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Acoustics Study of sound Caused by pressure variations transmitted through air or other materials Pressure and sound vary

vary in Amplitude and Frequency Sound o Measured by microphone o Characteristic amplitude o Characteristic Frequency Spectral Analysis used to analyze Sound Pressure amplitude variations very small o Reference pressure for sound is o Originally tested smallest sound detectable by infant o Detection Ability decreases with age Amplitude o Expressed in decibels o Compare power of 2 signals o o o o ( ) Pressure used to determine amplitude

o College students as low as 5-10dB, greater than 90 hurts hearing Frequency o College hear 20Hz to 20,000Hz o Sound detection frequency range decreases as you get older, lose both high and low o Dog/deer whistles above human hearing o Elephants produce lower frequencies than human hearing. Hearing Sounds o Sound levels at all frequencies equally loud but we dont perceive it that way 1000Hz will seem louder than the same sound at 10Hz o Phons are used to express human response to sound levels 1000Hz phon values equal to sound pressure dB values Other frequencies, phon varies in between dB and perception

Acoustics Linear scale gives dB values according to sound pressure Other scales adjust sound to match human response A-scale matches 40phon response curve

Sound Analysis o Generate signal with function generator o Amplify o Speaker converts signal o Measure sound waves with microphone o Amplify measured signal o Perform Spectrum analysis o Total sound level is sum of sound power divided by Reference times G o (

) G depends on method used by analyzer, ours is 1.5

o Add power not decibels. o Example: jackhammer and air compressor Free Field Sound o In a free field, sound disperses in all directions Not absorbed or reflected by any object Power decreases with distance is sound level at distance from source ( )

Example: sound and distance Many environments not free field Reflected sound doesnt have same amplitude and frequency Wave interaction interferes Anechoic chamber simulates free field System Components o Source: amplifier or speaker o Measure sound with a microphone: piezoelectric device that generates signal in response to pressure change. o White noise: same amplitude at every frequency White noise into an ideal speaker Real Speakers: Frequency range in which they produce accurate sound, frequency response

Acoustics o Harmonic distortion: speaker produces harmonics of input frequency which arent in the input signal Total harmonic distortion: compares power of harmonics above fundamental frequency to the power at the fundamental frequency. Can be expressed as percent distortion or as dB of distortion. Sound absorption coefficient is a prametr used to define sound reduction effectiveness of materials may differ at different frequencies Noise reduction coefficient used to express total reduction at all frequencies Mufflers used to reduce sound. Reduce output power, engineers try to get most reduction with least power expenditure Muffler efficiency

Music o Scale divided into notes with defined frequencies o Octave goes from A to A, lower a 440Hz, upper 880Hz. Octaves increase by powers of 2 12 increments, each A Bb B C C# D D# E F F# G Ab A 440 446 494 523 554 587 622 659 698 740 784 831 880