another plane containing the
of the coordinate planes.

4 contains the We use the
line.

Thus

,

-__
Sx

2

=

4,

+ydid,

22

=

0.

Notice that we could not use the third
its

member

denominator would be

zero.

We

symmetric equations because however, set the numerator of that
of the

member

equal to zero to obtain one of the planes.
5.

EXAMPLE
the planes 2j
Solution.

Find the equation of the line through 4 = and 3x + y + z 5 = y + 42

(2,

1,3)

and

parallel to

0.

Normals to the planes are given by the vectors
Hi
2

=

2i 3i

N =
The
is

- j + 4k, + j + k.
Hence,
if

required line

is

perpendicular to these vectors.

V =

Ai

+

Bj

+

Ck

parallel to the line,

we have

Solving these equations

Hence

V = -Ci +

2Cj

V = 2A - B + 4C = 0, N V = 3A + B + C = 0. for A and B in terms of C, we get A = + Ck. Taking C = 1, then V = -i +
Ni
2

C,
2j

B =

2C.

+ k.

The

equations of the line

may

therefore be written as

x-1

2

_^

y

+
2

1

2-3
1

12-8 Direction angles and direction cosines. The angles, a, 0, and which a directed line makes with the positive x-, y-, and 2-axes respec7
tively are called the direction angles of the line.

The

cosines of the direc-

12-8]

DIRECTION ANGLES AND DIRECTION COSINES

185

The direction tion angles are called the direction cosines of the line. of a line represented by equations of the form (2) or (3) may be cosines found by the use of vectors. The vector

V=
is

A\

+

Bj

+ Ck

Having chosen one direction along the line as then one of the vectors V or its negative points in the same direcpositive, tion as the line. The direction cosines are easily determined by using the dot product, as in problem 11, Exercise 12-3.
parallel to the line.

The

angles formed

by two

lines

which do not intersect are defined to be

equal to the angles formed by two lines which do intersect and are parallel to the given lines. Hence vectors can be employed in finding the angles

formed by two
EXAMPLE.
tions

lines in space.

Assign a positive direction to the line represented by the equa-

j

4

1

~

//

+
-3

3

_ ~

z

-2

5

and

find the direction cosines.

Solution.
line.

The

vectors 4i

3j

2k and

4i

+

3j

+

2k are

parallel to the
is

We

select the positive direction of the line

upward, so that y

an acute

angle.

Then the vector

V =

4i -f 3j

+

2k points

in the positive direction of

the

line.

Using the dot product, we get
i.

V =
4

|i|

|V|cosa,

= VlQcosa, =
3
4

COS

Of

V29
Similarlv,
j

=

V

and k

V

vield cos

3 =

and cos y =

\ 29

2 ^=\ 29
-

EXERCISE 12-5
Write a vector which
is parallel to the line represented in each problem 1-4. turn equal to zero, find the points in which the' line cuts

By

setting j,

//,

and

z in

the coordinate planes.
.

x

-

6

i/

+
y
*

2

z

+
**
*

3
*

i
*
-*

y

-2

_

z
~

-

~~

3

3*

3-12
**
r\

s=

~

*

A
*

&

**

123
2
f

In each problem 5-14 write in two ways the equations of the line which passes through the given point anil is parallel to the given vector.
5.

P(4,-3,5); -2i
P(l,l,2); 2i

+
-

3j

+

4k.

6. 8.

P(0,l -2);

i

- +
J

2k.

7.

+

3j

k.

P(-2,-2,3);

5i

+ 4j + k.

3y + 2z .0).0.2).4.1.0).4. 3* + 2y (2. 24. x ~ 1 V + 1 * g -3 ' x 2 1 y+ -2 1 z -3 1 ' 2 2 + 30. x x y 6*.4.5).3. 22. x + y 2x . * 3 = Q.4*.2* * = 2 . cise.5. j. (0.3.i.j 13. .0).z-</ = 5.x + y-2z + .4).0. Write the equations of the 15.4. *.3.4. 10. In each problem 32-34 find the equations of the line which pusses through the given point and is parallel to each of the given planes. . 14.4). (1. 17.-l. 2 = -2t.z + 8 = 0. + 2k.9 = 0.2).3.3).4). . 2x + y .j.4) for 21. 6~ x _ ~ z 2' x.2* + 1 = 0. (1. Find the direction cosines of the lines defined in problems 1-4 of this exerIn each case select the positive direction of the line so that y is an acute angle.0.0. (2. . z = 2 + 4J. + y 2x - 27.2). P(0.3). Sy x + y + z . P(0. i/ = -2J. y x 26.i + 3 = 0. y = 5 .l). (0.0.1 _ "1 f y - 1 ~T~ _ " z -2 4 = = = 3 3 J. 2x (-l.0). y .5. = 4*. P(4. (2. 11. 20.-5). (3. (0. (-1.4).0. (0.k. line through the two points in each problem 15-22 16.0).0. Find the cosine of the acute angle formed by each pair 9ft of lines in problems 28-31 .0). (1. P(3. (0. (2.8*. (0.3). each pair of equations in problems 23-26. P(0.2. 32. 2 = 3J. x x 25.0).2z + 4 = 0. 18. 34.4.0. i + k. -y + z = 4. . 33. VECTORS AND PLANES AND LINES P(2.y + 2z + 6 = 0. (-2.5.2* + 8 = 0.2. 19. + 4t.2.3* + 7 = 0.8).2/ + 2 = 3. 2i [CHAP. (0.3).3). 2* = 7.186 9.1). 2 31. (3. + 12. + y = 5 . Find a symmetric form 23.

the second and fourth quadrants. 7.dbiVi4). 6 = Y. 23. 6 = -4. all real values). 11. (b) on a line bisecting 9.2). r = 2. tangent. y = Jx. the numerical value of x is equal to or greater 1 . |x| > 3 (i.2). oo -1. y = T\x . = rtVj/2 -f 9. (1. 5.2). (. (2. 33. each variable may take any real value except zero. (-1. 6 = 17.4).3). (b) on the z/-axis.6). 3. m = 5. z 2 . y .4). (0.-1). 3\/3).90. x > 4. 6 = -2. (fv^iiv'H). 3. 1. 19.e. (J.8). 7.-1. (-2.-8).oo < < oo (i. . tan B = 1.-fx + J. EXERCISE 3-1 1. 11. 17. (b) (2. fi. 9. 5. -3. (b) y = 5/x. 6 = 29. 6 . (0. m . and -3. m . J. = 2x . 31. B = 45. EXERCISE 2-3 1. (e) -1. m = = -i* . 29.3). ^1 (b) 0. 15. a = 4. -12. a = -f = 3x .4. (3. tan 3. 1. VrtXlO. . 6 = -ft15. BA = -2. y = -3s -f 6. 3). 13. (3. y = 0.A.-3).-2). 9. 3%/2.$. 6 = -f 7. m = 13. (2. 6 = 6. 2t 2 + 3. (-1. 5. " < < oc. 9^3 square units. (c) v/3. (b) = J*/ z > 0. 15. = -4. C 1. 25. 2 1. (c) (2. # = 83. 5.ANSWERS TO ODD-NUMBERED PROBLEMS EXERCISE 1-1 5. H. m . 13.0.1). ?/ than 5. (. -V3. 27. -I). (-f \/2. the segments bisect each other. A = 45. a = 3. C . -f. m = 4. . m . a = -4.2. (a) 3. r = 3. = 5///.2).). (a) All real values except 2 . 2* + 5. i or -3. y = -4x -f 5. -3. . (-2. the same for each median. 3. m . EXERCISE 2-2 1.. On On the x-axis.f m = 2. 35.-f. 3v 2. tan tan = ^ = A = 79.-J. 13. (c) y dbVs2 9. tan C = J. 6 21. 195 .3). a = 11._ (3 9. (f.. (-. CA = -6. 7x + 2y + 16 = 0. y . #C = / 4. C = 18. (a) (a) a line bisecting the first and third quadrants. (1. B = 8. 5. (a) y = 2\/j. 9.AC = 13.VlS. jy 2 7.f. 6 = -2. ?/ T/ ?/ -3. and has no (d) 7.s + 1. 6 =J.3y = 6. 2* . . EXERCISE 2-1 V5. m . AB = 2.e.5. 7. 4< + 3. m = -|.~2). -i. (4. 13. EXERCISE 1-5 1. 11. (d) (if). = -6.-ft. EXERCISE 1-2 x x < x < 1 (c) 3 < x < 4. (a) 1.0). a = 4. 7. (0.

196 ANSWERS TO ODD-NUMBERED PROBLEMS EXERCISE 3-1 cont'd. 19. ^^- 7. Then a translation gives 160' + 16 J.4). 3. I. 30 y 65. 55. 3. 2z . EXERCISE 3-2 1. 5x y . 2 (-2. x + 3x . . x + 4* + y-21. z" + 20 x /2 + 11. No y line of the family of problem 22 or of problem 25 passes through (3.70 + 13 = 2x 22 = 0.270 = 58. 9s 2y = 27. 69. and y = 0.3). z 2s .2). 57. 51. (ff. 0' /2 + 2 = 0. 81. a + 2y = 2fe. 7 = 25.18. (3. 6x 0. 34x . z + 0' 2 = 4. z'0' = 14. 20 = 3.320 19 = 0. Why? 33. 7x . 5. Sx .70 . EXERCISE 4-1 1. 5.11.5y = 4. (x 2 0. EXERCISE 4-3 11. 7. 61. z" + 40" 4. 13. All pass through (0. S = arc tan 5. 71.y .30 = 5. z /a - - 4z' 2 - 4 = 0. 47. The equations in order. 9z (b) (c) +y- 63 = 85. 24x -f 240 -f 5 = 0. 13. 75. 21z 77.= 5. 4* . (a) x (d) . (tf 7y = 23.5.3) = 0.9 = 0. 6z 70 = 11.4z" = 0. 31. (z + i . 3z' 2 + 2 0' = 2. 20 21. = = 45. 83.2y .2). 7. 9x .10. + 40' + 4z' - 0. ). 1 16 = 0.1 = 0. + + + + + + + 0. 17.55 = 0. . 17. + + = 0.0. 22i. 2x . 49. Ix 50 . 2y = 27. 37. 3z' + 20' . 2x Zy = 24.7y . omitting problems 22 and 25. All pass through (0. x = . x - + 7 = 0.1. 3z - + 40 220 = 41.3). 15 = 0. 3x + 30 + = 0. x + Sy + 30 = 3z + 40 = 2x 6. 0" . 27. . f). 9. /2 (-3. All pass through the point of intersection of 4x 7y 12 = 0. 3\/2. 3y. 79. 5z . 15. 6 6 7. 53. (ff 3y = 15.9. 9. - 9. x = 3.y = 3. 12. + + + + 35.* + 0.0. 63.y 8* . 37. 13.0). 7x 3z/ = 21. -4z' = 9. 2z + y . 0' + 4z' - 0. 77.41 = 0. - (1.4?/ = D. 0' + 10z' - EXERCISE 4-2 1.6.4y . /2 3.19 = 0. x = 0. z'0' /2 (1. 20x x + + 250 + 62 0. All have the slope 23. 4x . .ay = 4a. = 11. 27x + 180 -f 46 = 0. - 15. - + + + .iV3t)(z + \ + 4\/3i*) = 2 = II. no graph.6*'.30 + 4 = 0.2t/ . 0. 1 . are: 4x 3// = 2x . 90 3z . z' 2 - 2 0' = 8. 7* . y = 1.y . ) . 59. 2 40' 0' arc tan f. x -f y = 3. x y 45. 2 2). 39. 11. 7 k(bx . 5. Sx + 37 = 0. two coincident lines. Then a translation yields 0" 2 . -1).3. + 3) = 0. 3x 820 . 50' +6- 0. 3. 2 = 0. 3.45. 33* + 40 + 22 = 2. 4x 3x . 29. 0. 5. 3z' - 40' = 2 0. 67. x - + + . 3z + 20 = 14.2 = 0. 43.

0). ** 7. directrix = f.2).0). 5. F(0. FCO. f). (?/ - 1)' (x - V2. F'(-2. 25. Vl3). 12.4). F ( 4) F(10 4). (y-3) 5 = 12(z . ends of latus rectum (-5. F(0.-3). (y . F(4. ends of latus rectum 2 t/ ( f. F(5. 3.-4). x . 13.-f).0). EXERCISE 5-2 1. (5. (x 9.0). | = \ 0.0). | 0.-2). 7 r(0.-3). 197 3.0). + (// 25.0). F(2V6. = -1.f)./ ** 9. _ . F (2 4) F(8 4). F(5. (x 5.0).4)' = 16.B(2. + -^= = 0.0). - 2) 4) 1 s + ' (x ' 15 (J + f)* = 4(t/ ~ 5) + (j/ + +(y + (y 6)' 3)' 2). 7 '54 ?7 + 30 ly ' 100^75 - = - ' Z1 '3fl^9 - 23- M + T? 16 = ' 25 91 4 an(i 94 6 million miles. (1.0).= 0. V(7.0).-3-V3). 13. B(0. 2 z/ ( i. ? F(0.0). - (/t - *' 1 1 - l"i 15 - - v * 'T6 20 . ends of latus rectum (l. V(7. 9.-f).L ~ 1 EXERCISE 5-4 1. B(5.-2). ' ?/ - jjj-9-1. f 7. 4z = 3. x* = 11. r(O 5). . | 7. F(0. ? -|= = 0. F(0. F(8.3). B(0. 15. . 11.2). directrix y F(~f. F(4 > F'(4.0). (x 5)' m + io 1)' 4 + (y + y 1)' = L (z ~ 3)> f = I- <?(3. i 11 tf T' "-21-4= ' - 1 1 ' 11 x* "'T'T3. F'(4.6). x> 7.4)' = 12(j + 1). . = -I2y. 16(j/ = L Center (5|4). 5. 4) .0).V2l).0).8).5). -3). y = = 24x.2). r(2. -a:. B(4 j + 21 V2. V'(-l. 3. F(l. . 17. r(13. B'(4 19 23.0).12). directrix x F(0.ANSWERS TO ODD-NUMBERED PROBLEMS EXERCISE 5-1 1. 3*2 + 16z/ - 0. (-5.-f). +\= 0. ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' B'(5. - F^XERCISE 5-3 1.0). 21 |. 9. x* 17. j + i/ 0. (y t O 9 3)t + + - (g "^ ^ 4) ' = L Center (4. = 12*. F(d=5. r(4. 5. | +| | 0.i 6v i2). .

(2. 23. 0. . EXERCISE 6-2 I. l 57 n ^ approximatelyt in. (s ? 3) 2 _ (y 2) 2 _ - 1. Dx y = -4x. 9. -12ar 21. . minimum is point. 3. ( positive at all other points. .2V7 = o in. (0. minimum negative 17. is 45. Period JTT. and when x > 2. . 250 000 cu. A# = 2z. 3s 17. (!. 1. Dxy = 2x . 6* 5. y = 6 + lOar 3 .0.0). 29. -5. 4x 3 . The slope is zero at (1. point. maximum a point. 3. 16* A. > > 2. Parabola.10). ' 5 . -4) minimum point.1). 19. (0. yd. Hyperbola. A 10 square 100 yds. The slope is negative when < x 2. _ -3) 2 1. 2. 6^r. 27. <~ in. 11. (2. maximum point. on a side. 2 9.0). . The 1 slope is positive when x x < 13. slope is when x < 3 and negative is when x 7. 2 .1). amplitude il.8z. 8 -4. is 41. 2 y = 32. 0. 1.i/ 13. 3.J) and II.-). amplitude 7. EXERCISE 6-3 1. = t/ x = Hence the graph two intersecting The greatest value V k EXERCISE 6-1 1. The slope is positive when < and when x > The slope when < x < 15. 2000 / sq.-1). 25. (y - | 37.+ 4x'.A). (3.4.4). amplitude 2. (0. (0. 29. neither maximum nor a is minimum point.2).y = 1. < 0. (I. 19. (-1. 1 maximum point. 1. 3. The slope negative at points except the origin. Period Period 4. Period Period ir. The The slope is negative positive when x < 2 and when x 5. -tor -4/x 6 Dty = -1/z2 x + y + = 4s3 . 2x . (1. lines. (0. g 43. 0. Ellipse. 7> 6 by 6 by 3'.0). all (0. TT. EXERCISE 7-1 1. Hyperbola.. (1. 7. 2. 39. x 49. 15.-B). 5. 9. Period 1.0).1). The slope is positive when x < and negative when positive x > 3.1). 2y. (2. -I/a. 9. ITT. (0. y = -4.*). 21. Radius 2 height 4 11.198 ANSWERS TO ODD-NUMBERED PROBLEMS EXERCISE 5-4 cont'd. maximum point. 1 .

718x + 8. 9*' 15. and (b) On a circle of radius 4 and center at the pole. (0. x + if 8x 43. represented 3. x 45.315).87 log P . y 2 6x .5 10 - - l 3. + + . = 2. EXERCISE 8-2 We 1. 49. o98" 10- 7. we have is (1 - e2 )x 2 - 2kx + 2x 2 fc 2 = 0. 199 (x - 2) 2 i/ 2 + + 2 (y + 3) 2 = 25.4).0. where B is any angle.0). t = 0.259s0488 .247). 16y = of When 2kx 0. tan B = -3. y EXERCISE 9-1 Other Other coordinates of (3. Hence the 2 i/ vertices are at (fc/1 + e.0). and x e.143). + - (k/\ e 2 . = a 2 . -45).0). y 5. V = 3.0). 19.0. . -300).2/ 2 + 8x 39.lOOx + 10. 7. < e < 1. 2 2x . - 2y 16x + 65 = 144. 5. 2 2 21. 41. 31. When y = 0. 2 - 6x i/' 2 0.25 = 0.360). = a2 . = Jb/(l + e). -180). 2 - 2 + 2 - + 2 = parabola. p2 cos 26 35. 29. 23. 9.9 . EXERCISE 8-3 1.150).2y 5 = 0. p = lOSir 1 -*. - = 0. -225): The point (0. (c) on a line through (a) the origin with an inclination of 45.0). x i/ 2 + - = 25. The pole may be (3. (5.0). (3.330). nearest degree.3).828. (7. . p * 17. (13. y = -0. -120). 0.4y + 13 = 0. (0. e). 7.0). (-6. Other coordinates of (-3. p2 sin B cos B * 33.240). x . + = 0. assume that the data in the remaining problems of Chapter 8 justify the retention of three significant figures in the answers. EXERCISE 8-4 1. by (0. 3.0) t/ and (&/1 The center. 19. y 0. (2. p sin B = -4.121x 3 3. When e > 1.8x + 2?/ + 9 = x + 3x2 . 37. (-2. x2 . . 5.10) is the pole. t/ path: (1 Equation the coefficients of x 2 and y 1 are of like sign and unequal and the path is an ellipse. p = a sin 26.91 log x + 3. 13. 15. 5. (-3. 3. 3x2 .03. 11.150). y 5. = 9.y 2 .a2 47. 25.180): (-2.2y x2 ?/ = 6. the equation becomes y 1 = 2k(x Jfc) and the path is a perbola. 2 13.135). midway between x 2 the vertices. +4= 0. (-3^3. EXERCISE 9-2 1.y2 + lOx . (1. 11. 3. 27. the coefficients of x 1 and y 1 are of unlike signs and the path is a hyWhen e = 1. A = 2 -: Q cos B v p + B sin B .45).8). (-3. AT = 1380* + 6300. (2.180). (-6. 1. (3. (4. 5x - t/ = 0. y = 0. k/ (1 17. e )x A. (3. coordinates of (6. C-9. -30): (6.ANSWERS TO ODD-NUMBERED PROBLEMS EXERCISE 8-1 1.71. y = O. .00 T = 99.60): (-3. (d) on a vertical line through the origin.0. -210). = - 3x. 9. Other coordinates of (2.

200

ANSWERS TO ODD-NUMBERED PROBLEMS
EXERCISE 9-4

7.

11. (a)
(c)

Center (4,0), radius 4. 2 12 8p cos e p - 4 cos - 0. p

9.

+

-

0;

(b) p

Center (5,270), radius 5. 2 12 = 0; 8p sin

+

EXERCISE 9-6
I.

(1,60), (1,300).

3.

(3^2,45), (3^2,315).
9.

5.

(a,90), (a,270).

7.

(2,0).

(f,60), (|,300).

II. (1,0),

(-$,233).

Arc

sin

(-f)

233, to the nearest degree.
15.
19.

13. (1,60).
17. (3,180).

(1,60), (1,300). (2,60), (2,300), (-1,180).

EXERCISE 10-1
1.

7.

+ y = 6. 9*' + 16z/ 3x
2

3.

144.

9.

xy x2

=

6.
2

5.

*2

13.

x2

17.

- 2 = 1. 2x2 - 2xy +
i/

+y
15

z2
2
?/

2x.

11. x*
1

+ zt/ *2

+ 9^ = + 4</ =

9. 4.

-

0.

y*

=

1.

19.

-

4.

EXERCISE 10-2
1.
is

x

= =

40 V2<, y

=

40 \/2/

-

16J2 ; x*

- 200x +

200z/

=

0,

The

greatest height

50
3.

feet,

and the
Vot,

ball strikes the
2

x

y

=

J0/

;

y

=

ground 100 feet away. ax 1 In 2 seconds the projectile %r2
-

falls

60 feet and

travels 2v* feet horizontally.

EXERCISE 12-1

1.

11.

3.
6j,

V102.

5.

AB - -6i AB - +
i

BC =

-6j

-

6k,

CA =

6i

+
2i

12j

+ 6k.
2k,

The

lengths are

6\/2, 6\/2, 6\/6.
7.
3,

2j

+ 2k, 5C -

-3i

-

3j,

(M 2i
1JL.

+ j

The

lengths are

3V2,
6i
W.

3.

+ 3~ j

-

6k -

j

9
13. 4i

VT4
j,

=

-

3k

+f

to the mid-point; 3i

-j+

4k and
i

5i

+ + k,
j

to the trisection

points.
15.

Center (-2,1, -3), radius Vl4.

17.

+

2j

+

2k.

ANSWERS TO ODD-NUMBERED PROBLEMS
EXERCISE 12-3
1.

201

7.

-2, 55.

-*.

3.
9.

13, tft.

5.

tf V5,

V(i

-

J

-

k).

64, 90, 26.
EXERCISE 12-4

1.

5.

3x 3*

-

2y

+5
40

-

11
0.

=

0.

3
7.

2x

-

+ 9y

2x

+

3y 3y
13

-

4*
4*

=

8.

-

2

-

0.

9. f.

11. f\/2l.

*\/6.

15. 0.

EXERCISE 12-5
1.

2i

3. 81

+ + 3k; - + 2k;
j

(O

f

-5,-12),

(10,0,3), (8, -1,0).

J

(0,1,2), (3,0,4), (-3,2,0).

INDEX
Abscissa,
1

Addition of ordinates, 75, 105 Aids in graphing, 6, 130 Amplitude, 100 Analytic proofs, 28

Conic section, 56 Conjugate axis, 70
Constant, 3

Angle between two lines, 24 between two planes, 180 between two vectors, 176
vectorial, 120

Constant e the, 103 Coordinates polar, 120
}

polar to rectangular, 122
rectangular,
1

rectangular to polar, 121 space, 151
Cosines, direction, 184

Angles, direction, 184 Applications of conies, 74

Asymptotes,

13, 71

Curve fitting, 109 Curves
exponential, 103 inverse trigonometric, 101
logarithmic, 104

Axes
coordinate, 1, 151 of ellipse, 65
of hyperbola, 70 rotation of, 49
x, y,

trigonometric, 98 Cycloid, 147
curtate, 148
prolate, 148

translation of, 45 and z in space, 151
of parabola, 59
polar, 120

Axis

Cylinder, 153
Cylindrical surface,
1

53

Best-fitting line, 110

Cardioid, 131 Center, 65, 70
Circle

Decreasing function, 89 Degenerate conic, 56, 58 Dependent variable, 4 Derivatives, 85 formulas for, 86 used in graphing, 89
142
Descartes,
1

equations

of, 64, 76, 127,

through three points, 108
involute of, 149 Cissoid of Diocles, 150 Components of a vector,

1

70

Cone
right circular, 56
elliptic,

Directed line, 17 Directed line segment, 17 Direction angles, 184 Direction cosines, 184 Directrix of a parabola, 60 Distance

165
of,

Conies, 56

75 58 degenerate, 56, identification of, 79
applications
in polar coordinates, 128

between two points, 18, 19 from a line to a point, 37, 38 from a plane to a point, 179, 181
Double-valued, 4 Dot product, 174
Eccentricity, 68, 73 Element of a cylinder, 154

simplified equations of, 53, 57 standard forms of equations of, 75, 76

202

INDEX
Ellipse,

203

64-68
of,

in polar coordinates, 128

parametric equations
Ellipsoid, 159
Elliptic cone, 165 Elliptic paraboloid, 163

142

General linear equation, 31, 155 Graph, 5 extent of, 8
of equation in factored form, 10 of parametric equations, 143 of polar coordinate equations, 124 of sum of two functions, 75, 105

Empirical equation, 109

Equation
empirical, 109 of a given curve, 107

Graphing, aids in, 6, 130 Graphs, intersections of,
Horizontal segment, 18

11,

138

graph
locus

of, 5, of, 5,

124
152

Hyperbola, 70-73
in polar coordinates,

Equation of the first degree general form of, 31 intercept form of, 33 normal form of, 39 point-slope form of, 33 slope-intercept form of, 32
in three variables,

128

Hyperbolic paraboloid, 164

Hyperboloid of one sheet, 160
of two sheets, 161 Hypocycloid of four cusps, 150

155
Identification of a conic, 79 Inclination of a line, 21

two-point form of, 33 Equation of second degree
of, 52, 56 simplified forms of, 53, 57 standard forms of, 75, 76

general form

Increasing function, 89 Independent variable, 4
Intercept form of equation, 33
Intercepts, 6 Intersections of graphs, 11, 138

in three variables,

156

Equations of a

line,

181

in polar coordinates. 126, 127

Equilateral hyperbola, 73 Excluded values, 133

Invariant, 80 Inverse trigonometric functions, 101 Involute of a circle, 149

Exponential curve, 103 Exponential equation, 103 Exponential formula, 117 Extent of graph, 8

Latus rectum, 60, 67, 70 Least squares, method of, 110
Lemniscate, 135 Limagon, 134

Extreme
Family

value, 100

Line
of lines, 40
lines,

best-fitting,

110

through intersection of two Foci
of ellipse, 65 of hyperbola, 70 Focus of a parabola, 60

41

directed, 17

inclination of, 21

slope of, 21

Linear equation, 11, 155 Line segment

Focus-directrix property, 59, 128

Four-leaved rose, 133 Function, 3
decreasing, 89 increasing, 89
periodic,

formula for length, 18, 19 formulas for division of, 28 formulas for mid-point, 27 Locus of an equation, 5, 31, 152
Logarithm, definition of, 104 Logarithmic curve, 104

98

transcendental, 98

Logarithmic formula, 117

117 Simplified equations of conies. 170 . 120 Symmetric equations of a Symmetry. equation of. 120 Range. 132 line. 10 Rectangular hyperbola. 142 of a line. 141 Parametric equations. 92 Minor axis. Surface cylindrical. 92 point. 175 Octant. 70 Trigonometric curves. 51. 53. 141 of a circle. 127 to rectangular coordinates. 98 Transformation of coordinates. 110 Mid-point formulas. 32 Space coordinates.204 Logarithmic paper. 174 projection. 49 Scalar. 155 Power formula. 180 Prolate cycloid. 136 Rectangular coordinates. 76 Spirals. of. 98 Two-point form. 23 Slope-intercept form.valued. 136 INDEX Radius vector. 33 Quadrant. 33 Polar axis. 58-63 in polar coordinates. 160 178 Point-slope form. 105 57 Single. Ordinates. 156. path of. 1. 28 Transcendental functions. 154 Period of a function. 1 Quadric surface. 156 of revolution. 122 Pole. 114 Projectile. 120 System of lines. 52. 128 Slope of a curve. 148 Proofs. 27 Minimum of a function. 167 fits. 151 Ordinate. 156 Semilogarithmic paper. 146 136 Standard forms of equations. 114 Logarithmic spiral. 157 Unit vector. 45 Transverse axis. 65 Nonlinear 113 Rose curves. 147 formula for. 182 Polar coordinates. 40. 4 Reciprocal spiral. 128 of lines. addition Origin. 142 of a cycloid. 78. 92 1 to polar coordinates. 151 of an ellipse. 21 Parameter. 182 of p?th of a projectile. 146 Projecting plane. 120 of conies. 133 Rotation of axes. 18 120 Parabola. 1 Second degree equation. 41 Tangent to a curve. analytic. 7 tests for. 73 Residual of a point. 8. 84 of a line. 92 Minimum point. product. 4 Slant segment. 98 Plane. 75. 98 Periodic function. 131 Traces. Maximum Maximum Method 65 of a function. 126. 1 Major axis. 121 of least squares. 146 Path of a projectile. quadric. 45 Translation of axes. 84 Tangent lines at the origin.

of. 149 in a plane. 167 sum of. 121 Vectors (cont'd) in space. 4 Vectorial angle. 167 magnitude of.INDEX Variable. 169 . 65. 3 205 dependent. 70 Vertical segment. 167 Witch of Agnesi. 174 Vectors. 4 independent. 170. 168 Vertex. 59. 175 scalar product of two. 18 direction of. 172 projection of. 168 components 172 difference of.

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